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Archaeological Methods

Friday, 30 March 2012 1:37 PM

To find a site archaeologists use: Ancient literature Aerial Surveying Crop Marks Soil marks Shadow marks To refine search they use: Field Walking Geographical surveying Ground Penetrating Radar Resistivity Surveying Magnetic Surveying Finds are often found by chance through human activities such as: Ploughing Digging foundations Diving Construction of Roads, railways and sewers When a site is found an Archaeological Team begins to excavate thoroughly following a site plan. They use two methods: THE GRID SYSTEM: reveals the sequence of layers exposed ( strata). Divide the site into a grid of squares/boxes marked by string OPEN AREA EXCAVATION: Uncover the whole site layer by layer. More commonly used. A combination of the two is most likely to be used.
They use extensive records and record every detail of their work. All finds are cleaned, sorted and catalogued.

The finds and associated data is examined by analysts and the finds are published.

Methods of Investigating the past Page 1

Archaeological Team
Friday, 30 March 2012 1:49 PM

Methods of Investigating the past Page 2

Sources and Evidence


Friday, 30 March 2012 1:59 PM

A source is anything that has survived from the past. It can be written or archaeological.

Evidence is any information gained from sources when its used to reconstruct a picture of the past. TYPES OF SOURCES
Types Of Sources

Archaeological

Written

Artefacts Tools Weapons jewellery Statues household utensils coins

Built Temples Structures Houses and Palaces Bridges Aqueducts Tombs Obelisks Pyramids

Organic Remains Human Remains Animal Remains

Official Document s Contracts Annals Decrees Inscriptions Papyri Law Codes

Library Texts Plays Chronicles Poems Speeches

Private Document s Letters


Diaries Graffiti Religious Texts

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Validity Of Sources
Friday, 11 May 2012 1:43 PM

Questions to ask about Archaeological Sources: 1. What is it? 2. In what context was it found? 3. Can it be accurately dated? 4. How does its condition affect its interpretation? 5. Is it reliable/useful in providing evidence about the past 6. What evidence does it provide about the past? Questions to ask about Written sources: 1. What type of source is it? 2. Who wrote it and when? 3. What was the writers purpose? 4. Who was the intended audience? 5. Is it reliable? 6. Is it useful in providing evidence about the past?

HISTORICAL ISSUES
Fact and opinion We must distinguish between fact and opinions Bias (Gender Bias) Bias is when a writers objectivity is affected by attitudes about race, gender, class, political and cultural factors, etc. We must determine the writers prejudices Gender bias is a major issue due to the small number of literate woman and the attitudes of the past One-Sided Accounts If there is only one account of something there is no way to determine if the source is valid

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The Preservation Of Evidence


Friday, 11 May 2012 1:56 PM

Agents Of Destruction
Natural Environment The effects of climate and vegetation can have a negative affect on archaeological sites and artefacts. Examples of natural agents of destruction include: Natural disasters - floods, earthquakes, volcanos Climate effects - Heat, Cold, wind, rain, erosion, etc. Fire Animals - Termites, Insects, Rats, etc. Plants - plants crack stonework and fungi and bacteria destroy evidence. Human Agents People can have a very destructive effect on sites. Examples of human agents of destruction include: Warfare - Shelling, looting, gunfire, etc. Tourism - Tourists touching, walking, flash photography, taking souvenirs and breathing Development - Construction of buildings (especially the foundations), cover up and destroy what's beneath. Pollution - Air pollution causes acid rain, ground water pollution causes sites near or in water to be damaged.

Preservation of evidence
The survival of physical remains from the past depends on: The material they are made from Organic materials decay at a much faster rate Climate Very hot, dry conditions (e.g. desert), stops moisture and therefore decay In temperate conditions things may be preserved in lakes and rivers under layers of silt or in peat bogs and marshes (See Bog Bodies) Very cold conditions (e.g. Mountaintops, Arctic) can perfectly preserve bodies (See tzi) Location Sites that are hidden can be better protected (e.g. Machu Pichu, Tutankhamen's tomb) Geological conditions The composition of soil may react with chemicals e.g. calcium turning bone into hard stone
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bone into hard stone Pompeii and Herculaneum preserved under layers of ash and mud Silt and sand may bury and preserve ancient sites e.g. Egypt Actions of people Burial customs play a significant role in preserving goods and bodies. Fire can sometimes preserve things by carbonising them or firing wet clay into hard clay preserving what would normally be a temporary record. Chance Some items escape destruction by luck or are destroyed by ill fortune.

