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.. , .. , ..

SIP

-
2005

621.395
63
32.88

.. , .. , ..
SIP: . .: -, 2005. 456 .: .
ISBN 5-8206-0123-8
SIP (Session
Initiation Protocol), IP-
NGN. SIP,
IP- IP , ,
, . SIP,
IP -IP-,
-IP IP-. SIP NGN. SIP
.

ISBN 5-8206-0123-8

.., .., .., 2005


B.S. Goldstein, A.A. Zarubin, V.V. Samorezov
SIP Protocol. Hand-book. BHV, St.Petersburg, 2005.
Information is provided on design principles and functioning of the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP)
which is widely used today in IP Telephony and may be considered the most probable candidate for the leading
role in Next Generation Networks (NGN). SIP messages, Call Control procedures in IP networks and between
IP and PSTN, authentication and data security procedures are described. SIP expansions to provide IP network
interactions with the telephone network when creating and maintaining PSTN-IP-PSTN, PSTN-IP, and IP-PSTN
sessions are considered. The problems of SIP signaling conversion when interacting with other NGN protocols
are set forth. SIP testing issues and ways of implementing a number of existing and new info-communication
services based on SIP are illustrated.

Hand-book

Copyright B. Goldstein, A. Zarubin, V. Samorezov, 2005


............................................................................ 14
1. SIP ........................................... 18
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.5.

SIP IP- .............................................................................................19


SIP ...............................................................................................23
SIP ................................................................................................23
SIP HTTP .................................................................................................................25
SIP................................................................................................................26

2. ........................................................ 29
2.1. .....................................................................29
2.2. UAC...............................................................................29
2.2.1. .............................................................................................................30
2.2.1.1.
2.2.1.2.
2.2.1.3.
2.2.1.4.
2.2.1.5.
2.2.1.6.
2.2.1.7.
2.2.1.8.
2.2.1.9.
2.2.1.10.
2.2.1.11.

Request-URI .............................................................................................. 30
To ..................................................................................................... 30
From ................................................................................................. 31
Call-ID............................................................................................... 32
Cseq ................................................................................................. 33
Max-Forwards.................................................................................... 33
Via .................................................................................................... 33
Contact ............................................................................................. 34
Supported Require ........................................................................ 34
................................................................................. 35
..................................................................................................................... 35

2.2.2. ............................................................................................................36
2.2.2.1.
2.2.2.2.
2.2.2.3.
2.2.2.4.
2.2.2.5.

....................................................................................................... 37
.................................................................................................................. 37
Via ............................................................................................................................ 37
3................................................................................................... 37
4................................................................................................... 39

2.3. (UAS) ............................................................................40


2.3.1. ........................................................................................41
2.3.1.1.
2.3.1.2.
2.3.1.3.
2.3.1.4.

....................................................................................................... 41
..................................................................................................... 41
To Request-URI ............................................................................................ 41
............................................................................................... 42

2.3.1.5.
2.3.1.6.
2.3.1.7.

Require..................................................................................................... 42
................................................................................. 43
.......................................................................................................... 43

2.3.2. ...............................................................................................................44
2.3.2.1.
2.3.2.2.
2.3.2.3.

.......................................................................................... 44
tag .................................................................................................... 44
UAS .................................................................................. 45

3. SIP ............................................... 46
3.1. ................................................................................................46
3.2. ...............................................................................................47
3.2.1. .............................................................................................................47
3.2.2. Accept ..............................................................................................................51
3.2.3. Accept-Encoding ...............................................................................................51
3.2.4. Accept-Language ..............................................................................................51
3.2.5. Alert-Info...........................................................................................................51
3.2.6. Allow.................................................................................................................52
3.2.7. Allow-Events......................................................................................................52
3.2.8. Authentication-Info ............................................................................................53
3.2.9. Authorization .....................................................................................................53
3.2.10. Call-ID ..........................................................................................................53
3.2.11. Call-Info ........................................................................................................54
3.2.12. Contact.........................................................................................................54
3.2.13. Content-Disposition .......................................................................................55
3.2.14. Content-Encoding .........................................................................................56
3.2.15. Content-Language.........................................................................................57
3.2.16. Content-Length .............................................................................................57
3.2.17. Content-Type ................................................................................................58
3.2.18. Cseq.............................................................................................................58
3.2.19. Date .............................................................................................................58
3.2.20. Error-Info ......................................................................................................59
3.2.21. Event ............................................................................................................59
3.2.22. Expires..........................................................................................................60
3.2.23. From.............................................................................................................60
3.2.24. In-Reply-To ...................................................................................................60
3.2.25. Max-Forwards ...............................................................................................61
3.2.26. Min-Expires ...................................................................................................61
3.2.27. MIME-Version................................................................................................61


3.2.28.
3.2.29.
3.2.30.
3.2.31.
3.2.32.
3.2.33.
3.2.34.
3.2.35.
3.2.36.
3.2.37.
3.2.38.
3.2.39.
3.2.40.
3.2.41.
3.2.42.
3.2.43.
3.2.44.
3.2.45.
3.2.46.
3.2.47.
3.2.48.
3.2.49.
3.2.50.
3.2.51.
3.2.52.
3.2.53.
3.2.54.
3.2.55.
3.2.56.
3.2.57.
3.2.58.
3.2.59.
3.2.60.
3.2.61.
3.2.62.
3.2.63.
3.2.64.
3.2.65.

5
Organization..................................................................................................62
Path..............................................................................................................62
Priority ..........................................................................................................63
Privacy..........................................................................................................63
Proxy-Authenticate ........................................................................................64
Proxy-Authorization........................................................................................64
Proxy-Require ...............................................................................................65
P-Asserted-Identity........................................................................................65
P-Preferred-Identity .......................................................................................66
P-Media-Authorization ...................................................................................66
The P-Associated-URI ....................................................................................67
P-Called-Party-ID ..........................................................................................67
P-Visited-Network-ID .....................................................................................68
P-Access-Network-Info..................................................................................68
P-Charging-Function-Addresses.....................................................................69
P-Charging-Vector.........................................................................................70
P-DCS-Trace-Party-ID ...................................................................................70
P-DCS-OSPS ................................................................................................71
P-DCS-BILLING-INFO ....................................................................................72
P-DCS-LAES P-DCS-REDIRECT...................................................................72
RAck.............................................................................................................73
Reason .........................................................................................................73
Record-Route................................................................................................74
Refer-To .......................................................................................................74
Reply-To .......................................................................................................74
Require .........................................................................................................75
Retry-After ....................................................................................................75
Route............................................................................................................75
Rseq.............................................................................................................76
Security-Client, Security-Server, Security-Verify...............................................76
Server...........................................................................................................77
Service-Route ...............................................................................................77
Subject .........................................................................................................78
Subscription-State.........................................................................................78
Supported.....................................................................................................79
Timestamp ....................................................................................................79
To.................................................................................................................79
Unsupported .................................................................................................79

3.2.66.
3.2.67.
3.2.68.
3.2.69.

User-Agent ...................................................................................................80
Via ................................................................................................................80
Warning ........................................................................................................81
WWW-Authenticate.........................................................................................81

3.3. .................................................................................89
3.3.1. ..........................................................................................................89
3.3.2. INVITE ...................................................................................................................90
3.3.3. ACK ................................................................................................................91
3.3.4. ANCEL..........................................................................................................91
3.3.5. BYE.................................................................................................................92
3.3.6. REGISTER .......................................................................................................92
3.3.7. OPTIONS ........................................................................................................92
3.3.8. INFO ...............................................................................................................93
3.3.9. PRACK............................................................................................................94
3.3.10. UPDATE ......................................................................................................95
3.3.11. SUBSCRIBE NOTIFY ..................................................................................98
3.3.12. REFER ...................................................................................................... 101
3.3.13. MESSAGE ................................................................................................. 102

3.4. ...............................................................106
3.4.1.
3.4.2.
3.4.3.
3.4.4.
3.4.5.
3.4.6.

1 .......................................................................................... 107
2xx ................................................................... 108
3xx ........................................................................... 109
4xx ..................................................................................... 110
5xx ......................................................................................... 113
6xx ......................................... 114

4. .............................. 115
4.1. ...................................................................................................................115
4.2. ..................................................................................116
4.2.1. UAS ................................................................................................................. 116
4.2.2. UAC ................................................................................................................. 118

4.3. .........................................118
4.3.1.
4.3.2.
4.3.3.
4.3.4.

UAC .............................................................................. 119


UAC ............................................................................. 121
UAS ................................................................................................................. 121
..................................................................................... 122

4.4. ..............................................................................................................122
4.4.1. ................................................... 124
4.4.2. INVITE- ........................................................................................ 125
4.4.3. INVITE-........................................................... 125
4.4.4. ACK ........................................................................................... 128
4.4.5. -INVITE- ................................................................................... 129
4.4.6. -INVITE ...................................................... 130
4.4.7. .............................................................. 132
4.4.8. ................................................... 132
4.4.9. INVITE- ......................................................................................... 133
4.4.10. -INVITE-................................................................................ 135
4.4.11. ........................................................ 136

4.5. SDL- ..............................................139


4.5.1.
4.5.2.
4.5.3.
4.5.4.

INVITE- ........................................................................................ 139


-INVIT- ................................................................................... 143
INVIT- ......................................................................................... 146
-INVIT-.................................................................................... 149

4.6. ..........................................................................................152
4.6.1. REGISTER ................................................................ 154
4.6.2. ............................................................................................................. 156
4.6.2.1.
4.6.2.2.

4.6.3.
4.6.4.
4.6.5.
4.6.6.

.................................................................. 157
................................................................................... 157

............................................................................................................. 158
......................................................................................................... 158
registrar ......................................................................................... 159
........................................................................................................... 159

4.7. REGISTER ................................................................160


4.8. ........................164
4.8.1. OPTIONS ............................................................................................ 165
4.8.2. OPTIONS .......................................................................................... 165

4.9. .....................................................................................167
4.9.1. ........................................................................................................... 167
4.9.2. ........................................................................................................... 168

4.10. ...............................................................................169
4.10.1.
4.10.2.

UAC. INVITE ............................................... 171


UAC. INVITE................................................. 173

4.10.2.1. 1............................................................................................................................... 173

4.10.2.2. 3............................................................................................................................... 174


4.10.2.3. 4xx, 5xx 6xx ............................................................................................................... 174
4.10.2.4. 2............................................................................................................................... 174

4.10.3.

UAS. INVITE ................................................................ 175

4.10.3.1.
4.10.3.2.
4.10.3.3.
4.10.3.4.

...................................................................................................... 176
INVITE............................................................................................ 177
INVITE ..................................................................................................... 177
INVITE ............................................................................................................. 177

4.11. ...............................................................178
4.11.1.
4.11.2.

UAC ............................................................................................................. 179


UAS ........................................................................................................... 180

4.12. ..................................................................183
4.12.1.
4.12.2.

BYE. UAC........................................... 183


BYE. UAS ........................................... 183

5. - SIP ..................................................... 184


5.1. --SIP .............................................................................184
5.2. - ................................................186
5.2.1. ................................................................ 187
5.2.1.1.
5.2.1.2.
5.2.1.3.
5.2.1.4.
5.2.1.5.
5.2.1.6.

......................................................................................... 187
URI ................................................................................................................ 188
Max-Forwards........................................................................................... 188
......................................................................................... 188
Proxy-Require........................................................................................... 189
Proxy-Authorization ................................................................................... 189

5.2.2. .................................................. 189


5.2.3. ................................................................................... 190
5.2.4. ......................................................................................................... 192
5.2.4.1.
5.2.4.2.
5.2.4.3.
5.2.4.4.
5.2.4.5.
5.2.4.6.
5.2.4.7.

.............................................................................................................. 193
Request-URI ........................................................................... 193
Max-Forwards................................................................. 193
Record-Route () ................................................................. 193
................................................................................ 195
............................................................ 195
,
............................................................................................................ 196
5.2.4.8. Via...................................................................................... 199
5.2.4.9. Content-Length ( )............................................ 199
5.2.4.10. ................................................................................................................. 199
5.2.4.11. C ............................................................................................................... 199

5.2.5. .......................................................................................................... 199


5.2.5.1.

................................................................................................. 200


5.2.5.2.
5.2.5.3.
5.2.5.4.
5.2.5.5.
5.2.5.6.
5.2.5.7.
5.2.5.8.
5.2.5.9.
5.2.5.10.

9
................................................ 200
Via.............................................................................. 200
........................................................................................ 201
...................................................... 202
.............................................. 202
Authorization .................................................................... 204
Record-Route ........................................................................ 204
.................................................................................................................... 205
CANCEL ................................................................................................... 206

5.2.6. ...................................................................................................... 206


5.2.7. SIP ................................................................. 207
5.2.8. CANCEL ............................................................................................ 207

5.3. - ..............................................208
5.4. Route Request-URI .....................................................210
5.5. Route Request-URI .....................................................211
5.5.1. - .................................... 211
5.5.2. strict-router.................................................................... 213
5.5.3. -
Record-Route .................................................................................................................. 215

5.6. ...................................................216

6. HTTP- .................................. 218


6.1.
6.2.
6.3.
6.4.

SIP ..............................................................................................218
-.....................................220
-- ..................................222
Digest ..............................................................................223

7. S/MIME.................... 229
7.1.
7.2.
7.3.
7.4.

S/MIME ..............................................................................................229
S/MIME ..........................................................................................231
..........................................................................................234
SIP- ................................................................................................235

7.4.1. SIP ...................................................................... 236


7.4.2. .................................................................................. 238

8. ............................ 240
8.1. ...............................................................................................................241

2. ..

10

8.1.1.
8.1.2.
8.1.3.
8.1.4.
8.1.5.

......................................................................................... 241
.......................................................................................................... 242
.................................................................................................... 243
........................................................................................................ 244
(DoS-) ................................................................................. 244

8.2. ..................................................................246
8.2.1.
8.2.2.
8.2.3.
8.2.4.

........................................................... 247
SIPS URI................................................................................................................ 248
HTTP-..................................................................................................... 249
S/MIME ........................................................................................................................... 249

8.3. ...............................................250
8.3.1. SIP .......................................................... 250
8.3.2. ......................................................................... 250
8.3.2.1.
8.3.2.2.
8.3.2.3.
8.3.2.4.

............................................................................................................................ 251
........................................................................................................... 252
-.............................................................. 254
DoS-................................................................................................................. 256

9. ............................. 257
9.1. - ...........................................257
9.2. ............................267

10. SIP ............................ 273


10.1.
10.2.
10.3.
10.4.
10.5.
10.6.
10.7.

........................................................................273
.................................................................274
..................................................................276
...............................................................277
...................................................................278
..........................................................................................279
.................................................................................................280

11. SIP-T ..................................... 281


11.1. SIP-T ..........................................................281
11.2. ...............................................................282
11.2.1.

SIP-T (-IP-) ....................................................... 282


11.2.2.
11.2.3.

11
IP- ....................................................... 284
IP- ....................................................... 285

11.3. SIP-T.................................................................................286
11.3.1.
11.3.2.
11.3.3.
11.3.4.

SIP..................................................................................... 286
...................................................... 286
.................................................. 289
................................... 290

11.4. SIP .........................................290


11.5. .................................................................293

12. ISUPSIP ........................................... 294


12.1. ........................................................................294
12.2. SIP ......................................................295
12.2.1.
12.2.2.
12.2.3.
12.2.4.
12.2.5.
12.2.6.
12.2.7.

ISUP..................................................... 295
MIME ........................................................................ 295
DTMF.................................................. 295
........................ 296
........................................................ 296
....................................... 297
, CANCEL ................................ 297

12.3. ..............................................................................297
12.3.1.
12.3.2.
12.3.3.
12.3.4.
12.3.5.
12.3.6.
12.3.7.

( ) ...................................... 298
( )................................................................. 299
SIP ............................................................................................... 300
ISUP T9 .................................................................................. 302
SIP ....................................................... 303
SIP ........................................................................ 304
.......................................... 306

12.4. SIP-T ISUP-SIP.......................................308


12.4.1.
12.4.2.
12.4.3.
12.4.4.
12.4.5.
12.4.6.
12.4.7.

................................................................... 308
IAM INVITE ...................................... 308
100........................................................................................................... 310
18 ............................................................................................... 310
2................................................................................................ 312
3................................................................................................ 313
4 6 ........................................................................................ 313

12

12.4.8. SIP ISUP ............................................ 313


12.4.9. REL.......................................................................................... 315
12.4.10. ISUP T11................................................................................. 316

12.5. SIP ......................................316


12.5.1.
12.5.2.
12.5.3.
12.5.4.
12.5.5.
12.5.6.
12.5.7.
12.5.8.
12.5.9.

SIP ............................... 317


SIP, ..................... 322
SIP............................................ 327
SIP. .. 331
SIP. ................... 333
. . IAM
interworking ................................................................................................................. 336
. .................................... 339
. .
- .................................................. 342
. ,
.................................................................. 344

13. SIPISUP ........................................... 349


13.1. ..............................................................................349
13.1.1.
13.1.2.
13.1.3.
13.1.4.
13.1.5.
13.1.6.
13.1.7.

( ) ...................................... 349
( )................................................................. 351
7 .......................................................................................... 352
SIP ....................................................................................... 353
.................................................. 354
............................................................... 355
SIP ............................................. 356

13.2. SIP-T SIP-ISUP.......................................358


13.2.1.
13.2.2.
13.2.3.
13.2.4.
13.2.5.
13.2.6.
13.2.7.
13.2.8.
13.2.9.
13.2.10.

INVITE .......................................................................................... 358


INVITE IAM.................................................................... 359
ISUP 7 .................................................................................. 362
CANCEL BYE ...................................................................... 362
REL.......................................................................................... 363
ISDN SIP.................................... 364
ACM .................................................................. 367
........................................................................................ 367
CON ANM .......................................................................... 368
9 .......................................................................................... 369

13

13.2.11. CPG ......................................................................................... 369


13.2.12. ............................................................................................................ 370

13.3. SIP- .....................................370


13.3.1.
13.3.2.
13.3.3.
13.3.4.
13.3.5.
13.3.6.
13.3.7.

SIP ................................................................... 371


SIP .................................................. 378
SIP .................................... 385
C SIP SIP ENUM Query ..................................... 393
SIP : .................... 398
SIP : ,
REL .................................................................................................. 404
SIP :
ANM.......................................................................................................... 407

14. URI.................................... 413


14.1. SIP URI ..............................................................................................413
14.2. ISUP tel URL .................................415
14.3. tel URL ISUP .................................416

15. , SIP............ 417


15.1.
15.2.
15.3.
15.4.

SIP ......................................................417
SIP .................................................................................421
SIP ................................................................................422
PINT SPIRITS .......................................................................................................427

16. Quo Vadis? ................................................................. 430


16.1. SIP .....................................................................................430
16.2. SIP 3G ......................................................................................431
16.3. NAT..........................................................................................................440

................................................................. 443
.............................................................................. 449
............................................................................ 452



1850 ;
. (IETF) 1996
draft-ietf-mmusic-sip-00, SIP,
.
MMUSIC ,
Multiparty Multimedia Session
Control. ,
-. Session Announcement
Protocol (SAP), Session Description Protocol (SDP) [37], Real-Time Streaming Protocol
(RTSP) [64] Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP) [61], . draft-ietf-mmusic-sip-00 1996 . draft-ietf-mmusic-sip-01,

SIP (Session Initiation Protocol).
, 1996 IETF : Session Invitation Protocol,
(Handley) (Schooler), Simple Conference Invitation Protocol
(SCIP), (Schulzrinne). Session
Invitation Protocol . , . User
Datagram Protocol (UDP) SDP .

15

SCIP Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) [69]. SCIP


Internet-, Hypertext Transport Protocol (HTTP) Simple Mail Transport
Protocol (SMTP), SDP .
Session Invitation Protocol, SCIP . 1996 Session Initiation Protocol, . Session Invitation Protocol SIP UDP
SDP. SCIP SIP TCP
IETF ( SMTP HTTP).
SIP/2.0, SIP/1.0, Session Invitation Protocol.
11
draft-ietf-mmusic-sip, , , 1999 .
draft-ietf-mmusic-sip-12, 6 ,
SIP, IETF (Internet Engineering
Task Force) 1999 . RFC 2543, , (Rosenberg)

.
RFC 2543
;
SIP . SIP RFC 3261, . IETF, , RFC 3261 , .. RFC 2543,
, , SIP
.
, SIP
NGN (Next Generation Network) , , :
, . , /
.
.

16

SIP IETF MMUSIC


:
,
, ,
REGISTER;
, SIP;
SIP, ;
,
IETF
RSVP (Resource Reservation Protocol,
RFC 2205), RTP (Real-Time
Transport Protocol, RFC 1889), RTSP (Real-Time Streaming Protocol, RFC 2326),
SDP (Session Description Protocol, RFC 2327);
.323, MGCP, MEGACO/
H.248, DSS1 7, SIP SIP-, .164 .
, SIP
IP-. .323, (ITUT), , , IP-
. , ,
NGN (Next Generation Network) .323.
, SIP, IETF ,
,
NGN.

17

SIP ,
(7, R1.5, E-DSS1, V5 .), . 1
SIP . , SIP- , , SIP-
SIP.
1.

SIP

,
()
TDM
IP-
:
Softswitch
V5.1/V5.2 MEGACO/H.248, MGCP, SIP
Softswitch 7, E-DDS1
SIP/SIP-T, H.323



: ;
; ; ; .



(//)


( , IP-)

SIP 1 . 1 . 2
SIP
.

3. ..

18

3 SIP,
, - SIP, , ,
.. SIP.
SIP .
SIP .
SDP-,
IP- , SIP .
SIP SIP-T,
11 SIP.
ISUP SIP, SIP ISUP, 12 13, .
14 SIP URI.
,
,
,
, , .
, , , SIP URI .

SIP - NGN
, , - - , - - SNT,
. . . . -.
, .

1. SIP

1.1. SIP IP-


SIP (Session Initiation Protocol) IP- , ,
.
, HTTP SMTP.

OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) SIP (. 1.1), , SIP . UDP TCP. UDP
, TCP, (
),

. , .
, ,
TCP-,
TCP-.
IP-
: , , .

20

1

,
/, ,
.


(SIP)
( )

- 7
- 4

TCP UDP
( )
IPv4 IPv6
( )
PPP, AAL5, ATM, Ethernet, V.34
( )
UTP5, .
( )
. 1.1.

- 3

- 2
- 1

SIP TCP/IP

,
SIP .
SDP (Session
Description Protocol). SDP
SIP. (,
, , ), SIP
SDP. IETF
RTP, SIP
.
SIP .

SIP

21

SIP : ,
, (.. ,
, ), ,
(.. , ). ,
SIP . SIP :
,
multicast-, ;
, -, , ,
(.. ) ;
-.
, SIP
, .. . ,
. 1.1. . , ,
.

22

1
1.1.

SIP

SIP

H.323

MGCP

MEGACO

ISUP

H.248

IP-

IP-

TDM

Peer-to-Peer

Peer-to-Peer

Master-Slave

Master-Slave

Peer-to-Peer


Q.931 [25]


MGCP


Q.700 [26]

IETF- RFC

ITU-T

. RFC

. ITU-T IETF

. ITU-T

v1-1996, v2-1998,
v3 -1999

. .

,

13

. H.225 RAS
30 ,
H.245 - 72 ,
H.255.0 13

.
44
60

. .

SDP

H.245

SDP

SDP

ISUP


(

)

IP

IP

QoS

.
. (

)

QoS
IP

QoS
IP

QoS
(

IP-

DNS

IP-,
,

IP-

.

IP-

.

.ITU-T
E.164,

,

Loop

IPSec, TLS,
SSL HTTP Digest

H.235, IPSec
TLS

IPSec,
TLS, SSL

IPSec,
TLS, SSL


ASN.1

SIP

23

1.2. SIP

IP- SIP
, .
URL (Universal
Resource Locators), SIP URL. SIP-
@,
@,
@IP-,
@.
, . , .
- , .
,
. IP-
Domain Name Service (DNS). SIP-
IP-, .
SIP sip:, ,
SIP-, .. (, tel:).
SIP-:
sip: Alexander@niits.ru
sip: User1@192.168.0.215
sip: 333-26-27@sip-gateway.ru

1.3. SIP
SIP , ,
SIP , ,
, . ,
SIP, , ,
SIP, , .

24

1
SIP .
SIP . - (Backus-Naur Form,
BNF), [26] SDL. BNF- SIP
RFC 3261, SIP 3
.
. , . 10.
. ,

SIP, ,
. ,
. ,
, . SIP ,
, , , :
UA (User Agents) SIP, , . , -
.
- (Proxy servers) (stateful) (stateless);
,
, . (IPCC)
.

SIP

25

(Redirect servers)
. ,
.
(Registration servers)
, SIP .
, UA - (stateful proxy-servers) , - (stateless proxy-servers),
, .
, , ,
. (state machine), .
, , (transaction user, TU). SIP, stateless
-, . TU , IP-,
, , .
TU, , .
, , , .
CANCEL, ,
.

1.4. SIP HTTP


SIP HTTP, . SIP, HTTP /.
UA, , , UA, , .

4. ..

26

1
Web-, URL, www.niits.ru. , Web-, Web- NIITS.
SIP . UA, ,
UAC, UA, , UAS.
SIP.
, UAC SIP , UAS . SIP
, UAS, c REGISTER, (registrar).
4.6 UAC UAS REGISTER. 4.8 UAC UAS OPTIONS,
UA. , SIP [57], .

1.5. SIP

SIP- UA.
INVITE RFC 3261 , .
SUBSCRIBE REFER.
SIP UA (UAC),
UA (UAS). UAC SIP SIP. UA SIP .
, UA ,
SIP . . 1.2 UAC.
UAC , , UAC, , . 4.1 ,
.

SIP

27

SIP . 1.2 INVITE, . ,


. 4.10 , . 4.11 ,
INVITE
. 4.12 , .

IP- DNS (Domain Name
System), . INVITE
UDP (User Datagram Protocol) SIP , , , .
Trying (100) UA CALL PROCEEDING Q.931 , . Trying
, (redirect) .
UA1

UA2
Invite
100 Trying
180 Ringing
200 OK
ACK

BYE
200 OK

. 1.2.

UA

28

1
. 1.1 Q.931 [25] , . 1.2 SIP DSS1 ISDN.
1.2.

SIP DSS1

SIP
INVITE
100 Trying
180 Ringing
200

DSS1
Q.931 SETUP
Q.931 CALL Processing
Q.931 ALERTING
Q.931 CONNECT

(. 1.2) UA2,
UA1 Ringing (180).
ALERTING, DSS1 Q.931.

Ringing PDD (postdial delay).
, UA 200 . UA ACK,
INVITE. ACK SDP, .
INVITE 200 SETUP CONNECT Q.931.

RTCP (Real-Time Control Protocol), . ,
, BYE .
UDP,
.
,
UAC UAS ( 2) SIP ( 3).

2.

2.1.
SIP UA (User
Agent), UAC
(User Agent Client), , UAS (User Agent Server), .
UAC UAS ,
. .

2.2. UAC

UA, ,
. ( SIP-, ..).

30

2.2.1.
, UAC, :
, ;
Request-URI SIP;
: To, From, CSeq, Call-ID, Max-Forwards
Via.
, Request-URI, SIP-.
SIP-, , ,
, ,
,
. 3, , .
2.2.1.1.

Request-URI
Request-URI ,
. Request-URI
, URI To. REGISTER;
Request-URI REGISTER
4.6 4. (privacy)

Request-URI To , ,
UA , Request-URI .
Request-URI
. URI,
, UAC
. UA (service provider),
-SIP .
URI, -.
Request-URI Route, 4.3 ( ,

31

), Request-URI URI
.
2.2.1.2.

To
To (address-of-record) , .
,
. To SIP SIPS URI. SIPS ,
(,
TLS).
URI- (,
tel [75]. SIP SIP URI,
, TLS,
SIPS URI. To .
To . , (, anton);
UA , .
SIP- (user part) ,
UA ,
@ SIP URI (, sip:anton@niits.ru).
To tag.
tag To
(, , ), SIP-. Tag To tag From Call-ID
. , tag .
To:
To: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>

2.2.1.3.

From
From , , . ,
To, URI , , (display name),

32

2
. SIP-
, , (,
). , URI From IP- FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name) ,
UA, .
From
(display name). , UAC
Anonymous.
From , UA, ,
. UA
, ,
URI, .
, , ,
From .
From tag, UA.
:
From: Anton <sips:anton@niits.ru> 9;tag=a48s
From: sip:+79213434329@gateway.protei.ru;tag=887s
From: Anonymous <sip:c8oqz84zk7z@privacy.org>;tag=hyh8

2.2.1.4.

Call-ID
Call-ID ,
. ,
UA .
, Call-ID UAC
. SIP-
, , Call-ID, , UA.
, (, ), Call-ID (. . 4 2.2.2.5).

33

Call-ID
[12];
Call-ID. localid@host.
Call-ID .
:
Call-ID: f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6@niits.ru

2.2.1.5.

CSeq
CSeq
. . , REGISTER,
. 32-
, 231. CSeq
. :
CSeq: 4711 INVITE

2.2.1.6.

Max-Forwards
Max-Forwards
. , .
0 , ,
483 (Too Many Hops). UAC
Max-Forwards . : 70.
, ,
SIP , ,
- .
,
.

2.2.1.7.

Via
Via (, -), (location),
. SIP- Via , .
UAC , Via.

5. ..

34

2
SIP 2.0. Via
branch, ,
. , . branch , UA.
CANCEL - ACK
, 2. CANCEL branch, , . - ACK
, 2, branch,
INVITE, . .
branch, Via SIP, z9hG4bK. , magic cookie,
, , , ,
.
Via (maddr, ttl sent-by) SIP.

2.2.1.8.

Contact
Contact SIP SIPS URI,
UA, (
). SIP SIPS URI , , , ,
INVITE. Contact ,
.. Contact URI, UA
, URI , . Request-URI
Route SIPS URI, Contact SIPS
URI. Route -.

2.2.1.9.

Supported Require
UAC SIP,
SIP-, , UAC
Supported

35

(option tag) . ption-tag SIP SIP,


RFC.
- , .
, RFC, Standard, Supported , -
. UAC
, UAS , UAC
, Require, option-tag . UAC
, -
, Proxy-Require,
option-tag .
2.2.1.10.
, , , ,
.
SIP- MIME
[18]. , ( Content-Disposition, Content-Encoding,
Content-Language, Content-Length, Content-Type, 3.2).
2.2.1.11.
.
-,
DNS-, [56]: SIP:
Locating SIP Servers. strict router (-,
Request-URI Route),
DNS- Request-URI,
.
Route Request-URI, Route .

36

2
, , .
, URI Locating SIP
Servers, Request-URI SIPS-, UAC
, URI SIPS URI.

. Request-URI SIPS URI,

TLS. ,
, Route.
,
-. - ; URI.
Route, ,
Route, , Route Request-URI, UA. , UA,
-,
, Route,
-. ,
-, Record-Route,
. ,
Route,
-.
UAC , SIP: Locating SIP
Servers, [56] stateful SIP-, ,
.
, Via branch .

2.2.2.
SIP, .

37

(transaction user, TU). TU , .


.
2.2.2.1.


, ,
SIP-; .
, (timeout error),
408 (Request Timeout). SIP
(fatal transport error), 503
(Service Unavailable). UDP
TCP.

2.2.2.2.


UAC , x00 ,
x00 . , UAC 431,
, , 400 (Bad
Request). UAC , 100, 183 (Session Progress). UAC 100, 183.

2.2.2.3.

Via
Via, UAC
, , -,
.

2.2.2.4.

3
(, 301), () Contact
, .
(target
set), URI Request-URI .

38

2
, 3, target set. UAC , URI, Contact,
target set. , 3,
URI target set .
SIPS URI Request-URI,
-SIPS URI, URI.
target set , UAC ,
, target set .
q Contact. q
, Contact, 0 1.
. q q .
q, q.
, SIP-
. , . ( 399).
, ( ), (TU) .
, ;
. ,
.
.
, 3, UAC URI
target set Request-URI, method-param header.
header , , .

39

(, Contact) .
.
,
,
.
,
. , :
sip:anton@niits.ru?Subject=organization&Call-Info=http://www.niits.ru,

Subject
, HTTP URL
Call-Info.
, UAC To, From Call-ID,
, UAC, ,
Call-ID . ,
, , branch
Via. , , , ,
. Contact
.
2.2.2.5.

4
4xx UA
, .
401 (Unauthorized) 407 (Proxy Authentication Required) ,
. , UAC
.
413 (Request Entity Too Large) ,
, UAS . UAC
, .

