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Escola Tcnica Superior dEnginyeria telecom Escola Tcnica Superior dEnginyeria

de Telecomunicaci de Barcelona
Departament de Teoria del Senyal
telecom
BCN
UNIVERSITAT POLITCNICA DE
CATALUNYA
Departament de Teoria del Senyal
i Comunicacions
FIBER-OPTIC
COMMUNICATIONS COMMUNICATIONS
JOAN M. GEN BERNAUS
OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS GROUP OPTICAL COMMUNICATIONS GROUP
G C O
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
CONTENTS CONTENTS
1 INTRODUCTION 1. INTRODUCTION
2. OPTICAL FIBER
3. OPTICAL SOURCES
4. OPTICAL RECEIVERS
5 OPTICALAMPLIFIERS 5. OPTICAL AMPLIFIERS
6. FIBER-OPTIC SYSTEMS
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide2 CONTENTS CONTENTS
6. FIBER OPTIC SYSTEMS
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
2.OPTICALFIBER 2.OPTICALFIBER
RAYOPTICS
POSTULATESOFRAYOPTICS
REFLECTION&REFRACTION
AA] RELATIONSHIP
TYPESOFOPTICALFIBERS
DEFINITION&CLASSIFICATION
CHARACTERISTICPARAMETERS
STANDARDIZATION
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide3 CONTENTS CONTENTS
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
PROPAGATIONINO.F.
TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION TOTALINTERNALREFLECTION
TRANSVERSALMODES
ATTENUATION IN O F ATTENUATIONINO.F.
DISPERSIONINO.F.
MULTI MODE FIBERS MULTIMODEFIBERS
SINGLEMODEFIBERS
O F BANDWIDTH O.F.BANDWIDTH
GAUSSIANAPPROXIMATION
PRACTICALBW
OPTICALBWvs.ELECTRICALBW
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide4 CONTENTS CONTENTS
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
RAY OPTICS RAY OPTICS RAYOPTICS RAYOPTICS
Lightisanelectromagneticwavephenomenondescribedbythe g g p y
sametheoreticalprinciplesthatgovernallformsofEMradiation.
Nevertheless,itispossibletodescribemanyphenomenausing
someapproximations
TEMPORALEVOLUTION TEMPORALEVOLUTION
ELECTROMAGETIC OPTICS (FOURIER)
QUANTUMOPTICS(PARTICLES)
EinstenPlanck
WAVEOPTICS(SCALAR)
ELECTROMAGETICOPTICS(FOURIER)
Maxwell
RAYOPTICS(GEOMETRIC)
<<D
Galileo
Newton
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide5 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - RAY OPTICS RAY OPTICS
Ga eo
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
RAY OPTICS: POSTULATES RAY OPTICS: POSTULATES (I) (I) RAYOPTICS:POSTULATES RAYOPTICS:POSTULATES(I) (I)
1. Lighttravelsintheformofrays
planarwavefront
sphericalwavefront
<<D
lightrays lightrays
2. An optical medium is characterized by its refractive index (n>1), which is
defined as the ratio of the speed of ligth in free space (c=310
8
m/s) to that in
the medium (v) ( )
c
n 1 >
nd optical path length
d nd
t = =
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide6 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - RAY OPTICS RAY OPTICS
n 1
v
>
nd opticalpathlength
t
v c
= =
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
RAY OPTICS: POSTULATES RAY OPTICS: POSTULATES ((II) II)
3. Inaninhomogeneousmedium therefractiveindexn(r)isafunctionofthe
RAYOPTICS:POSTULATES RAYOPTICS:POSTULATES((II) II)
positionr=(x,y,z).TheopticalpathlengthalongagivenpathbetweenpointsA
andBistherefore:
B
n(r)c
}
/
B
B
1
t n(r) = c
}
/
A
n(r)c
}
/
/ c
A
t n(r)
c
= c
}
/
B
(
o
A
inhomogeneousmedium
B
A
n(r) 0
r
(
o
c =
(
o

}
/
4. Lightraystravelalongthepathofleasttime(FermatsPrinciple)
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide7 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - RAY OPTICS RAY OPTICS
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
REFLECTION & REFRACTION REFLECTION & REFRACTION (I) (I)
ReflectionLaw
REFLECTION&REFRACTION REFLECTION&REFRACTION(I) (I)
( )
R i
| = |
|
r
|
r
(n
1
> n
2
)
(n
1
< n
2
)
SnellsLaw
|
r
n
1
n
2
1 i 2 r
n sin n sin | = |
n cos n cos u = u
|
i
|
R
n
1
1 i 2 r
n cos n cos u = u
Internal Refraction (n
1
>n
2
)
ExternalRefraction(n
1
<n
2
)
r i
| > |
r i
| < |
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide8 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - RAY OPTICS RAY OPTICS
InternalRefraction(n
1
>n
2
)
r i
| |
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
REFLECTION & REFRACTION REFLECTION & REFRACTION ((II) II)
TotalInternalReflection
REFLECTION&REFRACTION REFLECTION&REFRACTION((II) II)
1 i 2 r
n sin( ) n sin( ) | = |
(n
1
> n
2
) total internal
reflection
1
r i
2
n
sin( ) sin( )
n
| = |
n
2
(n
1
>n
2
)
|
c
n
1
c
critical
angle
| |
i 2 1 r
sin( ) 0, n n sin( ) 1 | e | s
r
(P 0) =
( |
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide9 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - RAY OPTICS RAY OPTICS
Alllightremainsinmediumn
1
( |
i 2 1 r
sin( ) n n ,1 sin( ) 1 | e | >
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
REFLECTION & REFRACTION REFLECTION & REFRACTION ((II) II)
C i i l l
|
|

|
| |
2 1 2
n
i
n
) i (
REFLECTION&REFRACTION REFLECTION&REFRACTION((II) II)
CriticalAngle
|
|
.

\
= | = |
1
2 1
c
1
2
c
n
sin
n
) sin(
n n
RelativeRefractiveIndex
1
2 1
n
n n
A
ParaxialOptics
Small propagation angles
u ~ u sin
u
Smallpropagationangles
u ~ u sin
u
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide10 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - RAY OPTICS RAY OPTICS
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
REFLECTION & REFRACTION REFLECTION & REFRACTION ((III) III) REFLECTION&REFRACTION REFLECTION&REFRACTION((III) III)
Energyinterchange
n
1
n
2
reflected
E
,
transmitted
E
,
|
fl d
E
,
incident
E
,
|
Reflectance
reflected
incident
E
E
= ,
2 P
2
normal
n n | |
Reflectivity
2
reflected
incident
P
R
P
= =
normal
incidence
1 2
1 2
n n
R
n n
| |
=
|
+
\ .
E
,
Transmitance
Transmitivity
transmitted
incident
E
t
E
= ,
transmitted
P
T 1 R
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide11 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - RAY OPTICS RAY OPTICS
Transmitivity
transmitted
incident
T 1 R
P
= =
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
REFLECTION & REFRACTION REFLECTION & REFRACTION ((III) III) REFLECTION&REFRACTION REFLECTION&REFRACTION((III) III)
reflected 1 i 2 r
E n cos n cos | |
= =
,
Amplitude
2
1 2
n n
R
| |
|
1 i 2 r incident
n cos n cos E
= =
| + |
,
Reflectance
i r
1 2
1 2
R
n n
| ~|
=
|
+
\ .
ExternalReflection(n
1
<n
2
)
2
2
1 2
1 2 i r 1 2
n n
,1
n n , 0 n n

| |
e
(
|
< | < | < +
(
\ .