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Reconstructing: The Palace Of Knossos


Monday, 28 May 2012 12:22 PM

In the early 20th century Sir Arthur Evans tried to reconstruct the palace of Knossos in Crete Although he was very thorough the reconstruction was based on his interpretation of what the site was and as such is highly inaccurate. This has caused irreparable damage

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Reconstructing: The Siege of Masada


Monday, 28 May 2012 3:23 PM

Masada is a fortress in ancient Israel. It was besieged by the Romans in the 1 st century AD The siege resulted in a mass suicide by the defenders facing immanent defeat. The archaeologists during excavations found things that proved the siege took place.

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Bog Bodies
Friday, 11 May 2012 2:16 PM

Preserved Human Remains Page 9

tzi
Friday, 11 May 2012 2:18 PM

Preserved Human Remains Page 10

Roman Timeline
Wednesday, 25 July 2012 11:15 AM

753 BC - Rome founded According to legend two brothers raised by a she wolf want to found a city but fight over what hill to build it on. Romulus kills Remus and starts city on banks of Tiber river. 509 BC - Republic established Misrule under king Tarqunius lead to expulsion by Rome's aristocracy. Nobles establish republic ruled by elected senate 406 BC - Rome attacks Veii After centuries of beating back invader Rome attacks Etruscan city of Veii. Siege lasts 10 years. 390 BC - Gaul's sack Rome Roman defenders fail to stop invasion by Gaul and Rome is sacked.
343-341 BC - First Samnite War Seeking to expand Rome takes on toughest enemy the Samnite nation of fierce mountain warriors. Increases Rome's power base. 340-338 BC - Latin war Number of Latin states revolt. Rome crushes military resistance. Offers citizenship to much of population. 326-304 BC - Second Samnite War Roman legions take fierce beatings but Roman reserves of men and material mean Samnite's eventually crushed. 298-290 BC - Third Samnite War Samnite's ally with Etruscans, Umbrian's and Gaul's in last ditch effort to shrug roman rule. Roman war machine strengthened by new roads defeats alliance at battle of Sentinum

280-275 BC - Pyrrhic War Rome fights Greek city of Tarentum which gets assistance from Greek King Pyrrhus. Pyrrhus defeats romans at Heraclea and Asculum but at too great a cost. He is crushed by Rome at Beneventum 264-241 BC - First Punic War Rome's first conflict with Phoenician city of Carthage, Fought mainly at sea. Rome builds navy for this and gains control of Sicily.
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238 BC - Rome gains Sardinia and Corsica Insurgents in Sardinia invite roman forces in and the Phoenician city is obliged to cede Sardinia and Corsica to Rome. 218-202 BC - Second Punic War The Carthaginian general Hannibal Barca marches forces over the alps to attack Rome. Wins a series of victories and almost defeats Rome. Romans defeat Hannibal. They now control Spain.

214-205 BC - First Macedonian War King Philip of Macedonia joins Carthage and invades Rome's client state Illyria. Effective roman resistance is difficult because resources are needed to fight Carthage. 200-196 BC - Second Macedonian War Rome gathers Greek allies and defeats Philip of Macedonia at battle of Cynoscephalae in 197 BC. Philip keeps throne but must stay within borders. Rome intervenes in Greece to maintain dominance over the region. 171-168 BC - Third Macedonian War King Perseus of Macedonia agitates among Greek states. Perseus is defeated at battle of Pydna. Macedonia divided into 4 states. 149-146 BC - Third Punic War After taking advantage of border dispute, Rome crushes Carthage utterly. Its superior forces besieged the city and when it eventually fell in 146 BC the romans levelled the city and enslaves 50 000 Carthaginians.
150-146 BC - Fourth Macedonian War Andriscus, a pretender to the throne of Macedonia tries to take control but is defeated by Rome in 148 BC The ancient city of Corinth is sacked in 146 BC as Rome moves to stamp out any resistance. 133 BC - Tiberius Gracchus murdered Tiberius Gracchus a reform minded tribune proposes redistribution of public land to peasants. Aristocrats object. The row sparks civil disorder and Tiberius is killed and later his brother amid rioting.