40

2
415 (Unsupported Media Type) , , , UAS.
UAC ,
Accept,
Accept-Encoding
Accept-Language, .
416 (Unsupported URI Scheme) , URI, Request-URI, . UAC
, SIP URI.
420 (Bad Extension) ,
Require Proxy-Require, option-tag ,
- UAS. UAC
, ,
Unsupported .
494 (Security Agreement Required)
.
Security-Server ,
. UAC .
.
Call-ID, To From, , CSeq ,
. 4
.

2.3. (UAS)
UAS ,
, ,
- .

41

2.3.1.

, . , . ,
, , .
UAS ( , ,
).
2.3.1.1.


( ), UAS . UAS ,
, 405 (Method Not Allowed); Allow, ,
UAS. ,
.

2.3.1.2.


UAS , ,
. UAS
, .

2.3.1.3.

To Request-URI
To
. , To UAS, UAS .
, UAS ,
URI (, tel) To, To
,
UAS. UAS, , ,
403 (Forbidden) ( 4.4) .

6. ..

42

2
Request-URI UAS, . Request-URI ,
, ,
416 (Unsupported URI Scheme). Request-URI ,
UAS , , 404 (Not Found). UA, REGISTER,
(address-of-record)
, , Request-URI . Request-URI Contact , UA
.

2.3.1.4.


tag To, UAS
(UAS core) .
tag From, Call-ID CSeq
, ,
, UAS 482 (Loop Detected)
. , , , - -. UAS
482 (Loop Detected) .

2.3.1.5.

Require
UAS , , Require ( ).
Require UAC, UAS
SIP-, . UAS -
option-tag, Require, 420 (Bad
Extension). UAS Unsupported , Require . , Require
Proxy-Require CANCEL,
ACK, , 2xx.
, .

43

ACK, 2xx,
Require Proxy-Require, , :

UAC UAS:

INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0


Require: 100rel

UAS UAC:

SIP/2.0 420 Bad Extension


Unsupported: 100rel

,
, , , , .
- , . ,
, , ,
.
2.3.1.6.


, UAS , ;
UAS ,
. (
Content-Type), ( Content-Language) ( Content-Encoding), (
Content-Disposition), UAS
415 (Unsupported Media Type). , , Accept
, UAS. , UAS, Accept-Encoding , .
UAS ,
Accept-Language , UAS. ,
.

2.3.1.7.


UAS ,
Supported . ,

44

2
SIP- , . , , 421 (Extension Required).
, . Require . , 421, Require, .
, Supported
. ,
.

2.3.2.
UAS , , . ,
. , ,
UAS , .
2.3.2.1.


, , , UA INVITE.

, INVITE. 100 (Trying)
Timestamp (
, UAC UAS). RTT. , UAS ,
Timestamp .
, .

2.3.2.2.

tag
From ,
Call-ID, Cseq Via Call-ID, Cseq Via
. , Via
Via . tag
To, To , .

45

To tag, URI To
URI To ; , UAS tag To
( 100 (Trying), tag ). tag , ( 100 (Trying)).
2.3.2.3.

UAS
UAS (stateless) UAS,
. , , UAS (stateful), . stateless UAS
, , . UAS stateless ,

. Stateless UAS :
SIP . stateless UAS , . ,
, , , ,
, UAS.
stateless UAS :
stateless UAS (1xx) ;
stateless UAS ;
stateless UAS ACK;
stateless UAS CANCEL;
tag To
, tag.
, stateless UAS , stateful UAS.
UAS , .

3. SIP

3.1.
1 , SIP ,
ISO 10646 UTF-8 [77]. SIP ,
.
.
(. 3.1) :
;
;
, ;
().
,
CRLF. , .

SIP-. ,
, . , , , .

SIP

47



. 3.1.

SIP

,
, , .. .
. , SIP-
HTTP/1.1, SIP
HTTP, 1.
SIP .
ACK, INVITE OPTIONS , , SDP, BYE, ,
.

3.2.
3.2.1.
SIP- HTTP-
. , SIP HTTP/1.1 .
, :
:


(SP) .

48

3
. , :
Subject:
Subject :
Subject :
Subject:

,
(SP) (HT). (line break) (whitespase) SP. .
Subject: , , !
Subject: ,
,
!

.
, -
(Via, Route, Record-Route, Proxy-Require, Max-Forwards, Proxy-Authorization
), , .
.
,
, .
: ,
;
. WWW-Authenticate, Authorization, Proxy-Authenticate
Proxy-Authorization.
, , SIP- .
SIP , , ,
. , , :
Route:
Subject:
Route:

<sip:anton@niits.ru>

<sip:vladimir@protei.ru>

SIP

49

Route:

<sip:alexander@niits.ru>

Route:
Route:
Subject:

<sip:anton@niits.ru>, <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
<sip:alexander@niits.ru>

Subject:
Route:

<sip:anton@niits.ru>, <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>,
<sip:alexander@niits.ru>

, :
Route: <sip:anton@niits.ru>
Route: <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
Route: <sip:alexander@niits.ru>
Route: <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
Route: <sip:anton@niits.ru>
Route: <sip:alexander@niits.ru>
Route: <sip:anton@niits.ru>,<sip:alexander@niits.ru>,
<sip:vladimir@protei.ru>

.
UTF-8 (tokens), (whitespace),
, .
, , :
: ; = ;
=

, , .
, . , , - .
, , ,
.
Contact: <sip:anton@niits.ru>;
expires=3600

CONTACT:
<sip:anton@niits.ru>; ExPiReS=3600. Content-Disposition: session;
handling=optional content-disposition: Session; HANDLING=OPTIONAL.

7. ..

50

3
:
Warning:370 niits.ru
Warning:370 niits.ru

.
, .
(,
), .
SIP, UDP, ,
, . , , SDP. (. 3.1)
.
3.1.

E
F
I
K
L
M
S
O
R
T
U
V


Content-Type
Content-Encoding
From
Call-ID
Supported
Content-Length
Contact ( moved)
Subject
Event
Refer-To
To
Allow-Events
Via

SIP

51

3.2.2. Accept
Accept , .
,
, , , , ,
. Accept ,
. Accept, application/sdp.
Accept:application/sdp;level=1, application/x-private, text/html

3.2.3. Accept-Encoding
Accept-Encoding Accept, .
. : Accept-Encoding: identity,
: . ,
identity.
HTTP,
, identity ( ) . :
Accept-Encoding:gzip

3.2.4. Accept-Language
Accept-Language , , ,
, . , , .

q. :
Accept-Language:da, en-gb;q=0.8, en;q=0.7

3.2.5. Alert-Info
Alert-Info, INVITE,
UAS.

52

180 (Ringing), UAC.


-
. .
SIP-,
.
:
Alert-Info:http://www.niits.ru/sounds/moo.wav

3.2.6. Allow
Allow c ,
, . , UA, ACK CANCEL, .
Allow , UA
; ,
, .
Allow ( OPTION) .
:
Allow:INVITE, ACK, OPTIONS, CANCEL, BYE

3.2.7. Allow-Events
Allow-Events, , ,

event package,
( ) ( ).
, , Allow-Events, ,
SUBSCRIBE NOTIFY
, event package .
, event package, Allow-Events, , , ,

SIP

53

INVITE, , OPTIONS. ,
Allow-Events -. :
Allow-Events:refer

3.2.8. Authentication-Info
Authentication-Info
HTTP Digest. UAS
2 , ,
, Authorization.
:
Authentication-Info:nextnonce=47364c23432d2e131a5fb210812c

3.2.9. Authorization
Authorization . Proxy-Authorization
, . ,
, .
Authorization 6.4. :
Authorization:Digest username=Anton, realm=niits.ru,
Nonce=84a4cc6f3082121f32b42a2187831a9e,
Response=7587245234b3434cc3412213e5f113a5432

3.2.10. Call-ID
Call-ID . ,
. :

Call-ID.
- , .
@. Call-ID .

54

3
:
Call-ID:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6@niits.ru
i:f81d4fae-7dec-11d0-a765-00a0c91e6bf6@192.0.2.4

3.2.11. Call-Info
Call-Info
, :
. URI, ,
purpose. icon ,

. info , , web-. card ,
, , , .., , Vcard (vCard MIME Directory Profile [10]
LDIF (The LDAP Data Interchange Format [31].
Call-Info . URI, , , ..
, UA Call-Info
, SIP-,
, SIP-.
UA; -. :
Call-Info:<http://www.serv1.niits.ru/anton/photo.jpg>;purpose=icon,
http:/www.serv1.ru/anton/;purpose=info

3.2.12. Contact
Contact URI,
. , Contact
, . Contact (display name),
. Contact
q expires. ,
REGISTER, 3.

SIP

55

, URI < >.


, URI, .
, ,
, .
, URI ,
, , . <
(LWS). To From.
Contact , Location
HTTP. HTTP ,
. URI
,
, . :
Contact:Alexander <sip:alexander@niits.ru>
;q=0.7; expires=3600,
Alexander <mailto:alexander@niits.ru>;q=0.1

3.2.13. Content-Disposition
Content-Disposition ,
, multipart .
SIP , Content-Type.

SIP

Content-Disposition. session ,

. render ,
.
Content-Disposition ,
application/sdp Content-Disposition session,
render.

56

3
icon , , ; UA,
; ,
. alert , ,
, , , ,
; , ,
180 (Ringing).
MIME- Content-Disposition,
, , .
handling-param UAS Content-Disposition Content-Type.
optional required.
handling-param , required. , Content-Disposition , MIME- ontent-Disposition .
render. :
Content-Disposition:session

3.2.14. Content-Encoding
Content-Encoding
. , ,
, ,
, Content-Type.
, Content-Encoding , . ,
, . .

SIP

57

.
. UAS ,
Accept-Encoding . :
Content-Encoding:gzip

3.2.15. Content-Language
Content-Language
( ).
- , .
Content-Language ,
.
Content-Language
, . :
Content-Language:fr

3.2.16. Content-Length
Content-Length
( ) , .
, ,
. - ( TCP), Content-Length .
, . Content-Length
, .
, Content-Length .
Content-Length cgi- , .
:
Content-Length:349

8. ..

58

3.2.17. Content-Type
Content-Type ,
. Content-Type ,
. , Content-Type , ,
(, -).
:
ontent-Type:application/sdp
c: text/html;charset=ISO-8859-4

3.2.18. CSeq
CSeq , . , , .
: 1 232
. . CSeq , , .
. :
CSeq:4711 INVITE

3.2.19. Date
Date .
HTTP/1.1, SIP
[23] , GMT, [23]
. Date
.
, GMT. :
Date:Sat, 13 Nov 2010 23:29:00 GMT

SIP

59

3.2.20. Error-Info
Error-Info
, .
SIP
, .
, ,
, ,
,
Error-Info . ,
.
UAC SIP SIPS URI Error-Info ,
Contact , INVITE, .
,
, , , sip, tel. :
SIP/2.0 404 The number you have dialed is not in service
Error-Info:<sip:not-in-service-recording@niits.ru>

3.2.21. Event
(
event package),
(subscription) (notification).
NOTIFY SUBSCRIBE
(event-type) id ( ) . Event, id,
. . .
Event:refer; id=1234

60

3.2.22. Expires
Expires ,
.
. REGISTER INVITE. REGISTER
, .
INVITE , URI -.
, .
0
(232 1), . :
Expires:5

3.2.23. From
From URI , (, ).
From .

. , , (display name) Anonymous.
, URI , ,
, .
From , URI
. , , . ,
. :
From:Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru> ;tag=a48s
From:sip:+79213434329@gateway.protei.ru;tag=887s

3.2.24. In-Reply-To
In-Reply-To
(Call-ID) , .

SIP

61

In-Reply-To .
.
, .. , ,
. . :
In-Reply-To:70710@lonis.ru, 17320@niits.ru

3.2.25. Max-Forwards
Max-Forwards SIP-, , .
0 255, , .
, .
70.
Max-Forwards , . :
Max-Forwards:6

3.2.26. Min-Expires
Min-Expires , SIP- . , Contact,
registrar.
0 (232 1). 423 (Interval
Too Brief). :
Min-Expires:60

3.2.27. MIME-Version
MIME-Version MIME-,
. :
MIME-Version:1.0

62

3.2.28. Organization
Organization , SIP-, .
. :
Organization:Niits

3.2.29. Path
UA , ,
-. REGISTER
-. REGISTER . Path.
REGISTER 2 .
Path REGISTER
SIP-, . Path :
- , . , , Route,
.
REGISTER ,
. UA ,
,
.
Path Record-Route ,
REGISTER 2 , , Record-Route .
, Record-Route , Path .
Path ,
Route. Path SIP,
option-tag path Supported. :
Path:<sip:P3.niits.ru;lr>,<sip:P1.niits.ru;lr>

SIP

63

3.2.30. Priority
Priority .
SIP-
UA. ,
. ,
Priority, , normal. Priority
, , . : non-urgent (), normal (),
urge () emergency (); . , emergency
. :
Subject: !
Priority:emergency

Subject:
Priority:non-urgent

3.2.31. Privacy
SIP-, , ,
, . , , .
, (privacy services). Privacy.
UA Privacy, , .
: header, session, user, none,
critical. header ,
( Via Contact),
.
session , (), , , ,

64

3
SDP-. , IP-, , .
user -, ,
,
, .
user REGISTER.
none ,
. critical ,
, .
, none,
user, header session,
; ()
critical.

3.2.32. Proxy-Authenticate
Proxy-Authenticate , , , , -
Request-URI. 407
(Proxy Authentication Required) 401 (Unauthorized).
6.4. :
Proxy-Authenticate:Digest realm=niits.ru,
Qop=auth, nonce=f84f1cec41e6cbe5aea9c8e88d359,
Opaque= , stale=FALSE, algorithm=MD5

3.2.33. Proxy-Authorization
Proxy-Authorization -, . ,
-, .

SIP

65

,
,
.
Proxy-Authorization Authorization , .
,
,
. 6.4.
:
Proxy-Authorization: Digest username=Anton, realm=niits.ru,
Nonce=c60f3082ee1212b402a21831ae,
response=245f23415f11432b3434341c022

3.2.34. Proxy-Require
Proxy-Require -,
. :
Proxy-Require:100rel

3.2.35. P-Asserted-Identity
P-Asserted-Identity SIP, ( ), , ( , ). URI , ,
. URI sip, sips, tel.
;
sip sips, tel. (Trust Domain).
- , , , . , , -
P-Asserted-Identity, , , P-Asserted-Identity
. - , ,

9. ..

66

3
P-Asserted-Identity,
.
-, - UA, c
,
P-Asserted-Identity, . :
P-Asserted-Identity: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>
P-Asserted-Identity: tel:+79213434329

3.2.36. P-Preferred-Identity
P-Preferred-Identity ,
-, . ,
P-Asserted-Identity,
. P-Preferred-Identity
sip, sips, tel. ; sip sips,
tel. :
P-Preferred-Identity:Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>

3.2.37. P-Media-Authorization
P-Media-Authorization (QoS) SIP.

(denial-of-service). , ,
. P-Media-Authorization -, QoS,
( 100),
1 2 UA,
INVITE, ACK, UPDATE PRACK UAS. P-Media-Authorization
QoS.

SIP

67

UA /
-,
QoS, ,
( RSVP SIP
, P-Media-Authorization,
PATH).
QoS (). P-Media-Authorization SIP- , offer answer
(SDP- SDP- ).

3.2.38. P-Associated-URI
, SIP,
.
P-Associated-URI 200 (OK) REGISTER
. registrar , P-Associated-URI 200 (OK)
REGISTER, , UA , ,
, .

3.2.39. P-Called-Party-ID
P-Called-Party-ID -, ,
INVITE. Request-URI - ( Request-URI ). Request-URI, , . , P-Called-Party-ID,
UAS , INVITE (,

- INVITE.
, ,
. :
P-Called-Party-ID:sip:anton-work@niits.ru

68

3.2.40. P-Visited-Network-ID
, 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Progect), (home network)
(visited network).
(roaming agreements)
. , , , .
UA, ,
, UA. , .

UA .
P-Visited-Network-ID - (home proxy) ,
UA; - . , - , - UA. , P-Visited-Network-ID
REGISTER, .
,
, P-Visited-Network-ID
. . :
P-Visited-Network-ID:Visited network number 1

3.2.41. P-Access-Network-Info
UA SIP- , (
) -,
UA, P-Access-Network-Info.
, UA IP-.
, -,
UA -, . -, , P-Access-Network-Info

SIP

69

, ,
. , , ; ,
, - ( ). ,
- P-Access-Network-Info.
, , -, , ,
- ,
, , ,
. - .

3.2.42. P-Charging-Function-Addresses

.
- SIP, , SIP-, .
, -.
3GPP , : Charging Collection Function (CCF) Event Charging
Function (ECF). CCF (postpaid), ECF
(prepaid).
- SIP, SIP-, P-Charging-Function-Addresses
; , .
,
F ECF, -
, . -, , , ,
.
. :
P-Charging-Function-Addresses:ccf=192.1.1.1; ccf=192.1.1.2;
ecf=192.1.1.3; ecf=192.1.1.4

70

3.2.43. P-Charging-Vector
. ,
-, ,
SIP, .
() , .

. ( - SIP)
. : IMS Charging Identity (ICID), -,
ICID, Inter Operator Identifiers (IOI). ICID , . . ICID
. :
IP- - SIP,
. IOI ,
.
P-Charging-Vector.
P-Charging-Vector - SIP , . - SIP, ,
P-Charging-Vector, ICID
.
, , . :
P-Charging-Vector:icid-value=1234bc9876e;
icid-generated-at=192.0.6.8;
orig-ioi=home1.protei.ru

3.2.44. P-DCS-Trace-Party-ID
, ,
(ustomer originated
trace), -

SIP

71

. SIP
, .
, , UAC,
INVITE P-DCS-Trace-Party-ID.
.
, Request-URI,
, , P-DCS-Trace-Party-ID. UAC, , P-DCS-Trace-Party-ID .

3.2.45. P-DCS-OSPS
, . ,
, ,
. , , .
(BLV)
(EI),
OSPS (Operator Services Position System).
SIP- , , P-DCS-OSPS.
, .
: BLV (busy line verification), EI (emergency
interrupt) RING (operator ringback). INVITE, P-DCS-OSPS BLV EI,
, UAS UAC c , .
EI RING ,
UPDATE. P-DCS-OSPS
UAC, . ,
- (Media Gateway Controller). :
P-DCS-OSPS:BLV

72

3.2.46. P-DCS-BILLING-INFO

.
- SIP . , -, ,
, . (ccounting records)
, , . P-DCS-BILLING-INFO
, ,
, , , , , .

, . -
UA,
.

3.2.47. P-DCS-LAES P-DCS-REDIRECT


P-DCS-LAES , - , SIP (Lawfully Authorized Electronic
Surveillance). , , , .
SIP,
, -,
. -
, .
P-DCS-Redirect , .
, . -
, .

SIP

73

3.2.48. RAck
RAck PRACK
.
. ,
RSeq .
CSeq .
RAck . :
RAck:776656 1 180

3.2.49. Reason
SIP- .
, CANCEL -, ,
. ,
, . ,
, Reason, CANCEL
; ,
, .
SIP-.
Reason. Reason
. , HERFP (Heterogeneous Error Response Forking Problem), , , ,
, ,
.
Reason ,
, CANCEL ,
.
SIP cause, SIP-.
Q.850 cause, , ,
ITU-T Q.850 DSS1 OKC7 (

10. ..

74

3
ISUP). SIP-
Reason, (,
SIP, Q.850). SIP Reason, .
,
. :
Reason:SIP ;cause=200 ;text=Call completed elsewhere
Reason:Q.850 ;cause=16 ;text=Terminated

3.2.50. Record-Route
Record-Route -
,
-. :
Record-Route:<sip:serv10.protei.ru;lr>,
<sip:site3.niits.ru;lr>

3.2.51. Refer-To
Refer-To REFER URI
(call transfer). , , , ,
REFER. . Refer-To
Contact, Route/Record-Route,
5.2, . :
Refer-To:sip:alexander@niits.ru

3.2.52. Reply-To
Reply-To URI, From. , URI ,
. ,
, Reply-To , , .

SIP

75

URI , , , . :
Reply-To:Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>

3.2.53. Require
Require UAC , UAS
, .

() option-tag;
SIP-, . :
Require:100rel

3.2.54. Retry-After
Retry-After 500 (Server Internal
Error) 503 (Service Unavailable), ,
, 404
(Not Found), 413 (Request Entity Too Large), 480 (Temporarily Unavailable), 486 (Busy
Here), 600 (Busy), 603 (Decline), , .
( ).
duration ,
, .
, , . ,
. :
Retry-After:18000;duration=3600
Retry-After:120 (Im in a meeting)

3.2.55. Route
Route -. ,
Route, 5.2. :
Route:<sip:site5.niits.ru;lr>,
<sip:serv3.protei.ru;lr>

76

3.2.56. RSeq
RSeq . 1 (232-1).
( ) RSeq .
RSeq
. :
RSeq: 988789

3.2.57. Security-Client, Security-Server, Security-Verify


, UAC SIP,
UAS, - , .
SIP. , , Security-Client , -, . , .
494 (Security Agreement Required)
Security-Server , .
.
, q , . . SIP-,
, . Security-Verify,
,
Security-Server. , , Security-Verify ,
,
. : digest, tls,
ipsec-ike, ipsec-man. :
Security-Client: digest
Security-Server: tls;q=0.2
Security-Verify: ipsec-ike; q=0.1

SIP

77

3.2.58. Server
Server ,
. , ,
, . :
Server:HomeServer v2

3.2.59. Service-Route
Service-Route, SIP, REGISTER ,
,
service route, ..
, . UA
,
, .
Service-Route -. UA , -,
. Service-Route
, Route. ,
lr.
,
(R), -,
HSP (home service proxy), (DBMS) -
, (P2). UA1
- P1 REGISTER ;
Service-Route, , UA1
, , , P2 HSP,
.., , INVITE UA2
Service-Route Route. :
Service-Route:<sip:p2.home.protei.ru;lr>,
<sip:hsp.home.protei.ru;lr>

78

-
1
UA1
-
2

UA2

. 3.2.

-
HSP

, Service-Route

3.2.60. Subject
Subject , . :
Subject:
s:

3.2.61. Subscription-State
Subscription-State NOTIFY
. active, pending terminated.
active , .
pending , , - . terminated ,
. active pending, expires,
;
. terminated,
reason retry-after, ,
. :
Subscription-State: terminated;reason=noresource

SIP

79

3.2.62. Supported
Supported , UAC UAS.
option-tag, UAC UAS. , . ,
, ACK.
:
Supported:sip-cc, sip-cc-02, timer


SIP .

3.2.63. Timestamp
Timestamp , UAC UAS.
SIP RTT
( ). :
Timestamp:54

3.2.64. To
To . ,
. tag .
To
From. :
To:The Operator <sip:operator@server10.protei.ru>;tag=287447
t:sip:+79213434329@gateway.protei.ru

3.2.65. Unsupported
Unsupported , UAS. 420 (Bad Extension).
:
Unsupported:100rel

80

3.2.66. User-Agent
User-Agent , . UA ,
. UA ,
. :
User-Agent:Softphone Beta1.5

3.2.67. Via
Via SIP, . , ,
, , , .
, : - . branch Via - . Via
, ,
, , ,
. : maddr, ttl, received branch.
: UDP, TCP, TLS SCTP. SIPS
URI, SIP, TLS.
:
Via:SIP/2.0/UDP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK87asdks7
Via:SIP/2.0/UDP 192.0.2.1:5060 ;received=192.0.2.207
;branch=z9hG4bK77asjd

(multi-homed host)
192.0.2.1 192.0.2.207. , , . ,
serv1.niits.ru
Via, .
, . -
SIP URI, ,
: /, :

SIP

81

Via:SIP /2.0/UDP serv3.niits.ru: 4000;ttl=16


;maddr=224.2.0.1;branch=z9hG4bKa7c6a8dlze.1

Via , : , , ,
( SIP/2.0/UDP serv3.niits.ru:4000)
,
.

3.2.68. Warning
Warning , ,
.
Warning ,
. , .
, , Accept-Language
Content-Language . (warn-code) (warn-text)
. ,
.
3. 300 329 (keywords) , 330 339
, , 370 379 ,
, 390 399 , .
IANA (Internet Assigned Numbers Authority).
:
Warning:307 serv1.niits.ru example
Warning:301 serv1.niits.ru E.164

3.2.69. WWW-Authenticate
WWW-Authenticate , , , ,

11. ..

82

3
- Request-URI.
407 (Proxy Authentication Required) 401 (Unauthorized). 6.4. :
WWW Authenticate: Digest realm=niits.ru,
Qop=auth, nonce=f84f1cec41e6cbe5aea9c8e88d359,
Opaque=, stale=FALSE, algorithm=MD5

SIP v. 2.0
- . 3.3.
- ,
- .
a - ,
m - ,
d - ,
r - , , ,
.

.
C ,
M ,
M* , /
,
,
* , ,
F ,
N/A ,
T , -
.
- ,
.

SIP

3.2.

300
301
302
303

304
305
306
307
330
331

83


-



Multicast-

Unicast-

370

399

,
,
,
,
,
,

, ,
-,
,
-,
,
-,
,
, ,
multicast-

unicast-
(,
firewall)
, ,
-,



log-. , ,

84

3.3. SIP v. 2.0

ACK

BYE

CAN

INV

OPT

REG

IFO

SUB

NOT

PRK

UPD

REF

MSG

Accept

M*

Accept

M*

N/A

Accept

415

N/A

M*

AcceptEncoding

AcceptEncoding

M*

N/A

AcceptEncoding

415

N/A

M*

AcceptLanguage

AcceptLanguage

M*

N/A

AcceptLanguage

415

N/A

M*

Alert-Info

a, r

N/A

Alert-Info

180

a, r

N/A

Allow

N/A

Allow

M*

M*

Allow

N/A

Allow

405

Allow-Events

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Allow-Events

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

Allow-Events

489

N/A

AuthenticationInfo

N/A

Authorization

SIP

85

ACK

BYE

CAN

INV

OPT

REG

IFO

SUB

NOT

PRK

UPD

REF

MSG

Call-ID

Call-Info

a, r

N/A

N/A

N/A

Contact

Contact

Contact

Contact

Contact

485

Contact

4xx-6xx

ContentDisposition

N/A

ContentEncoding

ContentLanguage

N/A

ContentLength

A, r

Content-Type

Cseq

,
.

Date

Error-Info

300-699

N/A

Event

N/A

N/A

Expires

In-Reply-To

N/A

Max-Forwards

a, m, r

Expires

86

ACK

BYE

CAN

INV

OPT

REG

IFO

SUB

NOT

PRK

UPD

REF

MSG

From

. /

Min-Expires

423

N/A

N/A

MIME-Version

N/A

N/A

Organization

A, r

Path

a, r

Path

Priority

a, r

Privacy

a, m, r, d

N/A

ProxyAuthenticate

407

a, r

ProxyAuthenticate

401

a, r

N/A

N/A

N/A

ProxyAuthorization

d, r

Proxy-Require

a, r

P-AccessNetwork-Info

D, r

P-AssertedIdentity

A, d, r

N/A

P-AssociatedURI

P-CalledParty-ID

A, m, r

P-ChargingVector

A, d,m,r

P-ChargingFunctionAddresses

A, d, r

P-DCSBilling-Info

A, d, m, r

N/A

P-DCS-LAES

A, d, r

N/A

P-DCSRedirect

A, d, r

N/A

SIP

87

ACK

BYE

CAN

INV

OPT

REG

IFO

SUB

NOT

PRK

UPD

REF

MSG

P-DCS-OSPS

D, r

N/A

P-DCS-TraceParty-ID

D, r

N/A

P-MediaAuthorization

A, d

N/A

N/A

P-MediaAuthorization

A, d

N/A

N/A

P-MediaAuthorization

101199

A, d

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

P-PrefferedIdentity

A, d, r

N/A

P-VisitedNetwork-ID

A, d

RAck

N/A

Reason

Record-Route

A, r

N/A

Record-Route

18

M, r

N/A

Record-Route

M, r

N/A

Record-Route

401, 484

M, r

Refer-To

Reply-To

Require

Retry-After

404,
413, 480, 486,
500, 503, 600
603

Route

RSeq

Security-Client

N/A

a, r

a, d, r

N/A

N/A

A, r, d

N/A

88

ACK

BYE

CAN

INV

OPT

REG

IFO

SUB

NOT

PRK

UPD

REF

MSG

SecurityServer

421, 494

N/A

Security-Verify

A, r, d

N/A

Server

SubscriptionState

N/A

Subject

Supported

M*

N/A

N/A

Supported

M*

M*

N/A

N/A

Timestamp

Unsupported

420

User-Agent

Via

a, m, r

Via

d, r

Warning

Warning

WWWAuthenticate

401

a, r

WWWAuthenticate

407

a, r

N/A

N/A

N/A

N/A

SIP

89

3.3.
3.3.1.
SIP- Request-Line
. Request-Line , Request-URI
, (, ACK sip:anton@niits.ru SIP/2.0).
Request-Line
(CRLF). , ,
. (LWS
RFC 822) .

. 3.3.

Request-URI

CRLF

Request-Line


IETF RFC 3261 6 : REGISTER , INVITE, ACK
ANCEL , BYE ,
OPTION
. , SIP,
, ,
. , .
Request-URI
Request-URI SIP SIPS URI. ,
. Request-URI ,
<>.
SIP Request-URI , sip sips, tel;

12. ..

90

3
-SIP URI . SIP URI, SIPS URI,
.
Request-URI , , , Request-URI
-, .

,
SIP-, , . ,
SIP-, SIP-Version SIP/2.0.
SIP-Version ,
.

3.3.2. INVITE
INVITE
. , ( ),
. INVITE
, ,
, .
,
, , , SIP-.
INVITE .
INVITE,
.
. 3.4 INVITE.
Anton (anton@niits.ru)
Alexander (alexander@niits.ru). - (serv1.niits.ru).
From , .

SIP

91

INVITE sip:alexander@serv1.niits.ru SIP/2.0


Via:SIP/2.0/UDP kton.niits.ru
From:Anton<sip:anton@niits.ru>
To:Alexander<sip:alexander@niits.ru>
Cseq:1INVITE
Call-ID:3298420296@kton.niits.ru
Content-Type:application/sdp
Content-Length: ...
o=bell53655765 2353687637 IN IP4 128.3.4.5
v=0
C=IN IP4 kton.niits.ru
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 3 4
. 3.4.

INVITE

SDP, 3456
RTP , :
0 PCMU, 3 GSM 4 G.723.

3.3.3. ACK
ACK INVITE. ,
INVITE, ..
, INVITE. ACK , .

3.3.4. ANCEL
CANCEL ,
CANCEL, Call ID, To, From CSeq,
, . , CANCEL , -
. ,
,
CANCEL.

92

3.3.5. BYE
BYE . , BYE,
() 200 ().

3.3.6. REGISTER
REGISTER
. :
, .
From . , , .
Contact ,
INVITE.
REGISTER Contact , .
*.
Expires , . , 1 , .
REGISTER
Expires, 0,
Contact.

3.3.7. OPTIONS
OPTIONS
.
. ,
. .

SIP

93

SIP , . IETF .
: INFO, PRACK, UPDATE, SUBSCRIBE, NOTIFY, REFER, MESSAGE.

3.3.8. INFO
INFO SIP .
INFO SIP-,
, SIP.
,
, SIP .
INFO ,

.
- SIP,
Record-Route
INVITE.

INFO, .
INFO :

;
DTMF-, ;

;
( );
.

94

3
, INFO, , .
INFO . , ,
, 200 (OK). ,
415 (Unsupported Media Type).
INFO . UAS, CANCEL
INFO, 487 (Request Cancelled), .
INFO -, , , BYE. INFO [11].

3.3.9. PRACK
SIP ,
, . ( ).
, ( ). ,
,
.
SIP
( option tag 100rel).
, 2 INVITE.
TU ( ) , .
, PRACK.
PRACK , ACK, .
PRACK SIP-, BYE, .. (hop-by-hop) stateful -.

SIP

95

, BYE ( ACK), PRACK


. UAS
1 ( 100) , Supported
option tag 100rel. , UAC
. , UAC
. UAC Require option tag 100rel. , RSeq ( 1 231 1).
UAS
.
, .
UAC PRACK
,
. PRACK RAck, .
PRACK 1, .. UAC
PRACK,
.

