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Angelo Alfred Fernandez, Pavel Vasilievich Maksimov, Grigoriy 269
Shamilievich Bikineev
Computer Simulation on the Basis of Finite-Element Method
Duangsupa C. 272
Structure and Mechanical Properties of (Zro2+3%Mgo) CaSio3 Composites
Kangarloo K., Bashgah P. J. 275
Seismic Analysis Considerations for Uplifted Storage Tanks
Maitree Polsongkram 281
Investigating the Potential for Energy Production from Different Short
Rotation Coppices by Fixed-Bed Pyrolysis Reactor
Md. Sharifuzzaman 289
Future of Space Science in Bangladesh
Memarianfard Mahsa Esfandiar 291
Effective Concrete for Biological Shielding of Reactor VVER-1000
Nguyen Toan Thang 295
The Lucas-Kanade Method for Optical Flow
Salah Ahmed Abdel Maksoud 297
Improved Performance of BLDC Motor


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6.

1. I. Takahashi, T. Noguchi (1986). A New quick-response and high efficiency


control strategy of an induction machine, IEEE Transactions on Industry Application,
Vol. 22.

22

2. L. Tang, L. Zhong, M.F. Rahman (2003). A Novel Direct Torque Control for
Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine drive with low ripple in torque and flux
A speed sensorless Approach. IEEE Transaction On Industry Application, Vol. 39, No.
6.
3. Isao Takashi, Toshishiko Noguchi (1997. Take a look back upon the past decade
of direct torque control. IECON 97.
4. Zhong, L., Rahman, M. F., Hu, W. Y., Lim, K. W., Analysis of Direct Torque
Control in Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drives, IEEE Transactions on Power
Electronics, pp. 528-536, 1997.
5. Tang, P., Yang, G., Luo, M., Li, T., A Current Control Scheme with Tracking
Mode for PMSM System, Systems and Control in Aerospace and Astronautics 1st
International Symposium, pp. 872-876, 2006
6. Luukko, J., Pyrhnen, J., Selection of the Flux Linkage Reference in a Direct
Torque Controlled Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drive, IEEE, in Proc. AMC
98-COIMBRA, pp. 198-203, 1998.
7. Rahman, M. F., Zhong, L., Haque, E., Selection of Voltage Switching Tables
for DTC Controlled Interior Permanent Magnet Motor, School of Electrical Engineering
and Telecommunications, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052
Australia, 1999.
8. Sun, D., Weizhong, F., Yikang, H., Study on the Direct Torque Control of
Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Drives, Electrical Machines and Systems,
ICEMS 2001. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference, pp. 571-574, 2001.


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5. J. A. Gemes, A. M. Iraolagoitia, M. P. Donsin, J. I. Del Hoyo. Analysis of
torque in permanent magnet synchronous motors with fractional slot windings // IEEE,
Proceedings of the international conference on electrical machines, 2008, . 1- 4.


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1. Sarma N.D.R., Prasad V.C., Prakasa Rao K.S., Sankar V. A new network
reconfiguration technique for service restoration in distribution network IEEE Trans.
Power Delivery, 1994, Vol. 9, No. 4.
2. Hsu Yuan-Yih, Chen Li-Ming, Chen Jian-Liang. Application of microcomputerbased database management system to distribution system reliability evaluation.- IEEE
Trans. Power Delivery, 1990, Vol. 5, No. 1.
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1. ASCE Technical Council on Lifeline Earthquake Engineering, Monograph No. 7,


Critical Issues and State-of-the-Art in Lifeline Earthquake Engineering, ASCE October
1995.
2. AWWA Standard for Welded Steel Tanks for Water Storage D100-96,
American Water Works Association, Colorado.
3. Haroun, M. A., Implications of Observed Earthquake-induced Damage on
Seismic Codes and Standards of Tanks, PVP Vol 223 Fluid-structure Vibration and
Sloshing, ASME 1991.
4. Housner, G.W., (1963) The Dynamic Behavior of Water Tanks, Bulletin of
Seismological Society of America, 53(2) 381-387, Feb.

82




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() 948 (HRC65-67);
D=40 , () H=30 . ,
, .

97

IV -


, .. .
,
.

52781-2007 j = 1;3 : 1-25F4612V5; 2-25F4610V5
;
1-25F6010V5,
.
( 25145-82): Ra,
Rq, Rz, Rmax, S, Sm tp, p = 5;95% - ,

( d = 1;2 ): Ra1, Rq1 .. s, Ra2, Rq2 .. s.



,
d = 1;2 : Ra, Sm, tp ,
, ; Rmax, Sm
[3].
() ,
.
,
y .
(SD). y SD
68,26% .
y ,
~
y0,75 y0,25 , 50%

ymax ymin

, : y - ; m y .

- (H0).
, .
.
,
.
.
- (SW-W) yv, v = 1;30
.
- (D),
[1]. .1,,,
Ra1j, j = 1;3 .

98

1.
: j=1, j=2, j=3

, SW-W - (H0)
0,5 [1]. j < 0,0001 , j = 1;3 .
1 25F46, 12.
D , .. H0
. SW-W ,

.
.
H0 -
t35(jd), j = 1;3 , d = 1;2 .
,
[4]. Smq, q = 1;2 tp1,
p [30%;95%] tp2, p [15%;75%].
,
.
,
[2].
.2,,
Ra1,

~
yj ,

. ,

j =1;3;

y j 2-3 ()
25142-81.
yj ,
(.1,,,), ~

j =1;3 y0,75 y0,25 y j


.
, .. .
Ra1
j : j=16; j=28 j=310. ,
12-
25F46, 25F60 10-
.

99

IV -

2. Ra1
() ()

y j , j =1;3 5%-
y j ~
, ..

y= yj

y j = m y .

mRa1 0,077(0,08*), mRz1 0,317(0,32*) mRmax1 0,097 (0,1*),


.
,

mS 2 5,416(6*),

mS m2 71,615(80*),

mS m11 50,17(63*)

q = 1;2 :

mS1 5,885(6*),

mS m1j 61,935(63*).

, 12-

mS m11 50,17 , 10-


( j = 2;3),
.

mt pij =( p) , j =1;3
(.3). 65, 123103,
30, 302 131543. [3],
.

100

3.
:

:
1.
.
1 2 ,
.
2. ,

m y ,
, :

m y j (1+ 0,25) .

, 75%
.
3. ,
25F46,
12- .
:

1. , . /.
. . . .: , 1982. 344 .
2. , . / . , .
. . . .: , 1983. 518 .
3. /.. [ .]; . .. .
.: , 2008. 320 .
4. , ..,
/
.. , .. . . 2010. - 3. .55-64.

101

IV -




: .
, .
?

,
- .
1970-
, 1980- .

: ,
, , , , , ,
, .


. : , ,
, , ,
, ,
, , .

:
1. FLiPSiDE:
. : Case Western Reserve University.
:
;
;
;
.
:
,
;
;

.
2. Splendors:
.

:
.
:
;

102

Profit;
C;

.

.
,
, , ,
, ,
.
,
.

,
.
:
, ;
;

;

;
;
()
.
(
1, 2)

1.

103

IV -

2.


. 3 4 ,
.

3.

4.

104

C :

1. http://www.aiportal.ru/articles/expert-systems/expert-systems.html.
2. .. , . . : .





: ..
, .
()

.
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,
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,
.
,
, .
, , ..
.

U1
U2

.

I1
. 1.

L

.

I2
L.
, ,

105

IV -

UA IA
EA

IB U
B

EB

1.



.

.

, ..
,

, ..
.


. , 10150.

, ,
. 600.
.
,
900. (7SA522, 7SA6)
() ,
.
R
, .

85%.
(
). , , ,
R, .

.
:
1. 4 (0400) ( 2., 2.),
2. XC
4
XC .
( XY) 4 ( 2..),
3. 3 = 31' ,
4. Z * ( 1 < 90o ), Z ( 0< 1 )
1' .

106


1 - XC, 2 ,
Z
Z
Z (R ,X )
Z (R ,X ) Z
Z

3 -
z
Z
, 4 - .

XY,RY
Z
Z

XC

,
R

ZB(RB,XB)
XC, ZC(RC,XC)
XC, Z(R,X)
2.
, ZB(RB,XB),
4 = 0 () 4 0 ()
ZC(RC,XC), Z(R,X) ..
( XC
ZB(RB,XB)) :
XY
4 = 0 Z 1 Z < 90 o
Z * =
(1)
sin Z
XY cos( + Z1 )
4 = 0 0 < Z Z 1
Z ** =

(2)
sin Z1 cos( + Z )
( XC
ZC(RC,XC)) :
XY
cos Z sin Z
sin Z
XY
(3)
Z * =

4 0 Z 1 Z < 90 o
sin Z
cos(90 Z 4 )
XY cos( + Z1 )
4 0 0 < Z Z 1
Z ** =

(4)
sin Z1 cos( + Z )
(
Z(R,X)) :
XY RY
X =
XY
(5)
RY +
r1
tg 3
XY RY
1
R =

XY
tg 3
(6)
RY +
r1
tg 3

.
,
, ,

.
.
,
.
j

Z1

Z1

Z1'

107

IV -

,
.


,

.
:

1. . : .
. . .. .: . 2005 322.
2. .., ..
: . /
...
, 2007. 154 .


: ..
, .

,
,
.
.
,
.
: , .
,
, .
,
,
, ( )
,
.
,
, , ,
.

,
. ,

108

,
( t = 1 ) , .
,
.
Z (t i ) , i = 1..n , - i- ,

:
Z (t i +1 ) + Z (t i )
Y (t i ) =
2
P Y
.

, [4]:

(1)

X = A X + F

X1 (t )
a2 ( t ) X 1 ( t ) X 2 ( t ) + a3 ( t ) X 1 ( t ) X 3 ( t )
0
0
a1 ( t )

X = X 2 (t ) , A = 0
b2 ( t )
0 , F = b1 ( t ) X 1 ( t ) X 2 ( t ) + b3 ( t ) X 2 ( t ) X 3 ( t ) ,

X 3 ( t )
c1 ( t ) X 1 ( t ) X 3 ( t ) + c2 ( t ) X 2 ( t ) X 3 ( t )
0
c3 ( t )
0
ai (t ), bi (t ), ci (t ), i = 1, 2,3 - , t;

X1(t) ,
;

X2(t) X1(t): X 2 (t ) = X 1 (t ) ;

X3(t) X1(t): X 3 (t ) = X 1 (t ) .

tk: X1(tk), X2(tk), X3(tk), .
, ai (t ), bi (t ), ci (t ), i = 1, 2,3
. , [t k , t k +1 ] .
[t k , t k +1 ]
t k +1 .
(1)
.
ai (t ), bi (t ), ci (t ), i = 1, 2,3 .
tk, tk-1, tk-2. ,
[t k 1 , t k 2 ] .
X1, X2, X3 ,
ai , bi , ci , i = 1, 2,3 :

109

IV -

+
+
=
a
X
(
t
)
a
X
(
t
)
X
(
t
)
a
X
(
t
)
X
(
t
)
X
1 (t k )
1
1
2
1
2
3
1
3
k
k
k
k
k

a1 X 1 (t k 1 ) + a 2 X 1 (t k 1 ) X 2 (t k 1 ) + a 3 X 1 (t k 1 ) X 3 (t k 1 ) = X 1 (t k 1 )

a1 X 1 (t k 2 ) + a 2 X 1 (t k 2 ) X 2 (t k 2 ) + a 3 X 1 (t k 2 ) X 3 (t k 2 ) = X 1 (t k 2 )

b 2 X 2 (t k ) + b1 X 1 (t k ) X 2 (t k ) + b3 X 2 (t k ) X 3 (t k )
= X 2 (t k )

b 2 X 2 (t k 1 ) + b1 X 1 (t k 1 ) X 2 (t k 1 ) + b3 X 2 (t k 1 ) X 3 (t k 1 ) = X 2 (t k 1 )

b 2 X 2 (t k 2 ) + b1 X 1 (t k 2 ) X 2 (t k 2 ) + b3 X 2 (t k 2 ) X 3 (t k 2 ) = X 2 (t k 2 )

c 3 X 3 (t k ) + c1 X 1 (t k ) X 3 (t k ) + c 2 X 2 (t k ) X 3 (t k )
= X 3 (t k )

c X (t ) + c X (t ) X (t ) + c X (t ) X (t ) = X 3 (t )
1
1 k 1
3 k 1
2
2
3
k 1
k 1
k 1
3 3 k 1

c 3 X 3 1 (t k 2 ) + c1 X 1 (t k 2 ) X 3 (t k 2 ) + c 2 X 2 (t k 2 ) X 3 (t k 2 ) = X 3 (t k 2 )

(2)

(2)
, .
(2) .
ai , bi , ci , i = 1, 2,3 (1) X1(tk),
X2(tk), X3(tk).
:

X 1 (t ) = a1 X 1 (t ) + a 2 X 1 (t ) X 2 (t ) + a3 X 1 (t ) X 3 (t )

X 2 (t ) = b2 X 2 (t ) + b1 X 1 (t ) X 2 (t ) + b3 X 2 (t ) X 3 (t )

X 3 (t ) = c3 X 3 (t ) + c1 X 1 (t ) X 3 (t ) + c2 X 2 (t ) X 3 (t )

(2)

(3)

(3), X1(tk+1), X2(tk+1), X3(tk+1)


tk+1, .
.
:

1. ., ., . .
. .: , 1991. 306.
2. . . .:
-, 1996. 176.
3. . / . . .: ,1988. 240.
4. . ., . ., . .
// .
, 2003. . 306, 3. - . 124-127.

110




: ..
- , .

stepping, ,

[1].
.
.

.
.

() .


[2 4]. ,
. [24].

A x = b,
A n; b
; x .
, ,
.
F
n.
: ai i- A; f i i-
(m)
F; F , f(m)i F f i m- ,
m=0,1,,n; E n.
, f (m ) m +1 a m+1 0 (
F(m)
).
F
:
F (0 ) = E ;
f (m +1)i = f (m )i i = m + 1 ( m = 0,1,..., n 1 ) i < m + 1 (
m = 1,2,..., n 1 ) xi ;

) f (
)

f (m )i a m+1
f (m +1)i = f (m )i (m )
f m +1 a m +1

m)

m +1

111

i.

IV -

F
xi = f (n ) i b f (n )i ai .

F. ,
, -, , -,
. xi

)(

, f (n )i ai .
(n )

ai f io = 1 (n )
f i . , xi = f io b .
f i ai
(detA0) F ai ,

, xi , ai' , A
A'. f io ai . f io ai' = 0
, detA'=0 [3]. A'
[3].
, xi , x j , f io a j .

xi' x 'j :

( (

))
(f

f ' io = 1 / f io a ' i f io , x ' i = 1 / f io a ' i xi = f io' b


f

'

jo

= f jo

jo

a i f ' io , x' j = f ' jo b


'

(1)
(2)

(1) (2)
x' j = x j ( f jo a'i ) x'i
(3)
(1)(3)
.
,
.
j
1
1+ j
2 + 3 j

A = 2 j
2j
2 + j , b = 1
2
j
1 + 2 j 1 j

, .
g .
g = [1,2,3] . , F (0 ) = E ,
1
j
1 0 0 1 + j

2j
2 + j
0 1 0 2 j
0 0 1 2
1 + 2 j 1 j

f (0 )3 ,
a1 A 2.
g : g = [3,2,1] .
a1 ( F (0 ) F (1) ).

