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Hazlett Jabboury 1 Introduction Normally, dry hair can be stretched one-fifth of its length before breaking.

. When et, hair can stretch !" to #" $ of its length %&Interesting Hair 'acts(). Hair is a rather strong material. It has the ability to hold 11" grams of mass on a*erage. +he scientific name for hair is ,ili. -ilus can be made eaker or stronger by many substances. .ne substance that is su,,osed to eaken the strength of ,ilus is salt. 'rom this kno n fact, e anted to determine the effect of salt ater on the strength of different lengths of hair. We belie*ed that if the salt ater concentration as set at the lo est *alue of /.# g01 and the length of the hair as /" cm, the strength of the hair ould be at its greatest. +o test our hy,othesis, e set u, an e2,eriment to test the strength of hair. We soaked different lengths of hair in different salt ater concentrations. +he first *ariable in our e2,eriment as hair length. Hair is com,osed of #".3#$ carbon, /".4#$ o2ygen, 15.1!$ nitrogen, 3.63$ hydrogen, and #."$ sulfur %&Interesting Hair 'acts(). 7ach hair strand is made u, of three layers. +he innermost layer is the medulla. +he center layer is the corte2. +he outermost layer is the cuticle. +he cuticle is the layer that controls the resilience and the curliness of the hair. It also ,rotects the hair from damage and gi*es it shine %&Healthy Hair 'acts(). +he cuticle and corte2 is here the hair strands ere affected by the salt ater they ere soaked in.

Hazlett Jabboury /

'igure 1. 8tructure of Hair 'igure 1 sho s a close u, of a hair strand. +his close u, sho s the three different layers in a hair strand. +he second *ariable in our e2,eriment as the salt ater concentration that the hair as soaked in. 8alt is made u, of many different chemical ions including chloride, sodium, sulfate, magnesium, and calcium %&9om,osition of 8ea ater(). In the e2,eriment e mi2ed the salt solution. 8alt ater can eaken the strength of hair. :fter hair as soaked in salt ater for a ,eriod of time, it began to ,enetrate into the corte2 of the hair shaft. +his greatly damaged the cuticle of the hair. +he hair can then begin to break and s,lit %&;inimizing the <amaging 7ffects of 8ea 8alt and 9hlorine(). If the salt is left in the hair for too long, it can begin to rub a ay the cuticle. Hair is made u, of chains of ,roteins. +he salt can break do n these ,rotein bonds causing it to become eaker %&Is 8ea 8alt =ood or >ad for our Hair(). +he salt greatly affected ho the ,rocess of osmosis orked. .smosis is the mo*ement of a sol*ent through a semi ,ermeable membrane into a solution of higher solute concentration that tends to e?ualize the concentrations of solute on the t o sides of the membrane %&;erriam Webster <ictionary(). +herefore, hen more salt is outside of

Hazlett Jabboury 6 the hair strand, less moisture is outside of the hair strand. +his caused moisture from inside the hair to mo*e out of the hair to e?ualize the concentration on both the inside and the outside of the hair. +his caused the hair to become dry and brittle. +he higher the salt ater concentration, the more salt that is ,laced on the outside of the hair strand. +his ould lead to more moisture being taken out of the hair. In other ords, the higher the salt ater concentration, the dryer the hair becomes and the eaker it is. +his e2,eriment is critical for many reasons. ;any ,eo,le ho li*e near oceans go s imming in them e*eryday. .thers s im in oceans on *acation. 8ome ,eo,le are s itching from chlorine cleaning systems in ,ools to salt cleaning systems. >efore they do this, they should think about the damaging effects it can ha*e on their hair. +his information can hel, lead to the creation of sham,oos and conditioners that hel, minimize the effects of salt ater. ;aybe it can e*en hel, re*erse the damage. +his information could be beneficial to many ,eo,le. -roblem 8tatement -roblem@ +o determine the effect of salt ater on the strength of different lengths of hair. Hy,othesis@ If the salt ater concentration is set at the lo est *alue of /.# g01, and the length of hair as /" centimeters, the strength of hair ould be at its greatest.