107 BC - Marius elected Consul A gifted soldier and popular politician Gaius Marius is elected six times between 107-100 BC. Abolished property qualifications for soldiers. Made soldiers more loyal. 91-89 BC - Social War Attempts to grant some Italians roman citizenship found several states rise
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Attempts to grant some Italians roman citizenship found several states rise up and start a new state of Italia and Rome agrees to extend citizenship to all Italians. 88 BC - Sulla marches on Rome Lucius Cornelius Sulla, an ambitious consul marches troops personally loyal to him into Rome when he is stripped of a potentially lucrative military command and comes back to rule Rome as a dictator. 73-71 BC - Spartacus leads slave revolt Spartacus a Thracian gladiator leads a slave revolt of at least 90 000 people. The revolt is put down by Marcus Crassus and Spartacus is killed. Remnants of his force are finished off.

65 BC - Caesar elected aedile Julius Caesar after years of steady progression in Roman political life is elected to this middle ranking but influential position responsible for organising games. In 63 BC he is elected Pontifex Maximus or high priest. 63 BC - Catiline conspiracy Amid a steadily increasing political violence cicero accuses Lucius of conspiracy and He leaves and starts a revolt but is crushed by republic forces. 59 BC - Caesar, Pompey and Crassus strike alliance Julius Caesar surprises the senate by pulling off a three way alliance between himself, Pompey and Marcus Crassus. Propels him to consul in 59 BC. Renewed in 56 BC the agreement permits all three to secure lucrative foreign commands for themselves.
58-50 BC - Caesar campaigns in Gaul Eight years as governor of Gaul brings Julius Caesar great riches and popularity. By exploiting harsh tactics he extends the frontier of Gaul. In 52 BC he defeats a huge army of Gaul's at Alesia.

53 BC - Defeat of Romans at Carrhae Marcus Crassus eager for a share of the glory embarks on a poorly planned campaign in Parthia and Crassus and his men are cut to pieces at battle of Carrhae. 49 BC - Caesar crosses Rubicon Julius Caesar commits himself to civil war when he takes his legion across river between Gaul and Italy and enters Rome where he swiftly takes control. 48 BC - Caesar defeats Pompey Julius Caesars opposition force commanded by Pompey is defeated at
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Julius Caesars opposition force commanded by Pompey is defeated at Pharsalus and Pompey flees to Egypt where he is murdered. Caesar strikes and alliance with Cleopatra before crushing remnants of opposition army in north Africa 44 BC - Death of Caesar Julius Caesar is declared dictator for life despite the fact that his rule has not been bloody many feel he has become too king-like. On march 15 a group of Nobles surround him in the senate and stab him to death.

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Top 3 Military Machines of the ancient World


Friday, 27 July 2012 12:05 PM

Roman empire: Had the largest army of the ancient times. At its peak in 50AD 380AD it had about 400,00 soldiers and not counting its support troops and frontier guardians. During the time of the Republic during Julius Caesar lifetime, there was barely half of this number. Julius Caesar had six legions which used to conquer Gaul, which would mean that he had up to 30,000 soldiers under his command. During the following decades the army may swelled over 600,000 but this would include both parts of the empire. The navy had about 65000 men about 400-600 permanent ships but during large navy battles likes Actium, about 900 ships were involved. The legions also had the most superior tactics such as the Testudo and excellent siege techniques. Genghis Khan had a huge army. In its peak at the middle of the 13th century after his death, the Mongol army was probably matching the size of the Rome, but didnt have a large navy. However, it was capable assemble up to 1200 ships for invasion of Japan. During the death of Genghis he had 129 tumen of 10,000 soldiers, so about 129,000 men. It is probable that the number of support troops was certainly twice that size so it could be as large as 400,000. The invasion of Eastern Europe, Caucasus, Crimea and Middle East was carried by about 200,000 soldiers total. They used a lot of cavalry and would use a tactic where they would mount a huge cavalry charge and then retreat before the enemy could regroup and then repeat. Alexander the Great army smaller than both of the others mentioned with about 42,000 plus several thousand allied troops that were hostile toward Persia. His conquests were successful not as much by army size, but by tactics, discipline, and leadership. He had a huge army and conquered more land than the romans without being opposed as much.