UAS PRACK. PRACK , 2.
, UAS
.
RSeq
.
PRACK [55]. PRACK . 3.5.

3.3.10. UPDATE
,
(, ) INVITE. , (early media) ,

96

3

, INVITE .
, ,
. re-INVITE (INVITE, , . 4.11) ,
re-INVITE , . , UPDATE
( )
.
Anton

Vladimir

INVITE
180
PRACK
200 ( PRACK)

. 3.5.

PRACK

UPDATE .
INVITE-. Allow INVITE,
, UPDATE , . INVITE-
. ( ) Allow
UPDATE.
( ) UPDATE, offer (
SDP), .

SIP

97

answer ( , SDP). , UPDATE offer,


answer 2 UPDATE.
UA -2 UPDATE,
.
UPDATE offer (, , ) , offer, INVITE, , , PRACK UPDATE answer. , INVITE-
. ,
answer, offer,
re-INVITE UPDATE.
UPDATE , (target refresh request). UPDATE [51]. UPDATE . 3.6.
Vladimir

Anton
INVITE(c offer 1)
180 (c answer 1)
UPDATE (c offer 2)
200 (c answer 2)
UPDATE (c offer 3)
200 (c answer 3)
200 ( INVITE)
ACK

. 3.6.

13. ..

UPDATE

98

3.3.11. SUBSCRIBE NOTIFY


SIP , , .
: ( ), buddy lists
( ), ( )
.
SIP
,
, ( ,
), , .
. 3.7.

(UA)


(UA)

1. SUBSCRIBE
2. 200
3. NOTIFY
4. 200
5. NOTIFY
6. 200

123456. 3.7.

SIP

99

SUBSCRIBE . SUBSCRIBE
, . (subscriber ,
) ,
SUBSCRIBE. SUBSCRIBE
, ,
UAC. ,
,
SUBSCRIBE: Request URI, Event , , .
Request URI
,
(notification), ,
(, sip:vladimir@protei.ru
URI
(user presence state), ).
SUBSCRIBE Event,
, . , , . event
package . Event id. . event package SUBSCRIBE (
event package). , , , , , /
. SUBSCRIBE Allow, , event package .
,
SUBSCRIBE id
Event , .
. , , ,
Expires .

100

3
SUBSCRIBE .
(notifier , ) ,
.
, event package, ,
, , , 200 (OK).
202 (Accepted). , , ,
, . ,
NOTIFY, .
NOTIFY ,
SUBSCRIBE ( ).
,
, NOTIFY. , NOTIFY SIP , ,
SUBSCRIBE, . , .
NOTIFY, , SUBSCRIBE, Event event package, ; id SUBSCRIBE.
NOTIFY , event
package. . NOTIFY Subscription-State active, pending, terminated.
active , .
pending , ,
- . terminated , . NOTIFY
,
( , NOTIFY Event).
, 200 (OK). SUBSCRIBE NOTIFY [50].

SIP

101

3.3.12. REFER
REFER, ,
( Request-URI) , , .
,
(Call Transfer). , Anton Vladimir , Vladimir Alexander,
Anton SIP UA REFER SIP- Vladimir, Alexander.
Vladimir , UA
Alexander, . UA Vladimir
UA Anton,
Alexander.
, REFER
, BYE. REFER Refer-To.
, , , REFER. ,
sip:anton@niits.ru.
, UAS 202 (Accepted)
, REFER-. UA . , REFER,
, , SUBSCRIBE. REFER
, refer. NOTIFY. NOTIFY
, UA, REFER, .
To, From Call-ID
NOTIFY
REFER, REFER SUBSCRIBE.
NOTIFY Event refer. NOTIFY
message/sipfrag ( message/sipfrag
[67]),
; .

102

NOTIFY , . refer
, . ,
NOTIFY NOTIFY NOTIFY, .
NOTIFY Subscription-State terminated ( ) reason noresource.
REFER [68]. . 3.8
Anton Alexander , Alexander .

3.3.13. MESSAGE
(Instant Messaging) , .
, . ,
( ) , .
MESSAGE
(instant messages), , SMS.
. (IM) , , , , .
.

(IM), MESSAGE . Request-URI , ,
,
, . , ,
,
.

SIP

103

Anton

Alexander

Vladimir

1. REFER
2. 202 Accepted
3. NOTIFY
4. 200
INVITE
6
5. NOTIFY
6. 200

. 3.8.

REFER

1
REFER sip:alexander@niits.ru SUP/2.0
Via:SIP/2.0/UDP ant.niits.ru;branch=z9hG4bK2293940223
To:<sip:alexander@niits.ru>
From:<sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=193402342
Call-ID: 898234234@ant.niits.ru
CSeq:93809823 REFER
Max-Forwards:70
Refer-To:( URI)
Contact:sip:anton@niits.ru
Content-Length:0

5
NOTIFY sip:anton@niits.ru SIP/2.0
To:<sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=193402342
From:<sip:alexander@niits.ru>;tag=4992881234
Call-ID:898234234@ant.niits.ru
CSeq:1993403 NOTIFY
Max-Forwards:70
Event:refer
Subscription-State: terminated;reason=noresource
Contact:sip:alexander@niits.ru
Content-Type: message/sipfrag;version=2.0

104

3
, . MIME- ( text/plain),
message/cpim. , message/cpim
IM-, ,
IM-, , , message/cpim,
.
MESSAGE Contact. MESSAGE - . , UA
, , 200
(OK); , ,
, . MESSAGE
. UAC MESSAGE . (IM)
Instant Message URI im:user@domain. URI im ,
URI ( SIP URI). UA- IM URI, SIP URI
Request-URI MESSAGE .
. Anton
Alexander , niits.ru; -.
MESSAGE [7].
-
Anton

Alexander
1. MESSAGE
2. MESSAGE
3. 200
4. 200

. 3.9.

MESSAGE

SIP

105

MESSAGE sip:alexander@niits.ru SIP/2.0


Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv3.niits.ru;branch=z9hG4bK776sgdkse
Max-Forwards:70
From:sip:anton@niits.ru;tag=49583
To:sip:alexander@niits.ru
Call-ID: asd88asd77a@1.2.3.4
CSeq:1 MESSAGE
Content-Type:text/plain
Content-Length:30

Alexander, .

SIP . 3.4.
3.4.

SIP

INVITE
ACK

.
INVITE

BYE

. , .

CANCEL

Call-ID, To, From Cseq,


CANCEL





(
)

REGISTER
OPTION
INFO
PRACK
UPDATE
SUBSCRIBE
NOTIFY
REFER
MESSAGE

14. ..

,

,
,
(instant massages)

106

3.4.
SIP-
Status-Line . Status-Line : (Status-Code) (Reason-Phrase),
(SP). (R)
(LF) CRLF.

Status - Code

. 3.10.

Reason - Phrase RLF

Status-Line

,
. Reason-Phrase , Status-Code,
.
Reason-Phrase : -
,
Accept-Language . .
.
,
.
. , , , , ..
SIP .
,
. : .
, . ,
, 1. ,
2, 3, 4, 5 6.
, .

SIP

107

3.4.1. 1

,
. 1, ,
200 .
ACK; UA
100rel 1
PRACK.
.
3.5. SIP

100

180
181

182

183

Trying. . , ,
. ,
, INVITE.
1 , stateful -.
, , - SIP-
Ringing. .
UA
Call Is Being Forwarded. - . -
, ,

Queued. , .
, . Reason-Phrase
, ,
5 . 15 .
182 (Queued), ,

Session Progress. ,
,
,
. , , SIP
, Session Progress SDP-
.

108

3.4.2. 2xx
2 , .
. 3.6.
3.6. SIP

200

202

OK.
200 INVITE ,
,
200 BYE ,

200 CANCEL ,

200 REGISTER ,
200 OPTIONS
,
Accepted. , . ,
,
202 .
,
.
,

SIP

109

3.4.3. 3xx
3 (. 3.7)
, .
3.7. SIP-

300

301

302

305

380

Multiple Choices. .
, .
,
. UA
, Accept
Moved Permanently.
, ,
Contact .
, ,
.
,
404 (Not Found)
Moved Temporarily.
, Contact .
, . Request-URI
, Contact .
Expires expires
Contact. - URI
. ,
- .
URI ,
Use Proxy. ,
-. ,
-, Contact.
UAS
Alternative Service. ,
,

110

3.4.4. 4xx
4 (. 3.8) ,
.
.
3.8

400

401

402
403

404

405

406

407
408

410

SIP-

Bad Request. . ,
.
. Reason-Phrase , :
Call-ID.
SIP
Unauthorized. .
UAS registrar. ,

Payment Required. .

Forbidden.
. , . , ,
,
Not Found. .
, Request-URI. ,
,
Method Not Allowed. ,
Request-URI. Allow ,

Not
Acceptable. ,
. ,
Accept , , ,

Proxy Authentication Required.


-
Request Timeout. ,
Expires .
.

Gone. ,
. ,
. ,
, 404 (Not Found)

SIP

413

414
415

416
420

421

423

480

481
482

483

111

Request Entity Too Large. .


, .
, Retry-After.
,
Request-URI Too Long. ,
Request-URI,
Unsupported Media Type. - ,
.
, Accept, Accept-Encoding,
Accept-Language,
Unsupported URI Scheme. - , URI
Request-URI
Bad Extension. SIP,
Proxy-Require Require.
Unsupported
Extension Required. UAS
, Supported .
Require .
421 ,
. ,
Supported , 421
, SIP ,
Interval Too Brief. , , .
registrar, , Contact

Temporarily Unavailable. ,
( ,
, , ,
).
Retry-After.
, . Reason-Phrase

Call/Transaction Does Not Exist. ,
.
Loop Detected. . ,
Via, ,
. Via
, , ,
-
Too Many Hops.
-, .
Max-Forwards.

112

484

Address Incomplete. Request-URI.


Reason-Phrase.

Ambiguous. Request-URI .
Contact,
. .

.
,
404 (Not Found) Contact.
sip:anton@niits.ru:
SIP/2.0 485 Ambiguous
Contact: Anton Zarubin <sip:anton-zarubin@niits.ru>
Contact: Anton Ivanov <sip:anton-i@niits.ru>
Contact: Petrov Anton <sips: anton-petr@niits.ru>
Busy Here. ,
. Retry-After
. ,
, ,
Request Terminated. BYE CANCEL
Not Acceptable Here. ,
, , ,
. ,

Bad Event. , , event package,
Event
Request Pending. ,
,
Undecipherable. , UAS, MIME- ,
.
, ;
UA
Security Agreement Required.
. , Security-Client
option-tag sec-agree Supported,
494. Security-Server
, .

485

486

487
488

489
491
493

494

SIP

113

3.4.5. 5xx
5 ,
- .
3.9.

500

501

502

503

504

505

513
580

SIP-

Server Internal Error. . ,


.
. , Retry-After ,

Not Implemented. ,
. , UAS

Bad Gateway. -
. ,

Service Unavailable.
. Retry-After ,

UAC -, 503,
. , 503

Server Time-out. , -,
,
, ,
Version Not Supported.
SIP, .
. ,
SIP
Message Too Large. -
Precondition Failure. UAS ,
offer, , 580.
answer .
(offer), INVITE UPDATE.
SDP-,
offer answer, . SDP-
answer, offer,

15. ..

114

3.4.6. 6xx

(. 3.10). .
3.10. SIP-

600

603
604
606

Busy Everywhere. .
.
, , ,
486 (Busy Here)
Decline.

Does Not Exist Anywhere. .
Not Acceptable. ,
, , , .
Warning

4.

4.1.

SIP, . UA .
.
(dialog ID), Call-ID,
(local tag) (remote tag). UA .
,
tag To.
,
SIP . UAC
Call-ID Call-ID , tag To, tag From. UAS, , Call-ID
Call-ID , tag
From, tag To.

116

4
,
.
, ( UA, ), (
UA), URI, URI,
(remote target), secure (route
set), URI. , ,
.
, ;
, . 2 , , , .

4.2.

.
INVITE 101199 2
tag To. ,
, (early dialog).

4.2.1. UAS
UAS, , , (, , 2 INVITE),
Record-Route ( , , ,
) . UAS
Contact; . URI,
, IP- FQDN. URI, Contact, SIP URI, SIPS URI.

117

, , SIPS URI Request-URI


Record-Route Contact
( Record-Route),
SIPS URI. , URI
. , , URI Contact
INVITE
.
UAS ,
.
TLS, Request-URI SIPS URI,
secure TRUE.
(route set) URI
Record-Route URI. Record-Route , . ,
, .
(remote target) URI
Contact .
CSeq .
.
all-ID Call-ID .
(local tag) tag To ( ) , (remote tag) tag From . UAS
tag From;
0.
URI From, URI To.

118

4.2.2. UAC
UAC ,
(, INVITE), SIP SIPS URI
Contact. Request-URI
Route SIPS URI, Contact SIPS URI.
UA , , .
TLS, Request-URI SIPS URI,
secure TRUE.
URI
Record-Route , URI. Record-Route , . ,
, .
(remote target) URI
Contact .
CSeq . .
all-ID Call-ID .
tag
From , tag To . UA
tag To; 0. URI To,
URI From.

4.3.
,
, . UA, , -

119

, UA, , . ,
, .
Record-Route
Contact. (route set),

(remote target). remote target , .
, (target
refresh requests). re-INVITE UPDATE.

4.3.1. UAC

, . URI To URI , tag
To . URI From
URI ,
tag From . , tag
To From, .
Call-ID Call-ID
.
( ),
Cseq, ACK CANCEL, . , , ,
CSeq .
, .
CSeq
. 232, ,
136
. ,

120

4
.
. ,
, 31 32- .
UAC remote target route set Request-URI
Route . UAC remote target Request-URI, Route .
URI,
lr, UAC remote target Request-URI
Route, .
URI, lr, UAC URI
Request-URI, . Route,
. remote target Route
.
, remote target sip:user@remoteua, route set :
<sip:proxy1>,<sip:proxy2>,<sip:proxy3;lr>,<sip:proxy4>,

Request-URI Route
:
Request-URI sip:proxy1
Route:<sip:proxy2>,<sip:proxy3;lr>,<sip:proxy4>,<sip:user@remoteua>

URI , , lr,
, - Request-URI Route
. - strict router. Request-URI Route , , strict router.
UAC Contact , ,
remote target UA . , secure
TRUE, SIPS URI.

121

,
, (. 2.2.1). , Route ,
Request-URI, Route .

4.3.2. UAC
UAC .
, 408 (Request Timeout). UAC
3 , ,
2.2.2. UAC 2 , remote
target, remote target URI Contact
. 481 (Call/Transaction Does Not Exist)
408 (Request Timeout), UAC . UAC
, .

4.3.3. UAS
UAS . To
tag, UAS , , .
UAS , , , 2.3.1.
To tag, ,
, , UAS , ,
, UAS. . UAS, tag
To, . ,
tag To, , .
, (, OPTION). ,
. UAS ,

16. ..

122

4
CSeq .
, , ,
; , 500
(Server Internal Error). , Cseq, . , UAS
CSeq, .
CSeq .
- ,
. UAC , .
CSeq. UAS
. .
UAS , , remote target URI Contact .

4.3.4.
,
2, , , .
BYE.

4.4.
SIP , : .
(
). INVITE ( INVITE-)
ACK , , 2;

123

ACK INVITE-.
UAC 200 (OK)
INVITE. 200, UAS
, UAC, ,
ACK.
; , .
,
. - (stateful). . 4.1, , UAC
, -
. , -.
- , , , UAS.

-
-
. 4.1.

- , . UA - UA -
. ,
(

124

4
Transaction User (TU); UA - ) .
TU, , , (
ACK). , INVITE
ACK,
, 2. , SIP TU. , . TU
SIP ; INVITE-,
ACK , 2.
2 ACK . 2 UA, ACK . ,
, .
2, ACK,
UA, . -
2 INVITE ACK.

4.4.1.
(TU)
. TU ,
SIP-, , IP-, ,
.
,
, TU. INVITE ( INVITE-).
, INVITE ACK (
-INVITE-).
ACK: TU (
2 INVITE), SIP .

125

INVITE-
: ( 2) . (three-way handshake). . TU -INVITE-, , .

4.4.2. INVITE-
INVITE- .
, ,
ACK. ( UDP)
T1, . T1
, .. ,
(RTT); T1 500 . T1, , T1.
.
( 1)
, .
1 ,
( ).
.
, .
ACK, .

4.4.3. INVITE-
( ) INVITE- . 4.2. Calling , TU
INVITE. SIP
.

126

INVITE TU.
INVITE

.
TU

.
,
INVITE

Calling
300-699.
,
TU

2.
2 TU

1.
1 TU

1.
1 TU

Proceeding

2.
2 TU

300-699.
,
TU
300-699.

Completed


.
TU

Terminated

. 4.2.

INVITE-

,
A T1.
).
64 T1 (
INVITE-).

127

, , SIP,
, 2 T1. , , .
, Calling.
, 1 500 . T1
RTT . SIP-
T1 , . T1 ,
, RTT (round-trip time) . Calling, ,
TU . 64 T1
. ,
Calling, ,
Proceeding.
. ,
TU. , Proceeding.
300 699 Completed.
TU , ACK SIP. ACK ,
, .
Completed D , , 32
0 . ,
Completed,
. D
H INVITE-, 64 T1.
T1, , D 32 .
,
Completed, ACK,
TU.

128

4
D
Terminated. 2 Calling Proceeding
Terminated,
TU.
, TU: - . UAC ACK ,
- 200 (OK) .
Terminated
. , . , 2 INVITE -.
2 - ( , ) UAC ( , ).
. , SIP
,
TU.
2, 2
.

4.4.4. ACK
ACK,
. UAC, ACK 2, 2 ,
. ACK, ,
Call-ID, From Request-URI, ,
,
( INVITE).
To ,
, tag. ACK
Via, Via .
CSeq , ,
ACK. , INVITE, , Route,
ACK. , ACK -
(stateless).

129

, ACK . , , ACK
, .
ACK, ,
2, , ,
INVITE, , 415. ,
415, ACK
, Accept . :

INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pc33.niits.ru;branch=z9hG4bKkjshdyff
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=88sja8x
Max-Forwards: 70
Call-ID: 987asjd97y7atg
CSeq: 986759 INVITE

ACK, ,
2
ACK sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pc33.niits.ru;branch=z9hG4bKkjshdyff
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=99sa0xk
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=88sja8x
Max-Forwards: 70
Call-ID: 987asjd97y7atg
CSeq: 986759 ACK

4.4.5. -INVITE-
-INVITE- ACK. .
T1, 2. , ,
T2.
/ .
,
.

17. ..

130

4.4.6. -INVITE-
( ) -INVITE-
. 4.3. C Trying , TU
. F 64 1.
SIP .

TU.

.

Proceeding

200-699.
TU

F

.
TU

1.
1 TU
F

.
TU

E.

Proceeding

1.
1 TU

200-699.
TU

Completed


.
TU

Terminated

. 4.3.

-INVITE-

131


E T1. ,
, ,
MIN (2 T1, T2). MIN
(4 T1, T2). ,
; T2. 2
4 . -INVITE- , .
1 2 : 500 , 1 , 2 , 4 ,
4 , 4 ..
F TU Terminated.
Trying, TU,
Proceeding. ( 200 699) Trying, TU, Completed.
Proceeding , SIP, T2. Proceeding F TU
Terminated.
( 200 699)
Proceeding, TU, Completed. Completed,
4 0 .
Completed , ,
. 4 ,
. 4 5 . , . K,
Terminated.
, .

132

4.4.7.
, ,
. ,
, .
branch Via.
:
Via branch,
, .
CSeq , . , CANCEL
,
branch, .. .
,
. branch Via, tag To. , ,
, , .
SIP ,
SIP ,
. TU
Terminated.

4.4.8.
TU .
. , . , .

133

4.4.9. INVITE-
INVITE- . 4.4.
INVITE.
INVITE TU,
100, TU
200

INVITE.

101-199 TU.

Proceeding

300-699 TU.


. TU

1
Completed
1
TU

ACK

2 TU.

G.

Confirmed

H

.
TU


.
TU
I

. 4.4.

Terminated

C INVITE-

, Proceeding. 100
(Trying), , TU
200 .
, , , . TU.

134

4
TU
. Proceeding,
SIP. ..,
,
. . , SIP
TU . ,
,
. , TU Proceeding
2, , ,
SIP .
2, TU.
Terminated.
TU 300 699 SIP Completed.
G T1.
Completed,
H 64 T1 .
H , . B, ,
. G, SIP , G MIN (2 T1,
T2). , G ; ,
T2; 2. ,
Completed ,
SIP . ACK,
Confirmed.
G , .
H Completed ,
ACK ;
Terminated TU .

135

Confirmed
ACK, .
, I 4
0
. I Terminated.
Terminated .
, , 2 INVITE.

4.4.10. -INVITE-
( ) -INVITE-
. 4.5. ( INVITE ACK)
Trying. TU,
( ,
). TU , Proceeding.
SIP . TU.
Proceeding
SIP , .
Completed TU ( 200 699),
SIP. Completed J 64 T1
0 .

SIP , .
, TU
Completed, . , J,
Terminated. .

136

.
TU
200-699.
TU

Trying


1 TU
.


200-699 TU.


1 TU.

Proceeding

.
TU

200-699 TU.

.

Completed

.
TU

Terminated

. 4.5.

-INVITE-

4.4.11.
,
. .
branch Via. ,
z9hG4bK (magic cookie), , SIP v. 2.0.
, branch ,
.

137

, :
branch Via , ;
Via
Via ,
;
, , ACK, , , INVITE;
INVITE-, -INVITE-.
Via branch:
.
Via branch magic cookie, ; , .
INVITE , Request-URI,
tag To From, Call-ID, CSeq Via INVITE,
. INVITE.
ACK , Request-URI,
tag From, Call-ID, CSeq
Via INVITE,
, tag To tag To , .
tag To
- ACK, 2, ACK, .

18. ..

138

4
, ,
Request-URI, tag To From,
Call-ID, CSeq Via
, .
-INVITE-.
4.1.

SIP

1
2

500 ( )
4

5c

= 1

64*T1

D
E

> 3
32 UDP
0 TCP/SCTP
64*T1

F
G
H
I
J
K

= 1
64*T1
4 UDP
0 TCP/SCTP
64*T1 UDP
0 TCP/SCTP
T4 UDP
0 TCP/SCTP

RTT ( )

-INVITE- INVITE
,

INVITE (
UDP)

INVITE-

-INVIITE-
( UDP)

-INVITE
INVITE
ACK
ACK
-INVITE-

139

4.5. SDL-
4.5.1. INVITE-
. 4.6. 4.9. SDL-
INVITE-.
S0

(TU)

SIP

Idle

INVITE


=64*1

INVITE

TCP

UDP

A
=1

D := 0
S1

Calling
S1

Calling

. 4.6.

Calling

140

S1

(TU)

INVITE

SIP

D := D + 1

D<6

SIP

Calling

ACK

300-699

A
=2D*1

S1

S4
Calling

Terminated

S2
Proceeding

1. 2
SIP TU.

UA. -
2

S1
Calling

. 4.7.

Proceeding

S3
Completed

(TU)

141

S2
Proceeding

SIP

300-699

ACK

300-699

S4
Terminated

. 4.8.

S2
Proceeding

Completed

S3
Completed

142

(TU)

S3

SIP

Completed

SIP

300-699

SIP

ACK

S4

S4
Terminated

. 4.9.

Terminated

S3
Completed

Terminated

:
S0 Idle .
S1 Calling INVITE, .
S2 Proceeding 1,
INVITE , .
S3 Completed
300 699, ACK.
S4 Terminated .

143

4.5.2. -INVITE-
. 4.10. 4.13. SDL-
-INVITE-.
S0

(TU)

SIP

Idle

F
=64*1

TCP

S1

Trying

UDP

A
=1

D:= 0

S1
Trying

. 4.10.

Trying

144

S1

(TU)

SIP

Trying

SIP

200-699

200-699

D:= D + 1

E
=MIN(2D*1,N2)

S1

S4
Trying

. 4.11.

Terminated

Proceeding

S2
Proceeding

S3
Completed

(TU)

E
=T2

145

S2

SIP

Proceeding

.
SIP

200-699

200-699

S2

S4

Proceeding

. 4.12.

19. ..

Terminated

Completed

S2
Proceeding

S3
Completed

146

(TU)

200-699

S3
Completed

SIP

200-699

S3
Completed

. 4.13.

S4
Terminated

Terminated

:
S0 Idle .
S1 Trying , .
S2 Proceeding 1, , .
S3 Completed
200 699.
S4 Terminated .

4.5.3. INVIT-
. 4.14. 4.16. SDL-
INVITE-.

S0

SIP

Idle

147

(TU)

S
Wait

INVITE

TU 200

INVITE

S1

Proceeding

Wait

300-699

300-699

INVITE

101-199

101-199

D := D + 1

TCP
S2
Completed

S1
Proceeding

S4


=64*1

Terminated

UDP

G
=1

D := 0

1. 2 TU
SIP.
TU
SIP
2. INVITE
1,
TU

S2
Completed

. 4.14.

Proceeding

148

S0

SIP

300-699

.
SIP

(TU)

Idle

SIP

INVITE

ACK

ACK

D := 0

G
=MIN (2*1,T2)

S2

S4

Completed

. 4.15.

Terminated

Completed

S2

Completed

S3

Comfirmed

SIP

ACK

149

S0

Idle


300-699

S4

S3

Comfirmed

. 4.16.

(TU)

Terminated

Confirmed

:
S0 Idle .
S1 Proceeding INVITE,
.
S2 Completed 300 699, ACK.
S3 Confirmed ACK
300 699.
S4 Terminated .

4.5.4. -INVITE-
. 4.17 4.19 SDL-
-INVITE-.

150

SIP

S0
Idle

(TU)

S1
Trying

200-699

101-199

101-199

200-699

S3
Completed

. 4.17.

S2
Proceeding

Proceeding

:
S0 Idle .
S1 Trying , .

151

S2 Proceeding TU 1,
.
S3 Completed
, 200 699 .
S4 Terminated .

SIP

200-699

200-699


=64*1

S3

S2

Proceeding

(TU)

101-199

S2

S4

Proceeding

Terminated

1. INVITE

Completed

. 4.18.

101-199

1,
TU.
Completed

152

SIP

S3
Completed

(TU)

200-699

S4

S4
Terminated

. 4.19.

Terminated

S3
Completed

Terminated

4.6.
,
(), .
, , SIP,
- ,
,
. (location server), .

153

,
, sip:anton@niits.ru, , ,
sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru. , -
() ,
.
,
(binding) URI (address-of-record)
. , - , Request-URI
, , ,
.
,
.
, URI
.
. SIP
. . REGISTER
,
(registrar). REGISTER
, .
, , -,
.
. 4.20. ,
- . . ,
UAS -,
.

20. ..

154

Anton

(UA)
2.

loniis.ru

(registrar)

1. REGISTER
wstation234

(UA)

4.

3. INVITE
alexander@loniis.ru

sip.loniis.ru

5.

6. INVITE
alexander@wstation234.loniis.ru

UA

Alexander
. 4.20.

SIP
. , - . Registrar SIP -
.

4.6.1. REGISTER
REGISTER ,
. REGISTER
( ).
( , , ).

155

, , REGISTER , , UAC.
REGISTER . UAC
REGISTER Route, . Record-Route
. , UAC
(route set)
Record-Route REGISTER.
REGISTER :
Request-URI
Request-URI , ( , sip:niits.ru). userinfo ( ) @ SIP- .
To
To , . To Request-URI ,
.. . SIP,
SIPS URI.
From
From , . To, , .
Call-ID
UAC Call-ID registrar.
CSeq
CSeq REGISTER.
CSeq REGISTER Call-ID.

156

4
Contact
REGISTER Contact,
. (,
Contact),
REGISTER.
action expires Contact
REGISTER .
ction

action
.
, , , UA.
, UAC . SIP
.
expires

( ). . ,
Expires. , 232 1 (4294967295 136 ), , 232 1. 3600.

4.6.2.
REGISTER, ,
(), SIP-
. To .
Contact, , SIP SIPS URI, SIP
( , sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru), URI. UA
( URI tel) ( URI mailto)
.

157

, Vladimir sip:vladimir@protei.ru
c
protei.ru. - , Vladimir, .
,
.
2 REGISTER Contact , .
To REGISTER SIPS URI,
Contact SIPS URI.
-SIPS URI SIPS URI
, , ,
. URI,
, SIP, SIP-, , TLS.
4.6.2.1.


REGISTER, ( registrar
).
: Expires
expires Contact. , REGISTER
, ,
Contact expires.
, ,
.

4.6.2.2.


REGISTER Contact,
, UA, ,
To.
Contact q.

158

4
q Contact
.

4.6.3.

, .
,
, . UA ,
REGISTER.
,

.
* Contact , , Expires 0.
* Contact UA ,
, .

4.6.4.
UA , . , UA. 2
registrar Contact ,
. UA
. ,
UA
expires , , Expires.
UA REGISTER , ; REGISTER . UA
Call-ID
.
, ,
.

159

4.6.5. registrar
UA , : ,
, . UA
registrar. UA registrar, UA , @ ;
Request-URI , SIP-
, SIP: Locating SIP Servers, [56]. ,
UA sip:vladimir@protei.ru REGISTER
sip:protei.ru.
, UA
.
. UAC.

4.6.6.
REGISTER ,
, UAC
, UAC . ,
REGISTER, UAC
REGISTER registrar; , , .

.
UA 423 (Interval Too Brief), ,
REGISTER Min-Expires .

160

4.7. REGISTER
Registrar UAS, REGISTER , - ,
. Registrar , UAS, REGISTER. Registrar 6.
REGISTER Record-Route, registrar ( REGISTER, -, Record-Route).
, Record-Route
REGISTER.
Registrar REGISTER .
REGISTER , ..
, . .
REGISTER :
Registrar Request-URI,
, Request-URI. ,
Request-URI , registrar, ,
-,
, -.
UAS , registrar
Require , .
Registrar UAC. SIP- 6.
SIP-. , registrar
From .
Registrar , .
, -

161

, ,
.
, registrar
403 (Forbidden) .
registrar To .
, Request-URI, registrar 404 (Not Found) . , escaped- (% + )
. , ,
.
Registrar Contact.
, REGISTER (. 8).
Contact , registrar ,
Contact *,
Expires. Contact
, ,
400 (Invalid Request) .
registrar , Call-ID , . ,
; , CSeq , .
, .
Registrar
Contact. ,
:
expires,
;
expires ,
Expired,
;
Registrar -

21. ..

162

4
. , ,
, registrar
423 (Interval Too Brief).
Min-Expires, .
.
expires, Expires , , .
.
follow-me service,
.
registrar ;
, ,
registrar.
registrar ,
URI. , , Call-ID.
Call-ID ,
, , , . , Call-ID , registrar
CSeq:
, ,
. .
Call-ID CSeq .
- , . ,
500 (Server Error), .
Registrar 200 (OK).
Contact . expires,
, registrar.
Date.

163

.
Vladimir . . 4.21. , , .

protei.ru

Vladimir

1. REGISTER
2. 200

. 4.21.

REGISTER (1) :
REGISTER sip:registrar.protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via:SIP/2.0/UDP serv3.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7
Max-Forwards:70
To:Bob <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
From:Bob <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=456248
Call-ID:843817637684230@998sdasdh09
CSeq:1826 REGISTER
Contact:<sip:vladimir@192.0.2.4>
Expires:7200
Content-Length:0

. REGISTER
200 (OK), (2):
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via:SIP/2.0/UDP serv3.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7
;received=192.0.2.4
To: Bob <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=2493k59kd
From: Bob <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=456248
Call-ID: 843817637684230@998sdasdh09
CSeq: 1826 REGISTER
Contact: <sip:vladimir@192.0.2.4>
Expires: 7200
Content-Length: 0

164

4.8.

SIP- OPTIONS UA - .
, ,
, , , . ,
INVITE Require, option-tag ,
UA , OPTIONS. Supported option-tag, UAS . OPTIONS
UA. OPTIONS
Request-URI. OPTIONS -, URI Request-URI ,
Request-URI REGISTER.
Anton

Vladimir
1. OPTIONS
2. 200

. 4.22.

, - OPTIONS
Max-Forwards, 0, , , Request-URI .
HTTP. ( traceroute HTTP), UA OPTIONS
Max-Forwards, . OPTIONS, TU . ,
, -

165

. OPTIONS
UA ,
.