Hazlett Jabboury ! <ata ;easured@ +he inde,endent *ariables in this e2,eriment ere the concentration of salt, measured in grams ,er liters, and the length of hair measured in centimeters. +he de,endent *ariable as the amount of mass the hair carried, measured in grams, before it broke. +he data analysis used is a t o-factor <esign of 72,eriment %<.7). 72,erimental <esign ;aterials@ %1") 1" cm Human Hair 8trands %#) 1# cm Human Hair 8trands %1") /" cm Human Hair 8trands /"" -ool 8alt %6) /"5 ml <i2ie -a,er 9u, %!) 6 cm :cco Hea*y <uty -a,er 9li,s 1 =allon >o l %6") #2# cm 9ardboard 8tri,s -a,er +o el -rocedures@ +he 8alt ;i2ture 1. ;i2 C.3 grams of ,ool salt ith 1 gallon of ater in the bo l. +his ill gi*e a salt ater concentration of /.# g01. #5 1iters +a, Water %!) Wooden 8tands %8ee 'igure /) Hot =lue =un %1#) 1".13 cm Hot =lue 8ticks %5") A.8. -ennies %!) # cm :cco Hea*y <uty -a,er 9li,s Buler 9arolina =ram >alance %/) 1# cm 8trings

8etu, for 72,eriment 1. /. 6. !. #. -lace fi*e 1" cm hair strand in the bo l ith a salt ater concentration of /.# g01. 8oak all of the hair strands e?ually for /" minutes. +ake all hair strands out of the bo l after /" minutes and let them dry for 1" minutes. .nce this is done, start ,lacing the hair strands into the setu,. Hot glue / cm of each end of the strand of hair onto different cardboard stri,s. 9ontinue to hot glue the hair strands until all are com,lete.

Hazlett Jabboury #

3.

+ake one of the ,a,er cu,s. -lace t o of the 6 cm hea*y duty ,a,er cli,s to the to, rim of the o,,osite sides of the cu,. 1ea*e the loo,s of the hea*y duty ,a,er cli, to ards the center of the cu, u,. -ut the outer loo,s do n. <o this for a second cu,. +ake a string and ,lace it through the t o inner loo,s of the hea*y duty ,a,er cli,s on one of the cu,s. +his string ill attach to the hair. <o this for both cu,s. -lace one cardboard stri, on the to, of one ooden stand and securely ,a,er cli, it using a # cm hea*y duty ,a,er cli,. -lace the other cardboard stri, on to, of the second ooden stand. +he second stand should be the same distance from the first stand as the length of hair. +he hair strand should be straight, but the strand should not stretch. :ttach the string on the ,a,er cu, to the center of the hair strand. 8et u, the hair strands in the second ooden stand. +his ill allo t o tests to take ,lace at one time.

5. 4. C.

1". 11.

+esting of 72,eriment 1. /. =ently ,lace ,ennies one at a time into the ,a,er cu,. Dee, adding ,ennies to the ,a,er cu, until the strand of hair breaks. Watch for the stretching of the hair before the strand breaks. +his may occur after Eust a little eight is added. +he strand ill begin to stretch in size and the cu, ith added mass ill slo ly begin to mo*e do n. :fter the hair strand breaks, disconnect the ,a,er cu, from the 6 cm ,a,er cli,. -lace the entire cu, ith the ,ennies, t o hea*y duty ,a,er cli,s, and string on the 9arolina gram balance. +his ill gi*e the total mass needed to break the hair strand. Becord all the data collected. Bemo*e the # cm hea*y duty ,a,er cli,s and cardboard stri,s from the to, of the ooden stands. +ake the second hair strand, set u, in the cardboard and attach it to one of the ooden stands. :ttach the other cardboard stri, to the other ooden stand. +he second stand should be the same distance from the first stand, as the length of hair.