112

(1)

1 0 0.5 0.5 j

= 0 1 1 + 0.5 j

0 0
1

, f (1)1 a1 = 0 ; f (1) 2 a1 = 0 .
a2 ( F (1) F (2 ) ).
f (1) 2 g = [3,2,1] .

1 0.29 0.18 j 0.71 0.18 j

(2 )
F = 0
1
1 + 0.5 j 0.24

0 0.24 + 1.06 j 0.24 0.94 j

f (2 )1 a 2 = 0 ; f (2 )3 a 2 = 0 .
a3 ( F (2 ) F (3) ).
f (2 )1 f, g = [3,2,1] .

1
0.29 0.18 j 0.71 0.18 j

(3 )
F = 2.5 1.5 j
0
0.5 + 2 j 0.24

0.59 1.65 j 0.12 + 0.47 j 0.47 + 0.12 j

, f (3 ) 2 a3 = 0 ; f (3 )3 a3 = 0 .
: f1o = (0.29 -0.82 j 0.06 0.24 j 0.24 + 0.06 j ) ;
f 2 o = (1 + j 0 j ) ; f 3o = (0.88 0.47 j 0.18 0.29 j 0.71 + 0.18 j ) .
g:
x1 = 3.18 0.29 j ; x2 = 2 + 5 j ; x3 = 3.53 + 2.12 j .

Delphi [4,5].
Matlab.

,
1.

T 1

3455
4

Matlab
310
20

1 ,
Matlab
11 .
5 .

.
.

113

IV -

.
D B,
: D i = 0 ,
B u = 0 , i, u , ,
. .
(, C
)
,
.
,
, ,
.
.

Elliptic (. 1)
Micro-Cap 9.

1. Elliptic


. ,
Micro-Cap 9.
stepping
Np
Nc C1
. tc
. ,
tc=0.008.
(tc=0.008) Micro-Cap 9
, , 6 22 .
,

.
,

114

.

.
,
,
[2-5].
( . ) - [3]
.
:

1. .. Micro-Cap 6.
M.: , 2001. 344c.
2. .., ..
. . . . - 2010. - 5. - .
31-34
3. .., ..
. 53-
. - .: , 2010. - . VII.:
, . 3. - . 51-52
4. .., .., ..
// ,
: , :
IX . .- . ., . , 26 . 2009./... . - (). : , 2010. C. 1119.
5. , .. ,

. - 2010:
- ,
/ .-. . . -.- :
(), 2010.- 468 . (. 154-155)

ZA40S(1440/56)


: ..
, .

() , ,
,
.


. ,

115

IV -

(),
-, ,
, , -
.


()

1440/56

24,1 ,

p z = 190,95 .

.

.



11,11 /, 18%


2 /; N = 2110 ;
N = 2136 . ,
N > N ,
. ,
.

40/56 4,4%
530,
.





: .., ..
, .

. ( )
, 1/6 . ,
? :

.

116

, , -, , ,
--, .
, .
.

.
.
, ,
.

, ,
. ,
:
(, , ),
(, , ),
(, , ), -
(, , , , ),
-

(,
,

,
)

.
-
.
,
.
HKCEC .
.

/.

, .
-
. , .

, .

.
.
, ,
, ,
.
, . ,
/ 1/15 ,
3 , 45
6 . 15
5 . , ,
30 . , ,

117

IV -


:
1. .
2. .

. , ,
.
- ,
.
- , ,
. ,
, - (
),

.

.
-
. , , ,
, .
, ,
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.


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1. .
2. ,
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3.
.
4.
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. ,
, .
, ,
, ,
,
.

118

.
: ..
, .
(
) ,
61.131-3. .
1. IL (Instruction List ) ,
.
, ,
, IL
:
LD
ST
JE
JMPS
LD
EQ
next:

17
lint
5
next
idword
instruct.sdword

2. ST (Structured Text- ) - ST

(IfTHEN ELSE) (WHILEDO).

:
IF value < 7 THEN
WHILE value< 8 DO
value:=value+1;
END_WHILE;
END_IF
3. LD (Ladder Diagram ) ,
. LD

FBD (Functional Block Diagram).
LD
.

. ,
,

. LD
,
1
1.
4. FBD (Functional Block Diagram )
, LD/
,

119

IV -

, ,
. LD :

5. SFC (Sequential Function


Chart


.

(),

.

,
,
3

.
SFC
3.
6. CFC (Continuous Function
Chart

)
FBD

4
,
,
, .
61131-3 .
( )
.
(CoDeSys, Concept, IsaGRAF, Multiprog), CoDeSys
( ( 3S Softwere)
CoDeSys
.

120

-
.
CoDeSys
(Motorola, Hitachi, Intel( .. 8086), Siemens).
CoDeSys (
. // . . ).
CoDeSys ,
SCADA- .
:

1. CoDeSys V 2.3.: , 2004.-423.


2. .. .
/ .. ; ..
. .: -, 2004. 256.
3. , ..
PLC IEC 1131-3( 1131-3) [ ]/.. . [2004].
: http:/www.asutp.ru.


: ..
, .

, .

( ,
, ).

,
[3].


.

:
24,0 ; m=3; m=2;
H1=22,0 ;
=3,0 . FILTR
- [2].

121

IV -

:
/=1 /=4.
: v=1 / v=5 /.
,
. (
) .
v=1 /

, (
) 15, 11 7
. 2.
,
, .
4,0
v=1 / (. 1) .
, ,
.
, , .

.

1.
1 /.

,
(v=1 /)
4,0
,

.
,
.

122

5 /
.
,
.

, ,
.

,
.

.

. , (

), ,
[4].

. -F,
,
, [1]:
Wi x = h bi J i
(1)
: - ; h - ;
bi - ; J i - .

.

v=1 /,
-F .2 .1.
1.

()


1
5
1
5 /
/
/
/
=22
1,89
1,89
1,96
1,96
=15
1,85
1,71
1,94
1,75
=11
1,74
1,67
1,9
1,71
=7
1,67
1,61
1,88
1,68

123

IV -

=1 /

2 .
-F

, 15,0 , 11,0
7,0 1 /
14%
. ,
.
.
5,0 / :
.

~ 7,0 ( 1/3 ).

.
.
:
1. .

124


.
, , .
2.

,
.

10-14% .
,
5-10%. ,
5-15%
.
:

1. .., .. . .: , 2001.
2. .., .., .. .
. .: - , 2008.
3. ..
. .
, , 1956, 2.
4. Reinius E., The stability of the upstream slope of earth dams, Stockholm, 1948.
5. Sherard, J.L. , et al., Filter for Silts and Clay, ASCE, GT6, Vol. 110, June 1984.




: ..
, .

? ,
, .

.
- ,
,
. , ..
,
.
.

125

IV -

,
,
,
.
,
, , .

,
,


,
,

.

, .

, ,
, .
,
, ,
.
.

, ,
.
,
.

.
1,5 3. 2%
,
0,003%. (, ,
) .
60% .
43 .

" " .
, ,
, .

6000 3 , (
2 )
.

126

.
.

.

, .

.
.
. ,
.

, ,
.

O 86,82
H 10,72
Cl 1,89
Na 1,06
Mg 0,14
S 0,088
Al<110-3
Mn 410-7
Ni 310-7
Cs 210-7
Co 110-7
Ti<110-7


( .%)
0,041
F 0,0001
Zn 510 -6
0,038
Si 0,00005
Ba 510-6
Br 0,0065
Rb 0,00002
Fe 510-6
0,002
Li 0,000015
Cu 210-6
-5
Sr 0,0013
N 110
As 1,510 -6
-6
0,00045
I 510
P 510-6
-7
-8
510
V 510
Ga 510-8
Se 410-7
Th 410-8
V 310-8
-7
-8
Sn 310
La 310
Ce 310-8
-7
-8
U 210
Bi<210
Sc 410-9
Mo 110-7
Hg 310-9
Ag 410-9
-7
-10
Ge<110
Au 410
Ra 110-14


:
1) MSF (Multi-Stage Flash Distillation), ,
, .
.
2) MD
(Membrane
Distillation),


.
3) MED (Multi-Effect Distillation),
()
.

127

IV -

4) MVC
(Mechanical
Vapor
Compression),

.

:

.
5) FP
(Freezing
Process)
,
,

.
6) RO
(Reverse
Osmosis),
,
: ,

.

.
7) ED (Electrodialysis),
,
, ,
,

, ,
.


.
,
. ,

.
:

1. .. .: 2005.
2. .. . 2002.

128


CDMA
BPSK

: ..
, .
.


(CDMA). ,
,

.

.
: CDMA, ,
, ,
.





[1].


[2, 3].
CDMA
(near-far problem) [4].
, ,
.
,
, .
()
[4].
(
)
.
K > 10
( )
[4].
K, .
()
.

129

IV -

,
. ,
, .

,
,
.
(

)
,

[5,6].

.

.
( )
.
1.

1.1.
x
x(t ) .

x=

S + + ,

, ,
.
1.2

, [6],
[7].

, .

1 t
P2 = p(t ) = w , w W2 , (0, )
(1)

W2 = w : w(t )dt = q, I (w) <


1

q [ 1,1] . q
(1). p(t ) (1)
1 t
p(t ) = w ,

w(t ) = p(t ) , (1)
1

p(t )dt = q .
1

130

1.3
CDMA :
.
.
:

(t ) = [ k(1) S k (t + T ~ k ) + k(2 ) S k (t ~k )] (t ), t TS ,
K 1

(2)

k =1

k(i ) = k k(i ) , i = 1,2 , k (0, ) k(i )



.
k k 0
~ k =
T k k < 0

k
TS . k

.


[6], [7].
[7], , M-
[7]
-
1 max R S , N z x = R S , N z x ,
e k
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131

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1. Verdu S. Multiuser Detection. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1998.


2. .. CDMA. . /
/ /, 2000, 4, .1723.

133

IV -

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139

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COMSOL MYLTIPHYSIC

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143

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148

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149

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150

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151

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IV -

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153

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155

IV -

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157

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229

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230


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: s
/ 4 (=-1,0) 18 (=+1,0); s /. 2,5 (=-1,0)
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z 0,1 (D=-1,0) 0,2 (D=+1,0).
.

24142-82: Ra, Rq, Rz, Rmax, Sm tp, p = 10;50 ,
( q = 1;2 ), s
(q=1) s (q=2).
: y kv , k = 1;20 , v = 1;3 ; y k = y k , s 2 ( y k )
k- ;
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)
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I
() [2].

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)
, y iq , i = 1;22 ; q = 1;2 , [1],

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, ,
:
)
s 2 Rmax 1 = 0,227 + 0,067 + 0,0019 + 0,018 D + 0,05 AC 0,023 AD + 0,045 ABC

0,054 ABD + 0,087 ACD , ()2;


)
s 2 R max 2 = 0,161 + 0,037 0,033 + 0,034 0,032 AD ,()2,
)
2
s 2 R a 2 = 1 / (10,797 + 1,506 ABD + 1,29CD ) ()2
)
s 2 (t 40 (1) ) = 1 /(0,882 + 0,045 A + 0,065 0,074 + 0,072 AD + 0,072 BD

( )
( )

0,063 0,064 ABD + 0,057BCD) 2 (%)2


)
s 2 (t 40 (2 ) ) = 1,316 0,304 A 0,187 0,082 0,232 D 0,232 D 0,183

(1)
(2)

0,074 AD 0,144 + 0,107 BD + 0,18CD + 0,215 ABD 0,159 ACD (%)2


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)
s 2 Rmax1 .
y k ,

( )

k = 1; w , , [1].

231

IV -

.
( , ..)
(desirability), [3]:
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w R
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. (3) 1.
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; p (17,5%;80,0%) -
.

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.
yk
U k y k max y k min , k = 1; w :
,
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p [10%; 50%] , q = 1;2 , , .



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.
, ,
- :
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y y min
dk = k

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dk = 0

y k min < y k < y k max ; ,


y k y k max ,
232

(4)

, n- weight k-
.
(4) . n
.
n=1 1
. n 0,1 1
, , n=10,
, .

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y k , k = 1;20 : 1 y k , k = 1;20 (1-
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)
S mq , q = 1;2 ,
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, , .
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d i [0,568;0,593] ,
i = 1;2 .

d 2 = 0,568 2- ,
)
d 1 = 0,593 - y k , y k , k = 1;20 .
d i , i = 1;2 ,
d k tpq,

p [10%; 50%] , q = 1;2 , . d 1 > d 2


, (3) 2-
d k < 1,0 2 .
5.
.
-
.
,
:
1 ; 2

233

IV -

Raq

Rmax q
Smq
t30 q
t 40 q
t50 q
d (3)

.=D= -1,00; ==+1,00

yk
0,129 (0,16*)
0,079 (0,08*)
1,429 (1,60*)
0,762 (0,80*)
49,958 (50*)
310,083
(320*)
2,990
5,062
10,746
35,779
33,683
75,175
0,592964

2. =-1,00; = -0,11; =+1,00; D=-0,99

yk

d ( yk )

s 2 ( yk )

d s 2 ( yk )

0,866
0,758
0,772
0,758
0,642
0,627

0,149 (0,16*)
0,074 (0,08*)
1,317 (1,60*)
0,637 (0,80*)
56,216 (63*)
392,573(400*)

0,796661
0,775723
0,807599
0,791559
0,524042
0,483225

0,012254
0,007048
0,245596
0,089974
1,99129
4,25657

0,606985
0,903116
0,530514
0,868689
0,401319
0,256143

0,266
0,490
0,343
0,743
0,474
0,814

2,990
5,054
8,424
32,011
27,248
68,771

0,29008
0,538643
0,488906
0,722502
0,266251
0,994002
0,654774
1,562500
0,260411
1,376410
0,729754
1,675940
0,567604

0,799839
0,582552
0,873096
0,408465
0,703422
0,500325

:
1. (q=1), (q=2);
2. * - 25142-82;
3. - . (1) (2)

1. ,
..

/ .. , .. , .. .
. - 2007. 6.- . 14-21.
2. , ..
/ .. ,
.. , .. . , 2006. - 2(9). .133142.
3. , ..
131543 / .. , .. .-
. 2010. 5. . 5-14.
4. / . .; . ... .:
, 2008.- 320 .

dk

234


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235

IV -


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,

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[1]:
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7
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,

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16

1
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(n ) = 2
; i, j = 0,7 .
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[2]
Y (u , v ) Y
,
.
Y ,
Z, .

237

IV -

JPEG
QF :
A(u , v ) = 1 + (1 + u + v ) * QF , u , v = 0,7 ; QF = 1,25 .

.
2.