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Summary of Booklet
Monday, 30 July 2012 11:46 AM

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Roman Social Structure


Friday, 3 August 2012 1:54 PM

Roman society = extremely class-conscious based on strict hierarchy w/ no definable middle class Where born meant position; very limited to vary Main factors that determined ones place in Roman society were: o Citizenship status o Place of birth o Level of wealth o Whether you lived in the country or city o Free or slave? Numerous divisions in the social structure; gen. look down @ foreigners such as Jews and Egyptians Divisions often reinforced by legal and political privileges. Figure 3.2 Roman Social Structure Citizens (Cives) Freedmen (Liberti) Slaves (Servi) Lower strata Upper strata

The upper strata Consisted of numerous groups, and was a hierarchy w/in a
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Consisted of numerous groups, and was a hierarchy w/in a hierarchy Consulars qualifications: usually came from noble families
Senators who achieved office of consul Were respected because of their experience and authority.

Senators

Equestrians (Equites)
Freedmen (Liberti)

LOWER STRATA

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Slaves
Friday, 3 August 2012 1:56 PM

In the early imperial period 35% of roman population were slaves

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The Forum
Friday, 17 August 2012 1:51 PM

Roman Forum began as the core of the ancient city but over time became the centre of the vast Roman Empire Original Forum developed on the flat marshy area b/w the Platine and Capitoline Hill Forum originally a marketplace whether farmers and tradesmen Earliest forum in Rome = Forum Boarium the cattle market By the time of the early Republic, the Forum was a marketplace lined w/ stalls and booths where people gathered to socialise, to games, and where the funeral processions of prominent citizens took place. Also a venue for festivals and games o Plus where funeral processions of prominent citizens took place Nature of Forum changed through acquiring provinces o Due to conquering of the Italian peninsula 509 264 BC o Involvement in the conflict with Carthage Political and administrative buildings gained increasing significance Statues and monuments were erected and the old veg. market was gradually replaced w/ more permanent structures reflecting growth of the city o Religious o Political o Economic

Table 16.3 Purpose of Forum Buildings Religious Political Administrati Economic ve The Basilica Tabularium Aemilia 55 78 BC 34 BC The Regia Basilica Julia 715 672 BC 55 34 BC Judicial Basilica Aemilia 55 34 BC Basilica Julia 55 34 BC

The Temple of The Curia Vesta c. 715 672 672 BC BC The Rostra The Temple of 672 BC Saturn 497 BC The The Temple of Comitium Castor and Pollux 672 BC 494 BC

The Via Sacra (or Sacred Road) was the most ancient and important in Rome It traversed the Forum Beginning @ the Capitoline and winding through the Forum and into
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Beginning @ the Capitoline and winding through the Forum and into the rest of the city Exact route over time has been disputed In the Forum area the remains of 2 older roads have been found beneath the present paving In Republican times, following the roadway from the Capitoline Hill, you would have passed: o Temple of Saturn o Curia o Rostra o Basilica Julia o Basilica Aemilia o Regia o House of the Vestals o Temple of Vesta Notice; number of religious buildings passed by therefore sacred road RE processions and festivals, solemn funerals and magnificent triumphs of conquering generals all paraded along the Via Sacra
o

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Daily Life in the Forum


Tuesday, 28 August 2012 10:11 AM

Understanding & Using Sources Sources 16.7 to 16.9 Would you feel safe in the Roman Forum? Give reasons for your answer I would feel safe as there would be thousands of people and only Jonni can choke me out. Make a list of the things you could buy. Carpets, clothes, food, horses, everything. What sounds would be heard? Laughter, shouts, arguments, horses, hundreds of people walking around talking, and the noises of an ancient city.