= t

1
||
0
||
0

28FEBRUARY 2011
slide12 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - RAY OPTICS RAY OPTICS
|
i
0 /2
|
i
0 /2
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
REFLECTION & REFRACTION REFLECTION & REFRACTION ((III) III) REFLECTION&REFRACTION REFLECTION&REFRACTION((III) III)
InternalReflection(n
1
>n
2
)
1
2
2
i
1 i 2 2
c
1 i 2
sin
n cos jn 1
sin
n cos n cos
| | |
|
|
|
| |
\ . c
1 i 2 r
1
2
1 i 2 r
2
i
1 i 2 2
c
n cos n cos
n cos n cos
sin
n cos jn 1
sin
|
| |
\ .
= =
| + |
| | |
| +
|
|
\ . c
|
\ .
1
1 1
2
2 2 2
2 2
2
1 1 i i
r i r i
2 2
n n sin sin
sin sin cos 1 sin 1 j 1
n n sin sin
| |
| | | | | |
| |
| = | | = | = =
|
| |
|
|
| |
\ . \ . \ . \ .
2 2 c c
2
c
1
n n sin sin
n
sin
n
|
| |
\ . \ . \ . \ .
| =
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide13 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - RAY OPTICS RAY OPTICS
1
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
REFLECTION & REFRACTION REFLECTION & REFRACTION ((III) III) REFLECTION&REFRACTION REFLECTION&REFRACTION((III) III)
InternalReflection(n
1
>n
2
)
1
2
2
i
1 i 2 2
c
1 i 2
sin
n cos jn 1
sin
n cos n cos
| | |
|
|
|
| |
\ . c
1 i 2 r
1
2
1 i 2 r
2
i
1 i 2 2
c
n cos n cos
n cos n cos
sin
n cos jn 1
sin
|
| |
\ .
= =
| + |
| | |
| +
|
|
\ .
2
1

| |
c
|
\ .
2
2
i
2 1 i 2 2
2
c
1 2
1
sin
n cos n 1
sin
n n
,1
n n

| |
| | |
|
|
|

|
(
|

| |
\ .

= e | (
|
| s |
+
( | \ .

{ }
i c 2
1 2
2
i
1 i 2 2
c
n n
sin
n cos n 1
sin
0
|
| s |
+
( | \ .

| | |

| | +
|
|
|
\ .
\ .

28FEBRUARY 2011
slide14 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - RAY OPTICS RAY OPTICS
{ } arg 0 =

FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS


GCO
REFLECTION & REFRACTION REFLECTION & REFRACTION ((III) III) REFLECTION&REFRACTION REFLECTION&REFRACTION((III) III)
InternalReflection(n
1
>n
2
)
1
2
2
i
1 i 2 2
c
1 i 2
sin
n cos jn 1
sin
n cos n cos
| | |
|
|
|
| |
\ . c
1 i 2 r
1
2
1 i 2 r
2
i
1 i 2 2
c
n cos n cos
n cos n cos
sin
n cos jn 1
sin
|
| |
\ .
= =
| + |
| | |
| +
|
|
\ .
2
1

c
|
\ .
{ }
( )
| |
1
2
2
i 1
i c
2 2 2 2
2
c i c 1 1
sin
n 1
sin sin sin
2t 2t 0


| | |
| > |



|
`
| | |
\ .
`

{ }
( )
| |
c i c 1 1
1 i i
arg 2tg 2tg 0,
n cos cos
| | |
\ .
`
= = e t

| |
) )

28FEBRUARY 2011
slide15 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - RAY OPTICS RAY OPTICS
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
REFLECTION & REFRACTION REFLECTION & REFRACTION ((III) III) REFLECTION&REFRACTION REFLECTION&REFRACTION((III) III)
InternalReflection(n
1
>n
2
)
1
||
0
| |
0

|
c
|
c
|
i
0
0
|
i
0
0
/2 /2
TOTALINTERNALREFLECTION
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide16 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - RAY OPTICS RAY OPTICS
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
A A A] A] RELATIONSHIP RELATIONSHIP A A A] A] RELATIONSHIP RELATIONSHIP
c c
+
+
} }
c
f f / 2
c
A
=
c
f
c = c
2
c
f
f


c = c
} }
c
2
f f / 2
c
f
f
A

+
c
f f / 2
1
A
| | 1 1
f f +Af/2
f -Af/2

=
c
f f / 2
1
c
f
A
A
| |
=
|
+
|
\ .
c c
1 1
c
f f
f f
2 2
A A
f
c
Af
f
c
+Af/2
f
c
-Af/2
\ .
=
| || |
f
c
f f
A
A
A A
=
| |
2
f
c
f
A
A
A
| || |
+
| |
\ .\ .
c c
f f
f f
2 2
A A
| |

|
\ .
2
c
f
f
2
A

+
A

c
c
f f A <<
~ 0.8 nm 100 GHz
WDMgrid(ITU)
~
2
c
c
f
f
A A
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide17 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - RAY OPTICS RAY OPTICS
c
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
Frequency Frequency Wavelength Wavelength
Evolution of field amplitude Evolution of field amplitude Evolutionoffieldamplitude
overtimeinafixeddistance
Evolutionoffieldamplitude
overdistanceinafixedtime
1
VACUUM (n
0
) MEDIUM (n
1
)
1
VACUUM (n
0
) MEDIUM (n
1
)
1
0.5
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
T
0
=1/f T
1
=1/f
0.5
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

1
= v/f
0
=c/f
0
-0.5
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

A
0 1
0
-0.5
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

A
c n
c
0.5
-1
Time
-1
Distance
c n
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide18 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - RAY OPTICS RAY OPTICS
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
TYPES OF FIBERS TYPES OF FIBERS TYPESOFFIBERS TYPESOFFIBERS
Definintion Definintion
AnOpticalFiberisadielectriccilindricalwaveguidecapableofguidinglight
at certain frequencies with low attenuation and high bandwidth atcertainfrequencieswithlowattenuationandhighbandwidth
Cladding(125
i )
ExternalJacket(4
i thi k)
Core (9 microns)
microns)
InternalJacket(250
micronsthick)
SiO
2
PVC
Core(9microns)
microns)
Acrilate
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide19 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - TY`PES OF OPTICAL FIBERS TY`PES OF OPTICAL FIBERS
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
INDEX PROFILE SIZE INDEX PROFILE
n
1
n
2
n
0
FIBER SECTION AND PROPAGATION
SIZE
CORE/CLAD
50 m / 125 m
a
bb
Multi-mode Step Index
50 m / 125 m
a
bb
Multi-mode Graded Index
9 m / 125 m
a
b
9 m / 125 m
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide20 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - TY`PES OF OPTICAL FIBERS TY`PES OF OPTICAL FIBERS
a
Single-mode Step Index
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
GRaded INdex Fibers (I) GRadedINdexFibers(I)

( )
1
2 2
2
1 2
n n
1
o | |
|
n
1
o=
n(r)
n(r)

( )
1 2
1 2
1
n 1 r a r a
n
<
|
\ .
1
2 2
2
1 2
n n
1
| |
>
|
n
2
o= 1
o= 2
o= 10
o
o:profileparameter

1 2
1 2 2
1
n 1 n r a
n
= >
|
\ .
a -a
r
o=1
o= StepIndex
TriangularIndex
p p
r:radialdistance
a -a
r
( )
( )
1
2
n 1 2 r a
r a
o
A