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y
. , ,
:

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0 j n -1

y(i, j ) - .
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, :
1) y QF.
2) A, Y
Z.
3) Y
Y A.
4) y .
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1. ( y ) QF,
1 25 y1 , y 2 , y 3
Autumn.tif.
1:

238

1. ( y ) QF

2. ( y )
D(y); 15 Autumn.tif ,
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- [3].
:

1. ., ., ., . .
, . - .: -,
2003.

239

IV -

2. . ., . .,
//
7-2008 .3 6.
3. .., ..
.
. , : X . .-,
., . , 5 . 2010 . / .-. . . - ().: , 2010. - 199 . (. 141-144)




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240

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241

IV -

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: Aperture value , time
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243

IV -

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x(t ) = G ( p)u ( p).
p

245

IV -

, (t ) ; u (t ) ; x(t )
; Gie ; G p ( p)
d
.
dt
Gie , , :
m
j
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; p =

( j = 1(1)m) ,
.

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i
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i =0
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20%, I 1 , I 2 (2),
& . ,

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[4],

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q j , ( j = 1(1)m)
:

246

I [l ]
q j [l ] = q j [l 1] h[l ]
q j

I [l ]

j =1 q j
m

I
, ( j = 1(1)m) -,
q j
(1),
,
[2]:
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, ( j = 1(1)m) .
j (t ) = G p ( p)
q j
,
q , .

:
k
k
G p ( p ) =
e p ,
p (T1 p + 1)(T2 p + 1)
, ,
.
, ,
,
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. . 2 1-4

(2). 1
0
0
0
0
0
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= 0,1; q31
= q 41
= q51
= q61
= 0,0) ; 2 ,
I 1 ; 3
, I 2 ; 4
,
q (2).
I[l ] , . 3 ( 1, 2, 3),
, . .
(2),
, . ,
1, 2 3 :
0
0
0
0
0
q10 = (q110 = 0,5; q 21
= 0,1; q31
= q 41
= q51
= q61
= 0,0) ;
0
0
0
0
0
q 02 = (q120 = 0,1; q 22
= 0 ,2; q32
= 0 ,3; q 42
= 0 ,4; q52
= 0 ,5; q62
= 0 ,6) ;
0
0
0
0
0
q 30 = (q130 = 1,5; q 23
= q33
= 2,0; q 43
= 3,0; q53
= q63
= 4 ,0) .

247

IV -

3. I [l ]

2.

. 4
( 1, 2, 3), q10 , q 02 , q 30
I
. ,
[l ] 0 ,
q j
( j = 1(1)m) l , ..
.
,
.
I/q1

I/q2

I/q3

I/q4

I/q5

I/q6

4.

I
[l ]
q j



- .

248

:
1. .., ..
. - .: , 1981. -96.
2. ., .. . - .:
, 1981. -464 .
3. .. . 2-
., . . - .: , 1966. -624.
4. ..
//
-14: . 14 . . . 6 . . 2 /
. . - (. -). , -2001. -.
25-26.




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249

IV -

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251

IV -

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.

252

:
1. Resource Description Framework, http://www.w3c.org.
2. Thuraisingham, B., Database and Applications Security: Integrating Data
Management and Information Security, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 2005.
3. Castano, S., A. Ferrara, and S. Montanelli, Ontology-based Interoperability
Services for Semantic Collaboration in Open Networked Systems, University of Milan
Report,
http://interop-esa05.unige.ch/INTEROP/Proceedings/InteropESAScientific/PerPaper/I05-1%20400.pdf.





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253

IV -

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254


(, , ).
[3],
:
d
P0 (t ) = 0 P0 (t ) + 1 P1 (t )
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dt
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255

IV -

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256

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[ ] // TESTOR.RU:

.
URL:
http://www.testor.ru/files/Conferens/test_kompet/Balihina.doc
(
:
11.03.2010).
2. .., .
[ ] //
. 4, 13, , 2010.
3. .. : , , / ..
. - : - , 2009. 87.
4. .., ..
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cc ( y bas , h, ch ) ,
cc( y bas , h, ch) = y e 2 y m + y b .
(changeability scalar): cs ( y bas , h, ch) =|| cc( y bas , h, ch) ||2 .

257

IV -

1.

[2],

cc( y bas , h, ch) = Mch A2 y bas h 2 + Mch A c h 2 ,

(ch + 2)2 2(ch +1)2 + ch2

2
2 (ch + 2)3 2(ch + 1)3 + ch3
2 (ch + 2) 4 2(ch + 1) 4 + ch 4 2 2
A

h
+
[ E +
A h +
3! (ch + 2)2 2(ch + 1)2 + ch2
4! (ch + 2) 2 2(ch + 1) 2 + ch 2

Mch : Mch =

2 (ch + 2)5 2(ch + 1)5 + ch5 3 3


A h + ... ].
5! (ch + 2) 2 2(ch + 1) 2 + ch 2

, M ch A h = e
2

A ch h

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( ch + 2)h
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chh A

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A
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0
0
chh
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0

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0

ch = 0 : Mch A2 h 2 = E 2e Ah + e A2 h = M A2 h 2 ,
h
2 h

2
A
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0
0

k 1

2(2 1) k 2 k 2
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A h .
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k =2
: R = A2T MchT Mch A2 , d = A2T MchT Mch A c ,
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,
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258


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COMPUTER SIMULATION ON THE BASIS OF FINITE-ELEMENT


METHOD
Angelo Alfred Fernandez, Pavel Vasilievich Maksimov, Grigoriy Shamilievich
Bikineev
Scientific advisor: Moiseenko D.D.
National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk
1. Introduction

There are many finite element simulation programs available today. Some programs
are not free, they are complex in design. Impact is a program designed to be a free and
simple alternative to the advanced commercial Finite Element codes available today. The
guideline during the development of the program has been to keep things clear and simple
in design. Impact has been designed to be easily extendible and modular to enable

269

IV -

programmers a way to easy add features to the program without having to enter other parts
of the code. Impact has been written in Java. This choice of language may seem strange
at first, but with the recent development of Java engines, speed penalty is not that
significant. On the other hand, the Object Oriented features and the high portability of
Java is a clear advantage for the future.
Impact is a Finite Element Code which is based on an Explicit Time stepping
algorithm. These kinds of codes are used to simulate dynamic phenomena such as car
crashes and similar, usually involving large deformations. There are quite few explicit
codes around which might seem strange since the other cousins (implicit finite elements)
are quite common. The implicit codes are used to simulate static loads in structures.
Something that explicit codes do does not manage very well. Impact is written in Java
for two reasons: 1. Java is an Object Oriented language and that suits Finite Element
Programming perfectly; 2. Java is clean, simple and extremely portable. At the moment,
Impact can only handle dynamic incompressible problems. Examples of problems with
this kind of limitation are basically most real world dynamic problems. The following is a
list of problems that Impact will be able to solve in the future: 1. Collisions of any type;
2. Forming operations; 3. Dynamic events such as chassis movement etc.
2. Theoretical Base

All the code does is to calculate the acceleration of a body using small time step to
translate this acceleration into a little displacement of the body. This displacement is then
used to calculate a responding force since the body is elastic and can be stretched (thus
creating a reaction force). This force is then used to calculate the acceleration and then the
process is repeated again from the beginning. As long as the time step is sufficiently small,
the results are accurate.
3. Modelling principles

The starting point for the user is Pre Processor. It is used for: 1. Creating
geometry through the use of points, curves, surfaces and volumes; 2. Creation of finite
element models by meshing of curves, surfaces and volumes; 3. Setting of loads and
boundary conditions; 4. Setting of solver parameter values such as time step etc.; 5.
Exporting of files .in, which are input files for the solver. The Processor realizes the
calculation. It consists of a prompt window where the solver printout is shown, an editor
where the input file can be modified and a model viewer where the model described by the
.in file can be seen and rotated. The solution process is then started. The results will be
automatically written to the .flavia.res file, which can be loaded into the Post
Processor. Post Processor is used to view the results from the solver. These results are
saved in a file ending with .flavia.res and consist of multiple time steps.
4. Numerical experiment

On the base of the proposed algorithm the numerical experiment was realized. In the
framework of the experiment uniaxial loading of the composition aluminium substrate
intermediate layer ceramic coating was simulated. The specimen had sizes 40 mm 20
mm 10 mm, the thickness of coating was equal to 2 mm, the interlayer thickness
equaled 2 mm, the substrate thickness to 6 mm. The intermediate layer represented part
of specimen between substrate and coating where for each elementary volume simulated
with the help of finite element the values of the modulus of elasticity, the density, the
Poissons ratio, the yield stress and the modulus of plasticity were assigned. The values of

270

each of these parameters of finite element were uniformly distributed in the interval
between the values of corresponding parameter for coating and substrate. Simulated
specimen was effected by tension along axis X during 1 second (see pic. 1). The stress at
each facet was equal to 4,85 Pa.

Picture 1. The scheme of specimen loading

Pic. 2 illustrates patterns of distribution of the values of the strain intensity and the
stress intensity at the interface of ceramic coating and intermediate layer.
The results of the numerical experiments realized basing on classical mechanics of
behaviour of dynamic systems and the finite-element method show that heterogeneities of
interface properties existing in every real system generate quasiperiodic distribution of
stresses and strains near the interface.

a
b
Picture 2. Distribution of the values of the strain intensity (a) and the stress intensity (b) at the
interface ceramic coating intermediate layer.

Peaks of the stress are strong concentrators determining cracking and flaking of
coating. Areas of maximal normal tensile stresses are centres of generation of nanopores
in local volume of material. Then this reconstruction of internal structure makes the
material ready for formation of microcracks in regions of change of sign of the moment
stress values.
At mesoscale level agglomeration of cracks occurs that leads to generation of
macrocracks propagating along directions of maximal tangent stresses. Surface layer of
material is fragmented by quasiperiodic cracks; and after increasing of loading the
fragments of coating will be flaked in regions of maximal tensile stresses perpendicular to
the interface.

271

IV -

STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF


(ZrO2+3%MgO) CaSiO3 COMPOSITES
Duangsupa C.
Scientific adviser: Kulkov S.N.
National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk
Introduction

Zirconia has been developed into a highly sophisticated advanced ceramic material
that is utilized in many important applications via the exploitation of its superior
mechanical and unique functional properties. Zirconium dioxide is one of the types of
ceramics that is most commonly applied. It is a polymorph that occurs in three forms,
monoclinic (m), cubic (c) and tetragonal (t). Pure Zirconia at room temperature is
monoclinic and stable till 1170C, above this temperature it transforms itself into
tetragonal and then further into cubic phase at 2370C. The development of zirconia as an
engineering material was demonstrated by Garvie et al, who showed how to make the best
of t-m phase transformation of Partially Stabilized Zirconia (PSZ) [1], improving
mechanical strength and toughness of zirconia ceramics. Zirconia holds a unique place
amongst oxide ceramics due to its excellent mechanical properties. The pure zirconia
cannot be used in the manufacture of parts without the addition of stabilizers [2]. Addition
of several oxides such as magnesium oxide (MgO), yttrium oxide (Y2O3), calcium oxide
(CaO), and cerium oxide (Ce2O3) can stabilize the high temperature cubic and tetragonal
phase in zirconia, so the occurrence of monoclinic phase zirconia can be repressed [1-5].
Wollastonite (Calcium silicate; CaSiO3) have been studied as bioactive materials for
orthopaedic applications and used to improve the mechanical properties of the
biopolymers because of its good bioactivity and biocompatibility and is used mainly in
resins and plastics as filler material, as well as in other industrial products, such as
ceramics, coating, frictional products, refractory, construction, elastomeric, metallurgy,
paint, and bio-material, because host of favorable properties such as low shrinkage, low
loss of ignition, good strength, high aspect ratio, lack of volatile constituents, body
permeability, fluxing characteristics, whiteness, coupled with its low thermal coefficient
of expansion and acicular shape renders wollastonite, which provides strength and
improved performance [3-9]. The purpose of this study is structure and mechanical
property of (ZrO2+3%MgO)CaSiO3 composites by whisker content (1, 5, 10 and 25 vol.
%) at different temperatures, 1000, 1100, 1200, 1300, 1400, 1500, and 1650C. The main
objectives of this research is investigate mechanical properties of (ZrO2-3%MgO)-CaSiO3
composites; Density, Stress, Compressive Strength, Flexural Strength, Modulus of
Elasticity and Hardness.
Experimental Procedure

Many functional ceramics are based on zirconium oxide (ZrO2), in this work the raw
materials which were used for preparing the specimens Nano powder of zirconium
dioxide, magnesia, and wollastonite (ZrO2+3%MgO) - CaSiO3. The obtained mixtures
were washed several times in distilled water and ethanol. The mixtures were dried at
100C. The powder compacts were prepared by pressing at 300 MPa. In order to avoid
defects in the specimens, the powders were granulated before pressing. The specimens
were sintered at different temperatures 1000 to 1650C in the air atmosphere. The

272

diameter and mass of specimens were measured. The green density and the theoretical
density were calculated. It was shown that the more wollastonite the mixture contains the
less density it has. After sintering the shrinkage values of specimens, densities were
measured. For all tested materials, the average grain size of the zirconia (ZrO2) and
wallastonite (CaSiO3) grains was determined from SEM images of randomly selected
areas of the polished and thermally etched specimens using the linear intercept method.
For the exact measurement of this quantity, it is necessary to determine the size of the
fracture surface. It is well known that the property of ceramics depends on the material
combination, their mechanical properties (combination of hardness and toughness) and
microstructure (grain size, porosity, phase content and distribution), experimental
parameters. X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments were carried out using a -1 Xray diffractometer which was equipped with a Ni-filtered CuK radiation with a
wavelength of = 0.154178 , a radiation source operated at a voltage of 40 kV and a
current of 20 mA. The specimens were scanned diffraction angle 2, ranging from 15 to
120. The step sizes and times for each step were 0.05 and 1s per step, respectively.
Results and discussion
Density

In this case the density of the specimen was measured by the Archimedes method.
The green body density of the specimens (ZrO2+MgO)-CaSiO3 composites ceramics were
measured to be in the range of 1.35-2.41 g/cm3 after pressed using loads of 300 MPa, the
specimens were sintered at seven different temperatures 1000 to 1650C in the air
atmosphere were calculated to be in the range of 1.56-4.91 g/cm3. Specimens with 1 vol.
% CaSiO3 at 1650C had maximum density of 4.91g/cm3. It should be noticed that the
specimens with 1 vol. % CaSiO3 had the highest values of density between 2.14 - 4.53
g/cm3 after sintering at 1000 to 1650C accordingly.
Stress

The dependences strength,


sintering temperature, the specimens
with 1% of wollastonite which have
been sintered at 1650C and with 5%
of wollastonite which have been
sintered at 1300C have the highest
value of strength approximately 270
MPa are also given in Figure 1.
Figure 1. Stress of (ZrO2+3%MgO)-CaSiO3
composites at different temperatures 1000 to 1650C

Compressive strength

The compressive strength measurements were performed with Instron testing


Machine 1185 with a loading rate of 0.20mm/min and loading of 1000 kg. Constitutes an
excellent study on the 99% (ZrO2+3%MgO)-1%CaSiO3 at temperature 1650C has
highest value of compressive strength 13615 MPa.