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Table of Roman Terms


Monday, 27 August 2012 11:47 AM

Latin Term Forum

Meaning/Definition Open public meeting place; marketplace A Roman public building, usually located in the forum of a Roman town

English English meaning Term Forum Discussion

Use or function Roman Example The Roman Forum

basilica

thermae

curia

campus

comitium

via

A Roman bath complex, often substantial in size, that usually contained various rooms associated with bathing a curia was any curia building where local government held office; the term started to refer also to the people making up the local administration Parade ground Campus beside each auxiliary fort used by the Roman army; the campus was an open area of ground, cleared of vegetation and covered with gravel, on which weapon training and military drills would be practiced. an assembly place; the comitium was the meeting place of the Roman people and was located in front of the curia in the Roman forum Roman road Road

Religious Economic Political Basilica A large oblong hall or Religious building with double colonnades and a semicircular apse. A large and important church that has been given special ceremonial rights by the Pope Bath A large public complex Hygiene House used for bathing

St Peters Basilica

Baths of Caracalla in Rome

The papal court at the Vatican, by which the Roman Catholic Church is governed

Judicial

The House of the Roman Senate

The grounds and buildings of a university or college

Administrative Educational

Campus Martius (Field of Mars)

Meetings

Roman Comitium

rostra

a large platform where speakers

Stage

A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places A raised floor or platform, typically in a

Administrative Travel

Via Sacra

Political Administrative

Rostra Vetera

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templum

where speakers would stand on the rostra and deliver orations to those assembled A templum was the Temple sacred space defined by an augur for ritual purposes

platform, typically in a Administrative theatre, on which actors, entertainers, or speakers perform A building devoted to the worship, or regarded as the dwelling place, of a god or gods or other objects of religious reverence Religious temple of Hercules Victor

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Roman Buildings
Wednesday, 22 August 2012 11:42 AM

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Administrative Buildings
Monday, 27 August 2012 11:40 AM

The Tabularium Building, which housed the state archives Built by the consul Quintus Lutalius Catulus in 78 BC o Designed by the architect Lucius Cornelius Resembled a trapezium Faade facing the Forum is 73.6m long Original tabularium was only 2 storeys high o 3 extra storeys were added in the 16th Century Latin word tabulae means public documents Public record office the Tabularium housed the following records: o leges laws issued by the comitia o senata consulta advice issued by the senate o magisterial edicta edicts issued by the magistrates o priestly decreta decrees issued by the colleges of priests o comitia curiata results of the meetings of the comitia curiata o election results o other docs such as the constitution The Regia 1 of the oldest buildings of the ancient Roman Forum located @ the beginning of the Sacred Way Name means royal palace In time of the Republic, was office of HQ of the Pontifex Maximus (chief priest of Rome) Housed the archives relating to RE and historic matters o the events of war, calamities and prodigies Thought that in entrance, an official noticeboard was kept where the events of importance to the sacred colleges were recorded These records (date back to c. 390 BC) form a rudimentary annual history o Were published in 123BC by the Pontifex Maximus, Mucuis Scaevola, as Annales Maximi Beginning of the annalistic tradition (yearly accounts) in history exemplified many years later in the Annals of Tacitus (famous Roman historian) Contained 2 chapels o 1 dedicated to the god of war, Mars o Other to the goddess Ops, a goddess of the harvest In chapel of Mars were housed sacred objects such as the sacred shields (ancilia) and the sacred spear of Mars Building restored w/ rich decorations in 36BC by Cn. Domitius Calvinus
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Building restored w/ rich decorations in 36BC by Cn. Domitius Calvinus o After being damaged by fire Remains still visible today Other buildings and monuments Dealt w/ the most important but here are the others o Basilica Porcia 184 BC o Basilica Opimia 121 BC o Basilica Sempronia 170 BC Destroyed in 54 BC o Carcer 4th Century BC o Temple of Concordia 367 BC o Sanctuary of Juturna 164 BC o Via Appia 312 BC