<
o=2
ParabolicIndex
2 2 ( )
( )
( )
1
1
2
1 2
n 1 2 r a
r a
n(r)
r a
n 1 2 n
A
A

<
~

>

2 2
1 2
2
1
n n
n

1 2
1
n n
2 2
n

~ A
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide21 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - TY`PES OF OPTICAL FIBERS TY`PES OF OPTICAL FIBERS
A:relativerefractiveindex ParaxialO. (n
1
~ n
2
)
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
GRaded INdex Fibers (I)
Allrayshavethesamedelaynomattertheincidenceangle(same
i l h) Th i i h i d
GRadedINdexFibers(I)
opticalpath).Thepropagationissynchronized.
Di
r
Discrete
Profile
n(r)
n
1
n
2
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide22 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - TY`PES OF OPTICAL FIBERS TY`PES OF OPTICAL FIBERS
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
AdvancedIndexProfiles
standardfibers
SiO
2
SiO
2
+GeO
2
SiO
2
+F
dispersionshiftedfibers
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide23 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - TY`PES OF OPTICAL FIBERS TY`PES OF OPTICAL FIBERS
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
CHARACTERISTIC PARAMETERS CHARACTERISTIC PARAMETERS CHARACTERISTICPARAMETERS CHARACTERISTICPARAMETERS
StaticParameters
Nopropagationdistancedependence
Core/Cladding
Diameter
Geometrical
Togetherwithindexprofile,numerical
aperture,andfrequency;determinesthe
SM/MM behaviour of the fiber
IndexProfile:n(r)
Transversalevolutionofthefibercores
refractiveindex
SM/MMbehaviourofthefiber
Numerical
Aperture: NA
Optical
Corecladdingrefractiveindicesquadratic
differencewhichdeterminestheacceptance
l f h fib
Aperture:NA
DynamicParameters
Propagationdistancedependence
angleofthefiber
Attenuation
i i ( d id h)
OpticalPowerreductionperunitlength
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide24 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - TY`PES OF OPTICAL FIBERS TY`PES OF OPTICAL FIBERS
Dispersion(Bandwidth)
Opticalpulsesspreadingperunitlength
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
ESTANDARDIZATION ESTANDARDIZATION ESTANDARDIZATION ESTANDARDIZATION
Multimode Fibers
MULTIMODEFIBER50/125 ITUTG.651
NumericalAperture NA=0,18a0,24(+/ 10%)
MULTIMODEFIBER62,5/125 ISO/IEC793
NumericalAperture NA=0,275(+/ 0,015)
MultimodeFibers
IndexProfile Gradedindex
AverageRefractiveIndex 1,43
CoreDiameter 50m(+/ 3m)
Cladding Diameter 125 m (+/ 3 m)
IndexProfile Stepindex
RelativeRefractiveIndex 1.90%
CoreDiameter 62,5m(+/ 3m)
Cladding Diameter 125 m (+/ 1 m) CladdingDiameter 125m(+/ 3m)
SiliconCoating 245m(+/ 10m)
ConcentricityError 6%
CoreCircularityError 6%
CladdingDiameter 125m(+/ 1m)
SiliconCoating 245m(+/ 10m)
OperationWavelenght 850&1300nm
Attenuation@850nm 3 3,2dB/km
CladdingCircularityError 2%
Attenuation@850nm 2,7 3dB/km
Attenuation@1300nm 0,7 0,8dB/km
Bandwidth @ 850 nm 300 500 MHz/Km
Attenuation@1300nm 0,7 0,8dB/km
Bandwidth@850nm 200 300MHz/Km
Bandwidth@1300nm 400 600MHz/Km
Bandwidth@850nm 300 500MHz/Km
Bandwidth@1300nm 500 1000MHz/Km
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide25 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - TY`PES OF OPTICAL FIBERS TY`PES OF OPTICAL FIBERS
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
SinglemodeFibers
SINGLEMODEFIBER"DISPERSION
SHIFTED"
ITUTG.653
CutoffWavelength 1,05 1,15m
SINGLEMODEFIBER"STANDARD" ITUTG.652
CuttingWavelength 1,18 1,27m
ModalFielddiameter 8(7 8,3)m(+/ 10%)
CladdingDiameter 125m(+/ 3m)
SiliconCoating 245m(+/ 10m)
l dd l %
ModalFielddiameter 9,3(8 10)m(+/ 10%)
CladdingDiameter 125m(+/ 3m)
SiliconCoating 245m(+/ 10m)
Cl ddi Ci l i E 2% CladdingCircularityError 2%
ModalFieldConcentricityError 1m
Attenuation@1300nm <1dB/Km
Attenuation@1550nm 0,25 0,5dB/Km
CladdingCircularityError 2%
ModalFieldConcentricityError 1m
Attenuation@1300nm 0,4 1dB/km
Attenuation@1550nm 0,25 0,5dB/km @ , , /
ChromaticDisp.@15251575 nm 3,5ps/Km/nm
@ , , /
ChromaticDisp.@12851330 nm 3,5ps/km/nm
ChromaticDisp.@12701340 nm 6ps/Km/nm
ChromaticDisp.@1550 nm 20ps/Km/nm
SINGLEMODEFIBER"NONZERO
DISPERSIONSHIFTED"
ITUTG.655
ModalFielddiameter 8,4m(+/ 0,6m)
SINGLEMODEFIBER"MINIMUM
ATTENUATION"
ITUTG.654
ModalFielddiameter 125m(+/ 3m)
CladdingDiameter 125m(+/ 1m)
CutoffWavelength 1260nm
Attenuation@1550nm 0,22 0,30dB/Km
Chromatic Disp @ 1550 nm 4 6 ps/Km/nm
CladdingCircularityError 2%
ModalFieldConcentricityError 1m
SiliconCoating 245m(+/ 10m)
Attenuation @ 1550 nm 0 15 0 25 dB/Km
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide26 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - TY`PES OF OPTICAL FIBERS TY`PES OF OPTICAL FIBERS
ChromaticDisp.@1550nm 4,6ps/Km/nm
NonZeroDispersionRegion 1540 1560nm|
Attenuation@1550nm 0,15 0,25dB/Km
ChromaticDisp.@1550nm 20ps/Km/nm
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
PROPAGATION IN O F PROPAGATION IN O F PROPAGATIONINO.F. PROPAGATIONINO.F.
ACCEPTANCE
ANGLE/CONE
n
2
n
0
Refracted
|
c
a
b
n
1
Refracted
Ray2
Reflected
Ray2
Reflected
Ray 1
|
r
u
i
Refracted
Ray1
u
r
|
c Ray 1
u
c
u
i
Incident
Ray1
CORE
u
a
CORE
CLADDING
Incident
Ray2
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide27 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - PROPAGATION IN O.F. PROPAGATION IN O.F.
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION
ACCEPTANCE
TOTALINTERNALREFLECTION TOTALINTERNALREFLECTION
CriticalAngle
ACCEPTANCE
ANGLE / CONE
Refracted
Ray 1
|
c
a
b
n
1
n
2
n
0
Refracted
Ray 2
Reflected
Ray 2
Reflected
Ray 1
|
r
u
2
c
1
n
sin
n
| =
u
i
Ray 1
Incident
Ray 1
u
r
CORE
u
c
u
a
1
2 2
n
| |
| |
|
c c
2
t
u = |
CLADDING
Incident
Ray 2
0 2 1
n n n < <
i i u u
2
c c
1
n
sin cos 1
n
| |
| u = | =
|
|
\ .
\ .
1
1 2 2
2 2
2
( )
| |
| |
0 2 1
0 a 1 c
n sin n sin u = u
Acceptance
2 2
2
1 2 1 2
0 1 0
n n (n n )
1
n n n
| |
| |
| = =
|
|
\ .
\ .
1
a c
0
n
sin sin
n
u = u
1
c
0
n
cos
n
= |
Acceptance
Angle
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide28 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - PROPAGATION IN O.F. PROPAGATION IN O.F.
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION TOTALINTERNALREFLECTION TOTALINTERNALREFLECTION
ACCEPTANCE
NumericalAperture
1
2 2
2
A ( )
ACCEPTANCE
ANGLE / CONE
Refracted
Ray 1
|
c
a
b
n
1
n
2
n
0
Refracted
Ray 2
Reflected
Ray 2
Reflected
Ray 1
|
r
u
2 2
2
1 2
NA (n n )
u
i
Ray 1
Incident
Ray 1
u
r
CORE
u
c
u
a
ParaxialOptics
( )
1
1 2 2
1
1
n n
NA n 2
n