273

IV -

Flexural strength

The flexural strength measurements were done on an Instron Testing Machine 1185
with a loading rate of 0.10mm/min and loading of 200 kg. The specimens 4 piece were
cut, ground and polished into rectangular bars with a dimension approximately 6mm wide
x 6mm high x 50mm long for three-point bend strength test measurements. The specimen
of 99% (ZrO2 +3%MgO)-1%CaSiO3; 1650C had maximum of flexural strength
5511MPa and specimen of 95% (ZrO2+3%MgO)-5%CaSiO3; 1300C had maximum of
flexural strength 536 MPa
Youngs Modulus

Youngs modulus is a property that is directly related to the bonding forces between
atoms. We also showed that it varies as a function of temperature. Youngs modulus (E) is
a measure of the resistance to small changes in the separation of adjacent atoms (modulus
is Latin for a small measure). It is the same for both tension and compression. Youngs
modulus is related to the interatomic bonding forces and, as you might expect, its
magnitude depends on the slope of the forcedistance curve at r0. Youngs Modulus of
composites materials, the specimen of 99% (ZrO2+3%MgO)-1%CaSiO3; 1650C had
maximum of Youngs Modulus 60044 MPa and specimen of 95% (ZrO2+3%MgO) 5%CaSiO3; 1300C had maximum of Youngs Modulus 56067MPa. In real composites
ceramics we have to consider the fact that we often have more than one phase present.
Hardness Vickers

The methodology used for the determination of hardness was in accordance with
ASTM C 1327-99. Thirty Vickers impressions had been carried through in the surfaces of
each one of the samples, which already were polished, using an applied load of 10 kg
(98.1 N) during ten seconds. The experimental results of hardness Vickers of (ZrO2
+3%MgO) - CaSiO3 composite material are between 290 to 670 MPa.
Conclusions

In this case the specimens were sintered at seven different temperatures 1000 to
1650C in the furnace. The experimental results of mechanical properties of
(ZrO2+3%MgO)-CaSiO3 composites material with typical the Three point bending of
5510 MPa, stress intensity factors exceeding of 273 MPa, compressive strength of
13615 and Youngs Modulus, () of 60044 MPa, it were considered that the actual
composition of 99%(ZrO2+3%MgO)-1%CaSiO3 and 95% (ZrO2+3%MgO)-5%CaSiO3 at
the temperatures 1650 and 1300C by sequent. The structures of grain size have an
average 1-2 m. Phase corresponding to each exothermic peak of ceramics composites.
Reference:

1. GARVIE R.C, HANNINK R.H, PASCOL RT. Ceramic steel. Nature1975; 258:
703-4.
2. Hannink, R.H.J. Transformation toughening in Zirconia-Containing Ceramics, J.
Am. Ceram. Soc, v. 83, n.3, p461- 487, 2000.
3. ARIKO K. Evaluation of the marginal fitness of tetragonal zirconia polycrystal
all-ceramic restorations. Kokubyo Gakkai Zasshi 2003; 70: 114 23
4. K.C. Rieger, Amer. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 74[6] (1995)160-161. Sintered apatite
wollastonite glass-ceramics, Ceram, Int. 2000; 26:779785.

274

5. A. R. Boccaccini, M. Petitmermet, and E. Wintermantel, Am.Ceram. Soc.


Bull.1997; 11: 7578.
6. N. H. Snyder and J.H. Koenig, Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull.1952; 31: 246247.
7. C. K. Chang, D. L. Mao, and J. S. Wu, Ceram. Int.2000; 26: 779785.
8. Y. Goto, H. Ishida, and T. Fujisawa, Fain-Seramikkusu, 1989; 10: 2734.
9. Industrial Minerals, 1999, Industrial Minerals, no. 379, April, p. 19.

SEISMIC ANALYSIS CONSIDERATIONS FOR UPLIFTED


STORAGE TANKS
Kangarloo K., Bashgah P. J.
Scientific adviser: Tryshin C.I.
State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), Moscow
Abstract
The objectives of this paper are to highlight the principal effects of base uplifting on
the seismic response of ground supported cylindrical steel tanks that are unanchored at
their Base. In practice, however, complete anchorage is not economical or may not be
warranted for certain class of tanks; as a result, many existing tanks are unanchored and
may uplift during ground shaking. Base uplifting completely changes the dynamic
characteristics such as the stiffness and energy dissipation capacity of the system. The
dynamic response of the system also becomes highly non-linear. Studies of the
performance of uplifting tanks during past earthquakes have revealed that such systems
are prone to extensive damage due to: (i) buckling of the tank wall, caused by large
compressive stresses; (ii) rupture at the plate-shell junction, caused by excessive plastic
yielding; and (iii) failure of the piping connections to the wall that are incapable of
absorbing large base uplifts.
Keywords: Uplift, overturning, sloshing, cylindrical vertical steel tanks, seismic
loading, simulation, elephant-foot, natural period, hydrodynamic pressure.
1-Introduction
Steel ground-based tanks consist essentially of a steel shell that resists the outward
liquid pressure, a thin flat bottom plate that prevents the liquid .from leaking out, and a
thin roof plate that protects the content from the atmosphere. Circular vertical tanks are
more numerous than any other type because they are efficient in resisting the liquid
hydrostatic pressure by membrane stresses, simple in design, and easy in construction. It is
common to classify such tanks in two categories depending on the support condition:
anchored and unanchored tanks. It is common, particularly for large size tanks, to support
the shell on a ring wall foundation without anchor bolts and to support the bottom plate on
a compacted soil though, sometimes, ring walls are omitted.
For anchored tanks, the tank wall is effectively fixed to a foundation which is
sufficiently heavy to prevent uplift in the event of an earthquake. This means that the
anchor bolts must be able to transmit the earthquake induced vertical tension in the tank
wall to the foundation. In practice, anchoring a tank requires a large number of anchor
bolts and suitable attachments welded onto the tank wall, so that the tension forces in the
anchor bolts can be distributed evenly in the tank wall. Poorly designed attachments, or an

275

IV -

attempt to carry too high a bolt force on a single attachment could result in tearing of the
tank wall. Also, a fairly massive foundation may be required, especially for a larger tank.
Thus, anchoring a tank is expensive, and, as a result, many tanks are unanchored, even in
seismic areas. This is especially true for large capacity, broad tanks [1].
Evidence of uplift can be found in the 1964 Alaska earthquake, during which snow
found its way underneath the base plate of some tanks [Hanson (1973)] and during the
1971 San Fernando earthquake, when an anchor bolt of a 30 ft tall and 100 ft diameter
tank was pulled up by 14 in (Figure 1) [2].

a
b
c
Figure 1. base uplifting, (a) 1964 Alaska earthquake,(b,c) 1971 San Fernando earthquake

2- Axisymmetrically uplift problem


When an unanchored tank is subjected to strong ground shaking, overturning
moment caused by the hydrodynamic pressure tends to lift shell off its foundation. Unless
the tank wall uplifts, the overturning moment can only be balanced by the stabilizing
effect of the weight of the tank. For typical steel tanks the weight of the tank is much less
than the weight of the contained liquid. Therefore, the weight of the tank is insufficient to
balance the overturning moment due to hydrodynamic pressures acting on the tank wall,
and the tank wall uplifts locally, as shown in Fig. 2. As a result, a crescent-shape strip of
the base plate is also lifted from the foundation. The weight of the fluid resting on the
uplifted portion of the base plate provides the resisting moment against further uplift.
Since the radial displacements of the shell are relatively small, the linear theory for
an axisymmetrically loaded cylindrical shell (Timoshenko and Woinowsky-Krieger, 1959
[3]) is applicable. The axisymmetric uplift problem considered is shown in Fig. 2. Point E
will be referred to as the edge, and point C, as the contact point. The displacements are
taken to be u and w in the r and z coordinate directions, respectively.
It is assumed that a) the foundation is rigid and frictionless; b) the tank is weightless
and stress free when it is empty; c) both the base plate and the shell remain elastic, but a
plastic hinge can form at the edge, E.
Shell at the edge is found to be given by:

R pR v sp
2
[M H ]
u=
+
Es t s
2 Ds

s =

2
2 Ds

[2M H ]

(1)
(2)

In which
u = radially outward component of displacement of the edge;
s = rotation of the shell-wall at edge, taken to be positive in the anti-clockwise
direction, as shown in Fig. 2;
H = radially inward force acting on the shell;

276

M = moment acting on the shell at the edge, defined to be positive when it acts in
the same sense as the rotation s;
Ds=Ests3/[12(1-s2)] , the flexural stiffness of shell;
Es, s = Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio for the shell, respectively;
=[tsR]3/2/[3(1- s2)]3/4 , the characteristic length, which determines the rate of
decay of bending moments in the shell;
ts = thickness of base plate;
p = Fluid pressure at the edge (point E in Fig. 2).

Figure 2. Definition of axisymmetric uplift problem

An estimate of the magnitude of the shell uplift may be obtained by using a


modified version of a formula derived by Cambra (Eqn. 3).

u max

2
p L
1 f yts
=
+ 0 s
c 6 f rs t s
f rs t s

Where

f rs =

3
Ls Et s
2 12 f t
rs s

(3)

2
1 2 Et s p 02 R 2 (1 )

t s
3

E
E=
1 v s2

P0 = Hydrostatic pressure on the base


3-Uplifting Tanks
If overturning moment (MOT) exceeds MR calculated by Eqn. 4, and the tank is
unanchored, uplift will occur. The primary effect of uplift is to increase the compressive
axial stress in the shell. In addition, distortion of the shell and tension forces in the tank
base may need to be considered.
The mechanism of tank uplift is complex and not completely understood. To
describe it fully, the effects of; large displacements of the uplifting base, yielding of the
base-shell joint, membrane forces in the base, imperfections of the shell geometry, and

277

IV -

foundation flexibility need to be included. In Fig. 3, the overturning moment, MOT is
resisted by the action of three forces; Ws, Wf, and W forming MR [4]:
M R = WS KR + W f (R r )
(4)
Where
W = total weight of the fluid
Wf = weight of the fluid supported directly by the foundation over the area that does
not uplift (radius r)
WW = weight of shell and roof
Ws = W + WW - Wf = compression reaction at shell base
R = is the radius of the tank, and
= is the half angle which defines the arc of the shell base in contact with the
foundation
KR = distance from centre of compression reaction to tank centerline.

Figure 3. Restoring forces on an uplifting circular tank

M R the resisting moment is calculated in an iterative fashion by:

calculating


1
; k = 2 (1 cos )

= arctan

(6)

4-Axial membrane stress in shell


Rigid-plastic beam model used by Wozniak and Mitchell (1978) [5] to calculate the
hold-dlaown force due to the weight of fluid resting on the uplifted portion of the base
plate. Note: Since the moment at the plastic hinge location, H, is a maximum, the shear
must vanish there. Therefore, the unknown distance HE and the force N can be determined
by balancing the vertical forces and moments for the free body HE. The hold down force
is equal to the weight of fluid resting over the portion HE of the base plate.

N 0 = t ( f y P )2
1

(8)

N 0 = hold down force per unit length along the circumference of the shell, which is
also the vertical membrane tension developed in the shell at the base. Where t = thickness
of the base plate, f y = yield stress of the base plate, P = hydrostatic pressure acting on the

base plate. For a rigid-plastic beam, the force N 0 is independent of the amount of uplift.

278

The resulting assumed distribution of vertical forces in the tank wall contains two
unknown parameters: The maximum vertical force in the tank wall, denoted by N max in
Fig. 4, and the angle spanned by the contact region, 2 . These two unknowns can be
determined by balancing the vertical forces and moments acting on the shell.
The maximum axial stress in the shell is computed as [6]:

N max = 2.5

cWs
Rt

(9)

Where c, is a foundation stiffness factor (c=1.0 for a rigid foundation, c= 0.5 for a
flexible foundation)

Figure 4. Rigid-plastic beam model used by Wozniak and Mitchell (1978) to calculate the holddown force due to the weight of fluid resting on the uplifted portion of the base plate

5-Comparison between seismic standards


The overturning moment caused by the hydrodynamic pressure tends to lift the shell
off its foundation, thus developing highly-concentrated compressive stresses which may
cause buckling of the shell. A literature review of available design standards shows that
the API 650 standard for oil tanks (or alternatively, the AWWA standard for water tanks)
has been the most commonly used standards for seismic design of tanks. In recent years,
the New Zealand recommendations for seismic design of storage tanks have gained wide
acceptance internationally. A comparison between the analysis procedures for unanchored
tanks in these standards and guidelines is presented, and a, critical evaluation of their
accuracy is made. It should be noted that the performance of tanks during past earthquakes
has revealed a much more complex behavior than is implied by current design procedures
and continually demonstrates the need for more reliable analyses to assess their seismic
safety. Note that the uplifting problem is nonlinear in nature because of the successive
separation and contact of the bottom plate with its foundation [7].

279

IV -

Figure 5. Comparison between seismic standards; (1) seismic overturning moment, (2) shell
compression stress, (3) allowable buckling stress

Reference:

1. Haroun, M.A., "Behavior of unanchored oil storage tanks : Imperial Valley


Earthquake", Journal of Technical Topics in Civil Engineering, Vol 109, No 1, April
1983, ASCE.
2. Choon-Foo and Shih, "Failure of liquid storage tanks due to earthquake
excitation", EERL 81/04.
3. Timoshenko, S.P. arid Woinowsku-Krieger, S., "Theory of plates and shells",
McGraw-Hill, 1959.
4. Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance. Part 4: Silos, tanks,
and pipelines, 2003.
5. Wozniak and Mitchell, "Basis of seismic design provisions for welded steel oil
storage tanks", API Refining 43rd Mid-Year Meeting, May 9 1998.
6. Cambra, F.J., "Earthquake response considerations of broad liquid storage tanks",
EERC 82/25.
7. Clough, D.P., "Experimental evaluation of seismic design methods for broad
cylinder tanks", EERC 77/10.