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The Cloaca Maxima


Monday, 27 August 2012 11:43 AM

The Greatest Sewer as a channel that was originally constructed to drain the marshes in valleys b/w the hills into the Tiber It was the draining of this area that made it habitable and provided space for the Forum Sewer system believed to have been constructed c. 600 BC by order of the King o Probably Tarquinius Priscus Work was carried out by Etruscan engineers and labourers from the poorer classes Plautus refers to a canal flowing through the Forum, probably 3m wide o Gradually this was built over Public toilets and bath houses were connected to the Cloaca Maxima o Private houses werent had to rely on their own cesspits Sewers were so blocked that they overflowed w/ blood o Mopped up by sponges Today, parts of the Cloaca Maxima are still in use o Theyre connected to the modern sewerage system Used to cope w/ backwash from the Tiber

Source 16.18

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Circus Maximus
Wednesday, 22 August 2012 11:43 AM

Profile: The Circus Maximus To construct, Romans made use of the depression b/w the Platine and Aventine hills o Known as Vallis Murcia Was a hippodrome that was about 600m x 200m wide Tiers of wooden seats enclosed a long rectangle that was rounded @ both ends o Constructed during the reign of Tarquinis Priscus Carcares (starting gates) were @ 1 end where the charioteers and their teams waited for their signal to start Other end = triumphal arch Charioteers raced around the spina (central barrier, on which items from were placed o God statues, shrines, fountains, columns and later obelisks from Egypt Race was run 7 times anticlockwise around the track o About 4km in length Main event of the racing calendar = Ludi Romani o Held in early Sept @ the end of the military year Crowds would sit together unlike the amphitheatre o Also, would arrive ASAP as the tiers could only hold a of the pop. Slaves were admitted as long as they stayed @ the back Romans were passionate w/ their teams Most auriga (charioteers) were slaves or freedmen o If they survived they could become extremely wealthy Biga Quadriga Seiugae (2 4 6 horse chariot)

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Entertainment
Wednesday, 22 August 2012 11:43 AM

Campus Martius The campus martius or field of mars was enclosed on the west bend of the Tiber outside the pomerium and bounded by the Quirinal and Capitoline Hills.

According to one legend it was a field of wheat burnt during a revolution. Was used for grazing horses and sheep then used as a drill yard for soldiers and meeting of the
comitia centuriata as no weapons were allowed in the comitium

Ball games, athletics, javelin, discus, horse riding, chariot races, wrestling, fencing and

swimming were carried out there. (Good training for soldiers) Or Field of Mars, was enclosed on the west by a bend of the Tiber outside the pomerium and bounded by the Quirinal and Capitoline Hills According to 1 legend, it was field of wheat belonging to the Tarquins o But was b
o

Positioned outside the Servian Hill o Used for grazing horses and sheep Then used as a drill ground for soldiers and meetings of the comitia centuriata No weapons allowed w/in the pomerium Month of March, named after the god Mars, originally began the year Many important men focussed their patronage in the Campus Martius o Constructing buildings and monuments to commemorate and thank the gods for military victories In 221 BC the censor Gaius Flaminius Nepos was responsible for the construction of the Via Flaminia and the Circus Flaminius Used as a race track, for RE celebrations and markets burnt during the revolution and became ager publicus (common land) when the Republic was established in 509 BC.