6. !.

#. 3. 5.

Hazlett Jabboury 3 4. C. 1". 11. 1/. 16. 1!. 1#. 13. 15. 14. 1C. /". /1. //. /6. /!. /#. /3. +est the amount of mass needed to break the hair strand. Bemo*e the hair set u, from the ooden stands. 9ontinue testing for the rest of the hair strands, recording all data collected. <um, the salt ater out of the buckets into a sink, hen com,lete ith testing for the day. Binse out the buckets ith ta, ater. 8et all other materials aside o*ernight. 9reate the salt concentration of /.# g01 by mi2ing C.3 grams of ,ool salt ith 1 gallon of ater -lace # hair strands of /" cm, in the salt ater solution. 8oak e?ually for t enty minutes each. :fter allo ing drying for ten minutes, test the amount of mass needed to break each hair strand. Becord all data collected that day. 8et materials aside o*ernight. ;i2 11.# grams of ,ool salt ith 1 gallon of ater. +his ill gi*e a salt ater concentration of 6 g01. -lace #, 1# cm hair strands in the bo l ith the salt ater concentration of 6 g01 for /" minutes. +est hair strands for that day. Becord the data, and set materials aside o*er night. ;i2 16.! grams of salt ith 1 gallon of ater to get a salt ater concentration of 6.# g01. -lace # 1"cm hair strands in the bo l allo ing to soak for /" minutes. +est hair strands for the clay recording all data. 8et aside materials o*ernight. 9reate the salt ater concentration of 6.# g01 by mi2ing 16.! grams of salt ith one gallon of ater. -lace fi*e /" cm hair strands in the bo l and soak e?ually for /" minutes.

Hazlett Jabboury 5 /5. :fter allo ing to dry, test the hair strands for the day. Becord all data.

<iagram@

'igure /. ;aterials for 72,eriment <ata and .bser*ations <ata@ +able 1 <esign of 72,eriment Falues 8alt 9oncentration %g01) 1o %-) 8tandard High %G) /.# 6 6.#

Hair 1ength %cm) 1o %-) 8tandard High %G) 1" 1# /"

+able 1 sho s the *alues of the t o *ariables used in testing the e2,eriment. +he *ariables are based off of the background research conducted. +he salt ater concentrations ere based off of the a*erage salt ater concentration of ,ools. Befer to -rocedures for the salt solution ,re,aration.

Hazlett Jabboury 4 +able / :mount of ;ass 7ach Hair 8trand Held <.7 Hair 8trength %g) +rial H %G,G) %G,-) %-,G) %-,-) 1 1"4 1!5 144 1!# / 16C 1/" /6" /"5 6 54 1/4 CC 1/6 ! 1/4 133 C! 115 # 1#5 1!" 1"5 1/5 :*erage 1// 1!"./ 1!6.3 1!6.4

%8,8) 1"1 165 1"C CC 115 11/.3

+able / sho s the amount of mass in grams each hair strand held. +his is the data collected during the testing of the e2,eriment. +he first day of testing, the <.7 ith %-, -) *alues as tested. .n the second day of testing, the <.7 ith %-, G) *alues as tested. +he standard *alues ere tested the ne2t day follo ed by the %G, -) *alues the ne2t day. +esting as concluded the last day testing the %G, G) *alues. 'i*e trials of each *alue ere tested.