A ~ A
CLADDING
Incident
Ray 2
0 2 1
n n n < <
NumericalAperturequantifiestheabilityoftheopticalfiberto
0 2 1
acceptlightcomingfromoutsidethecore.Inthissense,wewant
NAtobeahighvalue.
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide29 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - PROPAGATION IN O.F. PROPAGATION IN O.F.
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION TOTAL INTERNAL REFLECTION TOTALINTERNALREFLECTION TOTALINTERNALREFLECTION
LightAcceptance/Emission
n
2
n
0
n
0
LIGHT
ACCEPTANCE
n
1
n
2
u
a
LIGHT
PROPAGATION
n
0
n
0
u
a
LIGHTEMISSION
ACCEPTANCE
CORE
PROPAGATION
CLADDING
u
a
u
a
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide30 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - PROPAGATION IN O.F. PROPAGATION IN O.F.
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
FIBER LIGHT COUPLING FIBER LIGHT COUPLING
AcceptanceSolidAngle
FIBERLIGHTCOUPLING FIBERLIGHTCOUPLING
AcceptanceCone
|
u
a
c
u
O = cO
}}
2
u
t
u
| | 2
a
~ t u
a 2
c
0 0
sin
u
t
O = u cu c|
} }
( )
a
2 1 cos = t u
2
a
4 sin
2
u
| |
= t
|
\ .
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide31 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - PROPAGATION IN O.F. PROPAGATION IN O.F.
ParaxialOptics
2
cos 2 1 2sin u = u
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
CouplingEfficiency(punctualsource)
| |
c dB
log 10 L q
IN
c
P
P
q
u A t A l
c
T
P
Confinement
u
a
Acceptance Angle
u
d
Vision Angle
Region
SOURCE
Reflection
u
2
0 1
0 1
n n
R
n n
| |
=
|
+
\ .
d
a
tg
d
u =
Acceptance
u
a
P( ) u
CORE
2a
u
d
0 1 \ .
Acceptance
Angle
d
CLADDING
( )
2 2
T
P P sin
t t
= u u cu c|
} }
( ) ( )
2
IN
P 1 R P sin
t u
= u u cu c|
} }
( )
T
0 0
P P sin u u cu c|
} }
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide32 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - PROPAGATION IN O.F. PROPAGATION IN O.F.
( ) ( )
IN
0 0
s u u cu c|
} }
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
FARSOURCE
distancelimit
u
a
P( ) u
CORE
2a
u
d
u < u u u
P( ) u
d
CLADDING
d a d
u < u u = u
u
a
CORE
2a
P( ) u
u
d
NA limit
CLOSESOURCE
CLADDING
P( ) u
NAlimit
a d a
u < u u = u
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide33 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - PROPAGATION IN O.F. PROPAGATION IN O.F.
d
d
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
TRANSVERSAL PROPAGATION MODES TRANSVERSAL PROPAGATION MODES TRANSVERSALPROPAGATIONMODES TRANSVERSALPROPAGATIONMODES
x
E

E
z

|
Cladding
E
|

z
y
Core
A Transversal Propagation Mode of an electromagnetic wave travelling
along a waveguide is a particular field distribution measured in a plane along a waveguide is a particular field distribution measured in a plane
perpendicular to the propagation axis.
Each mode belongs to a particular solution of Maxwells equations inside g p q
the waveguide structure given the boundary conditions imposed.
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide34 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - PROPAGATION IN O.F. PROPAGATION IN O.F.
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
TRANSVERSAL MODES FAMILIES TRANSVERSALMODESFAMILIES
TE (transversal electric) The electric field is zero in the propagation
di ti direction.
TM (transversal magnetic) The magnetic field is zero in the propagation
direction direction.
TEM (transversal electromagnetic) Both the electric and the magnetic
field are zero in the propagation direction.
HEEH (hybrids) Both the electric and the magnetic field are nonzero in
the propagation direction.
LaserradiationTEM
OFpropagationHEEH
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide35 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - PROPAGATION IN O.F. PROPAGATION IN O.F.
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
FieldDistributions
E
Z
E
Z
H
Z
Continuous
J (k) J (k)
u() u()
SpacialDistributions
derivate
Evanescent
ld
J
0
(k) J
3
(k)
K
0
()
K ()
() ()
Field
K
3
()

a
a
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide36 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - PROPAGATION IN O.F. PROPAGATION IN O.F.
Core
Cladding
Core
Cladding
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
ModeIndex(EfectiveIndex)
2 1
n n n < <
u()
n
1
n
2
n
2 1
n n n < <
NormalizedPropagation
n
1
n
2
2
n n
Constant

a
2
1 2
n n
b
n n


a
Core Cladding
NormalizedFrequency
g
a
V 2 NA t

n n
1
a
2 n 2 ~ t A

paraxial optics
NAatradeoff
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide37 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - PROPAGATION IN O.F. PROPAGATION IN O.F.
2 1
n n ~
paraxialoptics
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
1 0
Single Mode condition
0.8
1.0
t
a
n
t

(
b
)
HE
11
TE
01
SingleModecondition
c
V 405 . 2 V = <
0 4
0.6
p
a
g
a
t
i
o
n

C
o
n
s
t
EH
11
Tradeoff
c
0.2
0.4
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

P
r
o
p
HE
21
HE
31
HE l d
V singlemode
V %P P
+ |
| |
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0.0
N
o
r
NormalizedFrequency (V)
TM
01
HE
12
N b f M d i ti
core clad
V %P P | |
Normalized Frequency (V)
NumberofModesapproximation
V
M
2
Step Index Fiber
CutoffWavelength
V
M
2
M
2
SI
~
~
StepIndexFiber
GRIN Fiber
c 1
a
2 n 2
V
> ~ t A
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide38 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - PROPAGATION IN O.F. PROPAGATION IN O.F.
4
M
GI
~ GRINFiber
c
V
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
1.0
LP
01
LinearPolarizationModes
1 A <<
0.8
LP
01
LP
11
C
o
n
s
t
a
n
t

(
b
)
ParaxialOptics
E H 0
TEM
0.4
0.6
LP
21
LP
02 r
o
p
a
g
a
t
i
o
n

C
z z
E H 0 = =
LP
TEM
0.2
02
LP
31
N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