4.8.1. OPTIONS
OPTIONS UAC. Contact OPTIONS
. Accept,
, UAC . application/sdp, .
,
Request-URI, ,
, OPTIONS, ,
OPTIONS . OPTIONS:
OPTIONS sip:alexander@niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pc33.niits.tu;branch=z9hG4bKhjhs8ass877
Max-Forwards: 70
To: <sip:alexander@niits.ru>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=1928301774
Call-ID: a84b4c76e66710
CSeq: 63104 OPTIONS
Contact: <sip:anton@pc33.niits.ru>
Accept: application/sdp
Content-Length: 0

4.8.2. OPTIONS
OPTIONS
UAS SIP-.
, INVITE, .. 200 (OK), UAS
, 486 (Busy Here), UAS , ..
OPTIONS UAS
OPTIONS , UAS INVITE. OPTIONS, , 200 (OK),
, , . , , INVITE, OPTIONS
, -

166

4
200 (OK) ( INVITE
). , INVITE -,
.
OPTIONS -, 200 (OK),
-.
.
200 (OK) OPTIONS Allow,
Accept, Accept-Encoding, Accept-Language Supported.
-, Allow, , . Contact
200 (OK); ,
3, .. ,
. Warning. ,
Accept OPTIONS (
Accept application/sdp).
Accept OPTIONS ,
-, UAS
. UAS OPTIONS ( ).
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pc33.niits.ru;branch=z9hG4bKhjhs8ass877;received=192.0.2.4
To: <sip:alexander@niits.ru>;tag=93810874
From: Anton<sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=1928301774
Call-ID: a84b4c76e66710
CSeq: 63104 OPTIONS
Contact: <sip:alexander@niits.ru>
Contact: <mailto:alexander@niits.ru>
Allow: INVITE, ACK, CANCEL, OPTIONS, BYE
Accept: application/sdp
Accept-Encoding: gzip
Accept-Language: en
Supported: 100rel
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 274

167

4.9.
CANCEL, ,
, . , UAS .
CANCEL , UAS .
,
. CANCEL INVITE,
. UAS,
CANCEL INVITE, ,
INVITE
(487).
CANCEL -, . 4.4 ,
UAC INVITE, 5.2
CANCEL -.

4.9.1.
CANCEL INVITE.
, CANCEL
-INVITE- , ,
CANCEL .
CANCEL . Request-URI, Call-ID, To, CSeq From
CANCEL , tag. CANCEL, ,
Via, Via .
CANCEL . CSeq
CANCEL. , .
CANCEL Require Proxy-Require.

168

4
Route, CANCEL
. , stateless - CANCEL.
CANCEL , ( ) .
, CANCEL ; , ,
CANCEL. , CANCEL,
, .
CANCEL,
,
. , CANCEL
, . CANCEL , CANCEL
.
, , ,
CANCEL- . UAC,
, 487 (Request Terminated)
, UAS,
, . ,
64 T1 ,
.

4.9.2.
CANCEL TU . , , TU
CANCEL, , 4.4.8. .
CANCEL . Stateless
- , stateful -
CANCEL, UAS .

169

- CANCEL
( 5.2.8.)
UAS CANCEL UAS, 2.3. CANCEL

, ( , Authorization). , CANCEL
Require.
UAS, , CANCEL, CANCEL 481
(Call Leg/Transaction Does Not Exist).
, UAS CANCEL ,
. , CANCEL ,
. UAS
,
. INVITE, UAS INVITE 487 (Request Terminated). CANCEL .
, CANCEL
, UAS 200 (OK).
, 2.3.2, , tag
To CANCEL tag To
. CANCEL . . 4.23
INVITE CANCEL.

4.10.
(
), INVITE. INVITE
. - , ,
UAS, .

22. ..

170

4
UAS, , .
UAS 2xx (OK); .
, 3xx, 4xx, 5xx 6xx, . UAS
(1) , UAC .
Anton

Vladimir
1. INVITE
2. 180 Ringing


INVITE

3. CANCEL

4. 487 Request Terminated


5.

. 4.23.

INVITE

UAC 2 -2.
- , INVITE
, INVITE-
(, OPTIONS). UAC
, ACK . ACK .
300 699 ACK
,
4.4. 2 ACK UAC.

171

2 INVITE , UA, INVITE, UA,


2. 2
UA (- INVITE -),
.
.
INVITE. UA, INVITE,
ACK, CANCEL BYE.

4.10.1. UAC. INVITE


INVITE
, 2.
.
, INVITE Allow. ,
.
, Supported.
, .
Accept,
UA
. Accept . UAC Expires,
.
, Expires,
INVITE, UAC CANCEL. , UAC
Subject, Organization User-Agent; , INVITE.
UAC INVITE . , ,
Content-Disposition session. SIP
/ (offer/answer), UA
. (,
), ( ) - . UA ,

172

4
, , , ,
- . offer/
answer , INVITE
, . offer/answer INVITE-:
offer
INVITE UAS,
( 2).
offer INVITE, answer INVITE UAS. (answer) ,
. UAC
answer
INVITE.

offer UAS, , answer ACK 2.

answer offer UAC offer ,


, answer offer
offer, answer .
UAS answer offer,
offer
INVITE. , UAS offer .

:

offer INVITE answer 2 (, ,


1 ),

offer 2 answer ACK,

173

, INVITE,
. , Session Description Protocol (SDP) UA [37].
offer/answer , Content-Disposition session.
, INVITE, ACK (, INVITE (Content-Disposition: render),
ACK (Content-Disposition: session)).
Content-Disposition , Content-Type application/sdp Content-Disposition
session, render.
INVITE UAC , , .
, , ,
.

4.10.2. UAC. INVITE


UAC INVITE , . INVITE-
, (TU) ,
408 (Request Timeout).
4.10.2.1. 1
. INVITE , .
,
INVITE-. , ,
(, Allow ,
,
).

174

4.10.2.2. 3
3 Contact , ,
. 3 UAC .
4.10.2.3. 4xx, 5xx 6xx
INVITE , 2. 4xx, 5xx 6xx Contact
, . , 2, ,
, . , , 2, Completed,
.
4.10.2.4. 2
UAC 2 INVITE,
-,
. tag To . 2 ,
route set
Record-Route 2 ( ).
UAC ACK 2xx. ACK ,
, , Seq , .
CSeq INVITE,
ACK. ACK
, INVITE.
2 offer ( ),
, , ACK

175

answer ( ). offer 2
, UAC answer ACK BYE.
ACK , . SIP, .
, ACK , UAC. ACK
SIP , 2.
2 INVITE UAC
, BYE.

4.10.3. UAS. INVITE


UAS INVITE . UAS ( INVITE ,
INVITE ). , , UAC
:
INVITE, Expires,
UAS , .

. ,
UAS , 487
(Request Terminated).
, , , 4.3. (. 4.11).
tag To,
,
, UAS , , UAS.

176

4
,
INVITE , ,
.
INVITE , UAS offer . , , , INVITE . ,
multicast- . UAS
,
. , SDP-
(session id) SDP-, origin, . ,
, , SDP- INVITE,
, UAS INVITE, , 2.
INVITE , , UAC UAS offer.
UAS offer , ( 2).
UAS , , offer.
.

4.10.3.1.
UAS ,
UAC (, ,
).
101 199. , . UAS
.
(dialog ID).
UAS INVITE, ,

177

-. -
, . , UAS ( 100) ,
(.. ).
INVITE- ,
, (, IVR).
4.10.3.2. INVITE
UAS , 3.
300 (Multiple Choices), 301 (Moved Permanently) 302 (Moved Temporarily)
Contact , .
INVITE-, .
4.10.3.3. INVITE
,
.
486 (Busy Here).
UAS , ,
600 (Busy Everywhere). , UAS
, 600 . INVITE-,
.
UAS, offer, INVITE,
488 (Not Acceptable Here). Warning , .
4.10.3.4. INVITE
UAS 2, .
2 INVITE, , Allow Supported
, , Accept. UAC
, UAS

23. ..

178

4
, . INVITE offer, UAS
answer, 2 answer. INVITE offer, 2 offer , UAS
offer. ,
INVITE-. , INVITE- ,
SIP. , SIP, ACK.
2 SIP , T1 , 2 ( T1 2 . 4.4).
, ACK, ,
. 2 ,
, , UDP.
, 2
UAS , TCP.
2, 64 T1, ACK
, , . BYE, . 4.12.

4.11.
INVITE , offer/answer. 4.1. , , , (remote target).
.
,
.. INVITE
, . INVITE,
, re-INVITE. ,
re-INVITE , .
, .

179

4.11.1. UAC
offer/answer,
INVITE, re-INVITE. UAC,
, , , offer, , INVITE . ,
, .
, UAC re-INVITE ;
re-INVITE, ( 2),
offer.

SDP-,
, ,
.
To, From, Call-ID, CSeq, Request-URI .
UAC re-INVITE Alert-Info
alert Content-Disposition,
UAS re-INVITE.
INVITE, re-INVITE
, , .
, Request-URI , .
, UAC INVITE- , INVITE- ,
:
INVITE-, TU
, Completed Terminated,
INVITE.
INVITE-, TU
, Confirmed Terminated,
INVITE.

180

4
INVITE- UA
, INVITE, ACK CANCEL. , ,
UA INVITE-
, INVITE, ACK CANCEL.
UA re-INVITE ,
2, , re-INVITE . 481 (Call/Transaction Does Not Exist) 408
(Request Timeout) re-INVITE (
), UAC .
UAC re-INVITE 491,
T, .
UAC Call-ID , T 2,1 4
10 .
Call-ID UAC,
T 0 2 10
.
, UAC re-INVITE, .
, , ,
BYE, re-INVITE .
re-INVITE ACK
2 re-INVITE , INVITE.

4.11.2. UAS
UAS, INVITE , INVITE Cseq, INVITE 500 (Server Internal
Error) Retry-After
0 10 .
UAS, INVITE
INVITE, ,

181

491 (Request Pending). UAS re-INVITE


, , , , .
, UAS , , .
, UAS ,
re-INVITE 488 (Not Acceptable Here). Warning.
UAS 2 ACK, BYE .
UAS 180 (Ringing) re-INVITE,
UAC .
UAS re-INVITE Alert-Info
, Content-Disposition
alert.
UAS, offer 2 (- , re-INVITE offer), offer , UAS
, offer, SDP, [54], RFC 3264.
, offer -, UA. UAS ,

-, , ,
UAC. , ,
UAC. , , UAC, answer
BYE.

4.12.
, SIP.

182

4
. INVITE, 1 2
UAS , , offer/answer,
. , . INVITE , 2,
( ),
. , -2
, INVITE.
BYE .
UA, .
BYE, , ,
. UA BYE . UA BYE , , , UA BYE
. UA
BYE , ACK 2. SIP, , , BYE .
INVITE, 2,
CANCEL. UAS -2 INVITE ( , 487).
UAC ,
CANCEL. INVITE () 2,
, UAS ,
CANCEL. UAC ,
2, BYE.
, ,
. UA
CANCEL, 2 INVITE ,
BYE, . UA BYE.
ACK
2 BYE
SIP ACK .

183

,
, 403 (Forbidden)
486 (Busy Here); BYE
.

4.12.1. BYE. UAC


BYE , .
BYE , UAC
-INVITE- . UAC , , -, BYE .
, BYE, UAC 481 (Call/Transaction Does Not Exist)
408 (Request Timeout), BYE , UAC .

4.12.2. BYE. UAS


UAS BYE
. UAS, BYE, . , UAS 481 (Call/Transaction Does Not Exist) . , UAC BYE
tag , UAS . UAS,
BYE ,
. UAS -. UAS 2 .

5. - SIP

5.1. - SIP
- SIP,
SIP- SIP-
. UAS -.
, .
-,
, .
- SIP. ,
, -, ,
. ,
, -
. . , SIP- UAS
UAS .
- (stateful)
(stateless) .
.
,
, . .

- SIP

185

- , . -
( )
,
. -
, , . , SIP-,
.
- (, TCP),
. ,
- TCP-
, , ,
, . ,
, TU -
,
.
Stateful - stateless
, ,
stateless (,
100).
.
stateless stateful
. -
stateful. , stateless, stateful.

24. ..

186

5.2. -
-
SIP-. -
,
-
, (. 5.1).
. -. - ,
,
.

-
C

-
-
. 5.1.

stateful -

, ,
, . -

.
Stateful -
.
. - UAS

( 100 (Trying)). , stateful - 100 (Trying) -INVITE-.

- SIP

187

, -,
:
;
;
() ;
;
.

5.2.1.
- , , . :
;
URI;
Max-Forwards;
();
Proxy-Require;
Proxy-Authorization.
,
.
- ,
, ;
. , ,
.
5.2.1.1.


, . ,
,
.

188

5
, , . , -
, Date.
, - . SIP .
. - - ,
.

5.2.1.2.

URI
Request-URI URI, -, , 416 (Unsupported
URI Scheme).

5.2.1.3.

Max-Forwards
Max-Forwards ,
SIP, .
Max-Forwards, Max-Forwards,
, .
Max-Forwards , -
. OPTIONS, -
.
483 (Too many hops).

5.2.1.4.


- . Via,
,
- ,
- , . , -,
. Request-URI -
.
branch (

- SIP

189

) Via.
, ,
, ,
. -
482 (Loop Detected).
5.2.1.5.

Proxy-Require
SIP , - .
Proxy-Require , , - ,
. Proxy-Require
, -,
420 (Bad Extension). Unsupported, option-tag,
-.

5.2.1.6.

Proxy-Authorization
-
, Proxy-Authorization;
, 407 (Proxy Authentication Required).

5.2.2.
- Request-URI . , -, Request-URI Route
Route (. 5.5.2).
- ,
. , SIP-, -, strict-router. ,
Request-URI strict-router.
Request-URI maddr, -
, ,

190

5
, . ,
,
Request-URI, - maddr , ,
, , .
, maddr,
-, ,
URI. -
.
Route -,
.

5.2.3.
- .
(target set) , .
Request-URI maddr, Request-URI , , -
. Request-URI
, - ,
. ,
- , ,
-. -
, ( -
HTTP, ), , .
, ,
, Request-URI, , , .

.
, , (presence server), ,
Request-URI. -

- SIP

191

Request-URI
.
(target set).
Request-URI , , - 485 (Ambiguous).
, URI . , INVITE, sip:vladimir@protei.ru,
-,
Vladimir.

, ,
-. , , , , ,
-.
- , . URI .
- URI,
Request-URI , -. - Request-URI , , Request-URI.
- 3xx 416, .
Request-URI , , -
. ,
, . ,
- , 3. -
( , SIP- ) ,
. ,
,

192

5
.
Request-URI -, , 404 (Not Found). , - 480 (Temporarily Unavailable).

5.2.4.
, -
. Stateful -
. URI ,
.
URI . , - ,
, .
,
q,
Contact.
q . , , .
Stateful -
.
(response context, . ). - .
- , :

Request-URI;

Max-Forwards;

Record-route;

- SIP

193

;
, ;
Via;
Content-Length ( );
;
.
5.2.4.1.


- .
, ,
.
. - , .

5.2.4.2.

Request-URI
Request-URI
URI . URI ,
Request-URI, . Request-URI .

5.2.4.3.

Max-Forwards
Max-Forwards, -
. - 70, UA
Max-Forwards.

5.2.4.4.

Record-Route ()
- , , , ,
Record-Route -

25. ..

194

5
, Route . , , Route.
, -
Record-Route, , . route set, .
- , Record-Route , .
- , . - Record-Route . ,
.
-
Record-Route Record-Route
- .
URI, Record-Route,
SIP SIPS URI. URI lr, ,
- , [57]. -
, . URI , , , -
, , ,
. URI, -, SIP- , .
- , Record-Route : SIP URI
TCP UDP. URI, Record-Route,
- SIP, , -.
Request-URI SIPS URI Route
( , . . 5.2.4.6) SIPS URI,
, Record-Route, SIPS URI.
, TLS, -

- SIP

195

Record-Route. -,
TLS, , SIPS URI
Request-URI Route (
), Record-Route SIPS URI.
URI, - Record-Route,
. -, , , URI Request-URI . -,
, ,
, , ;
(dialog
ID) , - ,
. URI,
Record-Route , . 4.1 ,
Record-Route.
Record-Route , -
. ; , - ,
.
5.2.4.5.


- .

5.2.4.6.


- , , - ,
. - ,

Route, ( Request-URI) - ( Route). ,

196

5
- . - URI,
lr. URI Route ( ). Route ,
URI.
- , ,
-,
Route ,
-. Route,
, , - Route, .
Route - , , . , Request-URI
SIPS URI, -
TLS. Route, -
URI . lr, - :
Request-URI Route, ;
Route Request-URI
Route.
Request-URI Route
Request-URI
strict-router. Route
Request-URI , strict-router ( URI Request-URI URI
Route).

5.2.4.7.

,

-
IP-, -

- SIP

197

Route Request-URI. , - ,
IP-, , Route. ;
Route.
, - SIP-, [56].
- strict-router
5.5.2,
Request-URI. ,
Route. DNS- (, , ). , URI ,
Request-URI SIPS-, - , SIPS URI. -
, ,
.
- , ,
. 5.2.4.8.5.2.4.10. , . , branch,
Via, , 8- ,
.

, - , .
, ,
(target set). -
, ,
408 (Request Timeout).

198
5.2.4.8.

5
Via
- Via
. , -
branch ,
magic cookie.
-, ,
, ,
branch. -
branch, .
, 2.2.1, ,
.
, - ( ,
). ,
branch, (
Route, Proxy-Require Proxy-Authorization). ,
- ,
, .

tag To From, Call-ID, Request-URI ( ),
Via Cseq.
Proxy-Require
Proxy-Authorization ( ). , , , MD5 [49], .
- , branch,
, ,
, Request-URI ( ) ,
. ,
,
(, ). branch.
, CANCEL ACK , 2,

- SIP

199

, ,
. branch , .
5.2.4.9.

Content-Length ( )
- (, TCP),
Content-Length, -
.

5.2.4.10.
Stateful - , ,
, . 5.2.4.7.
5.2.4.11. C
, INVITE , TU .
, -.
3 . 5.2.5 ,
, 5.2.6 .

5.2.5.
-
, . -
, ( )
stateless -. , . , ( , ),
. , , 2 INVITE .

200

5
-,
:
;
;
Via;
;
;
( ).
, ,
, , - , .
:
Authorization ( );
Record-Route ();
;
CANCEL.

5.2.5.1.


- , .
.

5.2.5.2.


INVITE-, 101
199 , - C
. , 3 .

- SIP
5.2.5.3.

201

Via
- Via .
Via ,
.
, , ,
UAC ( SIP ).

5.2.5.4.


.
, . ,

.
- ,
Contact 3, (target set),
3 . Request-URI
SIPS URI, -
, sips. -
, 3, , .
SIP , - .
3 SIP, SIPS SIP URI.
- sip sips
; , ,
.
- 416 (Unsupported URI Scheme)
, Request-URI ,
sip, sip sips (.. - ), - URI

26. ..

202

5
(target set). URI Request-URI
, sip. tel
tel URL SIP URI SIP URI
, .
, 3, -
SIP SIPS URI, 416,
.

5.2.5.5.


- , :
, 100 (Trying).
2.
6,
; stateful -
.
-
CANCEL, , ,
487 ,
6.
2
INVITE.
Stateful - . , . 5.2.4.4, .
, , ,
. 5.2.4.7 5.2.4.8.
, , , stateful - -INVITE,
-2, 2 INVITE.

- SIP
5.2.5.6.

203


Stateful -
, ,
, , , . Stateful -
,
.
, -
408 (Request Timeout).
- , . 6,
. ,
- , . -
, ,
, 401, 407, 415, 420 484,
4.
-, 503 (Service Unavailable), , , , ,
503. , 503 , - , , Request-URI , 503.
503, -
500 (Server Internal Error). ,
- 4 503 (Service
Unavailable), 407 (Proxy Authentication Required), 501 (Not Implemented) 404 (Not
Found), 407.
, . 5.5.5.7 5.5.5.8.
1 2 . tag To, UAC tag , , . - tag
To 1 2, . -
tag To 1 2.

204

5
- tag To
1 , tag, , 100 (Trying) ( 101199
tag To). -
. UAS ,
.
3 6 , (hop-by-hop). -
UAS, . - tag To 3 6 , tag.
- tag , tag To.
, SIP- ,
- tag To 3 6,
tag .
-
, tag To , tag To
. , ,
401 (Unauthorized) 407 (Proxy Authentication
Required), Contact 3.

5.2.5.7.

Authorization
401 (Unauthorized) 407 (Proxy
Authentication Required), -
WWW-Authenticate Proxy-Authenticate 401
407, ,
. 401 407 WWW-Authenticate Proxy-Authenticate.
, , , .
.

- SIP
5.2.5.8.

205

Record-Route
Record-Route, - , -
. -
SIP-,
.
- TLS,
TLS-, URI Record-Route
, SIPS URI. -
TLS- TLS, -
URI Record-Route , SIP-URI.
URI, -, , Record-Route
(. 2.4.1.4) : URI transport
, - , e SIP, , .
-
Record-Route , , , Record-Route, .
, -
Record-Route , .
, , URI
, -.
, - Record-Route, URI -.
Record-Route -
,
Record-Route. Record-Route,
, -.

5.2.5.9.


- , . , -

206

5
, Via, . 5.2.4.3. ,
- received,
Via ,
. - ,
.
, Via.
,
- (statelessly),
SIP.

. .
- , ,
.

5.2.5.10. CANCEL
, - CANCEL ,
. - ,
6. , ,
( Proceeding)
CANCEL. CANCEL . 4.9.
, INVITE 200 (OK). 200
, CANCEL .

5.2.6.
, - , .
,

- SIP

207

- CANCEL, .
- , 408 (Request Timeout).
-
, ,
.

5.2.7. SIP
SIP - ,
(. 10.7), -
, 503 (Service
Unavailable). -
, . - , .

5.2.8. CANCEL
Stateful - CANCEL,
, . -
, ,
CANCEL.
Stateful - CANCEL
INVITE- ,
Expires INVITE. , , ,
-.
CANCEL stateful -
, .
-
, CANCEL.
, -
200 (OK) CANCEL. -

208

5
UAS, 2.3. , - CANCEL
, , . 5.2.5.10.
, - ,
CANCEL.
( ,
, , -
).

5.3. -
-
. ,
stateful -, stateless -.
.
stateless - ,
stateful -. stateless - SIP
(. 10). , , . , ; ,
, stateless - . ,
- 100 (Trying) .
Stateless - ,
5.2.1, , 5.2.2 5.2.3,
. Stateless -
target set. ,
, . ,
. , ACK, Route,
CANCEL ,
INVITE.

- SIP

209

Stateless - , 5.2.4,
. , branch, stateless -. , stateless -
,
branch, . 5.2.4.8. - , , stateless -
.
branch, ,
, stateless - branch
,
. Stateless -
, branch .
. - branch
Via . , magic cookie, branch

branch. branch
Via, tag
To From, Call-ID, CSeq
Request-URI . . , 5.2.4,
. , -
Record-Route
Route, .
branch Via , - ,
.
Stateless - , ,
stateful - . 5.2.4.10.
, SIP. stateless -

branch ,

27. ..

210

5
-. (, ), , , ,
.
.
.
Stateless -
CANCEL. ,
. , - Route CANCEL , .
, 5.2.5, -, . stateless
-,
Via. , - ,
, Via.
- , . , -
. -, .

5.4. Route Request-URI


, - , Route, :
- Request-URI. ,
-,
URI, . -
Request-URI.
- URI Route.
URI -,
Route.

- SIP

211

- ,
Route Request-URI Route.
- ,
URI [56].
strict-router, Request-URI
URI .

5.5.
5.5.1. -
(. 5.2)
-: , -
Record-Route. U1 ( 1) - P1:
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Contact: sip:anton@u1.niits.ru

U1

-
1

-
2

U2

INVITE
INVITE
INVITE
200
200
200
BYE
BYE
BYE

. 5.2.

212

5
P1 -. P1 protei.ru,
-, protei.ru,
DNS- .
Record-Route.
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Contact: sip:anton@u1.niits.ru
Record-Route: <sip:p1.niits.ru;lr>

P2 ( -) . 2
protei.ru,
Request-URI.
Record-Route. Route ,
Request-URI , :
INVITE sip:vladimir@u2.protei.ru SIP/2.0
Contact: sip:anton@u1.niits.ru
Record-Route: <sip:p2.protei.ru;lr>
Record-Route: <sip:p1.niits.ru;lr>

Vladimir u2.protei.ru 200 (OK):


SIP/2.0 200 OK
Contact: sip:vladimir@u2.protei.ru
Record-Route: <sip:p2.protei.ru;lr>
Record-Route: <sip:p1.niits.ru;lr>

U2 remote
target sip:anton@u1.niits.ru, route set
<sip:p2.protei.ru;lr>,<sip:p1.niits.ru;lr>.
- 2 - 1
1. UA remote target
sip:vladimir@u2.protei.ru,

route set
<sip:p1.niits.ru;lr>,<sip:p2.protei.ru;lr>

route set lr, U1


BYE:
BYE sip:vladimir@u2.protei.ru SIP/2.0
Route: <sip:p1.niits.ru;lr>,<sip:p2.protei.ru;lr>

, SIP ( -), U1 URI Route

- SIP

213

DNS-, , .
P1. - P1 , , Request-URI, . -
, Route, P2:
BYE sip:vladimir@u2.protei.ru SIP/2.0
Route: <sip:p2.protei.ru;lr>

P2 , , Request-URI ( protei.ru, u2.protei.ru),


. - Route,
u2.protei.ru DNS- Request-URI:
BYE sip:vladimir@u2.protei.ru SIP/2.0

5.5.2. strict-router
(. 5.3) 4 -,
Record-Route.
- strict-router.

U1

-
1

-
2

-
3

-
4

U2

INVITE
INVITE
INVITE
INVITE
INVITE
200
200
200
200
200
BYE
BYE
BYE
BYE
BYE

. 5.3.

strict-router

214

5
INVITE, U2, :
INVITE sip:vladimir@u2.protei.ru SIP/2.0
Contact: sip:anton@u1.niits.ru
Record-Route: <sip:p4.protei.ru;lr>
Record-Route: <sip:p3.loniis.ru>
Record-Route: <sip:p2.niits.ru;lr>
Record-Route: <sip:p1.niits.ru;lr>

U2 200 (OK). U2 BYE -


4 Route.
BYE sip:anton@u1.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Route: <sip:p4.protei.ru;lr>
Route: <sip:p3.loniis.ru>
Route: <sip:p2.niits.ru;lr>
Route: <sip:p1.niits.ru;lr>

P4 , Request-URI,
. - , Route, .
Route sip:p3.loniis.ru,
, URI lr.
:
BYE sip:p3.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Route: <sip:p2.niits.ru;lr>
Route: <sip:p1.niits.ru;lr>
Route: <sip:anton@u1.niits.ru>

- 3 strict-router; - 2
:
BYE sip:p2.niits.ru;lr SIP/2.0
Route: <sip:p1.niits.ru;lr>
Route: <sip:anton@u1.niits.ru>

P2 , Request-URI ,
Record-Route. :
BYE sip:anton@u1.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Route: <sip:p1.niits.ru;lr>

P2 u1.niits.ru, P1 Route.
P1 Route,
, :
BYE sip:anton@u1.niits.ru SIP/2.0

P1 u1.niits.ru, Route , P1 u1.niits.ru Request-URI.

- SIP

215

5.5.3. -
Record-Route
. 5.4 U1 U2
; - P1,
.
U1 :
INVITE sip:vladimir@gateway.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Contact: <sip:anton@u1.niits.ru>

P1 U2
:
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Contact: <sip:anton@u1.niits.ru>
Record-Route: <sip:gateway.protei.ru;lr>

U1

-
1

U2

INVITE
INVITE
200
200
BYE
BYE

. 5.4.


Record-Route

U2 P1 200 (OK):
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Contact: <sip:vladimir@u2.protei.ru>
Record-Route: <sip:gateway.protei.ru;lr>

P1 Record-Route, , U1, U1:

216

SIP/2.0 200 OK
Contact: <sip:vladimir@u2.protei.ru>
Record-Route: <sip:gateway.niits.ru;lr>

U1 P1 BYE:
BYE sip:vladimir@u2.protei.ru SIP/2.0
Route: <sip:gateway.niits.ru;lr>

P1 U2 :
BYE sip:vladimir@u2.protei.ru SIP/2.0

5.6.
-, , , .
, . , , , ,
().

, ,
URI , ,
URI. . , CANCEL,
,
, ; 3.
CANCEL 2.
SIP-. .
3
Contact, .
expires,
. Contact ,

- SIP

217

-,
. , 301 (Moved Permanently)
302 (Moved Temporarily) , , , multicast-, , UDP TCP
( ).
URI, , Request-URI , .
, 404 (Not found), ,
-,
.
Contact URI, ,
SIP-. URI , , . Contact , . , SIP-,
,
, .
expires Contact ,
. ,
. , Expires.
3600.
, , option-tag Require ,
.

28. ..

6.
HTTP-

6.1. SIP
SIP stateless- ,
HTTP. , - UA (
, ),
.
SIP Digest. ,
SIP [57] Basic
.
, Basic, .
SIP UAS 401 (Unauthorized) ,
UAC. , registrar 401
(Unauthorized), - ; 407 (Proxy Authentication Required).

219

, .. , . realm
, .
realm :
realm . realm
.
realm , .
:
INVITE sip:vladimir@niits.ru SIP/2.0
Authorization: Digest realm=niits.ru, <...>


(usernames) (passwords).
,
anonymous . , , , ,
,
.
UAC , realm, , UAC ,
.
,
SIP-,
, , ACK
CANCEL.
, (, Digest), , ;
ACK. INVITE, ,
ACK. ,

220

6
ACK, Authorization
Proxy-Authorization INVITE, .
ACK.
, CANCEL ,

, .
, .
, , , - ,
403 (Forbidden). UAC
,
.

6.2. -
UAS UAC, .
Authorization , UAS ,
401 (Unauthorized).
401 (Unauthorized)
WWW-Authenticate. , ,
, () , .
WWW-Authenticate 401.
WWW-Authenticate: Digest
realm=niits.ru,
qop=auth,auth-int,
nonce=dcd98b7102dd2f0e8b11d0f600bfb0c093,
opaque=5ccc069c403ebaf9f0171e9517f40e41

221

UAC 401 (Unauthorized),


, , ,
. UAC
. ( , ), UA - ,
To realm, .
, UAC , anonymous .
, UA,
UAS (, , 401 (Unauthorized)), ,
Authorization.
Authorization ,
,
, , .
Authorization ( REGISTER, ).
Authorization: Digest username= anton,
realm=niits.ru,
nonce=dcd98b7102dd2f0e8b11d0f600bfb0c093,
uri=sip:anton@niits.ru,
qop=auth,
nc=00000001,
cnonce=0a4f113b,
response=6629fae49393a05397450978507c4ef1,
opaque=5ccc069c403ebaf9f0171e9517f40e41

, , UAC , ;
CSeq.

222

6.3. -
, - UAC, ,
.
Proxy-Authorization , - ,
407 (Proxy Authentication Required). -
Proxy-Authenticate , () ,
.

UAC

Proxy-Authorization , -, . UAC 407 (Proxy Authentication Required),


, , ,
. realm , . 6.2
401.
, UAC

anonymous .
UAC - , . Call-ID.
Proxy-Authorization -, realm. -,
Proxy-Authorization -,
realm. - UAC . -, ,
. WWW-Authenticate Proxy-Authenticate,

223

,
, - . .
- ,
407 UAC , . -, ,
-,
, , , , UAC . UAC
, , , , , , .
, ,
UAC Authorization
WWW-Authenticate Proxy-Authorization Proxy-Authenticate.
realm.
, , 401 (Unauthorized) 407 (Proxy Authentication Required). ,
, - , realm, . , UAC Authorization
Proxy-Authorization realm.
.

6.4. Digest
HTTP Digest, SIP. SIP
HTTP. : URI SIP, SIPS;
nonce HTTP- Etag; , P.

224

6

(. 6.1).
Anton

Vladimir

1. INVITE
2. 401
3. INVITE

. 6.1.

Anton
Vladimir INVITE. UAS, ,
Authorization Anton 401
(Unauthorized). WWW-Authenticate
, , , Digest,
realm, niits.ru
nonce. UAC , , , nonce ,
- .
Authorization INVITE UAS. , . , UAS .
,
.
WWW-Authenticate
(challenge), (Digest) realm,
domain, nonce, opaque, stale, algorithm, qop. realm nonce.