Hazlett Jabboury C .bser*ations@ +able 6 .bser*ations <uring the 72,eriment <ate .bser*ations 9om,leted all fi*e trials for %-, -). :fter the hair as soaked in 60/10/"11 salt ater, some hair strands seemed to be ".# cm shorter than their length should ha*e been %1" cm). 9om,leted all fi*e trials for %-, G). :fter soaking the hair in salt ater, the hair resembled the same ,ro,erties as before. 60//0/"11 .ne hair strand this day held more mass than any other. +his hair strand stretched a lot, almost to the table before it broke. 9om,leted all fi*e trials for the standards. :fter the hair as soaked in salt ater, it resembled the same ,ro,erties as before 60/60/"11 it as soaked. While testing the hair strength the cu, holding the added eight as knocked a fe times. 9om,leted all fi*e trials for %G, -). :fter the hair as soaked, it resembled the same ,ro,erties as before it as soaked. While 60/!0/"11 testing, the cu, holding the added mass as knocked a fe times. 9om,leted all fi*e trials for %G, G). :fter soaking the hair, the hair resembled the same ,ro,erties as before. +he cu, ith the 60/#0/"11 added mass as knocked a fe times and may ha*e fallen due to this. +able 6 sho s that all fi*e trials for each combination ere com,leted o*er a ,eriod of fi*e days.

Hazlett Jabboury 1"

'igure 6. 72,erimental 8etu, >efore :dding -ennies

'igure !. 8etu, :fter :dding -ennies

'igure 6 sho s the e2,erimental set u, before the testing as conducted. +he hair strand is set u, bet een the t o ooden stands. +he cu, is ,laced on the hair strand, hanging bet een the t o ooden stands. +his is hen ,ennies ould be added to the cu, to see ho much mass it could hold before it broke. 'igure ! sho s the e2,erimental set u, after the ,ennies ere added to the cu, and the hair strand broke. +he cu, ould then be ,laced on a 9arolina =ram >alance to measure the amount of mass. +his mass includes the mass of the ,ennies, the t o hea*y duty ,a,er cli,s, the ta,e connecting the ,a,er cli,s to the hair strand, and the ,a,er cu,. <ata :nalysis and Inter,retation <ata :nalysis@ +able ! Inde,endent Fariables 8alt 9oncentration %g01) 1o %-) 8tandard High %G) /.# 6 6.#

Hair 1ength %cm) 1o %-) 8tandard High %G) 1" 1# /"

+able ! is a du,licate of +able 1 in <ata and .bser*ations. It sho s the inde,endent *ariables and the le*els of each used in the e2,eriment. +able # 'i*e 8tandard Buns Hair 8trength %g) 1"1 165 1"C CC

115

+able # sho s the results of the fi*e standard testing runs in the e2,eriment.

Hazlett Jabboury 11

Five Standard Runs Amound of Grams the Hair Held


160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 1 2 3 4 5

Standards

'igure #. 'i*e 8tandard Buns +his gra,h sho s the fi*e standard *alues that ere tested during this e2,eriment. 'rom these *alues it can be confirmed that this e2,eriment as set u, ,ro,erly because the *alues are mostly in the same range, yet they do not o*erla,. +able 3 7ffect of Water 8alinity on Hair 8trength Water 8alinity %g01) -1 G1 1!6.5 161.1

Effect of Water Salinity


143.7 Measure of Hair Strength (g) 144 142 140 138 136 134 132 130 128 126 124 122 120 1 Water Salinity (g/ml)

131.1

-1

'igure 3. 7ffect of Water 8alinity on Hair 8trength +able 3 as created using the a*erage *alues from the e2,eriment. +hese a*erages ere then used to find the a*erages for lo ater salinity and high ater salinity. +hese a*erages ere then gra,hed in 'igure 3. +his gra,h sho s the effect of ater salinity on hair strength. +hese *ariables sho an indirect relationshi,. .n a*erage, as the ater salinity increases from the lo to the high *alues, the amount of mass the hair could hold decreased by 1/.3 grams.