P
r
LP
ij
2i revolutionmaxima
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0.0
LP
12
N
Normalized Frequency (V)
j radialmaxima
q y ( )
1. LP
0n
from HE
1n
2. LP
1n
from TE
0n
,TM
0n
& HE
2n
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide39 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - PROPAGATION IN O.F. PROPAGATION IN O.F.
3. LP
mn
(m>2)from HE
m+1,n
& EH
m1,n
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
LP
01
LP
11
LP
21
0.8
1.0
LP
LP
11
LP
02
LP
12
0.2
0.0
Core/Claddingrelativepower
2 2
( | |
0.4
0.6
P
r
e
v
/
P
LP
01
LP
21
0.6
0.4
P
n
u
c
l
i
/
P
2 2
core m
2
m 1 m 1
clad core
P J ( a)
1 1
P V J ( a)J ( a)
P P
1
+
( | | k k
=
| (
k k
\ .
0.2
0.4
LP
31
0.8
0.6 c d co e
1
P P
=
core
P 4
~
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide40 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - PROPAGATION IN O.F. PROPAGATION IN O.F.
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0.0 1.0
Normalized Frequency (V)
P
3 M
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
Fundamental Mode (HE
11
LP
01
) FundamentalMode(HE
11
LP
01
)
E
GaussianProfile
2
1
(
| |
E
0
e
-2
E
0
E()
2
0
0
1
E exp
2 W
(
| |

(
|
(
\ .

e E
0
modal diameter

2a
modal diameter
2W
0
Polarization
y
Modes
ti l h i t l
x
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide41 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - PROPAGATION IN O.F. PROPAGATION IN O.F.
vertical horizontal
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
ATTENUATION IN O F ATTENUATION IN O F ATTENUATIONINO.F. ATTENUATIONINO.F.
Definition
Light when propagating down the fiber, it experiences an
exponential decay of the optical power over the distance as a
Attenuation Coefficient
consequence of absorption and scattering phenomena
AttenuationCoefficient
L 10
P(L)
10
P(0)
o
=
P(0)
P(L)
( ) ( )
( )
1
10log P 0 P L
L
o =
L
P(0)
P(L)
Units:dB/km
L
L
10
L
e 10 L ln10 ln10
o

o o

Units: km
1
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide42 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - ATTENUATION IN O.F. ATTENUATION IN O.F.
10
e 10 L ln10 ln10
10 10

= =
Units:km
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
Material Absorption MaterialAbsorption
Any material absorbs energy at certain wavelengths corresponding
h l d b l f h d to the electronic and vibrational resonances of the medium
IntrinsicAbsorption
Due to the basic material (SiO
2
)
m 4 0 <
Electronic resonances (ultraviolet)
m 4 . 0 <
m 7 >
Electronic resonances (ultraviolet)
Vibrational resonances (infrared)
ExtrinsicAbsorption
Due to impurities in the material
l Metals
Water
Dopants
Fe, Cu, Co, Ni, Mn, Cr ...
OH
+
GeO
2
, P
2
O
5
, B
2
O
3
...
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide43 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - ATTENUATION IN O.F. ATTENUATION IN O.F.
p
2
,
2 5
,
2 3
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
Rayleigh Scattering RayleighScattering
Fundamental loss mechanism arising from microscopic density
fluctuations which induce small variations of the refractive index of
the material
4
R
C = o
R
C 0.70.9 (dB/km)m
4
Waveguideimperfections(MieScattering)
Loss mechanism arising from cilindrical structure imperfections,
comparable to the wavelength, of the waveguide
Irregularities of the corecladding structure Irregularities of the core cladding structure
Fluctuations of the relative refractive index
Fluctuations of the core diameter
Density fluctuations Stress
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide44 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - ATTENUATION IN O.F. ATTENUATION IN O.F.
y
Air bubbles
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
The attenuation coefficient depends on the absorption and scattering coefficient The attenuation coefficient depends on the absorption and scattering coefficient
of both core and cladding. Given that the cladding penetration depends on the
mode so does the attenuation (the bigger the mode order, the bigger the
attenuation).
BendingLosses
)
When part of the evanescent field is forced to travel at a speed
higher than the speed of light due to fiber bending, this energy is
radiated outside the propagation mode
( )
T 1 2
C exp C R o =
radiated outside the propagation mode
radiated
evanescent
fi ld
( )
2
1
c 3 2 MM
2 2
1 2
3n
R
4 n n

~
t
3
20

| |
field
cladding
R: bending radius
( )
c 3 2 SM
c
1 2
20
R 2.748 0.996
n n
| |
~
|

\ .
R
spatial
core
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide45 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - ATTENUATION IN O.F. ATTENUATION IN O.F.
R: bending radius
R
c
: critical bending radius
distribution
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
Bending losses intuitive explanation using ray optics Bendinglossesintuitiveexplanationusingrayoptics
u
1
u
2
Radiated
i h
core
Light
cladding
R
u
1
= u
c
< u
2
u
1
solution
| A
+
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide46 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - ATTENUATION IN O.F. ATTENUATION IN O.F.
| A
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
Optical Fiber Attenuation Curve
100
OHRadicals
Infrared
k
m
)
10
OH Radicals
Absorption
n

(
d
B
/
k
1
n
u
a
t
i
o
n
1
Rayleigh
Ultraviolet
Absorption
A
t
e
n
n
0.1
Rayleigh
Scattering
600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
0.01
1800
Mie Scattering
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide47 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - ATTENUATION IN O.F. ATTENUATION IN O.F.
600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600
Wavelength (nm)
1800
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
Distance Limitation due to Attenuation DistanceLimitationduetoAttenuation
( ) ( )
( )
b
P L
P
b
BitEnergy ( ) ( )
( )
b
b b b
b
P L
E L P L T
R
= =
T
b
( )
( ) ( )
( )
L L
b b min b 10 10
b min min min
b b b
L
P L P 0 E R
E L E E 10 E 10
R R P 0
o o