280

INVESTIGATING THE POTENTIAL FOR ENERGY PRODUCTION


FROM DIFFERENT SHORT ROTATION COPPICES BY FIXEDBED PYROLYSIS REACTOR
Maitree Polsongkram
Scientific advisor: Kuznetsov G.V.
National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk
Abstract: The slow pyrolysis process is essentially the thermochemical
decomposition of biomass at elevated temperatures in the absence of oxygen. Naturally,
pyrolysis products are char, liquid and gases all of them can be utilized for its energy
value in much the same way as petroleum based products. This paper deals with the slow
pyrolysis of three woody biomasses with the aim of investigating effect of temperature on
the composition of char and gases. The yield of char and gases in relation to temperature
for difference samples is presented and compared. The experimental results showed that
the temperature plays an important role for pyrolysis process. The percentage volatile
matter in char decreased with an increase in temperature, while there was an increase in
the percentage fixed carbon. The yield of gases was analyzed in a gas chromatograph and
the higher heating value (HHVg) of the pyrolyzed gas product was calculated. The
amounts of carbon monoxide were high in all feedstock (max. 54.7 % v/v at 300C).
Methane was high in the pyrolyzed gas product from Acacia mangium Willd (max. 23.4
% v/v at 600C), whereas has also produced the lowest of CO2 amounts compared other
species. The HHVg of pyrolyzed gas product from all woody biomass samples ranged
between 7.16 15.33 MJ/Nm3. The highest of HHVg was obtained by Acacia mangium
Willd pyrolysis, while Jatropha curcas Linn has the lowest of HHVg. However, all woody
biomass samples could be recommended as a promising feedstock for bio energy
production, Eucalyptus camaldulensis suitable for energy and possibly activated carbon
production. Acacia mangium Willd could be recommended as a feedstock for gas fuel
production, while Jatropha curcas Linn can be used properly for bio-oil production.
Keywords: bio-oil, woody biomass, thermochemical decomposition.
1. Introduction

Over the last three decades, it has been recognized worldwide that global warming is
result from exploitation of a large amount of fossil fuel. This result causes the
environmental problem and has adverse effects on the ecological system and human being.
In the recent times, very many of researchers are motivated to research the alternative
energy source for mitigation the utilization of fossil fuels and air pollution. Biomass is one
of the main energy sources that have attracted increasing interest as renewable energy
resource because its intensive use can reduce the dependency on the limited fossil fuels.
Energy derived from biomass source is considered safe, clean and environmental friendly,
since it contributes to net carbon dioxide emissions. In Thailand, from past up to now,
Biomass is an important energy supply source. It has been used in a wide rang from
cooking stove in household to steam boiler in industry. Different biomass thermochemical conversion process produces heat, electricity and bio fuel. Among all biomass
conversion processes, pyrolysis is considered a very promising fuel because it can be
easily transported, burnt directly in thermo power station, injected into conventional
petroleum refineries, burnt in the gas turbines or upgraded to obtain a light hydrocarbon

281

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fuel [1]. Currently, Thailand much effort has been focused on to encourage in the
implementation of biomass in the energy production not only to reduce the dependency on
imported petroleum also wish to lower the greenhouse gases emission.
Pyrolysis is the thermo-chemical conversion routes to recover energy from biomass,
which has the potential to generate char, gas and oil products [2]. It is the thermochemical
decomposition of complex organic matter to simple molecules. It is the first stage in any
thermal treatment of biomass in which the absence of Oxygen with a temperature ranging
between 200 to 700C [3]. The pyrolysis process includes a very complex set of primary
and secondary reactions involving the formation of free radicals [4]. Pyrolysis can be
classified into three types namely flash, fast and slow depending on the temperature,
heating rate and residence time. The main component of any organic matter is cellulose.
Cellulose is again the important constituent that contributes to maximum tar and volatile
compounds. The pyrolysis behavior of any biomass is the sum of decomposition
characteristics of cellulose, hemi-cellulose, lignin and their interactions. Cellulose is
decomposed between temperature 325C and 400C, hemi cellulose is decomposed
between 250C and 350C and lignin start at 200C continues till 700C [5]. Main
products of pyrolysis process are char (activated carbon), liquid (tar or pyroligneous acid)
and gas. The char can be used as feedstock for gasifier, directly combustion applications,
metallurgical reducing agent and used as activated carbon. Activated carbons are versatile
adsorbents with wide range of applications. One of the largest uses of activated carbons is
for water treatment. The carbons are added to remove compounds that effect taste odour of
the water. Increasing in use of activated carbons is found also in industrial waste water
and gas treatment due to the necessity of environmentally friendly processes and also for
material recovery purposes [6]. In addition, char can be applied as soil amendment for the
cultivation of cereal and fruit trees. The application of char in agriculture is expected to
lead to the formation of the carbon sink in soil and increase crop yield because it has been
suggested that char is highly resistant to abiotic and biotic degradation, even in soil
environment [7].
The pyrolyzed liquid appeared brownish dark with a strong acid smell. It can be
used not only as a fuel for direct combustion by upgrading or added to petroleum products
but also for several agricultural activities such as improves soil quality, eliminates pests
and controls plant growth [8]. These liquid products contain an aqueous (pyroligneous
acid or wood vinegar) and an oil phase (tar or pyrolytic oil). The pyrolyzed gas can be
directly used for combustion. The amount and nature of end products of pyrolysis process
depend on the main parameters that affect to the pyrolysis behavior such as pyrolysis
temperature, heating rate, solid residence time, volatile residence time, particle size and
the composition of the biomass feedstock [9, 10].
Although, Thailand has a high potential and widely plant the short rotation coppices
(SCR) to utilize for energy production, but information about evaluation the thermochemical energy, fuel and material potential of SCR biomass are rarely available in
Thailand. The aim of the present work is to carry out research in order to study its
behavior through pyrolysis. In order to maximize the production of the derived products
(solid and gas), as well as useful components in the gaseous fraction, the optimum reactor
conditions were investigated. Under the above mentions, the present study proposes
investigating of three types of woody biomass; Acacia mangium Willd, Jatropha curcas
Linn and Eucalyptus camaldulensis. These biomasses are chosen as the renewable energy
sources and pyrolyzed under different conditions in a fixed - bed reactor.

282

2. Methodology
2.1 Biomass samples

The materials selected for this study were three woody biomasses (ligno-cellulosic
materials). These were collected from Nongkhai province in the northeastern of Thailand.
The woody biomass samples are cut into small pieces in order to minimize heat and mass
transport resistances in the boundary layer and within the particles [11] then sun-dry to
reduce the moisture content. Their size is 1-5 mm and less than 0.5 mm in thickness. Prior
to the experiments, the samples are oven-dried for 3 hours at 110C. Proximate analysis is
carried out to determine a minerals thermal stability and it fraction of volatile components
by monitoring the weight change at different desired temperatures. All experiments
compose of three main different steps: drying, devolitilization in inert atmosphere and
combustion in oxygen. The proximate and elemental analysis of woody biomass samples
is determined according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) test
methods [12-14]. Elemental analysis of elements CHN and S were carried out on biomass
samples with a LECO CHNS-932 and experimental results present in Table 1.
Table 1. Main characteristic of woody biomass samples (wt % on dry basis)
Characteristics
Acacia mangium
Jatropha Curcas
Eucalyptus
Willd
Linn
camaldulensis
Proximate analysis (%)
Moisture content
Volatile Matter
Fixed carbon
Ash
Elemental analysis (%)

10.86
79.60
16.63
3.77

11.48
84.39
12.37
3.23

13.00
78.53
19.10
2.37

Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Sulfur
Empirical formula
H/C molar ratio
O/C molar ratio

47.60
3.94
47.85
0.59
0.02
CH0.99O0.75
0.99
0.75

46.80
6.53
41.57
4.88
0.22
CH1.67O0.67
1.67
0.67

48.10
5.27
46.24
0.34
0.05
CH1.31O0.72
1.31
0.72

2.2 Experimental set up

A schematic diagram of the experimental apparatus for the fixed-bed pyrolysis unit
is shown in Figure.1. This reactor is designed for atmospheric pyrolysis. The apparatus
consists of a reactor, condenser and liquid collector, and helium source. The reactor of 40
mm in diameter and 145 mm in length is constructed by using stainless steel with the
heating circuit, which consists of various temperature controllers and time switches. It is
heated externally by electric heater. The helium gas is supplied in order to replace the air
in the reactor for keeping the inert atmosphere inside the reactor. The maximum loading
capacity of reactor vessel is 20 g of woody biomass sample. The condenser is fabricated in
form of helical coiled tube; water at 10C is used as coolant. The experiments are
performed at different pyrolysis temperatures (final - operating temperatures) ranging
from 250 - 600C at a constant heating rate of 50C/min. The temperature within the
reactor is measured by employing the K-type thermocouple. The retention time is fixed for

283

IV -

3 hours in order to allow the sample to go to through a complete pyrolysis process and
then cool the reactor down to ambient temperature.
A fresh feed of 20g is
introduced in the sample boat and
then placed in the reactor. At the
beginning of the experiment, the
system is driven off air by
allowing helium gas to flow
through the system for 5 minutes
with the flow rate of 2 liters/min
and then helium gas supply is
stopped. The feed is then heated
up to desired temperature and hold
on for 3 hours in each
Figure 1. The schematic diagram of the experimental
experimental run.
apparatus
The desired temperature of the reactor is controlled by the temperature controller
system.
During heating, the system is maintained at slightly above the atmospheric pressure.
Experimental conditions are taken for different pyrolysis temperature and raw materials
selected. The produced gas is collected in the water container. The volume of water is
displaced to determine the gas volume. The liquid product is collected at the liquid
collector point. The yields of the different obtained products are determined by weighing;
the solid residue (char) and liquid collected and gas evolution by difference. Yields are
expressed as a percent by weight of the raw materials as a function of the pyrolysis
temperature. In order to test the reproducibility of the experiments, each temperature is
tripled. The pyrolysis can be simply described as the Eq.(1)[15].
(C6 H12 O6 ) m (H 2 +CO+CO 2 +CH 4 +...+C5 H12 ) +(H 2O+...+CH 3OH+CH 3COOH+...)+C
Biomass

Heat

Gas

Liquid

Char

(1)

Pyrolyzed non-condensable gas products were carried with a gas bag and analyzed
on a gas chromatograph (SIMMADU-GC-14B). The carrier gas was helium gas and the
produced gas composed mostly by CO, CH4, CO2, and H2. The volume concentrations
were calculated by an external standard method, based on a linear relationship between the
concentration and area of the standard mixture measured by program and presented on the
results and discussion. Prior to identify gas species, the gas chromatograph was set upon
in a condition as follows;
Column type:
Column temperature:
Injector temperature:
Detector temperature:
Carrier gas:
Carrier Gas Flow Rate:
Calculate by:
Method:
Curve Fit type:

Active carbon
60C
80C
100C:100C
Helium Gas
50 l/min
Area
External Standard
Linear

284

3. Results and Discussions

The characteristics of the woody biomass samples are given in Table 1. The results
showed that woody biomasses are environment friendly energy sources containing trace
amount of N, S and mineral matters. If only the main elements (C, H, O) are considered,
the molecular formula of the examined woody biomass samples based on one C atom can
be written as CHxOy as listed in the Table 1. From the results, all of woody biomass
samples are promising for energy production owing to their chemical composition and it is
obvious that the fixed carbon of eucalyptus camaldulensis has the highest value when
compared to the other woody biomass samples studied then it more suitable char
production that can be used as raw material for activated carbon.
3.1. Effect of temperature on char composition

The separation process of volatile matter from the solid residue (char) by using
pyrolysis route was shown in Figure 2. It is usually affected by the type of raw material
and process parameters, wherein the temperature plays an important role. That is the
content of volatile matter in woody biomass samples were relatively insensitive to reactor
conditions and indicated that the fixed carbon roughly had the volatile matter content left
after pyrolysis of feedstock. The result points out char formation processes simultaneously
with an intensive development of the volatile products. The percentage volatile matter in
char decreased with an increase in temperature, while there was an increase in the
percentage fixed carbon. In the initial wood sample, the volatile matter content was 79.60,
78.53 and 84.39% for Acacia, Eucalyptus, and Jatropha respectively. At 250C, the initial
wood sample gives off 2938% volatile matter while at 400C , 60.5-63% and at 500C
more than 67% of the initial content for all species. It showed that major evolution was
between 250-400C while 450C onwards it becomes slightly gradual.
Effect of Temperature on Fixed carbon

Effect of Temperature on Volatile Matter

100

90

90

80

80

70

70

Volatile Matter, %

Fixed carbon, %

100

60
50
40
30

60
50
40
30
20

20

Acacia mangium Willd


Eucalytus camaldulensis
Jatropha curcas Linn

10

0
200

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

Acacia mangium Willd


Eucalyptus camaldulensis
Jtropha curcas Linn

10

650

200

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

Temperature,oC

Temperature, C

Figure 2. Effect of Temperature on composition of char from different biomass

The fixed carbon content increases with temperature from 23.59-65.22% for Acacia,
28.09-76.40% for Eucalyptus and 20.1144.18% for Jatropha in the studied temperatures
range of 250600C. The volatile matter produced from Jatropha pyrolysis was significant
higher than that of others pyrolysis, owing to its main component has more amount of
hemi-cellulose fraction than the others species. On the contrary, eucalyptus has the highest
fixed carbon composition in char because its main component comprises of more lignin
fraction than others species. At a temperature of 600C the char yield and fixed carbon
content are satisfactory. At temperatures the char quality is better concerning the carbon

285

650

IV -

amount, which makes eucalyptus more suitable for char production and the composition of
the char shows that it can be used as raw material for activated carbon production, due to
the high fixed carbon content and the low portion of ash.
The results of the present work suggest that this fixed-bed reactor can produce char
suitable for activation. The surface areas may be improved with different methods of the
activation. It was given that the pyrolysis process generates large quantities of CO2 and
heat, it is probable that either CO2 method or steam activation could be used in an
industrial scale integrated process.
3.2. Effect of temperature on pyrolyzed non-condensable gases

Biomass material consists basically of three types of polymers: cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Under inert or oxidative pyrolysis, biomass materials firstly are
decomposed thermally. Cellulose mainly produces CO, CO2 and H2 etc. Hemi-cellulose
mainly produces CO2, H2O and some hydrocarbons, while lignin mainly produces CO,
CO2 and CH4 etc.[16].
Effect of temperature on gas composition from
Jatropha curcas Linn

80

CO
70

CO 2
Air (N 2+O 2)

60

CH4

50
40
30
20
10
0
-10
250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

650

Temperature (oC)

Effect of temperature on gas composition from


Eucalyptus camaldulensis

80

CO
70

CO 2
Air (N 2+O 2)

60

CH4

50
40
30
20

10
0
-10

ii

250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

650

(V

Temperature (oC)

Figure 3. Effect of Temperature on Gas composition for different biomass

In the present work, the experimental results are presented and elucidated as
follows; Figure 3 shows the concentrations of CO, CO2 CH4 and Air (N2+O2) from Acacia
mangium Willd, Eucalyptus camaldulensis and Jatropha curcas Linn gas product,
respectively. It is obvious that the increase of the temperature favours the methane
production, whereas the carbon dioxide decreases. The highest CH4 amounts were given
by the gaseous product from Acacia mangium Willd pyrolysis, where 600C proved to be
the best temperature for methane production (23.47% v/v on the gas produced). The