Hazlett Jabboury 1/ +able 5 7ffect of Hair 1ength on Hair 8trength Hair 1ength %cm) -1 G1 1!/ 16/.4

Effect of Hair Length


Measure of Hair Strength (g) 142 144 142 140 138 136 134 132 130 128 126 124 122 120 1 Hair Length (cm)

132.8

-1

'igure 5. 7ffect of Hair 1ength on Hair 8trength In +able 5 the a*erages ere used to find the a*erages for the lo *alue of hair length and the high *alue for hair length. +hese a*erages ere then gra,hed in 'igure 5. +his gra,h sho s ho hair length affects the strength of hair. +hese *ariables sho an indirect relationshi,. .n a*erage, as the hair length increases from the lo to the high *alues, the amount of mass the hair could hold decreased by C./ grams. +able 4 Interaction 7ffect of Water 8alinity and Hair 1ength Water Salinity (-) (+) Hair Length Line segment s li! Line segment ! tte! + 143.6 122

"

143.8

140.2

+able 4 sho s the a*erage *alues found during the e2,eriment ,ut into one table. +his table sho s ho the t o high and lo *alues of hair length and ater salinity interact ith each other. +hese *alues ere then ,laced in the gra,h follo ing.

Hazlett Jabboury 16

Hair Length and Water Salinity


143.8 143.6 Hair Length (cm) 144 142 140 138 136 134 132 130 128 126 124 122 120 -1 Water Salinity (g/L) 140.2

122 1

'igure 4. 7ffect of Hair 1ength and Water 8alinity on Hair 1ength 'igure 4 sho s the interaction effect that ater salinity and hair length ha*e on the o*erall strength of hair. +he line segments are not ,arallel so there may be an interaction bet een ater salinity and hair length. +he effect of the interaction of ater salinity and hair length is negati*e C. Inter,retation@ +he gra,h in 'igure / sho s ho ater salinity affects the strength of hair. +he

ater salinity as the inde,endent *ariable and the strength of the hair as the res,onse *ariable. +here is an indirect relationshi, bet een the t o *ariables. :s the ater salinity increased from the lo to high *alues, the range decreased by C grams. +his means that the higher the ater salinity as, the less mass the hair strand could hold. +his as due to the fact that salt ater takes the moisture out of hair. +his can make the hair dry and brittle. +he more brittle the hair is, the easier it ill break ith less added eight. +he gra,h in 'igure 6 sho s ho hair length affects the strength of hair. +he hair length as the inde,endent *ariable and the strength of the hair as the res,onse *ariable. +here is also an indirect relationshi, bet een the *ariables. :s the length of the

Hazlett Jabboury 1! hair increased from the lo to the high *alues, the range decreased by C./ grams. +his means that the longer the hair strands ere, the less mass they could hold. +he gra,h in 'igure ! sho s the interaction effect bet een hair length and ater salinity. In the gra,h, no interaction occurred bet een the t o *ariables. +he line segments are not ,arallel so there may be an interaction bet een the t o. .*erall, the ater salinity and the length of hair did act together on the res,onse *ariable. +hey both orked to eaken the strength of the hair. +herefore, the t o *ariables are related. When ater salinity as at its lo *alue, the high and lo hair length *alues ere different by "./ grams. +his means that the t o *ariables ere rather close to interacting. +he gra,h in 'igure 1 sho s the fi*e standard runs of the e2,eriment. +hese standards indicate that the e2,eriment as set u, ,ro,erly. +his is kno n by the fact that the standards do not make a straight line on the gra,h. Ho e*er, the *alues are not all o*er the gra,h, staying mostly ithin the same range. 9onclusion In the beginning of the e2,eriment, it as thought that if the salt ater concentration is set at the lo est *alue of /.# g01 and the length of the hair as /" cm the hair stand ould be able to su,,ort the most mass. :fter conducting the e2,eriment and analyzing the e2,erimental data, the hy,othesis has been reEected. +he ,lan for the e2,eriment as to test different lengths of hair ith the addition of salt ater. +he to,ic of hair strength as ,retty interesting. +he ,oint of the e2,eriment as to find out hat affected hair strength and ho it affected it. In the e2,eriment hair strands ere soaked in salt ater. +he mass the hair could hold as then measured by adding mass to a cu, attached to the hair strand. 'rom the data collected, it can be inferred that the hair ith