> > > >
( ) ( )
( )
L
10
b b
min b b
P L P 0 10
E R P 0 L 10
log L log
o
o

=
| |
| |
> s
| |
( )
b min b
log L log
10 P 0 E R o
> s
| |
\ . \ .
Example
P
b
(0) =10mW
R
b
=10Gb/s
o =0.2dB/Km
L
max
=250Km
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide48 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - DISPERSION IN O.F. DISPERSION IN O.F.
E
b
=1010
18
J
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
DISPERSION IN OPTICAL FIBERS DISPERSION IN OPTICAL FIBERS DISPERSIONINOPTICALFIBERS DISPERSIONINOPTICALFIBERS
Definition
When an optical pulse propagates through an optical fiber, its
energy tends to spread in time producing an increase on the pulse
Propagation
e e gy te ds to sp ead t e p oduc g a c ease o t e pu se
width
Propagation
T
T+AT
T
T T A s
T
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide49 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - DISPERSION IN O.F. DISPERSION IN O.F.
DesignCriterion
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
Intermodal(Modal)Dispersion
Each mode propagates at different speed and so a delay among them is induced. Only
in MultiMode fibers.
Intramodal Dispersion
GroupVelocityDispersion(GVD)orChromaticDispersion(CD)
Material Dispersion
The propagation speed depends on the wavelength and so each spectral
component experiences a different delay. Negligible in front of Modal Dispersion.
MaterialDispersion
The refractive index of a given material is frequency dependent inducing
different propagation speeds for each spectral component.
WaveguideDispersion
The corecladding distribution is frequency dependent and so is the effective
refractive index.
PolarizationModeDispersion(PMD)
The refractive index is polarization dependent introducing a delay between the x
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide50 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - DISPERSION IN O.F. DISPERSION IN O.F.
and y component of the light. Negligible in front of Chromatic Dispersion.
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
DISPERSIONINMULTI DISPERSIONINMULTIMODEFIBERS MODEFIBERS
Intermodal(Modal)Dispersion
Modal dispersion takes place in multimode fibers as a result of
group velocity difference among the propagation modes. The g p y g p p g
modes are not equaly excited giving a particular profile.
Mode
Synchr
Mode Delay
Pulse
t
Synchr. Pulse
Spreading
t
t
Propagation
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide51 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - DISPERSION IN O.F. DISPERSION IN O.F.
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
Differentpath(approximation)
L
t
sin
L
|
ACCEPTANCE
CONE
Slow
Ray
|
c
b
n
1
n
2
1
min
n
c
t =
1
c
max
n
c
sin
t
|
=
u
a
Fast
Ray
Ray
u
c
|
c
a
2
c
1
n
sin
n
| =
L
Ray
n
0
CORE
CLADDING
2
1 1 2
n n n
=
max min
t t
t
1 1 2
n n n
=
2
1
NA ~
2
1
n
= A
CLADDING
2 1
n c n
=
int er
L
t
Units:[ns/km]
2
c n
=
2
NA
2n c
~
1 2
n n
A
2
n c
= A
( )
1
2
1
NA n 2 ~ A
2
1 1
d
n n A A
t = ~
SI Fibers GRIN FIbers
2
1
n A
t ~
1
n
( )
1
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide52 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - DISPERSION IN O.F. DISPERSION IN O.F.
mod
2
n c c
t
SIFibers GRINFIbers
mod
8c
t ~
o
opt
=2(1A)
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
DISPERSIONINSINGLE DISPERSIONINSINGLEMODEFIBERS MODEFIBERS
GroupVelocityDispersion(GVD) ChromaticDispersion(CD)
The origin of this kind of dispersion comes from de frequency dependence
of the refractive index and so the group velocity.
Signal Spectrum
Original
Pulse

Pulse
Pulse
Spreading

p
A
t
Propagation
t
+A
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide53 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - DISPERSION IN O.F. DISPERSION IN O.F.
t t
t
t+At
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
Group Delay
[s/m]
Lossless Medium
GroupDelay
g
c|
t
ce
[s/m]
n n
c c
e c
= +
ce
c| c
=
c ce
n n c
=
c
LosslessMedium
c 2 c
f
t
= =
e
g
ce
n
c
e
|
c c ce
2 n t
=

2
2 n 2 n c| t t c
= +
c c
2
2
2 c
2 c
c t
= =
ce e t
c ce c c c
|:propagationconstant
c
c c 2 c ce e t
1
v
GroupVelocity
GroupIndex
cn
[m/s]
1
c|
| |
|
c
c
=
c
=
g
g
v
t
e c
c
e +
n
n n
g
|
=
|
ce
\ .
n
n
=
c
+ e
ce
n
n
=
c

c
g
n
=
PhaseVelocity
v
e

[m/s]
c
=
n
0
f
v v
c
=
c
=
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide54 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - DISPERSION IN O.F. DISPERSION IN O.F.
f
v
| n
=
f g
v v
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
MATERIALDISPERSION
Every spectral component experiences a different delay given the Every spectral component experiences a different delay given the
different group velocity of each one.
ACCEPTANCE
CONE
n ()
n
2
Slow
Ray
a
b
n
1
()

1
,
2
v
g
(
1
)
L
u
a
Fast
Ray
n
CORE
v
g
(
2
)
n
0
CORE
CLADDING
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide55 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - DISPERSION IN O.F. DISPERSION IN O.F.
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
MATERIALDISPERSION
PulseSpreading
g
c|
t
c
n n c
=
c
T
T
c
A = Ae
ce
( )
g
L c t
= Ae
ce
2
2
L
c |
= Ae
ce
2
L = | Ae
g
ce c c c
Hi h f i
DispersionCoefficient
2
g
2 2
ct
c |
| =
ce ce
Units:[ps/(GHzkm)]
Higherfrequencies
travelslower
DispersionParameter
Units:[ps/(nmkm)]
T
T
c
A = A
c
( )
g
L c t
= A
c
M
LD = A
g
M
D
ct

c
n n
c c
c c (
=
(
c c
2
2
1 n n n
c
( c c c
=
(
c c c
2
2
n
c
c
=
c
c
2 c t
= |
c c c c c c c c
c c
g g
D
ct ct
ce
= =
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide56 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - DISPERSION IN O.F. DISPERSION IN O.F.
2 2
|

M
D = =
c ce c
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
WAVEGUIDEDISPERSION
The group velocity of each mode is frequency dependent, even though
the material dispersion is zero, because the corecladding distribution
varies with the frequency.
( )
n
2
( )
n
ACCEPTANCE
CONE
Slow
Ray a
b
n
2
|
2
n
1
|
Cladding
Penetration
L
u
a
Fast
Ray
1
,
2
|
1
Penetration
L
n
0
CORE
CLADDING
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide57 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - DISPERSION IN O.F. DISPERSION IN O.F.
CLADDING
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
COMBINED MATERIAL & WAVEGUIDE DISPERSION COMBINEDMATERIAL&WAVEGUIDEDISPERSION
g
2
2 c
D
ct
t
=
c
2
2 2
2 n n
2
| | t c c
= + e
|
c c
\ .
M W
D D = +
2
ce
[s/m]
2
n n
b

2 2 |
ce ce
\ .
a
V 2 NA t
crom
D 0 t A >
2
1 2
b
n n

( )
2 1 2
n n b n n = +
( )
n 1 b ~ + A
V 2 NA t

empirically
( )
2 1 2
n n b n n +
( ) ( )
2 2
2g 2g
W 2 2
n n Vb Vb
2
D V
( c c c
tA
= +
(
( )
2
n 1 b ~ + A
e c
c
e +
n
n n
g
g 2 g 1
984 . 1
n n
D

~
W 2 2
2
n V V
(
e c ce c

2g 2g
M 2
n n
2 1
D
c c
t
= =
c c
b: normalized propagation n : cladding group index
A: relative refractive index
2
W
V c
D

~
M 2
c ce c
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide58 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - DISPERSION IN O.F. DISPERSION IN O.F.
b:normalizedpropagation
constant
n
2g
:claddinggroupindex
A:relativerefractiveindex
V:normalizedfrequency
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
COMBINED MATERIAL & WAVEGUIDE DISPERSION COMBINEDMATERIAL&WAVEGUIDEDISPERSION
30
20
D
M
/
k
m
]
10
D
[
p
s
/
n
m
/
0
-10
D
W
ZD
r
s
i
o
n


[
-20
D
i
s
p
e
r
-30
1.1
1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide59 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - DISPERSION IN O.F. DISPERSION IN O.F.
Wavelength [m]
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
DispersionCharacteristicsofDifferentCommercialFibers
20
SSMF
DSF
15
NZDSF+
NZDSF-
m
/
n
m
)
10
EDFA
DFF
o
n