The Theatre of Pompey During Sullas dictatorship, he allowed insulae (apartment blocks) and villas to encroach on this common land Roman reluctance to allow a permanent theatre was overcome in 55BC when Pompey was responsible for Romes 1st stone theatre o Through focus of his building complex was a temple to Venus Victrix Dedicated as a temple An enormous colonnaded square filled with the best collection of paintings and statues in Rome was part of the complex Caesar is said to have wanted to divert the Tiber to provide more land for the development of the area and planned for the Saepta However, this wasnt to happen and Caesar was assassinated in Pompeys theatre where the Senate held its meeting after the curia had been burnt down In the period of the early Empire, Augustus and his friends carried out major construction work that turned the Campus Martius into a showplace o Designed to impress upon all the might of Roman power and Augustus own power and prestige
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prestige

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Political Buildings
Monday, 27 August 2012 11:44 AM

The political activities of the Forum in the Roman Republic centred on 3 main buildings or sites: 1. The curia where the senate met 2. The rostra where the consuls and other magistrates addressed the Roman citizens 3. The comitium where the Roman people assembled The curia The word curia means senate house; it was here that the 300 senators met to discuss affairs of the state 1st curia was called the Curia Hostilia after Tullus Hostillius Located @ the NW end of the Forum Senators sat on wooden benches; a desk and a chair were provided for the speaker Dictator Sulla enlarged this building in 80BC but was burnt in 52BC Circumstances surrounding this incident occurred in a very volatile period of Roman history o Violent gang warfare b/w rival supporters of Julius Caesar (JC) and Pompey broke out on the streets of Rome Gang leaders = Milo and Clodius JC increased the # of senators from 300 to over 1000 and began building a new senate house, the Curia Julia Roman architect Vitruvius built the curia so that the height was the sum of its length and breadth = ideal for acoustics New speakers platform was @ the far end, opp. The door as was a statue and altar to Victory Senators sat on 3 tiers of steps on either side of the building Augustus dedicated it on 28/Aug 29 BC. Fire destroyed it in AD64 and AD283 Rebuilt by the emperor Diocletian and owes its preservation as converted into Christian church of St Hadrian The comitium Latin word comitium means a meeting place or a place of assembly In Republican times, = main area in the Forum for assemblies of the people to meet for political purposes Site today located in the open space b/w Curia Julia and the Arch of Septimius Severus Nothing remains most of this area
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Nothing remains most of this area o 1st demolished by JC o Later by Augustus in their reorganisation of the Forum Excavation has revealed many diff layers of pavement and several different configurations of the comitium 1st level dates from c. 600 BC o Comitium was a temple A large rectangular area aligned to the compass points agreed upon by the augurs or diviners as an appropriate place for the reading of omens from the flights of birds B/w 300 BC and 250 BC. o Comitium area was rebuilt and changed in shape New was modelled on the Greek design Circular in shape w/ internal steps used as seats and w/ a lowered central, circular floor space st 1 Century BC Period of the Civil Wars o Dictator, Sulla, enlarged the curia to accommodate them Meant that the comitium had to be demolished the area was sealed over w/ black marble o JCs plans for the reorganisation of the Forum Carried out by Augustus o Saw the function of the comitium moved to the Saepta Julia Large precinct where the people could assemble The rostra Rostra was the speakers platform from which the leaders of the city addressed the Romans assembled in the comitium Name comes from the Latin word rostra o Meaning prows or beaks of ships Was a large flat-topped platform decorated w/ the prows of 5 enemy ships Displayed as trophies and were later replaced by purely decorative prows Excavations in 1904 found the dowel holes for these beaks were still in position Speakers platform in Rep. times was ideally placed on the South side of the comitium and in front of the Curia Hostilia o Most prominent place in the Forum Dictator, Sulla, is believed to have added a curved front to the platform in c. 85 BC 46 BC, JC planned to relocate the rostra from the comitium to the NW end of the Forum Carried out by Augustus
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o Carried out by Augustus

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Religious Buildings
Monday, 27 August 2012 11:45 AM