225

realm
, ,
(username) (password).
, , ,
.
domain
URI, .
URI, . domain ,
, ,
. domain Proxy-Authenticate,
-.
nonce
, , 401. base64.
nonce . , nonce
. nonce
Authorization ; nonce . . nonce
(time-stamp),
nonce. nonce .
opaque
,
Authorization , URI, . ,

base64.
username
.

29. ..

226

6
stale
, , , nonce . TRUE,

. stale TRUE
, , nonce,
(, ). FALSE, ,
TRUE, stale , , /
, .
algorithm
, .
MD5. ,
(
,
).
qop
[17]. Qop , ,
quality of protection ( ), . auth , auth-int
. Authorization , (Digest) :
username, realm, nonce, uri, response, algorithm, cnonce, opaque, qop, nc.
username, realm, nonce, uri, response.
opaque algorithm WWW-Authenticate
. realm, nonce, algorithm, opaque
.
uri
URI Request-URI, Request-Line. URI
, Request-URI
-. SIP URI

227

, - .
response
, 32 ,
. nonce, nc, cnonce, qop, uri, username, realm, password.
MD5.
qop
, .
, , WWW-Authenticate.
.
cnonce
cnonce , ,

. , qop,
, WWW-Authenticate qop.
nc
nc (nonce count) ( )
, nonce, . , , nonce, nc
nc=00000001.
(replay attack): nc
, .
, qop, , WWW-Authenticate qop.
, , 400 (Bad Request). response
, , -

228

6
, , , .
Digest Authentication-Info.
Authentication-Info ,
, .
: nextnonce, qop,
rspauth, cnonce, nc. nextnonce.
nextnonce
nextnonce nonce, . ,
nextnonce , nonce , . nextnonce
Authorization, stale=TRUE.
qop
, .
, .
rspauth
rspauth
,
, auth-int qop
.
, , ,
. uri, cnonce, nc Authorization
. Digest -, - -, - .
Proxy-Authenticate Proxy-Authorization. Proxy-Authenticate Proxy-Authorization WWW-Authenticate
Authorization.

7.
S/MIME

7.1. S/MIME
, [36] SIP PGP,
.
SIP- MIME.
MIME, ,
MIME- (
multipart/signed application/pkcs7-mime MIME-, [20, 48]. , ( SIP -),
SIP- (, SDP). MIME-
, ,
.
SIP-
. (, , ),
.

. UA.

230

7
.

, ,
. . .
,
.

.
,
, , .
, S/MIME, , ,
, , , ,
. SIP
SIPS URI: userinfo ( ), @ domainname (
) (, anton@niits.ru); .
, S/MIME,
, . . ,
URI (
From) ,
.
, , , , .
, . , (self-signed certificates). SIP,
.

S/MIME

231

( ).
.
,
( )
, SIP-.

7.2. S/MIME
SIP.
S/MIME ,
, , .
UAC ,
S/MIME, ,
multipart/
signed. , , , UAC
, .
UAS ,
, , UAS
. UAS , , From
. , UAS
- . ,
, ,
From , ( ) , UAS
;
.
, , UAS , S/MIME, , UAC,

232

7
, multipart/signed. , , , UAC ,
.
UAC ,
S/MIME, , UAC
. UAC , , To
; , UA
. , , ,
To, ( ) , UAC
. UAC UAS ,
S/MIME, .
, UA ,
From, , UA
, , , . , UA
( , , , , ), ,
. , , ,
.
(self-signed) ,
. , , ,
.
UA , , 493
(Undecipherable).

S/MIME

233


( , , To ); , smime-type Content-Type certs-only.
493 (Undecipherable) ,
S/MIME.
, ,
S/MIME , handling Content-Disposition required, , 415 (Unsupported Media Type), .
, , ,
S/MIME.
S/MIME. ,
415 ,
.
,
S/MIME , , UAC
, S/MIME
. , UA, S/MIME,
, , S/MIME .
, .
,
, , ,
. ; , (call back). ,
, , ,
. ,
,
.

30. ..

234

7
UA
, , UA
, , ,
, .

7.3.
S/MIME
application/pkcs7-mime multipart/signed.
. application/pkcs7-mime
multipart/signed. , ,
.
application/pkcs7-mime,
application/sdp. smime-type Content-Type enveloped-data, , .
, (), .
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pc33.niits.ru;branch=z9hG4bKnashds8
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru> tag=1928301774
Call-ID: a84b4c76e66710
CSeq: 314159 INVITE
Max-Forwards: 70
Contact: <sip:anton@pc33.niits.ru>
Content-Type: application/pkcs7-mime; smime-type=enveloped-data;
name=smime.p7m
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=smime.p7m
handling=required
Content-Type: application/sdp
v=0 o=anton 53655765 2353687637 IN IP4 pc33.niits.ru
s=t=0 0
c=IN IP4 pc33.niits.ru
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 1 3 99
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

S/MIME

235

application/sdp
multipart/signed.
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pc33.niits.ru;branch=z9hG4bKnashds8
To: Vladimir <vladimir@protei.ru>
From: Anton <anton@niits.ru>;tag=1928301774
Call-ID: a84b4c76e66710
CSeq: 314159 INVITE
Max-Forwards: 70
Contact: <sip:anton@pc33.niits.ru>
Content-Type: multipart/signed;
protocol=application/pkcs7-signature;
micalg=sha1; boundary=boundary42
--boundary42
Content-Type: application/sdp
v=0
o=anton 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 pc33.niits.ru
s=Session SDP
c=IN IP4 pc33.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
--boundary42
Content-Type: application/pkcs7-signature; name=smime.p7s
Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=smime.p7s;
handling=required
ghyHhHUujhJhjH77n8HHGTrfvbnj756tbB9HG4VQpfyF467GhIGfHfYT6
4VQpfyF467GhIGfHfYT6jH77n8HHGghyHhHUujhJh756tbB9HGTrfvbnj
n8HHGTrfvhJhjH776tbB9HG4VQbnj7567GhIGfHfYT6ghyHhHUujpfyF4
7GhIGfHfYT64VQbnj756
--boundary42-

7.4. SIP-
SIP- S/MIME SIP message/sip ,
SIP. SIP
,

236

7
,
. UAS ,
message/sip, message/sip .
, , , , message/sip multipart/mixed.

7.4.1. SIP-
SIP S/MIME SIP-, ,
message/sip, .
, ,
.

. ,
-, : Via, Record-Route, Route, Max-Forwards,
Proxy-Authorization; , Request-URI.
,
. ,
UA.
Date, UA, , . ( ), UA
.
,
, 403
(Forbidden), ,
. message/sip:
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pc33.niits.ru;branch=z9hG4bKnashds8
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>

S/MIME

From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru> ;tag=1928301774


Call-ID: a84b4c76e66710
CSeq: 314159 INVITE
Max-Forwards: 70
Date: Fri, 30 Apr 2004 13:02:03 GMT
Contact: <sip:anton@pc33.niits.ru>
Content-Type: multipart/signed;
protocol=application/pkcs7-signature;
micalg=sha1; boundary=boundary42
Content-Length: 568
--boundary42
Content-Type: message/sip
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pc33.niits.ru;branch=z9hG4bKnashds8
To: Vladimir <vladimir@protei.ru>
From: Anton <anton@niits.ru>;tag=1928301774
Call-ID: a84b4c76e66710
CSeq: 314159 INVITE
Max-Forwards: 70
Date: Fri, 30 Apr 2004 13:02:03 GMT
Contact: <sip:anton@pc33.niits.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 147
v=0
o=anton 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 pc33.niits.ru
s=Session SDP
c=IN IP4 pc33.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
--boundary42
Content-Type: application/pkcs7-signature; name=smime.p7s
Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=smime.p7s;
handling=required
ghyHhHUujhJhjH77n8HHGTrfvbnj756tbB9HG4VQpfyF467GhIGfHfYT6
4VQpfyF467GhIGfHfYT6jH77n8HHGghyHhHUujhJh756tbB9HGTrfvbnj
n8HHGTrfvhJhjH776tbB9HG4VQbnj7567GhIGfHfYT6ghyHhHUujpfyF4
7GhIGfHfYT64VQbnj756
--boundary42-

237

238

7.4.2.
, message/sip.
,
S/MIME ,
SDP. .
.
, From , ( , sip:anonymous@anonymizer.invalid).
From, , message/sip,
.
, message/sip .
multipart/signed,
, message/
sip, , .
application/pkcs7-mime.
; , (), .
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pc33.niits.ru;branch=z9hG4bKnashds8
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
From: Anonymous <sip:anonymous@niits.ru>;tag=1928301774
Call-ID: a84b4c76e66710
CSeq: 314159 INVITE
Max-Forwards: 70
Date: Thu, 30 Apr 2004 13:02:03 GMT
Contact: <sip:pc33.niits.ru>
Content-Type: multipart/signed;
protocol=application/pkcs7-signature;
micalg=sha1; boundary=boundary42
Content-Length: 568
--boundary42
Content-Type: application/pkcs7-mime; smime-type=enveloped-data;
name=smime.p7m

S/MIME

Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=smime.p7m
handling=required
Content-Length: 231
Content-Type: message/sip
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP pc33.niits.ru;branch=z9hG4bKnashds8
To: Vladimir <vladimir@protei.ru>
From: Anton <anton@niits.ru>; tag=1928301774
Call-ID: a84b4c76e66710
CSeq: 314159 INVITE
Max-Forwards: 70
Date: Thu, 30 Apr 2004 13:02:03 GMT
Contact: <sip:anton@pc33.niits.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
v=0
o=anton 53655765 2353687637 IN IP4 pc33.niits.ru
s=Session SDP
t=0 0
c=IN IP4 pc33.niits.ru
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0 1 3 99
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
--boundary42
Content-Type: application/pkcs7-signature; name=smime.p7s
Content-Transfer-Encoding: base64
Content-Disposition: attachment; filename=smime.p7s;
handling=required
ghyHhHUujhJhjH77n8HHGTrfvbnj756tbB9HG4VQpfyF467GhIGfHfYT6
4VQpfyF467GhIGfHfYT6jH77n8HHGghyHhHUujhJh756tbB9HGTrfvbnj
n8HHGTrfvhJhjH776tbB9HG4VQbnj7567GhIGfHfYT6ghyHhHUujpfyF4
7GhIGfHfYT64VQbnj756
--boundary42-

239

8.

, , SIP -
.
SIP, , .
SIP
, SIP, RTP, ,
SIP.
, SIP. , , , .
, SIP.

241

8.1.
,
SIP. ,
,
SIP.
SIP; ,
, ,
.
, , ,
SIP ,
. (, ).
, , .

8.1.1.
SIP , , ( ). Registrar
, From REGISTER,
, ,
, To. ,
, SIP, .
From SIP- UA, .
, , , , ,
,
,
, , .

31. ..

242

8
,
. SIP UAS,
(, ,
SIP- ),
.
UA , SIP-, .
, SIP .

8.1.2.
, , ,
Request-URI. , .
, ,
.
, ,
, loniis.ru, , protei.ru.
protei.ru,
loniis.ru , SIP-
protei.ru.
UA ,
protei.ru.
, .
, ,
, protei.ru,
loniis.ru, 301 (Moved
Permanently). , , ,
protei.ru, loniis.ru
. REGISTER UA,
loniis.ru. ,
,
.

243

8.1.3.
SIP UA -, . , , UA - ,
, .
UA, SIP- ,
. ,
- ,
UA , . ,
- , ,
, , , UA.
, , SIP.
, MIME-, , SDP .
SDP-, ,
, RTP- .
, SIP
, Subject.
, (, ,
Subject, , ).
- ,
.
UA
SIP , , . , , , .
, , -.

244

8.1.4.
, / . , ,
.
, , (tag To
From ) BYE. , ,
. BYE ,
.
, ,
re-INVITE, (,
, ).
BYE.
, BYE , , , . ,
- , BYE .
( -)
.

8.1.5. (DoS-)
, (denial-of-service attacks), ,
, .
, ,
,
.

245

SIP - ,
IP-. , SIP
, ,
SIP-.
, IP-
Via, , , , SIP-,
SIP- -
, .
Route ,
, -, ,
, , .
Record-Route, ,
.
denial-of-service , REGISTER
.
,
. ,
. , registrar -
.
.
, denial-of-service.

246

8.2.
, , SIP
: ,
(replay-attacks)
(message spoofing),
, denial-of-service. , SIP-, , , .
, , SIP
, SIP, , , HTTP SMTP.

,
, . SIP (end-to-end), ,
Request-URI, Route Via -
, SIP- .
- SIP (, Via). , - - SIP- .
SIP- , SIP-
.
-, .
SIP . SIP- , , , , -, , . , SIP
.

247

, SIP
,
.

8.2.1.


.

, TLS IPSec, .
IPSec ,
IP . IPSec
,
. IPSec ,
, ( VPN). IPSec
.
IPSec SIP-.
IPSec, , SIP,
SIP- .
-, , IPSec.
TLS , (, TCP); tls (.. TLS
TCP) , , Via SIP URI. TLS ,
, .
, UA Anton -
,

248

8
- , UA
Vladimir. Vladimir, , -
Vladimir Anton . ,
SIP
; UA,
- TLS, , TLS .

8.2.2. SIPS URI


SIPS ,
. SIPS URI
SIP URI, ,
sips sip. SIPS SIP URI.
SIPS URI
, .. ,
From .
SIPS URI Request-URI ,
, ,
TLS. , , UAS
( , TLS).
SIPS URI SIPS , -,
, .
SIPS , Request-URI
, ,
Contact Route. SIPS URI .
SIPS URI (, , transport) , TLS ,
sips:anton@niits.ru; transport=tcp sips:anton@niits.ru;
transport=sctp . UDP SIPS.

249

8.2.3. HTTP-
SIP , HTTP-. 401 407, ,
, , . Digest
SIP .
Digest- SIP 6.

8.2.4. S/MIME
, SIP- , ( -)
; SIP- .
S/MIME SIP-
MIME,
. S/MIME , .
S/MIME,
SIP- SIP. S/MIME
SIP 7.

32. ..

250

8.3.
8.3.1. SIP
-, TLS . , TLS-; , TLS. -,
,
-.

TLS. SIP, TLS, ,
TLS-.
,
. SIP-, TLS, SIPS URI.
-, ,
IPSec .
-, ,
Digest.

8.3.2.

, , Web E-Mail. ( -,
), (username) (password).

-, , , , UA
- , ,
TLS.

251


S/MIME, UA SIP-.
,
, .
8.3.2.1.

UA , TLS- . Registrar . , ,
, UA .
, UA
anton@niits.ru, ,
niits.ru ( sip.niits.ru). UA TLS-,
, , . , , UA
REGISTER , , .
registrar , UA , registrar , UA ,
.
UA REGISTER, Request-URI ,
, .
UA REGISTER TLS-,
registrar , 401 (Proxy Authentication Required). realm
Proxy-Authenticate ,
. UAC ,
,
, realm . (username)
(userinfo) URI, To REGISTER. Proxy-Authorization, REGISTER
.

252

8
registrar ,
REGISTER
. ,
REGISTER TLS-,
REGISTER, (replay-).
, registrar , UA
, registrar
-, , . TLS-
,
. UA TLS-, ,
, -,
,
-.

8.3.2.2.
, Anton
,
vladimir@protei.ru.
(niits.ru) -.
-, , -; niits.ru ( UA TLS-, ). ,
, ,
TLS- -
INVITE . UA
INVITE , -,
.
- UA INVITE,
Request-URI, , -

253

. Request-URI
(niits.ru), protei.ru, -
,
. , , anton@niits.ru alexander@niits.ru. -
TLS-, Alexander
. Alexander
, , Anton -
.
Request-URI
. , - niits.ru
TLS- - protei.ru.
TLS- ,
, .
, ,
, SIP-. , - niits.ru , ,
, protei.ru.
, TLS-,
-, , - niits.ru INVITE protei.ru.
- protei.ru , ,
- niits.ru , ,
From INVITE. -
protei.ru ,
, ,
. , ,
.
, , ; protei.ru , niits.ru
Anton. protei.ru niits.ru, ,

254

8
, , Anton .
protei.ru ,
, protei.ru.
INVITE - protei.ru, TLS-
( ), , ( vladimir@protei.ru). INVITE
Vladimir. TLS-,
-
protei.ru, Vladimir ,
niits.ru Anton,
, .
, -
Record-Route ,
-. , - . -
Record-Route,
-
(
, S/MIME).
, , , ,
BYE
Vladimir Anton, , ,
.

8.3.2.3.

-
UA, -. UA Alexander
alexander@loniis.ru. Alexander INVITE vladimir@protei.ru, UA TLS- - protei.ru ( , [56]).

255

UA Alexander -
protei.ru, , UA INVITE
TLS-. UA Alexander
-
protei.ru, ,
message/sip (. 7.4) INVITE. - protei.ru
, , protei.ru From. -
.
Vladimir - protei.ru
:
<sip:vladimir@192.0.2.4>, vladimir@protei.ru. Alexander
TLS-, - protei.ru;
.
Alexander TCP- INVITE Request-URI, ( , ).
Vladimir INVITE , ,
UA , , From
, INVITE. Vladimir
, ,
Alexander ; .
NAT (Network Address Translation) TCP-
UA. - , , , TLS- TCP-,
.

256

8.3.2.4. DoS-
, , .
, - SIP,
,
, ( ,
ping-). , ,
denial-of-service , , SIP-
.
, , , -,
-; ,
.
- SIP-; stateful
- , stateless -. ,
stateful - , stateless -.
- 401
(Unauthorized) 407 (Proxy Authentication Required),
, , , stateless . 401 407 ,
( Via),
.
, -
, TLS,
, - .

9.

9.1. -
. 9.1 Anton Vladimir - Proxy 1 Proxy 2.
INVITE (F1) Route Proxy 1. Proxy 1
- Anton. , Proxy 1 407 (Proxy Authorization), .
INVITE (F4), , . , Vladimir BYE.
- Proxy 1 INVITE
Record-Route ,
. Proxy 2 Record-Route.
ACK (F15) BYE (F18) Route.

33. ..

258

-
1

Anton

-
2

Vladimir

1. INVITE
2. 407
3.
4. INVITE
5. INVITE
6. 100

7. INVITE

8. 100
9. 180
10. 180

11. 180

12. 200
13. 200

14. 200
15. ACK
16. ACK
17. ACK
RTR-

18. BYE
19. BYE
20. BYE
21. 200
22. 200
23. 200

. 9.1.

259

. 9.1.
1. INVITE Anton Proxy 1
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74b43
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss1.niits.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
v=0
o=anton 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 serv1.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 192.0.2.101
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

- Proxy 1 .
2. 407 (Proxy Authorization Required) Proxy 1 Anton
SIP/2.0 407 Proxy Authorization Required
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74b43
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=3flal12sf
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Proxy-Authenticate: Digest realm=niits.ru, qop=auth,
nonce=f84f1cec41e6cbe5aea9c8e88d359,
opaque=, stale=FALSE, algorithm=MD5
Content-Length: 0
3. ACK Anton Proxy 1
ACK sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74b43
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=3flal12sf
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0

Anton INVITE, .

260

9
4. INVITE Anton Proxy 1
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss1.niits.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Proxy-Authorization: Digest username=anton,
realm=niits.ru,
nonce=wf84f1ceczx41ae6cbe5aea9c8e88d359, opaque=,
uri=sip:vladimir@protei.ru,
response=42ce3cef44b22f50c6a6071bc8
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
v=0
o=anton 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 serv1.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 192.0.2.101
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

Proxy 1 INVITE - Proxy 2. Anton 49172.


5. INVITE Proxy 1 Proxy 2
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.niits.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
v=0
o=anton 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 serv1.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 192.0.2.101

t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
6. 100 (Trying) Proxy 1 Anton
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
7. INVITE Proxy 2 Vladimir
INVITE sip:vladimir@serv3.protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss2.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e4.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 68
Record-Route: <sip:ss2.protei.ru;lr>,
<sip:ss1.niits.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
v=0
o=anton 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 serv1.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 192.0.2.101
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
8. 100 (Trying) Proxy 2 Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Content-Length: 0

261

262

9
9. 180 (Ringing) Vladimir Proxy 2
SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss2.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e4.1
;received=192.0.2.222
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss2.protei.ru;lr>,
<sip:ss1.niits.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
Contact: <sip:vladimir@serv3.protei.ru;transport=tcp>
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
10. 180 (Ringing) Proxy 2 Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss2.protei.ru;lr>,
<sip:ss1.niits.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
Contact: <sip:vladimir@serv3.protei.ru;transport=tcp>
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
11. 180 (Ringing) Proxy 1 Anton
SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss2.protei.ru;lr>,
<sip:ss1.niits.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
Contact: <sip:vladimir@serv3.protei.ru;transport=tcp>
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
12. 200 (OK) Vladimir Proxy 2
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss2.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e4.1
;received=192.0.2.222
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111

Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9


;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss2.protei.ru;lr>,
<sip:ss1.niits.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:vladimir@serv3.protei.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 147
v=0
o=vladimir 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 serv3.protei.ru
s=c=IN IP4 192.0.2.201
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
13. 200 (OK) Proxy 2 Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss2.protei.ru;lr>,
<sip:ss1.niits.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:vladimir@serv3.protei.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 147
v=0
o=vladimir 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 serv3.protei.ru
s=c=IN IP4 192.0.2.201
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
14. 200 (OK) Proxy 1 Anton
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss2.protei.ru;lr>,
<sip:ss1.niits.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl

263

264

To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159


Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:vladimir@serv3.protei.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 147
v=0
o=vladimir 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 serv3.protei.ru
s=c=IN IP4 192.0.2.201
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
15. ACK Anton Proxy 1
ACK sip:vladimir@serv3.protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74b76
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss1.niits.ru;lr>,
<sip:ss2.protei.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 ACK
Content-Length: 0
16. ACK Proxy 1 Proxy 2
ACK sip:vladimir@serv3.protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74b76
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
Route: <sip:ss2.protei.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 ACK
Content-Length: 0
17. ACK Proxy 2 Vladimir
ACK sip:vladimir@serv3.protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss2.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e4.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74b76
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 68
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru

265

CSeq: 2 ACK
Content-Length: 0

Anton Vladimir RTP-.


Vladimir . , CSeq
3. Anton Vladimir
CSeq.
18. BYE Vladimir Proxy 2
BYE sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv3.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss2.protei.ru;lr>,
<sip:ss1.niits.ru;lr>
From: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
To: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE
Content-Length: 0
19. BYE Proxy 2 Proxy 1
BYE sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss2.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e4.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv3.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7
;received=192.0.2.201
Max-Forwards: 69
Route: <sip:ss1.niits.ru;lr>
From: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
To: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE
Content-Length: 0
20. BYE Proxy 1 Anton
BYE sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss2.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e4.1
;received=192.0.2.222
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv3.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7
;received=192.0.2.201
Max-Forwards: 68
From: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
To: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE
Content-Length: 0

34. ..

266

9
21. 200 (OK) Anton Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss2.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e4.1
;received=192.0.2.222
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv3.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7
;received=192.0.2.201
From: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
To: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE
Content-Length: 0
22. 200 (OK) Proxy 1 Proxy 2
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss2.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e4.1
;received=192.0.2.222
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv3.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
To: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE
Content-Length: 0
23. 200 (OK) Proxy 2 Vladimir
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv3.protei.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKnashds7
;received=192.0.2.201
From: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
To: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE
Content-Length: 0

267

9.2.

, . 9.2, Anton
Vladimir .
INVITE .
302 (Moved Temporarily), Contact SIP-
Vladimir. Anton INVITE
Vladimir -;
. INVITE SDP-
, ACK. , Vladimir BYE.
.
1. INVITE Anton
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKbf9f44
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru>
Content-Length: 0
2. 302 (Moved Temporarily) Anton
SIP/2.0 302 Moved Temporarily
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKbf9f44
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=53fHlqlQ2
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:vladimir@loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Length: 0
3. ACK Anton
ACK sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKbf9f44
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=53fHlqlQ2
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0

268

C
(Register)

Anton

-
2

Vladimir

1. INVITE
2. 302
3. ACK

4. INVITE

5. INVITE

6. 100
7. 180
8. 180

9. 200

10. 200
11. ACK
12. ACK
RTR-

13. BYE
14. BYE
15. 200
16. 200

. 9.2.

4. INVITE Anton Proxy 2


INVITE sip:vladimir@loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Length: 0


5. INVITE Proxy 2 Vladimir
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.niits.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
Call-ID: 3848276298220188511@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
6. 100 (Trying) Proxy 2 Anton
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
7. 180 (Ringing) Vladimir Proxy 2
SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss3.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e.1
;received=192.0.2.233
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss3.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:vladimir@serv5.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Length: 0
8. 180 (Ringing) Proxy 2 Anton
SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss3.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:vladimir@serv5.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Length: 0

269

270

9
9. 200 (OK) Vladimir Proxy 2
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss3.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e.1
;received=192.0.2.233
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss3.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:vladimir@serv5.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 148
v=0
o=vladimir 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 serv5.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 192.0.2.100
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
10. 200 (OK) Proxy2 Anton
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss3.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:vladimir@serv5.loniis.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 148
v=0
o=vladimir 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 serv5.loniis.ru
s=c=IN IP4 192.0.2.100
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

ACK SDP-
Anton, INVITE.

271

11. ACK Anton Proxy 2


ACK sip:vladimir@serv5.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bq9
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss3.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 ACK
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
v=0
o=anton 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 serv1.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 192.0.2.101
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
12. ACK Proxy 2 Vladimir
ACK sip:vladimir@serv5.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss3.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv1.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bq9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
From: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 2 ACK
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
v=0
o=anton 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 serv1.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 192.0.2.101
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

Vladimir ACK, Anton Vladimir RTP-. - Vladimir


.
13. BYE Vladimir Proxy 2
BYE sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv5.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKfgaw2
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss3.loniis.ru;lr>
From: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159

272

To: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl


Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE
Content-Length: 0
14. BYE Proxy 2 Anton
BYE sip:anton@serv1.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss3.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e.1
;received=192.0.2.100
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv5.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKfgaw2
Max-Forwards: 69
From: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
To: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE
Content-Length: 0
15. 200 (OK) Anton Proxy 2
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss3.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e.1
;received=192.0.2.233
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv5.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKfgaw2
;received=192.0.2.100
From: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
To: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE
Content-Length: 0
16. 200 (OK) Proxy 2 Vladimir
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP serv5.loniis.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKfgaw2
;received=192.0.2.100
From: Vladimir <sip:vladimir@protei.ru>;tag=314159
To: Anton <sip:anton@niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@niits.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE
Content-Length: 0

10.


SIP

10.1.
SIP . ,

SIP , .
SIP
TCP SCTP. SIP
, , . , , .
SIP-, IP-,
.
SIP-, IP-,
.
, , , DNS-,
RFC 3263 Locating SIP servers[56]. - ,

35. ..

274

10
SIP, .
-, ,
, .

, . ,
, , ,
Terminated.
,
, . ,
, 64*T1. , , SIP , TU,
(. . 5.2.4.11.).
SIP UDP TCP. .

10.2.
SIP . SIP, , SIP-,
SIP-, IP-, , , , , TTL .
200 ( MTU), 1300 , MTU
, , , , TCP.
(
, Via),
Via . , UDP,
.

SIP

275

.
UDP 65,535 , IP UDP.
200-
MTU , SIP .
, Record-Route
INVITE. 1300 , path MTU , , Ethernet MTU 1500 .
SIP TCP
- (
UDP). ,
TCP- , ICMP , SIP ,
UDP. , TCP. ,
.
, , maddr Via, URI
, IPv4 ttl
, 1.
,
SIP Via , IP-/
. ,
.
5060 UDP, TCP SCTP, 5061 TLS.
, .
SIP , .
.
, SIP
IP- ,
, Via.

276

10
SIP , , 5, [56].
IP- , (
) , Via. , ,
, .
,
, 5, [56].
SIP
multicast- ,
( , ,
multicast-, ).
IP-,
, , , .
,
, TTL, SIP. , IP- ,
.

10.3.
, SIP Via. Via
,
, .
,
SIP , 4.4.1, -

SIP

277

. , .
( , stateless -, stateful - UA). , , (,
- , UA ).

10.4.

IP-, ,
DNS- .
Contact REGISTER 3 Record-Route . , SIP- (5060 TCP UDP, 5061 TLS
TCP) .
, ,
. , UDP-,
TCP-. , , TCP,
UDP. . UDP-
,
TCP-. ,
UDP-.
SIP , ,
Via. URI,
, IP-,
, Via
received. , . SIP IP- , .

278

10
, , . :
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP serv3.protei.ru:5060

IP- 192.0.2.4.
, SIP Via received , .
INVITE sip:vladimir@protei.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP serv3.protei.ru:5060;received=192.0.2.4

, SIP
. ,
4.4.8. , . ,
, . , UAS
2 INVITE, . , , ACK,
. ACK UAS,
.

10.5.

Via , , .
SIP .
Via ,
TCP, SCTP TLS ( TCP SCTP), ,
.
SIP
. ,
IP-
received ( ), , ,
,

SIP

279

( , Via ).
, ,
[56], .
, Via maddr,
, , , 5060,
.
, TTL,
ttl, TTL, 1, .
, Via received ( unicast-),
, , , 5060, .
, ,
ICMP port unreachable ( ), , ,
, ,
5, [56].
, , , 5, [56].

10.6.
, ( UDP), Content-Length,
, .
Content-Length, , , .
, ,
. ,
, .
, . , 400 (Bad Request).

280

10
- , TCP,
Content-Length, , .

10.7.
,
. SIP, , , ,
, ICMP-,
ICMP-. , ,
(host, network, port, protocol unreachable) ,
, SIP
. ICMP Source quench TTL
exceeded .
SIP , , , SIP
.

11.

SIP-T

11.1. SIP-T

IP- SIP.
SIP-
, .
SIP ,
SIP-T.
SIP-T 7 SIP,
, . SIP-ISUP ISUP 7 SIP, , .
, , -,
SIP ,
ISUP. ,
ISUP SIP , ,
SIP-. ,
SIP , . 11.1.

36. ..

282

11
11.1.


-SIP
SIP ISUP
SIP ,
ISUP
ISUP

SIP-T
ISUP SIP
ISUP
SIP
INFO

, [27, 28, 29, 30],


SIP ISUP [28].

11.2.

.

11.2.1. SIP-T (IP)


, SIP , ..
, SIP bridging. ISUP SIP
, .. SIP, .
ISUP SIP . . 11.1
SIP.
, SIP, , IAM ISUP
MGC (Media Gateway Controller),
SIP. MGC
SIP SIP-.
SIP ,
( MGC). SIP
- SIP-. MGC, SIP ,
IAM ISUP, SIP, ,
.. .
. 11.2.

SIP-T

283

Proxy
MG

MG

VoIP

MGC

MGC

Proxy

. 11.1.

SIP

MGC1

MGC2

IAM
INVITE
IAM
100
ACM
18
ANM

ACM
200
ANM
ACK

REL
REL
RLC

RLC
BYE
200

. 11.2.

SIP

284

11

11.2.2. IP-
,
SIP.

VoIP
MGC

. 11.3.

Proxy

SIP

SIP

. 11.3 . MGC, IAM


ISUP SIP-, SIP-.
SIP , - MGC - SIP-.
. 11.4.

MGC1

IAM

INVITE
100
18
200

ACM
ANM

SIP

INVITE
18
200


REL
RLC

. 11.4.

SIP

BYE
200

BYE
200

SIP-T

285

11.2.3. IP-
SIP,
.

MG

VoIP

SIP

. 11.5.

Proxy

MGC

SIP


. 11.5. , IAM ISUP SIP,
, MGC,
SIP, SIP IAM.
. 11.6.
SIP INVITE, -
SIP MGC. MGC , .
SIP- IAM ISUP .

, SIP 100 (Trying).
7 ACM,
180 (Ringing) 183 (Session Progress).
, MGC
ANM. MGC SIP 200 OK. MGC ACK.

286

11

SIP

MGC

1. INVITE
2. INVITE
4. IAM

3. 100

5. 100
6. ACM
7. 18

8. 18

9. ANM
10. 200

11. 200
12.
13.

14. BYE
15. 200

16. BYE
17. REL
18. 200
19. RLC

. 11.6.

SIP

11.3. SIPT
11.3.1. SIP
SIP-T SIP, .

11.3.2.