286

Higher heating value, MJ/Nm3

highest amounts of CO2 were given by the gaseous product from Jatropha curcas Linn
pyrolysis at the temperature 400C (32.92% v/v on the gas produced). The carbon
monoxide yields were generally at high level in all woody biomass samples. The
maximum carbon monoxide amounts was given by Eucalyptus camaldulensis (54.75% v/v
on the gas produced) at 300C. The Air (N2+O2) slightly decreased with the increasing
temperature. In such experiments, however, the H2 production was not detected. It is
owing to the fraction of H2 in pyrolyzed gas very small amount or it may reacts with C gas
in the reactor and produces more methane. It is obviously that the fraction of methane is
much higher than that reported by other researchers [17 - 22].
The higher heating value (HHVg, MJ/Nm3) of the dry pyrolyzed gas product can be
calculated from Eq (2).
HHVg = X i H i
(2)
Where;
Xi is volume proportional of specie i and Hi is higher heating value of specie i of
pyrolyzed gas (CO H2 CH4)
Where as CO=13.1 MJ/Nm3 H2=13.1 MJ/Nm3 and CH4=41.2 MJ/Nm3 [23].
Effect of Temperature on Higher heating value of pyrolyzed gas
From Equation (2) it is obviously
16
that
methanes coefficient has the
15
maximum effect in the HHVg. Figure 4
14
shows the higher heating value of
13
pyrolyzed gas of different biomasses.
12
The higher heating value increases
11
rapidly with the temperature. However
10
Acacia mangium Willd produce higher
9
yields of gas rich in pyrolyzed gas
8
Acacia mangium Willd
(CO+CH4) and gave a gas product with
Eucalyptus camaldulensis
7
Jatropha curcas Linn
higher
energy content (~15.33 MJ/Nm3).
6
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
The HHVg of all biomass samples
Temperature, C
pyrolyzed gas was between 7.1615.33
Figure 4. Comparison of higher heating value of
MJ/Nm3, with the maximum value at
pyrolyzed gas product
600C.
A gas product with energy content between 11.9415.33 MJ/Nm3 belongs to a
medium level gas fuel, which can be used directly in internal combustion engines, gas
turbines and steam boilers for power production [24].
o

4. Conclusion

The paper describes pyrolysis as alternative thermal treatment for woody biomass
issued from plantation forestry. Pyrolysis purposed to both high added value materials
(activated carbon) productionand renewable energy in a sustainable and more
environmental friendly method. In the present study the three woody biomasses were
performed at different pyrolysis temperatures ranging from 250-600C. It was concluded
that the percentage volatile matter in char decreases with the increase in temperature,
while there is an increase in the percentage fixed carbon. The increase is rather large as the
final temperature increases from 250-400C, but from 450600C the increasing is
gradual. This behavior is observed for all the wood species.
The pyrolyzed gas can in turn be further purified to syngas, which mainly composed
of carbon monoxide, methane, and used directly to fire processes such as kilns, as fuel in

287

IV -

steam boilers, and increasingly as a gaseous fuel in internal combustion engines and gas
turbines. It is noticeable that the temperature is crucial for the overall biomass pyrolysis
process.
5. Acknowledegements

The authors would like to thank RMUTI Thailand for providing the financial
support for the research study and Heat and Power Engineering Faculty laboratory of TPU
Russia for providing necessary facilities for experiment.
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12. ASTM Standards, E871. Standard Test Methods for Analysis of Wood Fuel.
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FUTURE OF SPACE SCIENCE IN BANGLADESH


Md. Sharifuzzaman
Scientific advisor: Ikkoh Funaki
Volgograd State Technical University, Volgograd
Outwardly Bangladesh is considered one of the poorest countries of the world with a
large population. Now and then it is experiencing natural calamities. Despite these some
organizations like Bangladesh Astronomical Society (BAS), Mathematical Olympiad
Committee are pondering and making way with effort to proliferate the interest of space
science among students and youth.
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has come forward to cooperate
Bangladesh in order to publicize space science. Recently a three day seminar has been
organized on joint initiative of JAXA and BAS. The Seminar took place from January 17
to January 19, 2011. It had two venues. Almost four thousand students of twenty schools
participated in the seminar.
Asia-Pacific Regional Space Agency Forum (APRSAF) is an organization devoted
to serve cooperation with space technologies and its applications among its 30 member
countries. It arranges Space Education Seminar in different countries to create space
awareness among the school students and teachers. During the 16th Session of APRSAF
held in Bangkok on 26-29 January, 2010, APRSAF Space Education and Awareness
Working Group (SEA WG) took a decision to organize its next Seminar in Bangladesh.
The Honorable state minster for Science and Information and Communication
Technology of Bangladesh Government, Yafes Osman inaugurated the seminar at the

289

IV -

auditorium of Bangabandhu Novo Theater on January 17, 2011. To start space education
without any delay, he assured that Bangladesh Government would take necessary steps in
this regard.
In the Seminar, Dr. A. R. Khan, President of Bangladesh Astronomical Society
(BAS) gave the welcome address and Mr. Munir Hasan, General Secretary of Bangladesh
Mathematical Olympiad Committee, made the opening remarks.
JAXA has developed great interest in fostering space education in developing
countries like Bangladesh and it is evident from the welcome message sent by the
President of JAXA for the seminar. From JAXA , Dr. Takashi Kubota, preeminent
scientist of Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) , Mr. Tetsou Hiraiwa,
Senior Researcher of Space Transportation Mission Directorate for Kakuda Space Center
(JAXA), Mr. Eijiro Hirohama, Director of Space Education Office (JAXA) took
participation and delivered lectures in the seminar. The other principle eminent lecturers
were Dr, A.R. Khan, Mr. F. R. Sarker ,General Secretary of Bangladesh Astronomical
Society (BAS), Mr. Munir Hasan, Dr. Farseem Mohammedy, Assistant Professor of
Electrical and Electronic Engineering (BUET), and Dr. Ali Asgar, Professor of Physics of
East West University.
Ms. Yolanda Berenguer, Space Education Program Coordinator of UNESCO also
attended the seminar also.
On January 18, 2011 in a Hands-on Session held on the floor of the Novo Theater
JAXA Officials demonstrated 125 Teachers how to build up Plastic Rockets. Rockers,
kits, instructions manuals were disseminated among the participating teachers to teach
their students.
The most spectacular event of APRSAF Space Education Seminar was held on 19
January in the High School play ground at Enayetpur, the Space Village. About 4,000
Students and Teachers from 20 schools had partaken in Hands-on Session. Ms. Yolanda
Berenguer, Dr. Takashi Kubota, Mr. Tetsuo Hiraiwa, Mr. Eijiro Hirohama, Dr. A.R. Khan
and Mr. F. R. Sarker delivered their lectures. Students were shown how to build up Plastic
Rockets and these were distributed among 3,000 students. Ms. Yayoi Miyagawa,
Associate Administrator and Ms. Emiko Ando, Associate Senior Administrator of Space
Education Centre (JAXA) helped demonstrations of the kits and posters.
A large number of students and teachers accumulated at Enayetpur and JAXA
officials were overwhelmed with joy. They really savored the function and appreciated the
enthusiasm of the youth. JAXA assured that it will provide all kind of cooperation and
assistance for Space Education activities.
This seminar besought the Government to establish Bangladesh Space Agency
immediately. The Agency will incorporate our youth, students, scientists in study and
research of Space science and engineering.
2011 is a milestone in the history of humankind. On April 12, 2011, 50 years of the
first human space mission was celebrated. The credit went to Russian Yury Gagarin who
traveled to space through Vostok.
Bangladesh Astronomical Society (BAS) again with the collaboration of the Cultural
section of the Russian federation embassy organized Gagarin science fair on April 10,
2011.
I have been a member of Bangladesh Astronomical Society (BAS).for a year. I am
making effort to maintain close relation with JAXA. I also expect to make relation with
some famous space organizations like NASA, ESA.

290

We, the youth of Bangladesh, all go out to work for our future Bangladesh Space
Agency and hope to get off a flying start for it.

EFFECTIVE CONCRETE FOR BIOLOGICAL SHIELDING OF


REACTOR VVER-1000
Memarianfard Mahsa Esfandiar
Scientific adviser:
Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, Moscow
In the mist of fully-variable problem at design and projection reactor plant the
important role of the construction and biological shielding reactor and manufacturing
equipment because of the following basic factors:
Firstly,the constructions, protective radiation heat material and biological shielding
of reactor and technological equipment ensure the safety of personnel, inhabitants and
surrounding environment in the all stage of life cycle reactor plant.
Secondly, constructions of biosecurity, performing the function of bearing structure
determine the durability of the construction of reactor plant, derived exploitation or in the
step of continuous conservation.
Thirdly, considerable volumes of reinforced concrete and metal constructions,
reaching from tens to hundreds and thousand tons, generating in the process of
disassembly reactors plant may be restore for the re-use.
Biological shielding of nuclear installation have large volume and high cost,
therefore, correctly, technically and economically choice of materials for this protection is
very important. In addition of properties protection, materials must be constructively
durable: have high radiation and thermal resistance , fire resistance, heat resistance,
chemically inert, dont exhale noxious (poisonous) and non-explosion-proof smell gas
under heating (warming) and irradiation, must be keep stable size (dimension), it is
necessary take account simplicity of assemblage the possible of technical processing, cost
and accessibility of materials. Protectively properties of material from the ionizing
radiation determine their moderating and absorbing power and degrees of activation[2].
Previously experimentation indicate possible of choice effective concrete for the
biological shielding.
This research, has analysed exploration for wide range of category of concrete, used
at the present time for biological shielding of nuclear power plant VVER-1000 for the
purpose of choice of the most effective amongst them. Besides that, considering promising
protective concrete: glasscrete, developed in the MGSU[5,3].
Selected concretes have following characteristics:
Density (volume weight) from 2,15 T/3 to 4,5 T/3
Coarse aggregate granite, burr, hematite, scrap steel, serpentinite, chamotte;
Fine aggregate arenaceous quartz, gesso, colemanite, serpentinite, chamotte;
Cementing material- Portland cement, alumina cement, trass cement;
Wide range of concentration hydrogen, calcium, iron, oxygen, cobalt and
europium;
Chemical and technological composition concretes has given in the scientific efforts.

291

IV -

Analyses and results in this search have performed with the help of engineering
programs. These programs developed in the faculty Construction nuclear plant in the
personal computer. For realization outputs have used following programs:
Program HIMIA
The program allow to analyse:
The technologically composition of 47 heavy and high heavy concrete by the
different aggregates, cementing materials and special admixtures.
Chemical compositions of concretes;
Nuclear density of chemical elements in the concretes.
Program ACTIV
The program allow to analyse, specific and total activity of protectively concretes,
induced, thermal and resonance neutron at the time of irradiation from 1 to 30 years
(period of service reactor plant) and persistence time after reactor shutdown from 0 to 25
years. Specific activity calculate for radionuclides Ca41, a45, Fe55, Co60, Eu152, Eu154.
These radionuclides determine the long-lived induced activity concretes and their
composition.
Concentration of dangerous and activational element assign in program HIMIA and
in [2-4].
Program RAKUR
The program allow to calculate:
Flux density of neutron (thermal, intermediate and fast) and gamma-quantom
(outer and capture radiation) for different thickness of protectional concrete reactor.
Total power dose of neutron and gamma radiation for different thicknesses of the
concrete shielding reactor.
Other radiation characteristics of protectional concretes. Basic data for analysis
are:
Technological composition of concrete;
Flux of fast neutron at the input terminal of protection.
Flux of energy gamma radiation;
Energy of gamma radiation.
On the basis of normative value
power dose over the shielding, the result of
analysis determine thickness of shielding
of concrete nuclear reactor.
Analytical geometry of the radiation
propagation has presented in Figure 1.
Analysis has done in the point of detection
on the radius on the opposite side of centre
reactor core (most dangerous direction)
with the program RAKURS.
Analysis of the thickness of
protective concrete and induced activity
carried out for reactor with following
parameters:
Flux of fast neutrons: 3.2.1010
Figure 1. Analytical geometry
(neutron/2.)
1.Biological shielding, 2.Dry protection,
Energy gamma-quantom: 6.0
3.Supporting truss, Reactor core
eV;

292


Flux of energy gamma radiation: 3.0.109 eV /2.
Below as an example of some given results of analysis.
In the table 1. are given parameters for the analysis concrete (numbering according
to scientific efforts), value of thickness protection on the basis of normative request
(radiation standards) and calculating volume of biological shielding.
Evidently, on the table analysis thickness of protection is varied in the wide rang
from 150 (cm) to 350(cm).
Table 1. Characteristics of biological shielding of reactor VVER-1000 with the by different
concretes
Coarse
Thickness of
Volume of
Concrete
Density of
aggregate
protection ()
biosecurity (3)
numbers
concrete (kg/3)
2
2240
Granite
342
1536
4
2340
Burr
336
1502
10
2441
Granite
310
1361
13
2400
Burr
328
1458
15
2404
Burr
326
1447
17
2700
limonite
289
1250
Scrap
153
596
22
4440
steel
36
2400
Burr
318
1404
41
2421
serpentinite
320
1415
42
2430
serpentinite
315
1388
49
2404
Marble
329
1464
breakage
glasscrete
2880
kinescope
224
923
glass

With the engineering program it has been analysed the total activation of concrete
for the different time of radiation and persistence, thickness of radioactive layer biological
shielding and volume radioactive waste depending on the time inducing after
discontinuation operation of reactor. Have used following classification for radioactive
waste :
7.410- 3.7103 Bq/g low-activity wastes (I)
3.7103 -3.7106 Bq/g medium-activity wastes (II)
>3.7106 Bq/g high-activity wastes (III)
In the Figure. 2 as an example is shown total activation according to thickness
shielding of reactor for concrete (10) for the time inducing 1 year and 25 years.
Its necessary to note that, these analyses allow to calculate the volume of activity
wastes according to their class. Using data can determine the thickness of activity layer of
concrete, relating to high-activity, medium-activity and low-activity waste, on the basis of
their appropriate classification.
Thereby, these analysis allow to choice concrete when the time of design biological
shielding of nuclear reactor with a glance stage of future time release of operation. For the
choice of optimal composition concrete for biological shielding it is necessary to take in to
consideration some of the factors:
volume of protection;
level of induced activity
cost of protection

293

IV -

volumes of radioactivity waste when the time release of operation nuclear
reactor.
accessibility of raw materials for mixing of concrete

Figure 2. Distribution total activation according to thickness of protection with the time of
persistence 1 year and 25 years

Nevertheless for the resolution of the question on the choice of composition concrete
for specific reactor it is necessary to analyse neutron propagation and induced activity of
biological shielding using soft ware package.
Reference:

1.
. .: . :
. . , 1990 .3, . 43.
.., .., .. .
2. .., .., ..
. . . . 2006 .
3. .., .., ..
- - .
.I
. , 24-26 2006 .
.140.
4. .., .., .., .., ..,
..,
. 1999.
5. ..
. .: 4-
-
NE-93, - 1993 .- . -1993, .II,
c.1161.