(
p
s
/
k
m
5
D
i
s
p
e
r
s
i
o
0 D0
-5
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide60 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - DISPERSION IN O.F. DISPERSION IN O.F.
5
1300 1400 1500 1600
Wavelength (nm)
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
DispersionMapsusingDCF
8 km DCF 16 km DCF 8 km DCF
)
1500
o
n

(
p
s
/
n
m
)
1000
500
D
i
s
p
e
r
s
i
o
0
u
m
u
l
a
t
e
d

D
-500
A
c
c
u
1500
-1000
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide61 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - DISPERSION IN O.F. DISPERSION IN O.F.
80 km SSMF 80 km SSMF
-1500
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
PolarizationModeDispersion(PMD)
The origin of this kind of dispersion comes from the polarization
dependence of the refractive index. As a consequence, the light
experiences different group delays regarding its polarization.
Polarizationisa
randomprocess
Slow
axis
L D T
PMD
= A
D
PMD
[ps/km
1/2
]: PMD Parameter
Fast
axis
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide62 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - DISPERSION IN O.F. DISPERSION IN O.F.
D
PMD
[ps/km ]:PMDParameter
ITUTG.652.b:D
PMD
=0.20.5ps/km
1/2
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
Distance Limitation due to PMD DistanceLimitationduetoPMD
differential
group delay
T
0
t
g
T
L
groupdelay
ISI CRITERION
D
PMD
=1ps/km
1/2
b
T T A s
ISICRITERION
2 2
PMD b
1
L
D R
s
L
max
=10000Km
10G
L
max
=100Km
100G
T D L A
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide63 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - DISPERSION IN O.F. DISPERSION IN O.F.
PMD b
PMD
T D L A =
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
MULTI MULTIMODE FIBERS BANDWIDTH MODE FIBERS BANDWIDTH MULTI MULTI MODEFIBERSBANDWIDTH MODEFIBERSBANDWIDTH
MultiModeFiberTransferFunctioninLinearRegime g
( )
( )

q
j L
H c e
| e
e

q
:qmodepropagationconstant

c : mode amplitude
( )
=
=
q
q
H c e e
delay dispersion
dispersion
slope
=
<
q
q
c
c
q
:modeamplitude
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ~ + + +
2 3
q 0,q 1,q c 2,q c 3,q c
1 1
2 6
| e | | e e | e e | e e
delay dispersion slope
Taylor
=
c

c
c
n
q
n,q n
2 6
e e
|
|
e
1,q
:qmodegroupdelay
Pure Delay Fiber
c

q
1 q
|
|
( )
( )

1,q c
j L
q
H c e
| e e
e
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide64 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - O.F. BANDWIDTH O.F. BANDWIDTH
PureDelayFiber
=
c
c
1,q
e e
|
e
( )
=
q
q
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
~
1
n
T L
A
A

~
mod
T L
c
t
A
t t
~
1
n
T L
cM
A
o M:approx.numberofmodesinsideanrms period
( )
( )


=
=

1,q c
j L
q
q
H c e
| e e
e
( )
{ }

=
| | = c +
|
\ .
q 1,0
q
L
h t c t L q T
|
| o
_
\ .
1,q
L |
( )
( )
( )

= c - c
1 0 q
h t t L c t q T | o
( )

| |
1 q
( ) c a q T o
( )
( )
( )
=
1,0 q
q
q |
_
( )
( )

a t t q T o
( ) ( )
( )
=
| |
= - c
|
\ .

1,0 c
j L f f
q
1 q
H f A f f e
T T
|
o o
( )
q
c a q T o
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide65 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - O.F. BANDWIDTH O.F. BANDWIDTH
( )
( )
=
c

q
a t t q T o
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
TimeDomain FrequencyDomain
( )
a t
( )
A f
(
| |
(
2
1 t
GaussianFunction
( )
(
2
f L
( )
a t
( )
A f
GaussianFunction
mod
1
L t o
1
(3dB)
| |
(
|
(
\ .

mod
mod
1 t
exp
L
L
o
to
( )
(


mod
exp f L t o
A
1 e
1 2
t 0 f 0
o L: Std Deviation
B 3 dB b d idth
mod
2ln 2
2
O
B
L t o
=
1
mod
2
n
c
o
A
~
2B
O
mod
2 L o
o
mod
L:Std.Deviation
B
0
:3dBbandwidth
( )
H f
1
mod
1
2
M
T L o o
~
1
T o
0
2B
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide66 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - O.F. BANDWIDTH O.F. BANDWIDTH
f f
C
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
SINGLE SINGLEMODE FIBERS BANDWIDTH MODE FIBERS BANDWIDTH SINGLE SINGLE MODEFIBERSBANDWIDTH MODEFIBERSBANDWIDTH
SingleModeFiberTransferFunctioninLinearRegime g g
( )
( )

=
j L
H e
| e
e dispersion
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ~ + + +
2 3
0 1 2 3
1 1
| e | | e e | e e | e e
delay dispersion slope
Taylor
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) + + +
0 1 c 2 c 3 c
2 6
| e | | e e | e e | e e
freq dependant delay | |
2
c

n
n
|
|
( )
2 1
2

PureDispersive
constantamplitude!!
freq.dependantdelay
( )
| |
|
|
\ .
=
2
2
t
j
2 L 4
2
1
h t e
2 L
t
|
t|
=
c
c
n n
e e
|
e
( )
( )
2
2 c
1
j L
2
H e
| e e
e

=
2
D
2 c

| =
t
: dispersion coefficient
Fiber
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide67 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - O.F. BANDWIDTH O.F. BANDWIDTH

2
:dispersioncoefficient
D:dispersionparameter
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
GAUSSIANPULSESPROPAGATION GAUSSIANPULSESPROPAGATION | | | |

| |
2 2
t t
1
| |
|
2
t
optical
spectrum
( )
( )
| |
\ . \ .
-
0 crom
0
crom
L
0
crom
a t
h t
1
A e e
L
o o
to
_
_
<
1
( )

|
\ .
=
0
0 0
a t A e
o
( )
| |

|
\ .
=
2
L
t
a t A e
o
<
>
e 0
1 e
2
( )
=
L L
a t A e
( )
h t
e 0

0
4 o Ae
2
0
2
L
( )
h t
t t
( )
( )
| |

|
+
\ .
| |
|
L
2
2 2
2
2
2 4 2
0 0 2 L
A
2 L
2 L 1 t
j t
j atg
2
2 L
0
t A
|
|
o o | o
o

= +| |
|
\ . crom
2
2 2
L 0 2 0
L
2 L
o
o o | o
_
= 2 2 o | o | Ae
( )
( ) +
\ .
| |
=
|
\ .
0 0 2 L
2 L
0
L 0
L chirp phase
gaussian amplitude
a t A e e e
o o | o
o
__
_
( ) ( )
1
2
2
2
L
o
|
BroadeningFactor
=
crom 2 0 2
2 2 o | o | Ae
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide68 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - O.F. BANDWIDTH O.F. BANDWIDTH
( ) ( ) = +
2
2
L
2 0
0
1 2 L
o
| o
o
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
MULTI MULTIMODE FIBERS BANDWIDTH MODE FIBERS BANDWIDTH MULTI MULTI MODEFIBERSBANDWIDTH MODEFIBERSBANDWIDTH
MultiModeFiberTransferFunctioninLinearRegime g
( )
( )

q
j L
H c e
| e
e

q
:qmodepropagationconstant

c : mode amplitude
( )
=
=
q
q
H c e e
delay dispersion
dispersion
slope
=
<
q
q
c
c
q
:modeamplitude
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ~ + + +
2 3
q 0,q 1,q c 2,q c 3,q c
1 1
2 6
| e | | e e | e e | e e
delay dispersion slope
Taylor
=
c

c
c
n
q
n,q n
2 6
e e
|
|
e

1,q
:qmodegroupdelay

2,q
:qmodedisp.coefficient
PureDelay
Di i Fib
( )
( ) ( )
{ }

+
=

2
1,q c 2 c
1
j L
2
H c e
| e e | e e
e

2,q
q p
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide69 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - O.F. BANDWIDTH O.F. BANDWIDTH
DispersiveFiber
( )
=
q
q
H c e e
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
gaussian pulse
=
2,q 2
| |
t t
~
1
n
T L
2cM
A
o M:approx.numberofmodesinsideanrms period
( )
( ) ( )
{ }
( )
( )
( )