SIP-T. SIP-T

SIP-T

287

MIME,
SIP : SDP, ISUP .. ISUP, MIME- ISUP Media Type,
ISUP. ISUP Media Type , . 11.2.
11.2. ISUP Media Type
Media type name:
Media subtype name:
Required parameters:
Optional parameters:
Encoding scheme:
Security considerations:

Application
ISUP
version
base
binary
SIP

version ISUP. Softswitch/MGC


, ,
ISUP . ,
version; .
version
ISUP (, X-NetxProprietaryISUPv3),
ISUP, ITU-T, ISUP-R ANSI.
base ,
, ISUP, .. version . 11.3 base,
application/ISUP.
Content-Disposition
ISUP, , ,
, Content-Type. Content-Disposition
ISUP- signal. ,
, .

288

11
11.3. base
base
Itu-t88
Itu-t92+
Ansi88
Ansi00
Etsi121
Etsi356
Gr317
Ttc87
Ttc93+

ITU-T Q.761-4 (1988)


ITU-T Q.761-4 (1992)
ANSI T1.113-1988
ANSI T1.113-2000
ETS 300 121
ES 300 356
BELLCORE GR-317
JT-Q761-4 (1987-1992)
JT-Q761-4 (1993-)

Content-Disposition 3 RFC
2046 [18]. ISUP- Content-Disposition
: signal,
handling, optional required.
( base ):
Content-Type: application/ISUP; version=nxv3; base=etsi121
Content-Disposition: signal; handling=optional

INVITE,
SDP ISUP IAM.
.
, boundary ( RFC 2046).
unique-boundary-1.
INVITE sip:78123877658@max.loniis.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP anton.loniis.ru
From: sip:78124513355@anton.loniis.ru
To: sip:78123877658@max.loniis.ru
Call-ID: MAX1231999021712095500999@max.loniis.ru
CSeq: 8348 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@loniis.ru>
Content-Length: 436
Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary=unique-boundary-1
MIME-Version: 1.0
--unique-boundary-1
Content-Type: application/SDP; charset=ISO-10646
v=0
o=jpeterson 2890844526 2890842807 IN IP4 126.16.64.4
s=SDP seminar
c=IN IP4 MG122.loniis.ru

SIP-T

289

t= 2873397496 2873404696
m=audio 9092 RTP/AVP 0 3 4
--unique-boundary-1
Content-Type: application/ISUP; version=nxv3;
base=etsi121
Content-Disposition: signal; handling=optional
01 00 49 00 00 03 02
43 00 00 03 06 0d 03
53 00 10 0a 07 03 10
0e 95 1e 1e 1e 06 26
--unique-boundary-1

00
80
27
05

07
90
80
0d

04
a2
88
f5

10
07
03
01

00
03
00
06

33
10
00
10

63
03
89
04

21
63
8b
00

11.3.3.

ISUP SIP. , :
ISUP SIP . SIP-T
MGC, ISUP
SIP . :
ISUP SIP, , IAM INVITE, REL BYE ..
ISUP
SIP. SIP, ,
-
, , ,
.

ISUP SIP (, Called Party Number ISUP IAM
To Request-URI SIP ..).
SIP
, ISUP, SIP,
. MGC (
SIP) , SIP
ISUP. ,
To Request-URI SIP Called
Party Number ( ) ISUP.

37. ..

290

11
, ..
SIP,
ISUP,
.

11.3.4.
SIP .
INFO ( [11]). ,
(overlap dialing). DTMF. DTMF
[63].

11.4. SIP
, , , : , SDP
ISUP.
( multipart/mixed) / ISUP MIME
(application/ISUP), 415 (Unsupported
Media Type), (
application/SDP). , ,
, ISUP (.. SDP), .
, ,
, , , . ,
, ,
: , , , ,
. , , SIP ,
ISUP, SIP-.
.

SIP-T

291

. 11.7 , ISUP , UA 2 INVITE , ISUP .


UA1

UA2

INVITE
18

. 11.7.

ISUP

UA1
UA2
INVITE
Content-type:multipart/mixed;
Content-type: application/sdp;
Content-disposition: session; handling=required;
Content-type: application/isup;
Content-disposition: signal; handling=optional;)
18x

. 11.8 , ISUP . UA 2 ISUP ,


415 (Unsupported Media Type), UA 1 ISUP
, SDP, UA 2.
UA1

UA2

INVITE
415

INVITE
18

. 11.8.

ISUP

292

11

UA1
UA2
INVITE
Content-type: application/sdp;
Content-disposition: session; handling=required;
Content-type: application/isup;
Content-disposition: signal; handling=required;)
415
(Accept: application/sdp)
ACK
INVITE
(Content-type: application/sdp)
18x
UA1
UA2
INVITE (Content-type:multipart/mixed;

, .11.9 , ISUP
. UA2 ISUP
415 (Unsupported Media Type). UA1
UA 3.

UA1

UA2

INVITE
415

INVITE
18

. 11.9.

ISUP

UA3

SIP-T

293

UA1
UA2
INVITE (Content-type:multipart/mixed;
Content-type: application/sdp;
Content-disposition: session; handling=required;
Content-type: application/isup;
Content-disposition: signal; handling=required;)
415
(Accept: application/sdp)
ACK
UA1
UA3
INVITE (Content-type:multipart/mixed;
Content-type: application/sdp;
Content-disposition: session; handling=required;
Content-type: application/isup;
Content-disposition: signal; handling=required;)

11.5.
SIP-T ,
. ISUP
, SIP-T .
, SIP-T, , , ,
ISUP .
ISUP, SIP,
S/MIME, 7 SIP RFC 3261 [57], RFC 2976 [11]. S/MIME
, ISUP . ,
ISUP- , .

12.

ISUPSIP

12.1.
SIP IP,
,
. ISUP 7
MTP [28], IP [69].
[27] , ISUP
, .
, ISUP SIP, Softswitch; Call Agent,
Telephone Server, Media Gateway Controller (MGC). Softswitch

ISUP SIP.
, SIP, Media Gateway (MG)
E1 IP ;
Softswitch, SIP. ,
SIP- ; ,
SIP.
ISUP
SIP ISUP, , SIP.

ISUPSIP

295

12.2. SIP
ISUP SIP
, , . SIP UAC/UAS , , ,
.

12.2.1. ISUP

SIP (SIP) ,
, SIP
ISUP.

12.2.2. MIME
, SIP - ( SDP),
ISUP / . SIP
multipart/mixed, [18].
multipart/
mixed Accept.

12.2.3. DTMF
SIP
DTMF. SIP .
, SIP , DTMF, .. .
.
[63].

296

12

12.2.4.

. , R1.5 [30] ,
, ,
.. 2.
,
. , INVITE SDP, ,
, .. SDP UA - , INVITE. SIP
.
, , SDP INVITE,
, RTCP, , . . [51].

12.2.5.
,
SIP. ,
,
, .
INFO, 6
SIP . INFO 3.3.8.
, .
405 (Method Not Allowed)
501 (Not Implemented) INFO,
, INFO,
.

ISUPSIP

297

12.2.6.
ISUP , ,
, . c , .
SIP . ,
,
.
. , , .

12.2.7. , CANCEL
ISUP ,
REL . SIP CANCEL , . CANCEL , REL
.
, REL ,
, . , ..,
, REL, 16 (Normal clearing).
. Reason
3.2.48.

12.3.
,

38. ..

298

12
. 100 (Trying), ,
INVITE, ,
.
(ISUP SIP) MGC (Softswitch); (,
) MG MGC.
, MGC/MG.

12.3.1. ( )
SIP

MGC/MG

1. IAM

2. INVITE

100
3. 18

4. ACM
5. 18
6. GPG
7. 200

8. ANM

9. ACK

. 12.1.

( )

ISUPSIP

299

1. SIP (. . 12.1.)
IAM .
2. IAM INVITE SIP.
3. , SIP
18.
4. 18 ACM.
, 180 (Ringing), ACM called party status ( ) no indication
( ).
5. , SIP .
6. ACM ,
ISUP CPG, 12.3.2.
7. SIP ,
200 OK.
8. 200 OK ANM.
9. SIP ACK ,
200 .

12.3.2. ( )
1. .12.2, SIP,
IAM .
2. IAM INVITE SIP,
.
3. , SIP , 200 .
4. 200 CON
, .
5. SIP ACK ,
200 .

300

12

SIP

MGC/MG

1. IAM

2. INVITE
3. 200

4. CON

5. ACK

. 12.2. ( )

12.3.3. SIP

SIP-.
1. SIP, IAM .
2. IAM INVITE
SIP, . ISUP 11 SIP T1.
3. 1 INVITE
SIP . SIP [57] , INVITE 7 .
4. 11 ACM
.
ISUP 7. Called Party Status ACM no indication ( ).

ISUPSIP

301

5. INVITE,
REL .
6. CANCEL SIP
.
7. REL RLC
.
SIP

MGC/MG

1. IAM

2. INVITE
1

3. INVITE
1

INVITE
1

11

4. M

INVITE
1

INVITE
1

INVITE
1

INVITE

5. REL
6. CANCEL
7. RLC

. 12.3.

SIP

302

12

12.3.4. ISUP T9
SIP

MGC/MG

1. IAM

2. INVITE
1

3. INVITE
1

INVITE

11

4. M

INVITE
1

INVITE
1

INVITE
9

5. REL

6. RLC
7. CANCEL

. 12.4.

1. SIP,
IAM.
2. IAM INVITE SIP,
. ISUP 11 SIP 1 .

ISUPSIP

303

3. 1 INVITE
. 1 0.5 ,
. 1 500 ,
, 7 INVITE ,
ISUP T11 + ISUP T9.
4. 11 ACM .
ISUP 7. Called Party Status ( ) ACM no indication ( ).
5. 9 , REL.
6. REL RLC
.
7. REL , CANCEL SIP.

12.3.5. SIP
SIP
(. 12.5).
1. SIP,
IAM.
2. IAM INVITE SIP,
.
3. SIP , 400.
4. SIP ACK ,
INVITE.
5. REL .
6. RLC REL.

304

12

SIP

MGC/MG

1. IAM

2. INVITE

3. 4
4.

5. REL
6. RLC

. 12.5.

SIP

12.3.6. SIP
. 12.6 SIP.
1. SIP,
IAM.
2. IAM INVITE SIP,
.
3. 3, SIP , ,
, .
, , ,
Contact URL.

ISUPSIP

305

1
SIP

MGC/MG

1. IAM

2. INVITE
3. 3
4. CPG
5. ACK

2
SIP
6. INVITE
7. 18

8. ACM

9. 200

10. ANM

11. ACK

. 12.6.

SIP

4. CPG , 3. , , .. ISUP CPG ,


ACM.
5. SIP ACK 3.
6. , Contact
3.

39. ..

306

12

7. SIP , , , , 18, .
8. 180 (Ringing) ACM .
9. SIP , 200 .
10. 200 ANM
.
11. SIP ACK ,
200 .

12.3.7.
1. SIP,
IAM.
2. IAM INVITE SIP,
.
3. SIP , INVITE, 180 (Ringing).
4. 180 (Ringing) ACM.
5. (.. ) ,
SIP , REL.
6. , RLC.
7. REL , INVITE,
SIP CANCEL.
8. CANCEL SIP
200 .

ISUPSIP

307

SIP

MGC/MG

1. IAM

2. INVITE
3. 18

4. M
5. REL

6. RLC
7. CANCEL
IP
8. 200
9. 487
10. ACK

. 12.7.

9. SIP 487 (Call Cancelled)


INVITE.
10. SIP ACK 487.

308

12

12.4. SIP-T ISUPSIP


12.4.1.
IAM,
, , DSP
, IP-
.

12.4.2. IAM INVITE


IAM, INVITE
SIP. ,
INVITE, IAM.
, IAM INVITE, (URI),
, SIP. From INVITE,
ISUP,
, Request URI.
tel URL,
Request URI INVITE. Telephone Number Mapping (ENUM) SIP URI [14]. URI
ISUP.
. ,
Number Portability in the Global Switched
Telephone Network (GSTN): An Overview. RFC 3482 [15], . number translated
FCI , .
SIP.
tel URL npdi=yes. IAM GAP, (CPN) (

ISUPSIP

309

Location Routing Number-RN) ISUP


rn=, tel URL.
GAP ISUP
tel URL (..
tel URI). (, ANSI)
(LRN ) CPN
tel URL. LRN
, , , rn=
+. , , / [6].
Idle
IAM
REL

T11 18x
REL

200
400

Progressing
200

REL

400

Trying

18x
Alerting

400

200
BYE

. 12.8.

Connected

REL

SIP-T ISUPSIP

tel URL
To Request-URI, . IAM OCN, To
OCN, To Request-URI .
From ISUP Calling Partys Number
(CIN). CIN , From,

310

12
SIP URI, , (, sip:gw.protei.ru). CIN ,
tel URI, From.

12.4.3. 100
100 ; , ,
INVITE.

12.4.4. 18
18, ISUP,
, ,
, . 12.1. 18, Progressing
Alerting.
12.1

180 Ringing
181 Call is being forwarded

,
ACM (BCI = subscriber free)
Early ACM and CPG, event=6

182 Queued
183 Session progress message

ACM (BCI = no indication)


ACM (BCI = no indication)

, 18 ISUP,
. 12.2.
12.2

180 Ringing
181 Call is being forwarded
182 Queued
183 Session progress message

,
CPG, event = 1 (Alerting)
CPG, event = 6 (Forwarding)
CPG, event = 2 (Progress)
CPG, event = 2 (Progress)

ISUPSIP

311

18 ( , ,
). - ,
INVITE SDP, 18. , ( , ,
-).
183 (Session progress) ,
-, , ISUP.
, ,
- (, Event Information ( )
CPG Optional Backward Call Indicators (
, ) ).
,
Backward Call Indicators (
, BCI) .
12.3
Backward Call Indicators
Charge indicator:
Called partys status indicator:
Called partys category indicator:
End-to-end method indicator:
Interworking indicator:
End-to-end information indicator:
ISDN user part indicator:
Holding indicator:
ISDN access indicator:
Echo control device indicator:
SCCP method indicator:

10 charge
01 subscriber free or
00 no indication
01 ordinary subscriber
00 no end-to-end method
0 no interworking
0 no end-to-end info
1 ISUP used all the way
0 no holding
0 No ISDN access
It depends on the call
00 no indication

312

12
BCI . 12.3. BCI Interworking indicator ( ) interworking encountered
( ), , ISDN , ISDN,
, . BCI
Interworking indicator ( ) interworking encountered ( ), ,
ISDN ,
ISDN, , .

12.4.5. 2
200 ,
, ANM ACK- SIP.
12.4

200 OK

,
ACM, ACK

200 , ACM,
ANM CON, ISUP
.
200 ANM, ANM, .
, 200
INVITE, , , INFO. ,
, 200 ,
INVITE. 200 INVITE,
.

ISUPSIP

313

12.4.6. 3
3, , .
URI, Contact
. 3 .
Contact 3 URI, (..
), ( SIP). ,
3xx REL,
redirection indicator ( ) diagnostic field ( ) URI.
SIP URI, MGC IAM INVITE,
Contact. Contact (
INVITE), CPG
6 (), ISUP. ,
, .

12.4.7. 46
45, , INVITE . , REL SIP. ,
, . REL ,
RLC .

12.4.8. SIP ISUP


4, , REL,
Cause Indicator ( ,
CAI),
REL, .

40. ..

314

12

12.5

400 Bad Request
401 Unauthorized
402 Payment required
403 Forbidden
404 Not found
405 Method not allowed
406 Not acceptable
407 Proxy authentication required
408 Request timeout
410 Gone
413 Request Entity too long
14 Request-URI too long
415 Unsupported media type
416 Unsupported URI Scheme
420 Bad extension
421 Extension Required
423 Interval Too Brief
480 Temporarily unavailable
481 Call/Transaction Does not Exist
482 Loop Detected
483 Too many hops
484 Address incomplete
485 Ambiguous
486 Busy here
487 Request Terminated
488 Not Acceptable here
500 Server internal error
501 Not implemented
502 Bad gateway
503 Service unavailable
504 Server time-out
504 Version Not Supported
513 Message Too Large
600 Busy everywhere
603 Decline
604 Does not exist anywhere
606 Not acceptable

REL
41 Temporary Failure
21 Call rejected (*)
21 Call rejected
21 Call rejected
1 Unallocated number
63 Service or option unavailable
79 Service/option not implemented (+)
21 Call rejected (*)
102 Recovery on timer expiry
22 Number changed (w/o diagnostic)
127 Interworking (+)
127 Interworking (+)
79 Service/option not implemented (+)
127 Interworking (+)
127 Interworking (+)
127 Interworking (+)
127 Interworking (+)
18 No user responding
41 Temporary Failure
25 Exchange - routing error
25 Exchange - routing error
28 Invalid Number Format (+)
1 Unallocated number
17 User busy
--- (no mapping)
--- by Warning header
41 Temporary failure
79 Not implemented, unspecified
38 Network out of order
41 Temporary failure
102 Recovery on timer expiry
127 Interworking (+)
127 Interworking (+)
17 User busy
21 Call rejected
1 Unallocated number
--- by Warning header

ISUPSIP

315

, SIP ISUP.
SIP, , 31 (Normal,
unspecified). . BYE CANCEL, , 16 (Normal clearing). , ISUP
SIP,
SIP ISUP. (+) . 12.5.
(*) SIP
UAS SIP, INVITE - .
, . ,
,
21 (Call rejected).
(+) , ,
.
,
.
, CAI, , 6
, 4 5 . .
606 (Not acceptable) 488 (Not Acceptable here) Warning, ISUP
. 31 (Normal, unspecified). Warning
, , .. (.. ),
65 (Bearer Capability Not Implemented).

12.4.9. REL
, ,
, . SIP CANCEL; BYE
, ..

316

12
SIP. CANCEL 200 .
INVITE 487 (Request
Terminated). , 200 INVITE ( 200 CANCEL).
, BYE, .
,
SIP , REL CANCEL (
CANCEL ). REL CAI 16 (Normal clearing). CAI 16 (Normal clearing),
.

12.4.10.

ISUP T11
ISUP T7,
. ISUP
T11. 11 , 7 ,
. 11,
(early
ACM) (.. called party status no indication), 7
, ISUP .
180 (Ringing),
CPG, 12.4.4.

12.5. SIP
. Maxim ,
ISUP, SIP
NGW 1.
-, .. -
.

ISUPSIP

317

12.5.1. SIP
Maxim , NGW 1 - Proxy 1 Anton. Anton ,
SIP.
-
Proxy 1

NGW 1

Anton

1. IAM
2. INVITE
3. INVITE
4. 100
5. 180
6. 180
7. ACM

8. 200

9. 200
10.
11. ACK

12. ANM

RTP-

13. REL
14. RLC
15. BYE
16. BYE
17. 200
18. 200

. 12.9.

SIP

, Maxim ,
REL NGW 1, BYE SIP.
:

318

12
1. IAM NGW 1

IAM
CgPN=095-386-4515,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
CdPN=812-262-5326,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
2. INVITE NGW Proxy 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

Proxy 1 ,
Anton. Anton. NGW 1
3456 Maxim.
3. INVITE Proxy 1 Anton
INVITE sip:anton@client.b.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
t=0 0

ISUPSIP

m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0


a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
4. 100 Trying Proxy 1 NGW 1
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
5. 180 Ringing Anton Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@client.b.niits.ru>
Content-Length: 0
6. 180 Ringing Proxy 1 NGW 1
SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@client.b.niits.ru>
Content-Length: 0
7. ACM NGW 1

ACM
8. 200 OK Anton Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>

319

320

12

From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
Contact: <sip:anton@client.b.niits.ru>
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
v=0
o=Anton 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.b.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.b.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
9. 200 OK Proxy 1 NGW 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@client.b.niits.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
v=0
o=Anton 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.b.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.b.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
10. ACK NGW 1 Proxy 1
ACK sip:anton@client.b.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
11. ACK Proxy 1 Anton
ACK sip:anton@client.b.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1

ISUPSIP

321

Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2


;received=192.0.2.103
Max-Forwards: 69
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
12. NGW 1 ATC A

ANM.
Maxim
RTP- ( NGW).
Maxim .

Anton

13. REL ATC A NGW 1

REL CauseCode=16 Normal.


14. RLC NGW 1 ATC A

RLC
15. BYE NGW 1 Proxy 1
BYE sip:anton@client.b.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
16. BYE Proxy 1 Anton
BYE sip:anton@client.b.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
Max-Forwards: 69
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
17. 200 OK Anton Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals

41. ..

322

12

To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
18. 200 OK Proxy 1 NGW 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0

12.5.2. SIP,

. 12.10 . 12.9. , Anton
, .. Anton 200 , 180 Ringing. ANM, ACM. ,
ISUP ETSI ISUP ANM
CON.
:
1. IAM NGW 1

IAM.
CgPN=095-386-4515,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
CdPN=812-262-5326,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
2. INVITE NGW 1 Proxy 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0

ISUPSIP

323

o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru


s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

Proxy 1 ,
Anton.
. NGW 1 3456
Maxim.
-
Proxy 1

NGW 1

Anton

1. IAM
2. INVITE
3. INVITE
4. 100
5. 200
6. 200
7. ACK
8. ACK

9. ANM

RTP-

10. REL
11. RLC
12. BYE

13. BYE
14. 200

15. 200

. 12.10.

SIP
( )

3. INVITE Proxy 1 Anton


INVITE anton@b.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2

324

12
;received=192.0.2.103
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
4. 100 Trying Proxy 1 NGW 1
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.201
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
5. 200 OK Anton Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@client.b.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
v=0
o=Anton 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.b.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.b.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

ISUPSIP
6. 200 OK Proxy 1 NGW 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@client.b.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
v=0
o=Anton 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.b.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.b.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
7. ACK NGW 1 Proxy 1
ACK anton@client.b.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
8. ACK Proxy 1 Anton
ACK anton@client.b.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=130.131.132.14
Max-Forwards: 69
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
9. NGW 1 ATC A

ANM. Maxim
Anton RTP ( NGW).
Maxim .
10. REL ATC A NGW 1

REL CauseCode=16 Normal.

325

326

12
11. RLC NGW 1 ATC A

RLC.
F12 BYE NGW 1 Proxy 1

BYE sip:anton@client.b.niits.ru SIP/2.0


Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
13. BYE Proxy 1 Anton
BYE sip:anton@client.b.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
Max-Forwards: 69
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
14. 200 OK Anton Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
15. 200 OK Proxy 1 NGW 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0

ISUPSIP

327

12.5.3. SIP
Maxim Anton ,
GW1 Proxy 1. , , .
GW
, .
, ,
, .
SIP URI sip:
551313@gw1.a.niits.ru.
:
1.
GW 1

.
GW 1

.
GW 1

.
2. INVITE GW 1 Proxy 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:551313@gw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:551313@gw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 gw1.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

328

12

-
Proxy 1

GW 1

Anton

1.


2. INVITE
4. 100
6. 180

3. INVITE
5. 180

7. 200
8. 200
9. ACK
10.

RTP-

11. BYE
12. BYE
13. 200
14. 200

. 12.11.

SIP

4. 100 Trying Proxy 1 GW 1


SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.201
From: <sip:551313@gw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0

ISUPSIP
5. 180 Ringing Anton Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.201
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:551313@gw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@client.b.niits.ru>
Content-Length: 0
6. 180 Ringing Proxy 1 GW 1
SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65
;received=192.0.2.201
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:551313@gw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@client.b.niits.ru>
Content-Length: 0
7. 200 OK Anton Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65
;received=192.0.2.201
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:551313@gw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.a.niits.ru
Contact: <sip:anton@client.b.niits.ru>
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
v=0
o=Anton 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.b.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.b.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

42. ..

329

330

12
8. 200 OK Proxy 1 GW 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65
;received=192.0.2.201
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:551313@gw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@client.b.niits.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
v=0
o=Anton 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.b.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.b.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
9. ACK GW 1 Proxy 1
ACK sip:anton@client.b.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:551313@gw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
10. ACK Proxy 1 Anton
ACK sip:anton@client.b.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65
;received=192.0.2.201
Max-Forwards: 69
From: <sip:551313@gw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
11. BYE GW 1 Proxy 1
BYE sip:anton@client.b.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:551313@gw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159

ISUPSIP

331

Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
12. BYE Proxy 1 Anton
BYE sip:anton@client.b.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65
;received=192.0.2.201
Max-Forwards: 69
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
13. 200 OK Anton Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65
;received=192.0.2.201
From: <sip:551313@gw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
14. 200 OK Proxy 1 GW 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP gw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKwqwee65
;received=192.0.2.201
From: <sip:551313@gw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=jwdkallkzm
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0

12.5.4. SIP.

Maxim Anton , GW1
Proxy 1. - ,
, REL Maxim .

332

12

-
Proxy 1

GW 1

Anton

1. IAM
2. INVITE
3. 604
5. REL

4. ACK

6. RLC

. 12.12.

SIP.

:
1. IAM GW 1

IAM.
CgPN=095-386-4515,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
CdPN=812-100-2516,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
2. INVITE GW1 Proxy 1
INVITE sip:+78121002516@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@gw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=076342s
To: <sip:+78121002516@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact:
<sip:+70953864515@gw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 144
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 gw1.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 gw1.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

Proxy 1 ,
+7-812-100-2516.
, Proxy 1 .

ISUPSIP

333

3. 604 (Does Not Exist Anywhere) Proxy 1 GW 1


SIP/2.0 604 Does Not Exist Anywhere
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.201
From: <sip:+70953864515@gw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=076342s
To: <sip:+78121002516@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=6a34d410
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Error-Info: <sip:does-not-exist@ann.a.niits.ru>
Content-Length: 0
4. ACK GW 1 Proxy 1
ACK sip:+78121002516@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@gw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=076342s
To: <sip:+78121002516@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=6a34d410
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@gw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
5. REL GW 1

REL CauseCode=1.
6. RLC GW 1

RLC.

12.5.5. SIP.

Maxim Anton ,
NGW 1 Proxy 1. - Anton
. Anton , 600
(Busy Everywhere). REL,
. IAM (F1) Interworking,
(, ). , , .
:
1. IAM NGW 1

IAM.
CgPN=095-386-4515,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
CdPN=812-262-5326,NPI=E.164,NOA=National

334

12

-
Proxy 1

NGW 1

Anton

1. IAM
2. INVITE
4. 100

3. INVITE
5. 600
6. ACK

7. 600
8. ACK
9. REL(17)
10. RLC

. 12.13.

SIP.

2. INVITE NGW 1 Proxy 1


INVITE sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 144
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 gw1.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 gw1.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
3. INVITE F3 Proxy 1 Anton
INVITE anton@b.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.201
Max-Forwards: 69

ISUPSIP

Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 144
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 gw1.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 gw1.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
4. 100 Trying Proxy 1 NGW 1
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.201
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
5. 600 (Busy Everywhere) Anton Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 600 Busy Everywhere
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.201
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
6. ACK Proxy 1 Anton
ACK anton@b.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0

335

336

12

7. 600 (Busy Everywhere) Proxy 1 NGW 1


SIP/2.0 600 Busy Everywhere
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.201
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
8. ACK NGW 1 Proxy 1
ACK anton@b.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
9. REL NGW 1

REL CauseCode=17 Busy.


10. RLC NGW 1

RLC.

12.5.6. . .
IAM interworking
Maxim Anton , NGW 1
Proxy 1. - Anton .
, . NGW 1
Maxim
. . ,
.. IAM (1) interworking. REL ,
, .. interworking .
:
1. IAM NGW 1

IAM.
CgPN=095-386-4515,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
CdPN=812-262-5326,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
Interworking=encountered

ISUPSIP

337

-
Proxy 1

NGW 1

Anton

1. IAM
2. INVITE
3. INVITE
4. 100
5. 600
6. ACK
7. 600
8. ACK
9. ACM

10. REL(16)
11. RLC

. 12.14.

SIP. .
IAM interworking

2. INVITE NGW 1 Proxy 1


INVITE sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

43. ..

338

12
3. INVITE Proxy 1 Anton
INVITE anton@b.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
4. 100 Trying Proxy 1 NGW 1
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
5. 600 Busy Everywhere Anton Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 600 Busy Everywhere
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0

ISUPSIP

339

6. ACK Proxy 1 Anton


ACK anton@b.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
7. 600 Busy Everywhere Proxy 1 NGW 1
SIP/2.0 600 Busy Everywhere
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
8. ACK NGW 1 Proxy 1
ACK sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
9. ACM NGW 1

ACM.
NGW 1
Maxim. , Maxim .
10. REL NGW 1

REL CauseCode=16
11. RLC NGW 1

RLC

12.5.7. .
Maxim Anton , NGW 1 Proxy 1.
INVITE , Anton
T1. Anton INVITE . ,
, REL.
CANCEL.

340

12

-
Proxy 1

NGW 1

Anton

1. IAM
2. INVITE
4. 100

3. INVITE
5. INVITE
6. INVITE
7. INVITE
8. INVITE
9. INVITE

10. REL
11. RLC
12. CANCEL
13. 200

. 12.15.

:
1. IAM NGW 1

IAM.
CgPN=095-386-4515,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
CdPN=812-262-5326,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
2. INVITE NGW 1 Proxy 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
s=-

ISUPSIP

c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru


t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
3. INVITE Proxy 1 Anton
INVITE sip:anton@b.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
c c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap
:0 PCMU/8000
4. 100 Trying Proxy 1 NGW 1
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0

5. 9. INVITE Proxy 1 Anton


3.
.
10. REL NGW 1

REL CauseCode=16 Normal.


11. RLC NGW 1

RLC.
12. CANCEL NGW 1 Proxy 1
CANCEL sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70

341

342

12

From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 CANCEL
Content-Length: 0
13. 200 OK Proxy 1 NGW 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 CANCEL
Content-Length: 0

12.5.8. . .
-
Maxim Anton ,
NGW 1 Proxy 1. - , 100 (Trying). NGW 1 INVITE,
SIP T1. Anton .
,
REL (CauseCode=102 Timeout).
:
1. IAM NGW 1

IAM.
CgPN=095-386-4515,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
CdPN=812-262-5326,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
2. INVITE NGW 1 Proxy 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146

ISUPSIP

343

v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
Stateless
-1

NGW 1

Anton

1. IAM
2. INVITE
3. INVITE
4. INVITE
5. INVITE
6. INVITE
7. INVITE
8. INVITE
9. INVITE
10. INVITE
11. INVITE
12. INVITE
13. INVITE
14. REL
15. RLC

. 12.16.

. .
-

3. INVITE Proxy 1 Anton


INVITE sip:anton@b.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.201
Max-Forwards: 69
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146

344

12

v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
4. 13. INVITE NGW 1 Proxy 1

2.
.
14. REL NGW 1

REL CauseCode=102 Timeout.


15. RLC NGW 1

RLC.

12.5.9. .
,
Maxim Anton , NGW 1 Proxy 1.
, . NGW 1
Maxim
, .. IAM interworking. Maxim
, , REL, CANCEL. Anton
200 , REL, NGW 1
ACK, BYE .
:
1. IAM NGW 1

IAM.
CgPN=095-386-4515,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
CdPN=812-262-5326,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
2. INVITE NGW 1 Proxy 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru;transport=tcp>

ISUPSIP

345

Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
NGW 1

Anton

1. IAM
2. INVITE
3. INVITE
4. 100
5. 180
6. 180
7.

8. REL
9. RLC
10. CANCEL
11. 200
12. CANCEL
13. 200
14. 487
15. ACK
16. 487
17. ACK

. 12.17.

44. ..

. ,

346

12
3. INVITE Proxy 1 Anton
INVITE sip:anton@b.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
4. 100 Trying Proxy 1 NGW 1
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.201
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
5. 180 Ringing Anton Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@client.b.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Length: 0
6. 180 Ringing Proxy 1 NGW 1
SIP/2.0 180 Ringing

ISUPSIP

Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2


;received=192.0.2.103
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:anton@client.b.niits.ru>
Content-Length: 0
7. ACM NGW 1

ACM.
Maxim .
8. REL NGW 1

REL CauseCode=16 Normal.


9. RLC NGW 1

RLC.
10. CANCEL NGW 1 Proxy 1
CANCEL sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 CANCEL
Content-Length: 0
11. 200 OK Proxy 1 NGW 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 CANCEL
Content-Length: 0
12 CANCEL Proxy 1 Anton
CANCEL sip:anton@b.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 CANCEL
Content-Length: 0

347

348

12
13. 200 OK Anton Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 CANCEL
Content-Length: 0
14. 487 (Request Terminated) Anton Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 487 Request Terminated
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
15. ACK Proxy 1 Anton
ACK sip:anton@b.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
16. 487 Request Terminated Proxy 1 NGW 1
SIP/2.0 487 Request Terminated
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
;received=192.0.2.103
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
17. ACK NGW 1 Proxy 1
ACK sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ngw1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKlueha2
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=7643kals
To: <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 4Fde34wkd11wsGFDs3@ngw1.a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0

13. SIPISUP

13.1.