294

THE LUCAS-KANADE METHOD FOR OPTICAL FLOW


Nguyen Toan Thang
Scientific adviser: Spitsyn V.G.
National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk
Motion is the rich source of information that supports a wide variety of visual tasks,
including 3D shape acquisition and oculomotor control, perceptual organization, object
recognition and scene understanding [1]. In computer vision, optical flow is one of the
aspects of motion studying that is widely used in Motion estimation, Object detection and
tracking, Image dominant plane extraction, Movement detection etc. This paper will
provide a brief introduction to the widely used Lucas-Kanade optical flow method.
Optical flow or optic flow is the pattern of apparent motion of objects, surfaces, and
edges in a visual scene caused by the relative motion between an observer (an eye or a
camera) and the scene [2, 3]. It is can be calculated using a number of different
techniques. Once the optical flow has been measured, it is frequently represented with
velocity vector fields.
The estimation of the optical flow is based on two assumptions: the Intensity
constancy of the tracked object, and the temporal persistence of the movement. The first
assumption means that the intensity of the tracked object does not change during moving,
while the second assumption emphasizes that the movement of the object between two
successive frames is insignificant [2, 4].
Assuming we are calculating the motion of an object between two image frames
taken at times t and t + t , and the locations of the object in the according frames are
(x, y ) and (x + t , y + t ) . From the first assumption we have:
I (x, y, t ) = I ( x + t , y + t , z + t )
(1)
Due to the second assumption, we can apply the Taylor series to the three variable
function of intensity [2]:
I
I
I
I (x + x, y + y, t + t ) = I ( x, y, t ) + x + y + t + H .O.T
(2)
x
y
t
From (1) and (2) it follows that:
which results in
I
I
I
= 0 or I xV x + I yV y = I t
Vx + V y +
(3)
t
y
x
Where V x ,V y are the x and y components of the velocity or optical flow of I (x, y, t )
I
I yandI
and
,
are the derivatives of the image at (x, y, t ) in the corresponding
t
x
direction. The equation (3) has two unknowns and cannot be solved directly. This is
known as the aperture problem of the optical flow algorithms. To find the optical flow
another set of equations is needed, given by some additional constraint. All optical flow
methods introduce additional conditions for estimating the actual flow [2].

295

IV -

The Lucas-Kanade method makes use of a third assumption that neighboring points
in a scene belong to the same surface, have similar motion, and project to nearby points on
the image plane (the spatial coherence assumption) [4]. From this condition, the optical
flow equation (3) is applied for all points qi within a window centered at p:
I x (q1)V x + I y (q1)V y = I t (q1)
I x (q2 )V x + I y (q 2)V y = I t (q 2)

I x (qn )V x + I y (qn )V y = I t (qn )


This system is over-determined due to the existence of too many equations. The
Lucas-Kanade method obtains a compromise solution by the least squares principle [5].
This yields the velocity vector in the matrix form:
This algorithm is implemented as the first task of the hand gesture recognition
system to track the movement of the users hand. Steps in the implementation of the
Lucas-Kanade method:
Receive video from camera or file, frame by frame
Convert frames to grayscale
Find Good features to track (the features that have large eigen-values such as
corners or textures) by Shi-Tomasi corner detection algorithm with:
o Minimal acceptable lower eigen-value: 0.1
o Minimum Euclidean distance between two feature points: 5.0
Apply Lucas-Kanade algorithm to track the corners found in the previous step
with window size 5x5 using pyramidal modification

a
b
c
Figure 1. The Lucas-Kanade method for tracking the movement of the users hand
(a) and (b) two successive frames obtained from a camera
(c) velocity vectors associated with the hand movement

Reference:

1. David J. Fleet, Yair Weiss. (2006). Optical Flow Estimation. In Paragios,


Handbook of Mathematiccal Models in Computer Vision. Springer.
2. Optical flow. (n.d.). Retrieved from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optical_flow
3. Bodily, J. M. (2009). An Optical Flow Implementation Comparison Study. Provo,
Utah, United States: Brigham Young University.
4. Gary Bradski, Adrian Kaehler. (2008). Learning Computer Vision with the
OpenCV Library. Sebastopol, California: O'Reilly Media.

296

5. LucasKanade Optical Flow Method. (n.d.). Retrieved from Wikipedia, the free
encyclopedia:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lucas%E2%80%93Kanade_Optical_Flow_Method

IMPROVED PERFORMANCE OF BLDC MOTOR


Salah Ahmed Abdel Maksoud
Scientific adviser: Shevchenko A.F.
Novosibirsk State Technical University, Novosibirsk
ABSTRACT. In this paper, the performance of a BLDC motor without advancing
the switching-ON angle is revised to investigate the motor performance characteristics.
These performance characteristics are compared with those obtained when advancing the
switching-ON angle. A simulation program is developed to calculate the motor
performance characteristics with rotor position angle. The simulation results show that the
improved performance characteristics of BLDC motor by advancing the switching-ON
angle, can successfully achieve high-speed, increased efficiency, and a noticeable
reduction in torque ripple.
Keywords: BLDC motor performance characteristics, permanent magnet machines,
advancing the switching-ON angle.
1. INTRODUCTION

BLDC motors have been used for many years in applications where simplicity of
structure was of primary importance and ease of control [1]. Due to their high power
density and in many of these applications, the production of ripple-free torque is of
primary concern [2]. The BLDC who motor has a trapezoidal back-electromotive force
(EMF) [3]. The BLDC Motor has a wound stator, a permanent magnet rotor assembly, and
internal or external devices to sense rotor position. The sensing devices provide signals for
electronically switching (commutating) the stator windings in the proper sequence to
maintain rotation of the magnet assembly. The elimination of brushes reduces
maintenance, increases life and reliability and reduces noise [4].
In this paper, a BLDC motor has two operation regions; ON-region and OFF-region.
In the ON-region, with position of rotor selected, one-phase is conducted. On the other
hand, OFF-region is to be transient region which converts from the current conduction
into the next one. And a switching point occurs every 60 degree and the period of
conduction for each phase is equal to 60o is shown in Fig.1. In advancing the switchingON angle, turning on each phase earlier will allow the current to build up in the winding
before the back-EMF reaches its maximum or minimum value. Therefore, the ON-region
period increases by advancing the switching-ON angle is shown in Fig.2.

297

IV -

Figure 1. Operation of BLDC Motor without


advancing the switching ON angle

Figure 2. Operation of BLDC motor with


advancing the switching ON angle

The BLDC motor employed in this study has a wound stator, permanent magnet
poles on the rotor and rotor encoder to detect the rotor position. The stator consists of six
poles. Each two opposite poles construct one phase. So, the stator consists of three phases
A, B and C. There is 60o space angle between each phase and its adjacent phase is shown
in Fig.3. It is noticed that each two opposite coils are connected together in series to form
one phase; this connection is performed to make one coil acts as N-pole and the other as
an S-pole which produce a large flux in the air gap to get high torque. The rotor consists of
permanent magnet poles which consists two poles or more with alternate North (N) and
South (S) poles. The motor used in this paper consists of two salient poles is shown in Fig.
4.

Figure 3. Three phase distribution on the stator

Figure 4. Salient pole BLDC motor

2. OPERATION OF THE BLDC MOTOR WITHOUT ADVANCING THE


SWITCHING-ON ANGLE:
The Figures (5-11) illustrate the performance characteristics with rotor angle. These
figures are computed for the motor at 1000 rpm, permanent magnet flux linkage 0.7
V.s/rad, and supply voltage 240V. These characteristics are instantaneous characteristics
as following:

298

Figure 5. Variation of phases currents with


rotor angle

Figure 6. Variation of supply current with rotor


angle

Figure 7. Variation of input power with rotor


angle

Figure 8. Variation of output power with rotor


angle

Figure 9. Variation of motor torque with rotor


angle

Figure 10. Variation of motor efficiency with


rotor angle

4. OPERATION OF THE BLDC MOTOR WITH ADVANCING THE


SWITCHING-ON ANGLE
The Figures (11-19) illustrate the performance characteristics with rotor angle.
These figures are computed for the motor at 1000 rpm, permanent magnet flux linkage 0.7
V.s/rad, advancing the switching-ON angle equal to 30, and supply voltage 240V. These
characteristics are instantaneous characteristics as following:

299

IV -

Figure 11. Variation of phases currents with


rotor angle

Figure 12. Variation of supply current with


rotor angle

Figure 13. Variation of input power with rotor


angle

Figure 14. Variation of output power with rotor


angle

Figure 15. Variation of total motor torque with


rotor angle

Figure 16. Variation of motor efficiency with


rotor angle

From the figures (11-16), it is clear that the performance characteristics of BLDC
motor improved by advancing the switching-ON angle, can successfully achieve highspeed, an increase in the efficiency, and a noticeable reduction in torque ripple.

300

CONCLUSION

In this paper, the performance of a BLDC motor without advancing the switchingON angle is revised to investigate the motor performance characteristics. These
performance characteristics will be compared with those obtained when advancing the
switching-ON angle. The simulation results show that the performance characteristics of
BLDC motor improved by advancing the switching ON angle, can successfully achieve
high-speed, an increase in the efficiency, and a noticeable reduction in torque ripple.
Appendix
The main specifications of BLDC motor under consideration are:
DC-link inverter voltage V=240 V
Phase resistance R=5
Direct inductance Ld=0.015H
Quadrature inductance Lq= 0.005H
Number of pole pairs P=2
Amplitude of the flux linkage m =0.7 V.s/rad

Reference:

1. S.P.Natarajan, C.Chellamuthu, Bipul Karki, and C.Anand humar, Simulation and


Performance Evaluation of Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Motor using Saber Package,
IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol.2, No.1, 2000, pp 235-240.
2. Sung Jun Park, Han Woong Park, Man Hyung Lee, and Fumio Harashima,
ANew Approach for MinimumTorque-Ripple Maximum Efficiency Control of BLDC
Motor, IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications, Vol.47, No. 1, February 2000, pp
109- 114.
3. Ki-Yong Nam, Woo-Taik Lee, Choon-Man Lee, and Jung-Pyo Hong, Reducing
Torque Ripple of Brushless DC Motor by Varying Input Voltage, IEEE Transactions on
Magnetics, Vol.42, No. 4, April 2006, pp 1307- 1310.
4. Texas I, Indroduction to Hurst Brushless DC Moyors, Europe March 1998.

301

IV -


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1. Copyright 2010 Ipar. All Rights Reserved
2. http://www.TheBridThegeSoft.com
3. http://www.orkhum.com/elan/uyghurpishshiaDoraGhezini.htm





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1. ., .., ., .. //
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, 2010 ., . -, . . 65-72.
2. .., . // . .
2000. . 66. 2. . 58-66.



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315

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316

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325

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326


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327

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, 2008. . 12-23, 31.
2. .., .
// . 2010.
, 2010. . 467-470.
3. ..
- , 1983.- . 4-11.
4. .. :
, 1964.- . 54-95.
5. .., .. . 1978. - 2. - . 42.
6. .. / .. . .: ,
1982. .169.




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40
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20
:
10

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0
1360 1550 1.
0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05
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, . %.: -52.06; 3.64; N-3.97; S-0.93.


1.



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329

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331

IV -

. ,

.
:
1. .., - .., .. . //
. - .: . 1985, .59.
2. .. .
// . 1983, .23, 1, .118-120.
3. .., .. . 2.

/ , 1997, .5, 3, .279285.
4. .., .., .., ..

// - . 2002, .36, 2, .46-49
5. , ..
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,
, , 80-
, - , , 2010, .133-136.
6. .., , ..

. IV
,
2009. . 1, 193-195.
7. .. .
.: . . . . , 1934, 540.
8. .., .. -
// . , 2004, T. 45, .45-47.
9. .., .. .

/ . 1999, 12, .23-26.
10. .., ..
//
, 1999, 4, .89-96.
11. .. . .
. , , 1998, 488.
12. .. .
.: , 1984, 680.

332





: ..
. ,
.


.
,
, (, 1988; , 1989;
, 1994; , 2007 .). F1
.

80 F1
2010 (
, +37,+38, )
.. . 1-3,
01-15 I2, Ve, Mi; 1-2,
, 0-1 rin I2, Ve.
5
.
: F1 , F1 , F1 , F1 18, 241, F1 .
22 , 4 , 20
70x35 .
26 4 , .
.
.. ( 1).


( , 2 ):
0 ( 1-2) 338 (01-15), 0 ( 2-1
1-2) 604 (04(20) 01-15).
, . 1-2
1-381, 1-3 1-4, 04(20) 01-15, 04(19) 01-15
225; 155; 79; 78% ,
7; 2; 23; 22% , F1 .
,

.
1-3 (82 ) 04(20) (41 ),
2-1 (-85 ) 1-1 (-27 ).

333

IV -


01-15 (212 ) 1-381 (102 ),
1-2 (-103 ) 1-2 (-96 ).
. r
= 0,92 0,14.


. 1-3
1-1 (sij = 201), 1-2 1-381 (sij = 196) (04)19 (sij = 167).
1-3 (2sj = 10528)
01-15 (2si = 9071). - 2-4 (2sj
= 565) 1-1 (2si = 1467) (.1).
F1

: 04(20) 01-15 (xij = 604, gi = 212, gj = 41, sij
= 122), 04(19) 01-15 (xij = 600, gi = 212, gj = 25, sij = 135), 1-2 1-381
(xij = 523, gi = 102, gj = -3, sij = 196), 1-3 1-4 (xij = 499, gi = 80, gj = 82, sij =
109).
1. F1 ,
, 2010 .

1-1

1-2

1-3

2-1

2-4

04
(19)

04
(20)

gi

2Si

93

163

288

152

256

97

208

416

210

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161

262

523

432

319

228

281

382

212

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50

190

141

464

181

55

196

68

153

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30

126

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349

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178

214

237

314

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144

101

181

75

26

185

288

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333

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395

341

441

403

600

604

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26

221

79

213

168

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178

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37

147

122

243

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10

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43

170

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133

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112

169

114

147

184

233

217

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1467

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261

409

499

269

131

279

302

313

80

3855

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82

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-85

-14

25

41

gj

u = 228

Sj

1901

8284

10528

568
334

2694

565

9783

6505

05 x = 59, 05 gi = 37, 05 gj = 33
: F1 18 = 356 /., F1 = 100 /.,
F1 = 184 /., F1 = 490 /.,
F1 = 402 /., 241 = 271 /.

: 350 ( 1-5)
1102 ( ), 312 ( 1-2 1-1) 1925 ( 1-3
1-4). . 10
,
F1 18 F1 .
,
, .
, . 11 1-5, 04(19) 1-381, 1-3 1-4, 04(20) 1-381,
1-3 1-1,
04(20) 0-1 rin,
1-1 0-1 rin,
04(20) 01-15, 1-3 1-1, 1-3 0-1 rin, 2-4 01-15,
04(19) 01-15, 1-2 1-4, 04(19) 04(19)
231; 135; 129; 120; 105; 100; 99; 99; 98; 94; 77; 74; 56; 7 6%
, . 15
1/ 1-3 1-4
29% , F1 18.
,

.
: 1-3 (201 ) 04(20) (106 ),
: 2-1 (-232 ) 1-2 (-175 ).
:
1-4 (248 ), 0-1 rin (163 ) 01-15 (142 ),
: 1-2 (-249 ) 1-1 (-208 ).
.
r = 0,25 0,34.