Profile: The Vestal Virgins Virgins - girls chosen b/w 6 and 10 years old to serve as priestesses to Vesta o Roman goddess of the hearth and the household Vestas cult is said to have dated from the foundation of the city of Rome and was housed in a round building In her temple, the sacred flame representing the continuous life of the city was tended by the Vestal Virgins (VV) Task = ensure sacred flame never went out If occurred, the priestess responsible was beaten by the pontifex maximus Chief priest and guardian of the Vestals Chosen by the pontifex maximus and remained under his control for the next 30 years Lives = like nuns @ end of 30 years, they were free to continue their service, return to their families or perhaps marry Wore white robs and white-ribboned headbands @ sacrifices and in processions = wear veils Everyday duties included praying and making offerings and sacrifices Offence against them was punishable by death Had to remain a virgin o If renounce her chastity was entombed alive Belief Vesta only could set the priestess free is she was innocent The Temple of Vesta Thought to have been modelled on the round huts occupied by the 1st Romans Architecture = Greek 20 Corinthian columns on a podium 15m in diameter Inner room of the temple = cella Had entrances facing the E emphasising the Goddess relationship w/ the sun and fire Roof had a vent Was never a true temple as it had never been dedicated, nor did it contain a cult statue of the goddess Instead it housed the Palladium, a statue of Athena who in Roman mythology was known as Minerva VV lived in a residence close by the temple known as the Atrium Vestaethe House of the VV
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the House of the VV

The Temple of Saturn Roman God Saturn was the god of agriculture, fertility and the harvest Saturday named after him Dedicatory festival, the Saturnalia, 16th day before the Calends of Jan, thats the 17th of December, and was 1 of the greatest festival days of ancient Rome This midwinter festival was replaced in Christian times by Christmas Temple situated @ the Western end of the Forum near the Temple of Jupiter Capitolinus o Probably built c. 497 BC Temple served as the state treasury (the Aerarium Populi Romani) w/ vault beneath the podium for housing the great wealth of the state made up from booty, the spoils of war and tribute Also housed bronze tablets inscribed w/ the Roman law and a statue of Saturn
The Temple of Castor and Pollux Features 3 tall Corinthian columns and part of the architrave o = 1 of the most easily identified monuments Castor and Pollux were twins whose origins go back to Greek mythology and the tales of Homer Known as Dioskouroi (the sons of Zeus) and in Latin, Gemini o Therefore, star sign is named after them Reason for the foundation of the temple is found in the story of their supposed intervention in the Battle of Lake Regillus in 484 BC o Deposed King of Rome, Tarquinis Superbus, and his allies the Latins were waging war on the Romans who had established the Republic Roman soldiers were exhausted Temple dedicated on 27 Jan 484 BC, was used as a meeting place for the senate o Podium was used in the 2nd century as a speakers platform Were regarded as healers, the protectors of the cavalry, patrons of the equestrian class and the announcers of victory Little remains of the original ancient temple as it was reconstructed and restored in 117 BC and in 74 BC o All that remains today = part of the podium and the 3 columns

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The Cursus Honorum


Friday, 24 August 2012 10:25 AM

All magistrates were elected for one year only


Consul (2) Chief magistrate convened and presided over the senate and assemblies Initiated and administered legislation Served as generals in military campaigns and represented Rome in foreign affairs. Consuls could appoint and/or serve as dictator for up to 6 months in times of emergency, when constitution was suspended When their term was completed they would govern provinces as proconsuls Former consuls could be censor who every five years amended the list of senators Served as judges in a court of law then after their term as governor of a province Supervised public places, public games, and the grain supply in the city of Rome Administered finances of state treasury, served in various capacities in the provinces. When elected quaestor automatically admitted to senate Tribune (10) Plebs Only Protected plebeians from arbitrary actions of magistrates They could veto the act of a magistrate or administration They could convene the senate and assemblies and initiate legislation

Praetor (8) Aedile (4) Quaestor (20)

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The Roman System of Governance


Friday, 24 August 2012 10:36 AM

Senate

600 magistrates and ex-magistrates (minimum qualification was election as quaestor) served for life Technically and advisory body, in effect the senate was the chief governmental body Controlled public finances and foreign affairs, assigned military commands and provinces Debated and passed decrees that would be submitted to assemblies for final ratification Assemblies Comitia centuriata elected consuls, praetors, censors, declared war, court of appeal Comitia curiata mostly ceremonial and clan functions Comitia tribute elected all other magistrates, voted yes or no on laws

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Legacy
Monday, 27 August 2012 11:27 AM

There are many layers of the city still to be excavated and interpreted and new and exciting information is being added to our knowledge and understanding

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