SIP.
100 (Trying) INVITE, .
, (SIP ISUP)
MGC, (, , ..) MG
MGC. , , , , MGC MG ,
MGC/MG.

13.1.1. ( )
. 13.1
SIP- .
1. SIP , SIP
INVITE.
2. , SIP, IAM .
3. ,
, ACM.

350

13

SIP

MGC/MG

1. INVITE
100

2. IAM

4. 18

3. ACM

5. GPG
6. 18

7. ANM

8. 200

9. ACK

. 13.1.

( )

4. called party status ( )


ACM SIP, .
SDP ( ).
SDP , 8 .
5. ISUP ,
.
6. , SIP.
7. ( ),
ANM.

SIPISUP

351

8. , ANM,
SIP 200 .
9. SIP ACK, .

13.1.2. ( )
SIP

MGC/MG

1. INVITE
100
2. IAM

3. ANM

4. 200

5. ACK

. 13.2.

( )

, ISUP,
ISUP ANSI. .13.2 :
1. SIP , INVITE.
2. INVITE IAM,
.
3. ,
IAM ANM .

352

13
4. ANM SIP 200.
5. SIP , , ACK.

13.1.3. 7
SIP

MGC/MG

1. INVITE
100
2. IAM

7
3. REL

4. 504
5.

. 13.3.

1. SIP ,
INVITE.
2. INVITE IAM,
. 7 .
3. , ACM ANM, REL.
4. SIP 504 (Server Time-out)
.
5. , SIP ACK.

SIPISUP

353

13.1.4. SIP
SIP

MGC/MG

1. INVITE
100
2. IAM

3. CON (ANM)

4. 200
1

200
1

200
1

200
1

200
1

5. 200
1

200
1

6. REL
7. BYE
8. RLC

. 13.4.

SIP

1. SIP , INVITE.

45. ..

354

13
2. INVITE IAM,
.
3. , CON, IAM. ISUP ANSI CON ANM ( ACM).
4. CON (ANM) SIP
200 OK, 1 .
5. , .
6. ,
REL 102 (recover on timer expiry).
7. SIP BYE .
, SIP.
8. REL RLC.

13.1.5.
SIP

MGC/MG

1. INVITE
2. IAM
3. REL
4. RLC
5. 4
6.

. 13.5.

1. SIP ,
INVITE.

SIPISUP

355

2. INVITE IAM,
.
3. ,
REL.
4. RLC .
5. SIP , REL.
6. SIP
ACK.

13.1.6.
SIP

MGC/MG

1. INVITE
100
2. IAM

3.
4. 183 SDP-


5. 4
6. REL
7. RLC
8.

. 13.6.

356

13
1. SIP , INVITE.
2. INVITE IAM,
.
3. (,
), ACM . .
4. ( CAI)
SIP 183, SDP
.
5. INVITE
SIP .
6. REL . SIP , (
CANCEL),
.
7. REL RLC.
8. SIP , .

13.1.7. SIP
1. SIP , INVITE.
2. INVITE IAM,
.
3. , ,
ACM.
4. called party status ( )
ACM SIP, . SDP
.

SIPISUP

357

SIP

MGC/MG

1. INVITE
100
2. IAM

3.
4. 18

IP
5. CANCEL
6. 200

7. REL
8. 487
9. RLC
10. ACK

. 13.7.

SIP

5. ,
, SIP CANCEL.
6. 200 .
7. CANCEL REL.
8. 487 (Request Terminated) SIP,
INVITE.
9. REL RLC.
10. SIP 487 (Call Cancelled) ACK.

358

13

13.2. SIP-T SIP-ISUP


Idle
INVITE
T7
Trying

CANCEL

E.ACM

ACM

REL
CON/ANM

T9
Not alerting
CANCEL

18x

T9
CANCEL

Alerting

CPG

REL

ANM
Waiting for ACK

REL

ACK
BYE

REL
Connected

. 13.8.

SIP-T-ISUP

13.2.1. INVITE
INVITE SIP
100 (Trying) , .

, IAM . -
1/1 RTP/UDP IP.
.
IAM, 7.

SIPISUP

359

13.2.2. INVITE IAM


IAM : Called Party Number (CPN), Nature of Connection Indicator (NCI), Forward Call
Indicators (FCI), Calling Partys Category (CPC), ,
ISUP
Transmission Medium Requirement (TMR), User Service Information (USI) . IAM , , .
, INVITE . ( NCI USI) ,
. , CPN,
, INVITE.
IAM . SIP ISUP , . ,
SIP , ISUP .
, -SIP-, SIP; .
: Calling
Partys Number (CIN, ), Transit Network Selection (TNS), Carrier
Identification Parameter (CIP, ANSI), Original Called Number (OCN),
Generic Digits (, , Generic Address Parameter (GAP)).
INVITE,
IAM ISUP, . , IAM .
,
ISUP- . ,
IAM , SIP, , . , ISUP-SIP-ISUP

360

13
SIP
.
SIP, , .
, INVITE IAM CPN, +78125332699,
Request-URI INVITE tel:+70955550110.
IAM , Request-URI, , CPN
IAM. SIP ISUP .

ISUP ,
SIP (, , NCI TMR),
ISUP . FCI
, M ,
,
.
INVITE IAM Request-URI.
,
npdi rn Request-URI. RFC 3482 Number Portability in the Global
Switched Telephone Network (GSTN): An Overview [15].
Request-URI npdi=yes,
tel URL ( tel:)
ISUP CPN.
npdi=yes , number translated
FCI, IAM, , .
npdi=yes rn,
tel URL
ISUP CPN. ,

SIPISUP

361

, . npdi=yes rn, rn
ISUP CPN.
tel URL
ISUP Generic Digits Parameter ( GAP
ANSI ISUP). ISUP , rn,
( ,
), CPN.

, .
, tel URL
ISUP CPN.
Request-URI
To , o OCN. o .
SIP-T ().
RFC 3398 [6].
SIP , Request-URI
tel URL ( SIP URI
tel URL). , Request-URI , , .
, From . ,
SIP, user@host. IAM CIN .
SIP URI .

ISUP, IAM

46. ..

362

13
FCI , ISUP , . no interworking.
, , ISUP, IAM
Interworking Indicator FCI no interworking, ISDN
User Part Indicator ISUP used all the way; Originating Access Indicator Originating access non-ISDN.
FCI interworking encountered,
, ISDN ,
, ISDN. ISDN , ,
[cause code] .
,
, , , ,
FCI , .

13.2.3. ISUP 7
, MG . SIP 504 (Server Timeout).
REL 102 ( ,
). ,
RLC, SIP ACK, .

13.2.4. CANCEL BYE


CANCEL BYE , , SIP 200 , , ; 478
INVITE. ,

SIPISUP

363

REL 16 (normal clearing).


RLC ,
.
, SIP , REL
BYE. BYE
16 (normal clearing), REL . Cause Indicator REL, .
CANCEL BYE Reason, Cause Indicator. BYE
Reason ISUP,
Reason . , REL.

13.2.5. REL
, , REL , .
, .
,
RLC.
INVITE, , ISUP,
ISUP INVITE. ,
REL , SIP.
ISUP,
ISUP
INVITE.
- ISUP IAM, Blocking Message (BLO), Reset Message (RSC) ,
.

364

13

13.2.6. ISDN SIP


REL 7 , . ,
SIP , ,
REL, BYE, CANCEL /. ISDN
REL ,
(BYE SIP), ,
(CANCEL SIP), ,
( SIP).
ISUP SIP, ..
ISUP .
44 (Request circuit or channel not available). ,
CIC, IAM, .
IAM CIC, .
, SIP,
.. .
, ISUP 44 (Request circuit or
channel not available) SIP .
, 500 (Server internal error).
, ISUP CAI, location, ,
. location SIP; .
ISUP ,
,
.
REL ISUP 22 (number changed) diagnostics.
,
Contact SIP (301).
.13.1 .

SIPISUP

365

13.1
ISUP
1 unallocated number
2 no route to network
3 no route to destination
16 normal call clearing
17 user busy
18 no user responding
19 no answer from the user
20 subscriber absent
21 call rejected
22 number changed (w/o diagnostic)
22 number changed (w/ diagnostic)
23 redirection to new destination
26 non-selected user clearing
27 destination out of order
28 address incomplete
29 facility rejected
31 normal unspecified

SIP
404 Not Found
404 Not found
404 Not found
(*)
486 Busy here
408 Request Timeout
480 Temporarily unavailable
480 Temporarily unavailable
403 Forbidden (+)
410 Gone
301 Moved Permanently
410 Gone
404 Not Found (=)
502 Bad Gateway
484 Address incomplete
501 Not implemented
480 Temporarily unavailable

(*) ISUP 16 (normal call clearing)


BYE CANCEL.
(+) location user, 4
6 ( 403 603).
(=) ANSI ANSI 26
misrouted port number. , . 26 ISUP .
, (. 13.2).
SIP Retry After.
, , - . . 13.2. 13.6.

366

13

13.2.

ISUP
34 no circuit available
38 network out of order
41 temporary failure
42 switching equipment congestion
47 resource unavailable

SIP
503 Service unavailable
503 Service unavailable
503 Service unavailable
503 Service unavailable
503 Service unavailable

13.3.
ISUP
55 incoming calls barred within CUG
57 bearer capability not authorized
58 bearer capability not presently available
65 bearer capability not implemented
70 only restricted digital availability
79 service or option not implemented

13.4.

SIP
403 Forbidden
403 Forbidden
503 Service unavailable
488 Not Acceptable Here
488 Not Acceptable Here
501 Not implemented

ISUP
87 user not member of CUG
88 incompatible destination

SIP
403 Forbidden
503 Service unavailable

13.5.
ISUP
102 recovery of timer expiry
111 protocol error

SIP
504 Gateway timeout
500 Server internal error

13.6.
ISUP
127 interworking unspecified

SIP
500 Server internal error

SIPISUP

367

13.2.7. ACM
, ,
, ISUP:
alerting. ,
, ,
. , Alerting,
, 7 9. , Called Partys
Status Indicator 00 (no indication).
, ISDN
CPG, .
, 183
(Session Progress) SIP. , SIP ,
.
183 (Session Progress) ,
(), SIP (SIP bridging), , , .

13.2.8.

( 18) SIP. INVITE,
, ISUP, , , , SIP.
Backward Call Indicators
subscriber free, 180 (Ringing).
, (SIP user agent) . .
Backward Call Indicators (BCI) , (

368

13
,
),
( ). ,
, . ,
ACM Optional Backward Call Indicators , . ,
183 (Session Progress) SIP.
ISUP
9, 90 3
. , ,
, , (, )
ISUP .
. , , 9,
ANM, . ISUP ANM.
9.

13.2.9. CON ANM


CON ANM, , , SIP 200 .
, SIP (
INVITE ), CON ANM 200 ,
SIP. , .
,
7 ISUP, ANM
( CPG ), ( ).

SIPISUP

369

SIP
18, ( .) , . , ,
SDP.

13.2.10.

9
. , ANM ( ). ,
, . ,
(,
), . 9 ,
. ,
, . SIP
480 (Temporarily Unavailable), REL 19
(no answer from the user). RLC
ACK SIP .

13.2.11.

CPG
CPG , , , :
(, ISDN) ;
;
.
CPG , ,
.
SIP, CPG 18, SIP CPG . 13.7.

47. ..

370

13
CPG ,
, .
13.7
ISUP
1 Alerting
2 Progress
3 In-band information
4 Call forward; line busy
5 Call forward; no reply
6 Call forward; unconditional

13.2.12.

SIP response
180 Ringing
183 Session progress
183 Session progress
181 Call is being forwarded
181 Call is being forwarded
181 Call is being forwarded
183 Session progress


,
. .

13.3.
SIP
Maxim (sip:max@niits.ru) SIP- , SIP.
Anton
+78122625326. Maxim - Proxy1
Network Gateway. Maxim Alexy,
2 : 444 3333
[private extension] +7-812-100-2516. ,
Maxim From INVITE
+7-812-262-5326. calling party number ISUP.
. . , (

SIPISUP

371

, , , .
). , ,
.
183 (Session Progress), SDP.
,
.
ISUP SIP. ,
SIP User Agent Client.

13.3.1. SIP
Maxim +78122625326 E.164 , Anton.
7 ( ,
). , SIP UA
SIP URI. SIP URI
tel URI.
Maxim From SIP- (sip:max@niits.ru)
SIP (sip:+70953864515@ss1.niits.ru; user=phone). ,
NGW 1 (calling party identification).
7,
.
Anton ,
Maxim.
7 11, ,
Contact sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru. , NGW 1 , Proxy1;
. Contact URI
, Contact URI NGW 1
Proxy1. Contact URI DNS Proxy1 (sip:ss1.a.niits.ru), sip:ngw1.a.niits.ru, NGW1.

372

13
TCP.
-
Proxy 1

Maxim

NGW 1

1. INVITE
2. 100
3. INVITE
4. 100
5. IAM
6. ACM
7. 183
8. 183
RTP-

9. ANM
10. 200
11. 200
12. ACK

13. ACK

RTP-

14. BYE
15. BYE
16. 200
17. 200

. 13.9.

18. REL
19. RLC

SIP

:
1. INVITE Maxim Proxy 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl

SIPISUP

373

To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>


Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:max@client.a.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Proxy-Authorization: Digest username=Max, realm=a.niits.ru,
nonce= dc3a5ab25302aa931904ba7d88fa1cf5, opaque=,
uri=sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone,
response=ccdca50cb091d587421457305d097458c
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154
v=0
o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
2. 100 Trying Proxy 1 Maxim
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0

Proxy 1 , . NGW1.
, Maxim,
49172.
3. INVITE Proxy 1 NGW 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:max@client.a.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154

374

13

v=0
o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
4. 100 Trying NGW 1 Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
5. IAM NGW 1

IAM
CdPN=812-262-5326,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
CgPN=095-386-4515,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
6. ACM NGW 1

ACM.
7. 183 Session Progress NGW 1 Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 183 Session Progress
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0

SIPISUP
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

NGW 1 () RTP Maxim.


8. 183 Session Progress Proxy 1 Maxim
SIP/2.0 183 Session Progress
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
9. ANM NGW 1

ANM.
10. 200 OK NGW 1 Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
s=-

375

376

13
c=IN IP4 gw1.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
11. 200 OK Proxy 1 Maxim
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
12. ACK Maxim Proxy 1
ACK sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
13. ACK Proxy 1 NGW 1
ACK sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159

SIPISUP
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0

Maxim , Anton.
14. BYE Maxim Proxy 1
BYE sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
15. BYE Proxy 1 NGW 1
BYE sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
16. 200 OK NGW 1 Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
17. 200 OK Proxy 1 Maxim
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101

48. ..

377

378

13

From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>


;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
18. REL NGW 1

REL CauseCode=16 Normal.


19. RLC NGW 1

RLC.

13.3.2. SIP
Maxim SIP, Alexey
. DSS1. ISDN. Maxim
Alexey (+7-812-387-5333), SIP URI.
Request URI INVITE F3, ,
(, ), 444-3333. INVITE F3
.
Proxy 1 , . Alexey 444-3333, Request URI , .
, Contact URI GW 1, 8, 9, 12
13 sips:4443333@gw1.a.niits.ru, .

SIPISUP

Maxim

379

-1

GW 1

1. INVITE

2. 100
3. INVITE
4. 100
5. SETUP
6. CALL PROC
7. PROGRESS
8. 180

9. 180

10. CONNECT
11. CONNECT ACK
12. 200
13. 200
14. ACK
15. ACK
RTP-

16. BYE
17. BYE
18. 200
19. 200

20. DISCONNECT
21. RELEASE
22. RELEASE COM

. 13.10.

SIP

380

13
SIPS URI.
:
1. INVITE Maxim Proxy 1
INVITE sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS client.a.niits.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sips:max@client.a.niits.ru>
Proxy-Authorization: Digest username=Max,
realm=a.niits.ru, nonce= qo0dc3a5ab22aa931904badfa1cf5j9h,
opaque=, uri= sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone,
response= 6c792f5c9fa360358b93c7fb826bf550
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154
v=0
o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
2. 100 Trying Proxy 1 Maxim
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS client.a.niits.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
3. INVITE Proxy 1 GW 1
INVITE sips:4443333@gw1.a.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS ss1.a.niits.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS client.a.niits.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sips:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>

SIPISUP

381

Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sips:max@client.a.niits.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154
v=0
o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
4. 100 Trying GW 1 Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS ss1.a.niits.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
5. SETUP GW 1

Protocol discriminator=Q.931
Message type=SETUP
Bearer capability: Information transfer capability=0 (Speech) or 16
(3.1 kHz audio)
Channel identification=Preferred or exclusive B-channel
Progress indicator=1 (Call is not end-to-end ISDN;further call
progress information may be available inband)
Called party number:
Type of number unknown
Digits=444-3333
6. CALL PROCEEDING GW 1

Protocol discriminator=Q.931
Message type=CALL PROC
Channel identification=Exclusive B-channel
7. PROGRESS GW 1

Protocol discriminator=Q.931
Message type=PROG
Progress indicator=1
8. 180 Ringing GW 1 Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS ss1.a.niits.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS client.a.niits.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9

382

13
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sips:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sips:4443333@gw1.a.niits.ru>
Content-Length: 0
9. 180 Ringing Proxy 1 Maxim
SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS client.a.niits.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sips:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sips:4443333@gw1.a.niits.ru>
Content-Length: 0
10. CONNECT GW 1

Protocol discriminator=Q.931
Message type=CONN
11. CONNECT ACK GW 1

Protocol discriminator=Q.931
Message type=CONN ACK
12. 200 OK GW 1 Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS ss1.a.niits.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS client.a.niits.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sips:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sips:4443333@gw1.a.niits.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 144

SIPISUP
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 gw1.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 gw1.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
13. 200 OK Proxy 1 Maxim
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS client.a.niits.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sips:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sips:4443333@gw1.a.niits.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 144
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 gw1.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 gw1.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
14. ACK Maxim Proxy 1
ACK sips:4443333@gw1.a.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS client.a.niits.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sips:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 ACK
Content-Length: 0
15. ACK Proxy 1 GW 1
ACK sips:4443333@gw1.a.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS ss1.a.niits.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS client.a.niits.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>

383

384

13

;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 ACK
Content-Length: 0

Maxim , Alexey.
16. BYE Maxim Proxy 1
BYE sips:4443333@gw1.a.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS client.a.niits.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sips:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 3 BYE
Content-Length: 0
17. BYE Proxy 1 GW 1
BYE sips:4443333@gw1.a.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS ss1.a.niits.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS client.a.niits.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 3 BYE
Content-Length: 0
18. 200 OK GW 1 Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS ss1.a.niits.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS client.a.niits.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 3 BYE
Content-Length: 0

SIPISUP

385

19. 200 OK Proxy 1 Maxim


SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/TLS client.a.niits.ru:5061;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sips:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Carol <sips:+78123875333@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 3 BYE
Content-Length: 0
20. DISCONNECT GW 1

Protocol discriminator=Q.931
Message type=DISC
Cause=16 (Normal clearing)
21. RELEASE GW 1

Protocol discriminator=Q.931
Message type=REL
22. RELEASE COMPLETE GW 1

Protocol discriminator=Q.931
Message type=REL COM

13.3.3. SIP
Maxim Anton Proxy 1. Proxy 1 NGW 1.
( ) ,
503 (Service Unavailable). , Proxy 1 Network Gateway NGW 2. Anton . , Maxim .
UDP.
:
1. INVITE Maxim Proxy 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:max@client.a.niits.ru>

49. ..

386

13

Proxy-Authorization: Digest username= Max,


realm=a.niits.ru, nonce=b59311c3ba05b401cf80b2a2c5ac51b0,
opaque=, uri=sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone,
response= ba6ab44923fa2614b28e3e3957789ab0
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154
v=0
o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

Proxy 1 ,
Anton. Proxy 1 NGW 1 NGW 2.
NGW 1.
2. INVITE Proxy 1 NGW 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:max@client.a.niits.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154
v=0
o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

SIPISUP

Maxim

387

- 1

NGW 1

NGW 2

1. INVITE
3. 100
2. INVITE
4. 503
5. ACK

6. INVITE
7. IAM
8. ACM
9. 183
10. 183
RTP-

11. ANM
12. 200
13. 200
14. ACK
15. ACK
RTP-

16. BYE
17. BYE
18. 200
19. 200

. 13.11.

20. REL
21. RLC

SIP

388

13
3. 100 Trying Proxy 1 Maxim
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
4. 503 (Service Unavailable) NGW 1 Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 503 Service Unavailable
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=123456789
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
5. ACK Proxy 1 NGW 1

ACK sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru SIP/2.0


Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru>;user=phone>
;tag=123456789
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0

Proxy 1 NGW 2.
6. INVITE Proxy 1 NGW 2
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ngw2.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.2
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>

SIPISUP

389

;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:max@client.a.niits.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154
v=0
o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
7. IAM NGW 2

IAM.
CdPN=812-262-5326,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
CgPN=095-386-4515,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
8. ACM NGW 2

ACM.
9. 183 (Session Progress) NGW 2 Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 183 Session Progress
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.2
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw2@a.niits.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw2.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw2.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

Maxim RTP
().

390

13
10. 183 Session Progress Proxy 1 Maxim
SIP/2.0 183 Session Progress
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw2@a.niits.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw2.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw2.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
11. ANM NGW 2

ANM.
12. 200 OK NGW 2 Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.2
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw2@a.niits.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw2.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw2.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

SIPISUP
13. 200 OK Proxy 1 Maxim
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw2@a.niits.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw2.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw2.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
14. ACK Maxim Proxy 1
ACK sip:ngw2@a.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
15. ACK Proxy 1 NGW 2
ACK sip:ngw2@a.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.2
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0

391

392

13
Maxim Anton
RTP ( NGW). Maxim ,
Anton.
16. BYE Maxim Proxy 1
BYE sip:ngw2@a.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
17. BYE Proxy 1 NGW 2
BYE sip:ngw2@a.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.2
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
18. 200 OK NGW 2 Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.2
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
19. 200 OK Proxy 1 Maxim
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>

SIPISUP

393

;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 BYE
Content-Length: 0
20. REL NGW 2

REL c CauseCode=16 Normal.


21. RLC NGW 2

RLC.

13.3.4. SIP SIP ENUM Query


Maxim Anton, (9722625326). UA Maxim
E.164 (+78122625326) ENUM
.164 (2.2.2.2.5.5.5.2.7.9.1.e164.arpa). Naming Authority Pointer (NAPTR) DNS , UA
Maxim Anton (sip:+7812262532
6@b.niits.ru). , , Anton SIP. , UA
Maxim INVITE,
IP, . , Anton
BYE.
.
1. ENUM Query Maxim DNS Server
2.2.2.2.5.5.5.2.7.9.1.e164.arpa
2. ENUM NAPTR Set DNS Server Maxim
$ORIGIN 2.2.2.2.5.5.5.2.7.9.1.e164.arpa.
IN NAPTR 100 10 u sip+E2U
!^.*$!sip:+78122625326@b.niits.ru!.

50. ..

394

13

DNS

Maxim

-
Proxy 3

Anton

1. ENUM Query
2. ENUM NAPTR SET

3. INVITE
4. INVITE
5. 100
6. 180
7. 180
8. 200
9. 200
10. ACK
11. ACK
RTP-

12. BYE
13. BYE
14. 200
15. 200

. 13.12.

SIP SIP
ENUM Query

3. INVITE Maxim Proxy 3


INVITE sip:+78122625326@b.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
From: <sip:+70953864515@a.niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: <tel:+78122625326>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:+70953864515@client.a.niits.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154
v=0
o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru

SIPISUP
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
4. INVITE Proxy 3 Anton
INVITE sip:+78122625326@client.b.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss3.b.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss3.b.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@a.niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: <tel:+78122625326>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:+70953864515@client.a.niits.ru>
ontent-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154
v=0
o=UserA 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
5. 100 Trying Proxy 3 Maxim
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: <sip:+70953864515@a.niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: <tel:+78122625326>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
6. 180 Ringing Anton Proxy 3
SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss3.b.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1
;received=192.0.2.233
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss3.b.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@a.niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: <tel:+78122625326>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:+78122625326@client.b.niits.ru>
Content-Length: 0

395

396

13
7. 180 Ringing Proxy 3 Maxim
SIP/2.0 180 Ringing
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss3.b.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@a.niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: <tel:+78122625326>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:+78122625326@client.b.niits.ru>
Content-Length: 0
8. 200 OK Anton Proxy 3
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss3.b.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1
;received=192.0.2.233
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss3.b.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@a.niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: <tel:+78122625326>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:+78122625326@client.b.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
v=0
o=Anton 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.b.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.b.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
9. 200 OK Proxy Maxim
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss3.b.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@a.niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: <tel:+78122625326>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 INVITE
Contact: <sip:+78122625326@client.b.niits.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 151
v=0
o=Anton 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 client.b.niits.ru

SIPISUP

397

s=c=IN IP4 192.0.2.100


t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
10. ACK Maxim Proxy 3
ACK sip:+78122625326@client.b.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bq9
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss3.b.niits.ru;lr>
From: <sip:+70953864515@a.niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: <tel:+78122625326>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 ACK
Content-Length: 0
11. ACK Proxy 3 Anton
ACK sip:+78122625326@client.b.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss3.b.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bq9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
From: <sip:+70953864515@a.niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
To: <tel:+78122625326>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 2 ACK
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 0

Maxim Anton
RTP-. Anton , Maxim.
12. BYE Anton Proxy 3
BYE sip:+70953864515@client.a.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.b.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKfgaw2
Max-Forwards: 70
Route: <sip:ss3.b.niits.ru;lr>
From: <tel:+78122625326>;tag=314159
To: <sip:+70953864515@a.niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE
Content-Length: 0
13. BYE Proxy 3 Maxim
BYE sip:+70953864515@client.a.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss3.b.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1
;received=192.0.2.100
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.b.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKfgaw2
Max-Forwards: 69
From: <tel:+78122625326>;tag=314159

398

13

To: <sip:+70953864515@a.niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE
Content-Length: 0
14. 200 OK Maxim Proxy 3
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss3.b.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK721e418c4.1
;received=192.0.2.233
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.b.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKfgaw2
;received=192.0.2.100
From: <tel:+78122625326>;tag=314159
To: <sip:+70953864515@a.niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE
Content-Length: 0
15 .200 OK Proxy 3 Anton
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.b.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bKfgaw2
;received=192.0.2.100
From: <tel:+78122625326>;tag=314159
To: <sip:+70953864515@a.niits.ru>;tag=9fxced76sl
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 BYE
Content-Length: 0

13.3.5. SIP :

Maxim Anton Proxy 1 NGW 1. , (
). Maxim, ,
, CANCEL
. CANCEL, BYE, .. INVITE.
:
1. INVITE Maxim Proxy 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru

SIPISUP

399

CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:max@client.a.niits.ru>
Proxy-Authorization: Digest username=Max,
realm=a.niits.ru, nonce=01cf8311c3b0b2a2c5ac51bb59a05b40,
opaque=, uri=sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone,
response=e178fbe430e6680a1690261af8831f40
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154
v=0
o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
2. 100 Trying Proxy 1 Maxim
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0

Proxy 1 ,
Anton.
NGW 1. Maxim
49172.
3. INVITE Proxy 1 NGW 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:max@client.a.niits.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154

400

13

v=0
o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
-
Proxy 1

Maxim

NGW 1

Anton

1. INVITE
2. 100
3. INVITE
4. 100
5. IAM
6. ACM
7. 183
8. 183
RTP-

9. CANCEL
10. 200
11. CANCEL
12. 200
13. REL
14. RLC
15. 487
16. ACK
17. 487
18. ACK

. 13.13.

SIP :

SIPISUP
4. 100 Trying NGW 1 Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
5. IAM NGW 1

IAM.
CdPN=812-262-5326,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
CgPN=095-386-4515,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
6. ACM NGW 1

ACM.
7 .183 Session Progress NGW 1 Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 183 Session Progress
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
8. 183 (Session Progress) Proxy 1 Maxim
SIP/2.0 183 Session Progress

51. ..

401

402

13

Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9


;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

,
.
9. CANCEL Maxim Proxy 1
CANCEL sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 CANCEL
Content-Length: 0
10. 200 OK Proxy 1 Maxim
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 CANCEL
Content-Length: 0
11. CANCEL Proxy 1 NGW 1
CANCEL sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Max-Forwards: 70

SIPISUP

From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>


;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 CANCEL
Content-Length: 0
12. 200 OK NGW 1 Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 200 OK
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 CANCEL
Content-Length: 0
13. REL NGW 1

REL CauseCode=18 No user responding.


14. RLC NGW 1

RLC.
15. 487 (Request Terminated) NGW 1 Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 487 Request Terminated
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
16. ACK Proxy 1 NGW 1
ACK sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0

403

404

13
17 .487 (Request Terminated) Proxy 1 Maxim
SIP/2.0 487 Request Terminated
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
18. ACK Maxim Proxy 1
ACK sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/UDP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0

13.3.6. SIP :
, REL
Maxim Anton Proxy 1, NGW 1 .
, REL .
SIP 404 (Not Found),
Maxim.
.
1. INVITE Maxim Proxy 1
INVITE sip:+44-1234@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+44-1234@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:max@client.a.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Proxy-Authorization: Digest username=Max,
realm=a.niits.ru, nonce=j1c3b0b01cf832da2c5ac51bb59a05b40,
opaque=, uri=sip:+44-1234@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone,

SIPISUP

405

response=a451358d46b55512863efe1dccaa2f42
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154
v=0
o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
-
Proxy 1

Maxim

NGW 1

1. INVITE
2. 100
3. INVITE
4. 100
5. IAM
6. REL (1)
7. RLC
8. 404
9. ACK
10. 404
11. ACK

. 13.14. SIP :
, REL

2. 100 (Trying) Proxy 1 Maxim


SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+44-1234@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0

406

13
Proxy 1 ,
Anton. NGW 1.
Maxim 49172.
3. INVITE Proxy 1 NGW 1
INVITE sip:+44-1234@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+44-1234@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:max@client.a.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154
v=0
o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
4. 100 (Trying) NGW 1 Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+44-1234@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
5. IAM NGW 1

IAM.
CdPN=44-1234,NPI=E.164,NOA=International
CgPN=095-386-4515,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
6 .REL NGW 1

REL CauseValue=1 Unallocated number.

SIPISUP
7. RLC NGW 1

RLC.
CauseValue=1 SIP 404 (Not Found).
8. 404 (Not Found) NGW 1 Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 404 Not Found
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+44-1234@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Error-Info: <sip:not-found-ann@ann.a.niits.ru>
Content-Length: 0
9. ACK Proxy 1 NGW 1
ACK sip:+44-1234@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Max-Forwards: 70
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+44-1234@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
10 .404 (Not Found) Proxy 1 Maxim
SIP/2.0 404 Not Found
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+44-1234@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Error-Info: <sip:not-found-ann@ann.a.niits.ru>
Content-Length: 0
11. ACK Maxim Proxy 1
ACK sip:+44-1234@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+44-1234@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0

407

408

13

13.3.7. SIP : c
ANM
Maxim Anton Proxy 1, NGW 1
. , ANM (..
). REL
480 (Temporarily Unavailable) Maxim.
:
1. INVITE Maxim Proxy 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:max@client.a.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Proxy-Authorization: Digest username=Max,
realm=a.niits.ru, nonce=da2c5ac51bb59a05j1c3b0b01cf832b40,
opaque=, uri=sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone,
response=579cb9db184cdc25bf816f37cbc03c7d
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154
v=0
o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

Proxy 1 , ,
Anton. NGW 1.
Maxim
49172.
2. 100 (Trying) Proxy 1 Maxim
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>

SIPISUP

Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
3. INVITE Proxy 1 NGW 1
INVITE sip:+78122625326@ngw1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Max-Forwards: 69
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:max@client.a.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 154
v=0
o=Max 2890844526 2890844526 IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 client.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 49172 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
4. 100 Trying NGW 1 Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 100 Trying
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Content-Length: 0
5. IAM NGW 1

IAM.
CdPN=812-262-5326,NPI=E.164,NOA=National
CgPN=095-386-4515,NPI=E.164,NOA=National

52. ..