2. F1,
, 2010 .

gi

1-1
1-2
1-3
2-1
2-4
04(19) 04(20)

1102

457
1-381

516
1-1

608
0-1 rin

674
1-2
01-15
648

350
1-5

2Si

859

730

885

994

769

864

1182

1164

72

24025

929

938

959

646

488

842

1074

1007

25786

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312

1021

741

651

728

546

419

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797

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981

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967

973

1218

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586

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479

482

777

1179

1006

583

1035

933

885

1149

1126

1158

597

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861

725

847

752

335

1288

122
142

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11229

47573

IV -

750
1-2

596
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1-4
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579

850

701

436

688

353

496

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901

424

1222

835

624

814

877

882

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1307

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1030

369

1016

1022

1084

248 116902

-175
9
-232
-19
100
201
10973 40012 75253 13093 39726 11249

9
23794

106
38267

u = 859

05 x = 61, 05 gi = 37, 05 gj = 33
: F1 18 = 1498 /., F1 = 944 /.,
F1 = 1115 /., F1 = 1029 /.,
F1 = 1197 /., 241 = 489 /.


.
1-3 1-4 (sij = 617), 1-2 1-4 (sij = 375)
(04)19 (sij = 242).
1-3 (2sj = 75253) 1-4 (2si =
116902). 1-1 (2sj = 10973)
0-1 rin (2si = 3275) (. 2).

F1
: 1-3 1-4 (xij = 1925, gi
= 248, gj = 201,sij = 617), 04(20) 01-15 (xij = 1288, gi = 142, gj = 106, sij = 181),
(04)20 0-1 rin (xij = 1218, gi = 163, gj = 106, sij = 90), 1-1 01 rin (xij = 1213, gi = 163, gj = 100, sij = 91), (04)19 (xij = 1182, gi = 72, gj =
9, sij = 242).

1.
F1 ,
F1 .
04(20) 01-15, 04(19) 01-15, 1-2 1-381.
2.

(r = 0,92 0,14),

.
3.
F1 ,
F1
18. 1-3 1-4.
4.
(r = 0,25 0,34).
5.
1-3, 04(20), 04(19), 01-15, ,
1-4, .
6.
1-3, 04(20), 1-1, 1-4, 10 rin,
01-15, , .

336

:
1. .. . .: , 1979, 416 .
2. . , . . .: , 1985, 465 .
3. .. .
: , 1984, 225 .
4. .. . .: -
, 1992, 269 .


,
, ,
: .., ..
, .


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13.G25.31.0006 07.09.2010 .

-

(), 75%.
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,
, ,
,
- [2].
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.
,
, -,
-
- [3].

337

IV -

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:
.
:
1. ,
.
2.
.
3. 32-
-.
4. .
[4]
:
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+ xN + (18-x)2,
=1.
NCO3
(OH)2.
1 /. .
24 .
,
,
95 .


350 2 .
,
(
) - riStar II 3020.
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282,20

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.

338

1. -

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2. -

-, -
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43- 1160-1200-1
645-653-1 .
, C32- 43

339

IV -

.
Rigaku Ultima IV ().
, , , = b =
9.414 A0 = 8,866 A0 , = b = 9.407, c =
6.893.

3.

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Ca3(PO4)2 (4,3% 3,35% ). ,
100%-,
.
,
, ,
, c
.
.

.
:
1. .., .. . - .
. - . - 2005. - 204 .
2. ..
. 79(1) 2010.
3. .., .., .., .., ..,
.., .., .., .., ..,
.. 10(4)6x(O)x()2 // . . , -. . . . - 2010. - . 152, . 1.
4. 2342319 RU. //
.. .- 06.07.07, . 27.12.08.

340





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, - [9].
1.

341

IV -

1.
. . / . . /
Fe
65,5
120,0
Cd
0,121
0,150
Co
0,095
0,170
Mn
1,15
3,10
Cu
8,76
5,80
Ni
1,18
1,70
Pb
1,65
0,44
Zn
186,5
111,0
2.

. (. .) (/)
. /[10].
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92,75
13-177, 3-75
Cd
0,136
0,35-2,43, 0,05-0,25
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0,133
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2,13
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Cu
7,28
6,8-39, 5,0 -7,5
Ni
1,44
0,0021-1,25, 0,05-5,0
Pb
1,05
0,3 1,32 [11,12]
Zn
161,3
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(1) ,
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, .
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3. .., .., .., .., ,
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342

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The given work is devoted to the modern developments in the field of the
development of modern laboratory equipment. In line with these studies, students are
invited integration project holographic laboratory practical tools in the department. It is
assumed that holographic methods allow you to create polygon labs for research and
testing of construction materials used in modern fiber-optic devices and systems.

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351

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353

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354


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355

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-
2009-2013 , NK-38P-17.
:

1. / . . . .. .
.: , 2007. . 1. 560 ., . 2. 368 .
2. R. Richards-Kortum, E. Sevick-Muraca. Quantitative optical spectroscopy for
tissue diagnosis// Annu. Rev.Phys. Chem. 1996, V. 47, P. 555-606.
3. S.L. Jacques. Light distributions from point, line and plane sources for
photochemical reactions and fluorescence in turbid biological tissues// Photochem. and
Photobiol. 1998, V. 67, P. 23-32.
4. M. Solonenko, R. Cheung, T.M Busch et al. In vivo reflectance measurement of
optical properties, blood oxygenation and motexafin lutetium uptake in canine large
bowels, kidneys and prostates// Phys. Med. Biol. 2002, V. 47, P. 857-873.

357

IV -

5. A.M.K. Nilsson, C. Sturesson, D.L. Liu et al. Changes in spectral shape of tissue
optical properties in conjunction with laser-induced thermotherapy// Appl. Optics. 1998,
V. 37, P. 1256-1267.
6.

,
2007.
:
http://omlc.ogi.edu/spectra/PhotochemCAD/html/index.html
7. / .. , .. , ..
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359

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361

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287 RAPD-.
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363

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366


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Dickeya
.
:

1. . ., .., .., .., ..,


.., . ., .. Dickeya dianthicola -
// . 2010. .3. .134-141.
2. Perombelon M.C.M., van der Wolf J.M. Methods for detection and quantification
of Erwinia carotovora susp. atroseptica (Pectobacterium carotovora susp. atroseptica) of
potatoes: A laboratory manual. Scotish Crop Research Institute, Dundee, Scotland. 2002.


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369

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2
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-
/
m/z
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63(16); 38(1,5)
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m-I- C6H4COOH
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3c
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[5]
. -
;
. [6].
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, ( 3). [7].

370

+ m/z
,
m/z = 101-104, 91, 78, 63, 38. (. .) ,
[MCO],
,
[M-CHO] m/z 101-104 [8].
24.
- (I=127).
:

1. .. , .. 2
.. - .: , 1984. 333.
2. R. F. Heck, Organic Reactions, 1982, 27, 345.
3. Sonogashira, K.; Tohda, Y.; Hagihara, N. Tetrahedron Lett., 1975, 4467.
4. , 5 8 , .
, . . , , 1961,
340.
5. Comprehensive heterocyclic chemistry Editors in chief Alan R. Katrizky, FRS
and Charles W. Rees, FRS, CBE . V6 p183.
6. H.-E. Audier, . Fetizon, Y. Henry and T. Prange; Org. Mass Spectrom1976,11,
1047.
7. A. Maqucstiau, Y. Van Haverbeke, C. De Meyer and R. Flammang; Org. Mass
Spectrom1974, 9, 149.
8. Gas Phase Ion Chemistry of the Heterocyclic Isomers 3-Methyl-1,2Benzisoxazole and 2-Methyl-1,3-Benzoxazole Gianluca Giorgi, Laura Salvini, and Fabio
Ponticelli. J Am Soc Mass Spectrom 2004, 15, 10051013.



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:

1. Filimonov V. D., Trusova M.E., Postnikov P.S., et al. Unusually Stable, Versatile,
and Pure Arenediazonium Tosylates: their Preparation, Structures, and Synthetic
Applicability. //OrgLetter. 2008. V. 10. P. 3961 3964.



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STUDY OF THE QUALITY OF GELATIN FROM COLLAGEN


CONTAINING RAW FISH MATERIAL
Cao Thi Hue
Scientific adviser: Razumovskaya R.G.
Astrakhan State Technical University, Astrakhan city
In accordance with "Concept of the Russian Federations Development of Fisheries
until 2020", one of the premier measures to improve the functioning of the fishing industry
is rational use of aquatic resources. Utilization of secondary resources enables us to
expand range of market products, increase profitability of fish processing enterprises and
improve ecological environment.
As we know, most of fish waste is collagen-containing raw material, which suggests
the source for gelatin. Gelatin has a wide range of applications in the food industry and the
other industries. In medicine, gelatin is widely used in form of various films, sponges,
thread, tubes, bandages, plasters and other drugs for the treatment of wounds, burns,
venous ulcers, pulpits, hypertension, osteoarthritis and incontinence. Gelatin is used for
bacteriological analysis, in the preparation of nutrient environment and the manufacture of
cosmetic products [1, 2].
As a result of the experiments carried out in the laboratory of the Department Food
Biotechnology and technology of nutritional products belonging in the Astrakhan State
Technical University, we have obtained gelatin.

393

IV -

The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of samples of gelatin. The
object of the study is the gelatin derived from skin of fish types of the Volga-Caspian
basin: ordinary pike Esox lucius, perch Perca fluviatilis.
Organoleptic, physicochemical, microbiological characteristics and safety indices of
the derived gelatin was determined by standard methods in accordance with GOST 1129389 "Gelatin, technical requirements".
The organoleptic indices of the derived gelatin: appearance - powder, color - from
bright yellow to cream, free from strange taste and odor, which meets the technical
requirements of the national standard for medical gelatin (GOST 23058-89). The chemical
composition of the gelatin from pike skin and perch skin is presented in table 1.
Table 1. Chemical composition of the obtained gelatin
Content, %
Objects of study
water
protein
fat
minerals
Gelatin derived
8,30,5
89,91,0
0,40,1
1,10,1
from pike skin
Gelatin derived
11,00,5
87,11,0
0,450,1
1,20,1
from perch skin
According to
not more
not normalized
not more
GOST 23058-89
than 16
than 1,5

Table 1 shows that the studied gelatin differs by sufficiently high content of protein
(up to 90,9%), low content of fat and mineral substances in compliance with the technical
requirements of the national standard for medical gelatin (GOST 23058-89).
In this study, we determined the physicochemical characteristics of the samples of
the derived gelatin. Comparative assessment of the derived gelatin and the requirements of
national standard for medical gelatin are shown in table 2.
Table 2 shows that almost all physicochemical characteristics of samples meet the
requirements of gelatin, used in medicine. However, the melting point of gelatin jelly with
concentration of 10% is 26-28C.
Hydrolysis of collagen has great influence on the melting point. Jellies of lowquality gelatin and glue, containing a significant amount of products of gluten hydrolysis,
melt at lower temperature than jellies of high-quality gelatin [3]. By technology we
developed, the extraction of collagen from source of raw materials was carried out under
regimes of slightly heating raw materials (not more than 60C), which allowed us to
exclude degradation of linear molecules.
According to the results of researches that the gelatin from fish raw material has low
melting point. Thus, low melting point of jelly of gelatin solution is a unique feature of the
fish-origin gelatin and due to the feature of amino acid composition and structure of
collagen, the process of gelation occurs more slowly, and the jelly of the gelatin melts at
lower temperature in comparison with mammalian gelatin.
It is necessary to find a way in order to increase the melting point of jelly of gelatin
solution prepared for the purpose of using it in the medical industry. Increase of the
melting point is obtained using tannins, which form additional links with the functional
groups of gelatin molecules [4].

394

Table 2. Comparative assessment of the samples and the requirements for medical gelatin
Characteristics and value
Name of indices
Norms by GOST
Test samples of
23058-89
gelatin
Pike
Perch
Duration of dissolution, min.
232
241
Not more than 25
Activity index of hydrogen ions in
5,40,1
5,31
5,26,1
aqueous solution of gelatin with mass
fraction of 1%, ed. pH
Dynamic viscosity of the solution with
26,02
271
Not less than 24
mass fraction of gelatin 10%, mPa.s
The melting point of jelly with mass
271
Not less than 32
fraction of gelatin 10%,C

The results of research of microbiological indices of gelatin samples are shown in


table 3.
Table 3. Microbiological assessment of gelatin samples
Name of indices
Test samples
Standard by
of gelatin
GOST 23058-89
Mesophilous aerobic and facultative-anaerobic
1*103
less than 1*103
m/o, CFU in 1 g gelatin
Bacteria of E. coli group (coli forms) in 0.01 g
Not detected
Not allowed
gelatin
Pathogenic m/o, including Salmonella in 25g
Not detected
Not allowed

Table 3 shows that all microbiological characteristics of the samples meet the
requirements of gelatin, used in medicine.
In development of industrialization, as we know, pollution of seas and other
reservoirs in all countries has increased the risk of poisoning people by hydrocoles
contaminated with residues of accumulated harmful substances. These agents primarily
include heavy metals: lead, zinc, iron, copper and their salts. The result of the research of
gelatin samples safety indices research is shown in table 4.
Table 4. Safety indices of samples of gelatin
Name of
Norms by GOST
contents in test samples,
microelement
23058-89
mg/kg (m, n=3)
pike
perch
Not more than 2,0
Lead
1,2880,15
1,3360,06
Cobalt
0,2350,06
0,4650,06
Manganese
0,1750,002 0,6940,002
Copper
0,4090,05 0,1740,002
No more than 15
Nickel
traces
traces
Zinc
57,1260,54 3,8400,32
No more than 100
Iron
23,631,74
16,553,18
-

Note: "-" - not nomalized.


As can be seen from the data presented in table 4, mass concentration of the
microelements almost do not exceed the established norms for medical gelatin.
The obtained gelatin has sufficiently high organoleptic, physic-chemical,
microbiological, functional and technological indices, recommended for use in food
industry, medicine, photography and cosmetology.

395

IV -

Reference:

1. Dzhafarov A.F. Production of gelatin. Agropromizdat, Moscow, 1990, 287p.


2. Kiladze A.B. Fish waste - a valuable raw material // Fisheries. - 3. - 2004. P.58.
3. Virnik A.V., Vlasov A.P., Talantsev A.Z., Khokhlova Z.V. The technology of
glue and gelatin. Pishhepromizdat, Moscow, 1963, 270s.
4. Glotova I.A., Antipova L.V., Ibragimova O.T., Levin M.N. New approaches to
the stabilization of structure of biomodified collagenic substances // Storage and
reprocessing of agricultural raw material. - 2003. - 5. - P.49-53.

396



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brings benefits [ ] // Research News @ Vanderbilt. 2008. November,
21. URL: http://news.vanderbilt.edu/2008/11/having-privately-and-publicly-managedprisons-in-the-same-state-brings-benefits-67787/ ( 17.03.2011)
4. Matthew Zito, Prison Privatization: Past and Present [ ] //
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trails of the Hartland Woods,
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