Hazlett Jabboury 1# the shortest length of 1" cm and the lo est salt ater concentration of /.# g01 as the strongest. +hese results may ha*e been caused by the ay the salt affected the ,rocess of osmosis ith the hair moisture. .smosis is a ,rocess that can be a,,lied to all sol*ents. It occurred hile the hair strands ere being soaked in the salt ater. +he ions in the dissol*ed salt in the salt ater mo*e at random outside of the hair. +hese ions then bounce off of all alls of the salt ater. +his includes the free surface here the salt ater meets the air. When ions that the salt is made u, of hit this free surface, the mo*ing ions ,ush u, against the ater molecules at the free surface. +he ater molecules at the free surface bound to all of the other ater molecules and ,ull all of the ater molecules. +his includes the ater on the other side of the hair. +he ,ressure from the ions that make u, the salt hitting the free surface ,ulls ater through the hair %&7*erything Iou Were +aught about .smosis is Wrong(). :ll in all, it created an une*en balance of ater inside and outside of the hair strand. ;ore moisture as inside the hair strand, causing it to come out of the hair to balance the amounts inside and outside the hair strand. <ue to this, the hair became much dryer and brittle causing it to break easier. +he higher the salt concentration, the more moisture that comes out of the hair. +herefore, the dryer and eaker the hair is. .ne design fla made as that all the hair strands might not ha*e been allo ed to dry for the same amount of time. 8ome ere set into the stand set u, before they dried for ten minutes. +he time it took for the hot glue to dry on the hair and cardboard in the set u, as different for the hair strands. 8ometimes the glue as allo ed to dry for longer ,eriods of time, hile others ere not. :nother design fla as deciding to use ,ennies

Hazlett Jabboury 13 to add mass to the cu,. : material ith more mass should ha*e been added. : fe times all ,ennies ere being used and other materials had to be used to add to the cu,. :lso, more research could ha*e been done on ho hair length affects the o*erall strength of hair. +his could ha*e altered the data a little bit if the *ariable measurements ere more accurate. 7rrors ere made hile conducting the e2,eriment. .ne error made as knocking the cu, a fe times hile adding mass to it. +his may ha*e affected the amount of mass it held before breaking. It may ha*e caused the hair to break easier and ,rematurely. :nother error made as that the hair strands might not ha*e been cut e2actly to length. 8ome ere a little bit shorter than the others. +he ,ennies should ha*e been ,laced in the cu, more carefully to ,re*ent it from being knocked. +he hair should ha*e been measured more ,recisely. ;ore trials ,er combinations should ha*e been conducted to guarantee more accurate results. +o im,ro*e the understanding of hair strength, more tests can be conducted. +here are many things that eaken the strength of hair, but others that make it stronger. +ests can be conducted to find hair strength of different lengths of hair ithout any solutions. :lso the hair could be soaked in different solutions to see ho they affect the hair. +he research enhanced the understanding of the to,ic by gi*ing the affects of one solution on different lengths of hair. +his research information can greatly benefit society. ;any ,eo,le go s imming in oceans on *acation or that are near their homes. 8ome ,eo,le are also s itching from a chlorine cleaning system in their ,ool to a salt ater cleaning system. -eo,le should take into consideration the results of this e2,eriment, that salt can greatly damage the strength

Hazlett Jabboury 15 of hair. With this information, scientists may ant to create sham,oos and conditioners that can hel, ,re*ent the damage from occurring.

Hazlett Jabboury 14 :ckno ledgements We ould like to thank our three onderful teachers here at ;;8+9. We ant to thank ;rs. <uddles for hel,ing us ith all of our formatting errors. :lso for s,ending time ith us one on one to hel, us correct sections of our ,a,er. We ould like to thank ;r. 7sta,a for hel,ing us find out the research behind our to,ic and checking our science. We ould like to thank ;r. :cre for hel,ing us to better understand hat the data e collected means. :lso for hel,ing us check our math so e had the correct information for our tables and gra,hs. 'inally, e ould like to thank Den Hazlett for making the t o ooden stands used for testing the e2,eriment.

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