409

410

13

-
Proxy 1

Maxim

NGW 1

1. INVITE
2. 100
3. INVITE
4. 100
5. IAM
6. ACM

7. 183
8. 183

NGW 1
9. REL
10. RLC
11. 480

12. ACK
13. 480
14. ACK

. 13.15.

SIP : c
ANM

6. ACM NGW 1

ACM.
7. 183 (Session Progress) NGW 1 Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 183 Session Progress
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru;transport=tcp>

SIPISUP

411

Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000
8. 183 (Session Progress) Proxy 1 Maxim
SIP/2.0 183 Session Progress
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
Record-Route: <sip:ss1.a.niits.ru;lr>
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Contact: <sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru;transport=tcp>
Content-Type: application/sdp
Content-Length: 146
v=0
o=GW 2890844527 2890844527 IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
s=c=IN IP4 ngw1.a.niits.ru
t=0 0
m=audio 3456 RTP/AVP 0
a=rtpmap:0 PCMU/8000

, REL
480 (Temporarily Unavailable) SIP.
9. REL NGW 1

REL CauseCode=18 No user responding.


10. RLC NGW 1

RLC.
11. 480 (Temporarily Unavailable) NGW 1 Proxy 1
SIP/2.0 480 Temporarily Unavailable
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
;received=192.0.2.111
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101

412

13
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Error-Info: <sip:temp-unavail-ann@ann.a.niits.ru>
Content-Length: 0
12. ACK Proxy 1 NGW 1
ACK sip:ngw1@a.niits.ru SIP/2.0
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP ss1.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK2d4790.1
Max-Forwards: 70
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0
13. 480 (Temporarily Unavailable) Proxy 1 Maxim
SIP/2.0 480 Temporarily Unavailable
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
;received=192.0.2.101
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 INVITE
Error-Info: <sip:temp-unavail-ann@ann.a.niits.ru>
Content-Length: 0
14. ACK Maxim Proxy 1
ACK sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone SIP/2.0
Max-Forwards: 70
Via: SIP/2.0/TCP client.a.niits.ru:5060;branch=z9hG4bK74bf9
From: Max <sip:+70953864515@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=9fxced76sl
To: Anton <sip:+78122625326@ss1.a.niits.ru;user=phone>
;tag=314159
Call-ID: 2xTb9vxSit55XU7p8@a.niits.ru
CSeq: 1 ACK
Content-Length: 0

14.

URI

14.1. SIP URI


- SIP
, .
Request-URI. To From
. SIP- , - , , , URI.
SIP SIP URI . ISUP SIP URI.
, SIP
, tel URL. tel URL URI, .. tel URL URI,
SIP URI. , To :
To: tel:+78123875605

:
To: sip:+78123875605@protei.ru

+, tel URL, ,
, , E.164.

414

14
, . +
, ,
. + , URI, SIP URI
;user=phone, :
To: sip:83000@sip.niits.net;user=phone

SIP-T
E.164, ,
. , SIP-,
. , ,
/ , ,
, . , SIP
,
. , , ,
.
ISUP , , , Called Party Number (CPN) Calling Partys Number
(CIN); ,
.
H G F E D C B A

H G F E D C B A

NoA
NP1
dig ...
dig n
. 14.1.

...

NoA
spare
dig 1
dig ...

NP1
dig ...
dig n

Pr
...

Sc
dig 1
dig ...

ISUP [6]

SIP-T [6] CPN ISUP format,


CIN ISUP calling format. ,
Nature of Address (NoA) indicator, , Numbering

URI

415

Plan Indicator (NPI). ,


BCD (Binary Coded
Decimal). NPI
, Presentation Indicator, ,
, Screening Indicator, , .
NPI ISDN (Telephony) numbering plan
(Recommendation E.164), , ,
NPI, ; NoA ,
. , , NoA , ;
, , . NPI , ISDN numbering
plan; tel URI , .

14.2. ISUP
tel URL
ISUP tel URL . , NPI , .164, NoA.
, ,
tel:+.
NoA , ,
tel URL,
.
, (, Generic Name Parameter
ANSI), Presentation Indicator presentation
restricted, From.
ISUP calling format, : presentation indicators screening indicators.

416

14
presentation indicators presentation restricted,
URI, , . URI
SIP URI,
Anonymous, :
From: Anonymous <sip:anonymous@anonymous.invalid>

presentation indicators address unavailable,


IAM , CIN .
screening indicators .

14.3. tel URL


ISUP
tel URL ISUP . URI
, URI. (
, ,
), NoA
national (significant) number, URI
. , ,
, NoA international number,
URI. NPI ISDN
numbering plan. URI ,
URI,
. , ,
SIP, , URI ( URI
Request-URI, 484 (Address incomplete)).
tel URL ISUP calling format , presentation indicator
presentation allowed, screening indicator network
provided,
.

15.
,
SIP

15.1. SIP

, ( )
.
(mapping). ,

, . ,
IAM 7 [27] INVITE
SIP.
. , IAM To INVITE.
SIP 7
12 13 .
NGN
. . 15.1, SIP
Softswitch,
Softswitch (IP-,
soft-, SIP IAD ..). , Softswitch NGN SIP .323, MGCP H.248/MEGACO.

53. ..

418

15

IN

Par
la

SCP

AP

SIP/SIP-T

.24

ME

24

GA

H.

O/

CO

AC

/H

SI

EG

Softswitch

AN

R
GT

Softswitch


RTP/UDP/IP

. 15.1.

NGN


. 7 SIP/7 Softswitch
SIGTRAN. 7 IP-, UDP TCP SCTP (Stream Control Transport
Protocol), , . . 15.2.

, SIP

419

Softswitch

ISUP
MTP 3
MTP 2
MTP 1
. 15.2.

M3UA
SCTP
IP
2
1

Softswitch

Softswitch
ISUP
M3UA
SCTP
IP
2
1

Softswitch

SIP

SIP

UDP/TCP

UDP/TCP

IP
2
1

IP
2
1


Softswitch SIGTRAN

7 , IP- Softswitch. Softswitch



SIP. ,
SIP-T, 7, .
. 15.2
, (Signaling Gateway), IP-, (/ , / / IP-, - .).
,
.
IP- -ITG.
7 , IP- (Softswitch,
, IP- .), SIP. ,
,
,
IP- , :
{1111; SIP={ PrimaryIP=192.168.100.71; SecondaryIP=192.168.100.72;}}
{2222; SIP={ PrimaryIP=192.168.100.73; SecondaryIP=192.168.100.74;}}
{3333; SIP={ PrimaryIP=192.168.100.75; SecondaryIP=192.168.100.76;}}

420

15
, 1111
192.168.100.71, 192.168.100.72,
2222 192.168.100.73 192.168.100.74, 3333 192.168.100.75 192.168.100.76. ,
( , ..) . -,
( 192.168.100.169)
(5060), -:
Proxy = {192.168.100.169:5060}

, 5060 .
-ITG
,
.
SIP SDP
18. :
, , 01, 02, 03;
, , ;
.
,
SIP .323 .
, .
,
.323 .
SIP INVITE. , .323
FastConnect, INVITE
. , .
. 15.3 . H.323 Setup, INVITE.

, SIP

421

180 Ringing H.323


Alerting,
. , 200
.
.245,
.
.
H.323

SIP

Setup
INVITE
180 Ringing
Alerting
200 OK
Connect
H.245
ACK
RTP

. 15.3.

H.323 SIP

15.2. SIP
-
SIP
SNT, . 15.4. , - SNT SIP
,
.

422

15

. 15.4.

- SNTlite

- SNT
. , SNT /
SIP
.

15.3. SIP
, SIP . ,
, INVITE (0.0.0.0.) , IP- ( ) SDP- .
.
IP-
SIP . SIP
, :
.

, SIP

Anton

423

Boris

Vladimir

1. INVITE
2. 180 Ringing
3. 200 OK
4. ACK
RTR
Anton
5. REFER Refer-To: B
6. 202 Accepted
7. NOTIFY
8. 200 OK
9. BYE
10. 200 OK
RTP-

11. INVITE Reffered-By: A


12. 180 Ringing
13. 200 OK
14. ACK

14. NOTIFY
15. 200 OK

. 15.5.

RTR

UA, , SIP- ,
.
, , , ,
.

424

15
REFER . 15.5
.
Boris Anton REFER (F5)
Vladimir. , REFER, Boris
Vladimir. . 15.5,
.
,
-, IP-. ,
: ;
, (.. ); ,
.

,
. , .
,
( , ) .
. 15.6 SIP .
, Anton , .
, INFO,
Boris.
Anton ,
Vladimir Boris.

, SIP

Anton

425

Vladimir

Boris

INVITE ("hot dial")


100 Trying
200 OK
ACK

INFO ()
200 OK
INFO ()
200 OK
INVITE ()
100 Trying
180 Ringing

200 OK
ACK

Anton
INFO (" ")
200 OK
BYE
200 OK
INVITE ()
100 Trying
180 Ringing
200 OK
ACK
INVITE
100 Trying
200 OK
ACK

BYE
200
BYE
200 OK

. 15.6.

54. ..

426

15
. 15.7 , , SCP
, API Parlay .
Softswitch.
. ,
.
Parlay;
.


INAP
SIP

Parlay

INAP

SCP


Parlay

SIP

. 15.7.

, SIP

427

IETF SIP. , ,
NGN 800 ( ) .
SCP, SSP
.

15.4. PINT SPIRITS


[22].

SCP. : ,
. , SN
(Service Node), .
, .
.
IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force)
PINT (Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)/Internet Inter-Networking) SPIRITS
(Service in the PSTN/IN Requesting InTernet Service). , , Click-to-Dial-Back, Internet Call
Waiting, Internet Call Forwarding ..
Internet Call Waiting, , , -. :
;
,
, IP-;
;

428

15
, -, , ;
, , : ,
, .
SPIRITS IP-. ,
- ,
SSP, ,
. , /IN,
, SSP , ,
. SPIRITS
, PINT, , ,
.
Internet Call Waiting (.15.8).
, SCP
. SIP [3-5].
, SIP, , ( IP-,
).

SCP

/SSP/IP
3

6
SPIRITS-

SPIRITS

PINT/

7
5

. 15.8.

ICW , SPIRITS

, SIP

429

- SCP
. SPIRITS-, SPIRITS- SPIRITS-, PINT-/, PINT-.
. 15.8 ICW
(PINT-)
SSP,
(1); - SCP (2);
SCP INAP SSP (3).
(4) SCP (5). SCP ,
, - (6), (7).
,
. IP-
SIP.

16.

Quo Vadis?

16.1. SIP
, ,
. . -, , 80- [60]. -, SIP
7, , SIP
, 7.

, SIP IP- .
, SIP -, ,
.
SIP, , (
). SIP (body) , .
SIP
, .
, ,
( , -)
SIP .

Quo Vadis?

431
SIP
, , ,
.
SIP,
SIP 3GPP
NAT.

16.2. SIP 3G
,
. :
( 1G) ( 2G)
(3G). 3G,
, 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project). . 16.1.
.
UTRAN (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network
UMTS). - . 3G ,
, , UTRAN.
(PS CN Packet Switch Core Network). ,
GSM GPRS,
SGSN (Service GPRS Support Node) GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support
Node). SGSN , , , IMEI, . GGSN IP-
.

432

16

IP-

P-CSCF

HSS

S-CSCF

I-CSCF
MGCF
-SGW

SGSN

UTRAN

GGSN

MGW


SIP
H.248

. 16.1.

3GPP

IP- (IMSIP Multimedia Subsystem). IMS


,
, , , , .. IMS ( )
CSCF (Call Session Control Function ).
:
Proxy-CSCF (P-CSCF) -
SIP, .. , . PS CN P-CSCF.
P-CSCF . P-CSCF :

Quo Vadis?

433
SIP- REGISTER
I-CSCF.
SIP- S-CSCF, , ,
.
SIP- .
(CDR-Call Detailed Record).
.
.
.
Interrogating-CSCF (I-CSCF) (..
, ) (,
), .. .
, P-CSCF
S-CSCF.
. :
SIP- S-CSCF.
S-CSCF (HSS).
.
Serving-CSCF (S-CSCF)
. . S-CSCF.
S-CSCF :
(registrar) (. . 4.6)
(HSS).
.
,
.
P-CSCF
.

55. ..

434

16
CSCF
(VHE-Virtual Home Environment),
,
S-CSCF. , ,
(
, ).
IMS
c (HSS-Home Subscriber Server). HSS :
, .
.
.
.
:
(MGW-Media Gateway) , , .;
(T-SGW-Transport Signaling Gateway)
(, 7) IP-,
;
(MGCF-Media Gateway
Control Function) ( .248) . , SIP
H.248.
. 16.1, 3G SIP. (. 16.2),
.

Quo Vadis?

435
, 3G . P-CSCF (
P-CSCF) REGISTER (1).

HSS

8. 200

I-CSCF

S-CSCF
5. REGISTER

2. REGISTER

9. 300


P-CSCF
1. REGISTER

10. 200
GGSN
SGSN

. 16.2.

436

16
Request-URI DNS- P-CSCF I-CSCF ,
REGISTER (2). I-CSCF (3)
HSS, (4) S-CSCF,
REGISTER (3). S-CSCF
HSS (6,7). , 200 (8,
9,10).
(. 16.3) INVITE (1) P-CSCF,
CSCF.
( SDP) , ,
. P-SCSF , , INVITE S-CSCF (3). S-CSCF
. ,
, (,
). S-CSCF (6) (,
P-CSCF ). 183 Session Progress (8-9)
. P-CSCF
(10), , .
1 , .
PRACK (12)
- (18).
, . ,
180 Ringing, , , , . ,
, . . 16.3,
INVITE 183 Session Progress
, .
COMET. , .. , .

Quo Vadis?

437

P-CSCF

UA1

S-CSCF

1. INVITE
2. 100 Trying
3. INVITE
4. 100 Trying
5.

9. 183 Session Progress

6. INVITE
7. 100 Trying
8. 183 Session Progress

10.

11. 183 Session Progress


12. PRACK

17. 200

13. PRACK

14. PRACK
15. 200

16. 200

18.

19. COMET
20. COMET
24. 200

21. COMET
22. 200

23. 200

25. 180
26.

28. 180
29. PRACK

34. 200

27. 180
30. PRACK

31. PRACK
32. 200

33. 200

35. 200
36.

37. 200
38.

39. 200
40.
41.

. 16.3.

42.

438

16
RFC 3312 Integration of Resource Management and SIP [5]
COMET UPDATE, . , ,
3GPP
UPDATE.
COMET 180 Ringing (25, 27,
28), PRACK (29-31). , 200 (35). (
, -).
. 16.4 .
, .
, .
, SIP
, ,
, , ,
.
. ,
.
IP- (1) ,
REGISTER (1) P-CSCF. , , ( I-CSCF)
REGISTER (2). I-CSCF HSS
S-CSCF, (3,4). REGISTER
S-CSCF (5). S-CSCF HSS (6,7).
, , SIP, :
, , IP- . 3GPP
IETF , ,
(NGN) .

Quo Vadis?

439

S-CSCF

P-CSCF

UA2

1. INVITE
2. 100 Trying
3.

4. INVITE
5. 100 Trying

6. INVITE
7. 100 Trying
8. 183 Session Progress
9.

11.183 Session Progress


12. PRACK

10. 183 Session Progress


13. PRACK

14. PRACK
15. 200

16. 200

17. 200
19. COMET

18.

20. COMET

21. COMET
22. 200

23. 200
24. 200

25. 180
26. 180
27.

28. 180
29. PRACK

34. 200

30. PRACK

31. PRACK
32. 200

33. 200

35. 200
36.

37. 200
38.

39. 200
40. ACK

. 16.4.

41. ACK

42. ACK

440

16

16.3. NAT
NAT (Network Address Translator )
IPv4 . NAT IPv4,
IP- . NAT
IP-, ( ) NAT
, SIP H.323.
NAT SIP -
NAT, SIP
.
NAT SIP ,
SIP IP- (DNS), -. NAT
SIP -,
. ,
, -.
:
Simple Traversal of UDP Through NAT (STUN);
Traversal using relay NAT (TURN);
SIP Application Layer Gateways (ALGs);
Middlebox Communication (MIDCOM);
SIP Symmetric Response Routing, RFC 3581 [53];
Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP) ;
Virtual private networks (VPNs);
Firewall Enhancement Protocol, RFC 3093 [21];
Universal Plug and Play (UPnP);
Interactive Connectivity Establishment (ICE).
SIP ALGs , -, . SIP ALGs , , SIP B2BUA,

Quo Vadis?

441
SIP .
- SIP SDP. , NAT SIP , -
SIP, B2BUA, SIP ALGs
,
NAT. , NAT, SIP ALG.
MIDCOM ALG, ,
MIDCOM NAT/, MIDCOM, NAT, MIDCOM,
-. , ,
MIDCOM, NAT/ .
NAT MIDCOM .
NAT
, NAT
, SIP UA NAT IP-/
. SIP UA
. SIP UA IP-
NAT, ,
.
STUN SIP- , NAT
, NAT. STUN
STUN NAT. STUN IP- , .
SIP. STUN
-. STUN NAT NAT,
.
TURN -
NAT. TURN , -. TURN ,

56. ..

442

16
. SIP TURN
TURN. IP- , .
SIP -.
, , NAT,
, NAT.
TURN, STUN, SIP UA.
, NAT SIP , SIP
- RTP. [53]
NAT SIP UDP
.
Via, rport,
IP-
, ,
Via .
ICE , SIP
NAT. ICE - STUN TURN,
SDP ( ),
- RTP.
NAT IPv4 IP- , SIP. ,
SIP NAT.
, , , . ICE
,
. NAT IPv6,
NAT .


3GPP, 3rd Generation Partnership Project,
3-

A
AAL, ATM Adaptation Layer, ATM
ANSI, American National Standards Institute,
ATM, Asynchronous Transfer Mode,

B
BCI, Backward Call Indicators, .
ISUP
BNF, Backus-Naur Form, -

C
CCF, Charging Collection Function,
CIC, Carrier Identification Code, ()
CIN, Calling Partys Number, . ISUP
CON, Connect Message, ISUP
CPG, Call ProGress, ISUP
CPN, Called Party Number, . ISUP
CPS, Called Party Status, . ISUP
CSCF, Call Session Control Function,

D
DNS, Domain Name Service, ()
DoS, Denial of Service, ( )
DSP, Digital Signal Processor,
DTMF, Dual-Tone MultiFrequency signaling, 2 n

444

E
ECF, Event Charging Function,
ETS, European Telecommunications Standard,
ETSI, European Telecommunications Standards Institute,

F
FCI, Forward Call Indicators, .
ISUP
FQDN, Fully Qualified Domain Name,

G
GAP, Generic Address Parameter, ISUP
GGSN, Gateway GPRS Support Node, GPRS,
GMT, Greenwich Mean Time,
GSM, Global System for Mobile communications,
GPRS, General Packet Radio Service, GSM
GSTN, Global Switched Telephone Network,
GW, Gateway,

H
HSS, Home Subscriber Server, ( )
HTTP, Hypertext Transfer Protocol, ( )

I
ICID, IMS Charging Identity,
ICMP, Internet Control Message Protocol,
ICW, Internet Call Waiting, , ,
IETF, Internet Engineering Task Force,
IM, Instant Messaging,
,

445

IMEI, International Mobile Equipment Identity,

IMS, IP Multimedia Subsystem, IP-


IN, Intelligent Network,
IOI, Inter Operator Identifiers,
IP, Internet Protocol, ( 3 OSI)
IPSec, IP Security, IP
ISDN, Integrated Services Digital Network,
ISO, International Standardization Organization,
ISUP, ISDN User Part, - MTP ( 7), ISDN
ITU, International Telecommunications Union,
ITU-T, Telecommunication Standardization Sector, ITU
IVR, Interactive Voice Response,

L
LRN, Locating Routing Number,

M
MEGACO, MEdia GAteway Cntrol
IETF,
MG, Media Gateway, ()
MGC, Media Gateway Controller, .

MGCF, Media Gateway Control Function,
MGCP, Media Gateway Control Protocol,
MIDCOM, Middlebox Communication,
MIME, Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension, -
MTU, Maximum Transmission Unit,

446

N
NAPTR, Naming Authority PoinTeR, SIP URL
DNS
NAT, Network Address Translator,
NCI, Nature of Connection Indicator, ISUP
NGN, Next Generation Network,
NGW, Network Gateway,

O
OCN, Original Called Number, ISUP
OSI, Open Systems Interconnection,

P
PDD, PostDial Delay,
PGP, Pretty Good Privacy,
PINT, PSTN/Internet Inter-Networking, IETF
/
PPP, Point-to-Point Protocol,
PSCN, Packet Switch Core Network,
PSTN, Public Switched Telephone Network,

Q
Qop, Quality of protection,
QoS, Quality of Service, , ()

R
RFC IETF
RSVP, resource ReSerVation Protocol,

447

RTCP, Real-Time Control Protocol,


RTP, Real-Time Protocol,
RTT, Round-Trip Time, ( )

S
SCP, Service Control Point, ( )
SCTP, Stream Control Transport Protocol,
SDL, Specification and Description Language,
SDP, Session Description Protocol,
SGSN, Service GPRS Support Node, GPRS,
SIGTRAN, SIGnaling TRANsport IP-
SIP, Session Initiation Protocol,
SIP ALG, SIP Application Layer Gateway, SIP
SIP IAD, SIP Integrated Access Device ,
SIP
SIPS URI, SIP Secured URI, , ,
SIP-T, SIP extension for Telephony, SIP
S/MIME, Security for MIME, MIME- SIP
SMTP, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol,
SN, Service Node, ( )
SPIRITS, Service in the PSTN/IN Requesting InTernet Service,
PSTN/IN
SSL, Secure Sockets Layer
SSP, Service Switching Point, ( )
STUN, Simple Traversal of UDP through NAT, UDP NAT

448

T
TCP, Transmission Control Protocol, ( 4 OSI)
TLS, Transport Layer Security,
( 3 )
TMR, Transmission Medium Requirement, ISUP
TNS, Transit Network Selection, ISUP
T-SGW, Transport Signaling GateWay,
TTL, Time-To-Live, ()
TU, Transaction User,
TURN, Traversal Using Relay NAT, NAT -

U
UA, User Agent,
UAC, User Agent Client,
UAS, User Agent Server,
UDP, User Datagram Protocol,
UMTS, Universal Mobile Telecommunications System, ( 3G, ETSI)
URI, Universal Resource Identificator,
URL, Universal Resource Locator,
UTP, Unshielded Twisted Pair,
UTRAN, UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network, UMTS

V
VHE, Virtual Home Environment,
VPN, Virtual Private Network,



MD5 , ,
, . MD5
; , ,
, .
MD5 . , ,
md5
,
.

SIP . UA .

, .
.
answer
SDP, SIP .
offer
SDP, SIP .

57. ..

450

q
q , ,
0 1.

-, .
Event package
,
() , .
Interworking indicator
, FCI ISUP.
Option-tag
SIP , RFC.
Path MTU
Path Maximum Transfer Unit. ,

. Path MTU MTU .
Registrar
SIP. ,
, .
Remote target
. , .

451

Response context
SIP. , .
Route set
, , . ,
.
Stateful -
- . ( ) , .
Stateless -
- . .
, , .
. - , .
Strict router
-, Request-URI
Route.


1. Arkko J., Torvinen V., Camarillo G., Niemi A., Haukka T. Security Mechanism Agreement for SIP. RFC 3329,
January 2003.
2. Arlein R., Gurbani V. An Extensible Framework for Constructing Session Initiation Protocol User Agents. Bell
Labs Tech. J., 9:3 (2004), 87-100.
3. Braden R. Requirements for Internet Hosts Application and Support. RFC 1123, October 1989.
4. Braden R., Zhang L., Berson S., Herzog S., Jamin S. Resource ReSerVation Protocol (RSVP) Version 1
Functional Specification. RFC 2205, September 1997.
5. Camarillo G., Marshall W., Rosenberg J. Integration of Resource Management and SIP. RFC 3312, October
2002.
6. Camarillo G., Peterson J., Ong L., Roach A.B. Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) User Part (ISUP)
to Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Mapping. RFC 3398, December 2002.
7. Campbell B., Rosenberg J., Schulzrinne H., Huitema C., Gurle D. SIP Extension for Instant Messaging. RFC
3428, December 2002.
8. Crocker D. Standard for the format of ARPA internet text messages. RFC 822, August 1982.
9. Cuervo F., Greene N., Huitema C., Rayhan A., Rosen B., Segers J. Megaco Protocol version 0.8. RFC 2885,
August 2000.
10. Dawson F., Howes T. vCard MIME Directory Profile. RFC 2426, September 1998.
11. Donovan S. The SIP INFO Method. IETF RFC 2976, October 2000.
12. Eastlake D., Crocker S., Schiller J. Randomness Recommendations for Security. RFC 1750, December
1994.
13. Egevang K., Francis P. The IP Network Address Translator (NAT). RFC 1631, May 1994.
14. Faltstrom P. E.164 number and DNS. RFC 2916, September 2000.
15. Foster M., McGarry T., Yu J. Number Portability in the Global Switched Telephone Network (GSTN): An
Overview. RFC 3482, February 2003.
16. Franks J., Hallam-Baker P., Hostetler J., Lawrence S., Leach P., Luotonen A., Stewart L. HTTP Authentication:
Basic and Digest Access Authentication. RFC 2617, June 1999.
17. Franks J., Hallam-Baker P., Hostetler J., Leach P., Luotonen A., Sink E., Stewart L. An Extension to HTTP :
Digest Access Authentication. RFC 2069, January 1997.

453

18. Freed N., Borenstein N. Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types. RFC 2046,
November 1996.
19. Galvin J., Murphy S., Crocker S., Freed N. Security Multiparts for MIME: Multipart/Signed and Multipart/
Encrypted. RFC 1847, October 1995.
20. Garcia-Martin M., Henrikson E., Mills D. Private Header (P-Header) Extensions to the Session
Initiation Protocol (SIP) for the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP). RFC 3455,
January 2003.
21. Gaynor M., Bradner S. Firewall Enhancement Protocol. RFC 3093, April 2001.
22. .., .., .. . .: , 2000.
23. .., ..
IP- // . , 2002.
24. .., .., .. IP-. .: , 2001.
25. .. . 2. 2- . .: , 2001.
26. .. . 1. 3- . .: , 2001.
27. .., .., .. 7. ISUP. //
.: BHV-2003.
28. .., .., .. 7. MTP. //
.: BHV-2003.
29. .., .., .., .. V5.1 V5.2. // .:
BHV-2003.
30. .., .., .. R1.5. // .: BHV-2004.
31. Good G. The LDAP Data Interchange Format (LDIF) Technical Specification. RFC 2849, June 2000.
32. Greene N., Ramalho M., Rosen B. Media Gateway Control Protocol Architecture and Requirements. RFC
2805, April 2000.
33. Groves C., Pantaleo M., Anderson T., Taylor T. Gateway Control Protocol Version 1. RFC 3525, June 2003.
34. Gurbani V., Chiang T. C., Reid J. The Need for Third-Party Call Control. Bell Labs Tech. J., 7:1 (2002),
41-46.
35. Gurbani V., Liu K. Session Initiation Protocol: Service Residency and Resiliency. Bell Labs Tech. J., 8:1
(2003), 83-94.
36. Hadley M., Schulzrinne H., Scholler E., Rosenberg J. SIP: Session Initiation Protocol. IETF RFC 2543, March
1999.
37. Handley M., Jacobson V. SDP: Session Description Protocol. RFC 2327, April 1998.

454

38. Hilt V., Hofmann M. Approaches to implementing Services in the SIP Networks. Bell Labs Tech. J., 9:3
(2004), 39-44.
39. Housley R. Cryptographic Message Syntax. RFC 2360, June 1999.
40. ITU-T Recommendation H.248.1, Gateway Control Protocol: Version 2, May 2002.
41. ITU-T Recommendation H.323. Packet-based Multimedia Communications Systems, July 2003.
42. ITU-T Recommendation Q.761Q.764, Signaling System 7 ISDN User Part Functional Description,
September 1997.
43. Johnston J., Sparks R., Cunningham C., Summers K. SIP Basic Call Flow Examples. RFC 3665, December
2003.
44. Marshall W. Private SIP Extensions for Media Authorization. RFC 3313, January 2003.
45. Marshall W., Andreasen F. Private SIP Proxy-to-Proxy Extensions for Supporting the Packet Cable Distributed
Call Signaling Architecture. RFC 3603, October 2003.
46. Modarressi Abdi R., Mohan Seshadri. Control and Management in Next-Generation Networks: Challenges
and Opportunities, IEEE Communications, 94102.
47. Morneault K., Dantu R., Sidebottom G., Bidulock B., Heitz J. Signaling System 7 (SS7) Message Transfer
Part 2 (MTP2) User Adaptation Layer. RFC 3331, September 2002.
48. Ramsdell B. S/MIME Version 3 Message Specification. RFC 2633, June 1999.
49. Rivest R. The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm. RFC 1321, April 1992.
50. Roach B. SIP Specific Event Notification. RFC 3265, August 2002.
51. Rosenberg J. SIP UPDATE Method. RFC 3311, September 2002.
52. Rosenberg J., Peterson J., Schuzlrinne H., Camarillo G. Best Current Practices for Third Party Call Control
in the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP). IETF RFC 3725, April 2004.
53. Rosenberg J., Schulzrinne H. An Extension to the Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) for Symmetric Response
Routing. IETC RFC 3581, August 2003.
54. Rosenberg J., Schulzrinne H. An Offer/Answer Model with SDP, RFC 3264, June 2002.
55. Rosenberg J., Schulzrinne H. Reliability of Provisional Responses in SIP. RFC 3262, June 2002.
56. Rosenberg J., Schulzrinne H. SIP: Locating SIP Servers. RFC 3263, June 2002.
57. Rosenberg J., Schulzrinne H., Camarillo G., Johnston A., Peterson J., Sparks R., Handley M., Schooler E.
SIP: Session Initiation Protocol. RFC 3261, June 2002.
58. Rosenberg J., Weinberger J., Huitema C., Mahy R. STUNSimple Traversal of User Datagram Protocol
(UDP) Through Network Address Translators (NATs). RFC 3489, March 2003.

455

59. - .. -: SIP . .: , 2002.


60. .. . . .: , 1979.
61. Schulzrinne H., Casner S., Frederick R., Jacobson V. RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications.
RFC 1889, January 1996.
62. Schulzrinne H., Casner S., Frederick R., Jacobson V. RTP: A Transport for Real-Time Applications, RFC
3550, July 2003.
63. Schulzrinne H., Petrack S. RTP payload for DTMF Digits, Telephony Tones and Telephony Signals, RFC
2833, May 2000.
64. Schulzrinne H., Rao A., Lanphier R., Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP), RFC 2326, April 1998.
65. Schulzrinne, Oran D., Camarillo G. The Reason Header Field for SIP RFC 3326, December 2002.
66. Sidebottom G., Morneault K., Pastor-Balbas J. Signaling System 7 (SS7) Message Transfer Part 3 (MTP3)
User Adaptation Layer (M3UA). RFC 3332, September 2002.
67. Sparks R. Internet Media Type message/sipfrag. RFC 3420, November 2002.
68. Sparks R. SIP Refer Method. RFC 3515, April 2003.
69. Stewart R., Xie Q., Morneault K., Sharp C., Schwarzbauer H., Taylor T., Rytina I., Kalla M., Zhang L., Paxson
V. Stream Control Transmission Protocol. RFC 2960, October 2000.
70. .. Open System Access //
, .: 2003.

71. Technical Specification. 3rd Generation Partnership Project. 3GPP TS 23.002. Network
architecture. (Release 5).
72. Technical Specification. 3rd Generation Partnership Project. 3GPP TS 23.228. IP multimedia
subsystem, Stage 2.
73. Technical Specification. 3rd Generation Partnership Project. 3GPP TS 24.228. Signalling flows
for the IP multimedia call control based,on SIP and SDP; Stage 3 (Release 5).
74. Technical Specification. 3rd Generation Partnership Project. 3GPP TS 24.229. IP multimedia call
control protocol based on SIP and SDP.
75. Vaha-Sipila A. URLs for Telephone Calls. RFC 2806, April 2000.
76. Willis D., Hoeneisen B. Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) Extension Header Field for Registering
Non-Adjacent Contacts, IETF RFC 3327, December 2002.
77.

Yergeau F. UTF-8, a transformation format of ISO 10646. RFC 2279, January 1998.




SIP

3004

065953 15.08.98

05.05.2005
6090/8.
.
. .
57 . .
3000 .
- -, 198005, -, ., .29


199034, -, 9 , 12

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