Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 5

.

1. , , .
2. .
3. .
4. :
;
.
5. - .
6. , ,
, , .
7. .
8. .
9. , - .
10. :
;
;
;
, ?
1. , , .
,
,
.
.
:
) , ;
) , .
( ),
- ,
.
, ,
.
2. .
, :
+
CH3COOH H + CH3COO
+
CH3COONa CH3COO + Na
,
, :
+
+
+
3COO + Na + H + Cl CH3COOH + Na + Cl
+
CH3COO + H CH3COOH
,
, - .
- :
+
+
3COOH + Na + OH CH3COO + Na + H2O
3COOH + OH CH3COO + H2O
, .
3. .
, .
. ,
(.).
:

[H ] [CH
=
+

Ka

COO
[CH 3 COOH ]
3

COOH ]
[H ] = K [[CH
CH COO ]
+

..
.


, . ,
,
:
+
[CH3COOH] = [a]
[CH3COO ] = [Na ] = [C]

]
[H ] = K [
[ ]
+

[ ]
lg H + = lg K a + lg

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

pH = pK a lg
[ ]
[ ]

pH = pK a + lg
[ ]

-.
. -
, - , :
+

NH4OH NH4 + OH
+

NH4Cl NH4 + Cl :

[ NH 4+ ][OH ]
Kb =
[ NH 4OH ]
:
+
[NH4 ] = [Cl ] = []

[OH ] = K [NH

OH ]

[NH ]
4

.. -
. ..
, ,
,
,
+
[NH4OH] = []
[NH4 ] = [Cl ] = [C]

]
[OH ] = K [
[ ]

[ ]

pOH = pK b + lg
[ ]
= 14 -

4.
:
4.1. .
-,
( ):
, - ,
.
10 .
- .

4.2. .
10-20 , ,
,
.
, - ,
,
.

.
.
5.
- .
.
2-3 0,1 . .
.
, , .
, - .
, ,
, .

.
6.
, , :
( - Pt) .
Pt-COOH - - PtCOONa.
+
+
Pt-COONa Pt-COO + Na
Pt-COOH Pt-COO + H
,
- :
+
Pt-COO + --> Pt-COO
- -
:
Pt-COO + OH Pt-COO + H2O
,
. :
+
Pt-NH3 + OH Pt-NH3OH
, , ,
. .. :

HCO 3
pH = 6.1 + lg
[CO 2 ]

6.1 - - ()
. ,
.

.
(HHb), (KHb), .
+
+
HHb2 Hb2 + H
HHB Hb + H

[Hb ] [HbO ]

pH = pK + lg

[HHb] [HHbO2 ]

HHb - , ;
HHb2 - , ;
Hb - , .
Hb2 - , .
:
HHb + OH = Hb + H2O
+
+
KHb + H = HHb + K
(b - )

7.
.
,
. , .. ,
.
2 c (HPO4 H2PO4 ).
:
2+
H + HPO4 H2PO4
2OH + H2PO4 HPO4 + H2O
8.
.
.
,
.
,
. ,
, .. ,
. ,
.
, .. .


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

, %
35
3
2
7
53
35
18

9.
, - .

, ,
100 ( 50-65%). -

( - 2), (
). 2 ,
+
23 HCO3 +
- (3 ). , -
3 .
() 22 / .
10.

:
;
;
;
, ?


, . (b).
, 1
, :

b=

A
pH 1 pH 2

- ()
pH1 - pH2 - ()
..
.

]
[H ] = K [
[ ]
+

1)

[H ] = K
+

[ ]

10
10

2) H + = K a

100
100

5 ,
3 , - 1.1 :

[ ]

1) H + = K a

10 + 5
= Ka 3
10 5

[ ]

2) H + = K a

100 + 5
= K a 1,1
100 5

, ,
. .
,

50
=1
50

80
=4
20

( 10 ),
:

[H ] = K
+

50 + 10
= K a 1,5
50 10

[H ] = K
+

80 + 10
= Ka 9
20 10

1.5 , 2 .
,

[H ] = K
+

50 10
= K a 0,66
50 + 10

[H ] = K
+

80 10
= K a 2.33
20 + 10

1.5 , 1.7

,
.
, ,
2 ( 1,5 -/) ,
- (35-55 -/).
-.

Оценить