+


= =

2 2
1,q c 2 c 2 c
1,q c
1 1
j L j L
j L
2 2
q q
q q
H c e e c e
| e e | e e | e e
| e e
e
_
( )
= =
CD
q q
H e



2 1
( )
q
c a q T o
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )

=


= -c - c
` `
) )

2
2 c
1
j L
1
2
1,0
q
h t
h t FT e t L a t t q T
| e e
| o
_
( )
CD
h t
( )
( )
( )
( )




| |
= - c
| `
2
2 c
1,0 c
1
j L
j L f f
2
1 q
H f e A f f e
| e e
|
Samemodulethanin
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide70 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - O.F. BANDWIDTH O.F. BANDWIDTH
( ) ( )
=
= - c
| `
\ .
)

,
2
q
H f e A f f e
T T o o
puremodaldispersion
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
Combined Chromatic and Modal Dispersion
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
0 mod L crom
L L o o o o ~ + +
CombinedChromaticandModalDispersion
broadening
i l
( ) ( )
0 mod
2 1
0
2
,
2
L crom
crom mod
n
c
|
o o
o
A
= ~
gaussianpulse

0
2 2 2
T crom mod
o o o +
| | | | | |

| | |
2 2 2
t t t
1 1
t
( )
( ) ( )
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
- -
0 crom mod
0
crom mod
L L
0
crom mod
a t
h t h t
1 1
A e e e
L L
o o o
to to
_
_ _
_
( ) h t
_

( )
2
1
T
t
L
T
h t e
L
o
to
| |

|
\ .
=

crom

mod

T
t
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide71 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - O.F. BANDWIDTH O.F. BANDWIDTH
EquivalentFiberTransferFunction
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
Nonideal Sources
Equivalenttoanidealsource
modulated by a Gaussian pulse
Non idealSources
( )
2
2 2
gaussian spectrum gaussian pulse
modulatedbyaGaussianpulse
2
1
sou
o
( )
2
2 2
4
sou c
f f
sou
e
t o
to

sou
o
2
2
sou c
t
j f t
e e
o t
| |
|
|
\ .
f
c
f
t
0
sou
o =
ideal source
Nonideal Sources Modulation sou idealsource
NonidealSourcesModulation
2 2 2
t t t
o o o
| | | | | |

| | |
\ . \ . \ . 0 mod sou
e e e
o o o
\ . \ . \ .
=
2 2
2
m o d s o u
o o
o
0
2 2
m o d s o u
o
o o

+
0
o
d
o o o >
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide72 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - O.F. BANDWIDTH O.F. BANDWIDTH
0
o
t
0
m o d s o u s o u
m o d s o u m o d
o o o
o o o

>
<
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
MaximumDistanceduetoDispersion
( )
| |

|
\ .
=
2
0
t
p t A e
o
( )
| |

|
\ .
2
L
t
p t A e
o
p
( )
\ .
=
0 0
p t A e ( )
\ .
=
L
L L
p t A e
T
b
2
0
T
b
2
L
ISI
T
b
T
b
2 2T o s
ISICRITERION
| |

|
= \ .
2
b
L
b
T
t
2
t T
ISI e e
o b
T
| |
|
|
\ .
2
1
13 5%
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide73 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - O.F. BANDWIDTH O.F. BANDWIDTH
L b
2 2T o s
\ .
=
= =
L
b
L b
t T
T 2
ISI e e
o
\ .
= ~
2
13.5%
e
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
MaximumDistanceduetoDispersion p
| |

|
| | | |
1
2
2
2 b
2 2
2
0
T
T 2 L n
2
o
| A
|
| | | |
= + + s s
|
| |
\ . | | | | \ . |
+
|
|
|
\ .
\ . \ .
2
2
mod
crom
0
2 2 b 2 1
L 0 2 2
0
2 1
0
T 2 L n
2
L L
2c 2
2 n
2c
o
o
| A
o o
o
| A
o
_
_
=

| |

|
0 b
2 T
1
2 2
2
b b
NRZ
T T
1
o
1
( )
|
s =
|
| | | | |
+
+ |
|
|
\ .
\ . \ .
max,NRZ 2 2
2 2 1
1
b b 2
b
1
2 4
L
4 n
n
2R 4R
T 2c
2c
| A
A
|
=
| | | |
| |
+ |
|
|
\ .
\ .
\ .
2 2
2 2
p
1
b b
1
D
n
2R 4R
2 c 2c

A
t
=
\ .
\ .

| |
0 b
2 T 2
1
2 2
2
b b
RZ
T T
o
( )
| |

|
s ~ =
|
| | | | |
| | | |
| |
+
+ |
| + | |
|
|
\ .
\ . \ . \ .
\ .
\ .
b b
max,RZ 2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2 1
1
p
1
b b 2
b b
T T
2 2
2 16
L
8 n
n
D
n
3R 8R
3R 8R
T 2c
2c
2 2
| A
A

A
|
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide74 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - O.F. BANDWIDTH O.F. BANDWIDTH
|
|
\ .
\ . \ . \ .
\ .
\ .
b b
b
T 2c
2c
2 c 2c t
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
MaximumDistanceduetoModalDispersion p
| |

|
| |
1
2
2
1
2
b
2
T
o
|
| |
s s
| |
\ .
| | | |
|
+
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
\ .
2
2 0
2 b
0 2 2
1
2 1
T 2c
2
L L
n 2
2 n
2c
o
o
A
| A
o
|
|
\ .
\ .
\ .
0
2c o
0 b
2 T
c
NRZ L
o =
s
1
max,NRZ
b 1
NRZ L
R n
4c 4
A
s

b
1
R
0 b
2 T 2
max,RZ max,NRZ
b 1
4c 4
RZ L L
3R n 3
o
A
=
s ~
Example
R
b
=100Mb/s
n
1
=1.5
A =0.02
L
max,NRZ
~ 100m
L
max RZ
~ 133m
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide75 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - O.F. BANDWIDTH O.F. BANDWIDTH
max,RZ
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
MaximumDistanceduetoChromaticDispersion p
| |

|
| |
1
2
2
1
2
b
2
T
o
|
| |
s s
| |
\ .
| | | |
|
+
|
|
|
\ .
\ .
\ .
2
2 0
2 0 b
0 2 2
2
2 1
T
2
L L
2 2
2 n
2c
o
o
o
|
| A
o
=
s
0 b
2 T
max NRZ 2 2
c
NRZ L
o
t
|
|
\ .
\ .
\ .
0
2c o
1
max,NRZ 2 2
b p
4R D
7 2

2
b
1
R
=
s ~
0 b
2 T 2
max,RZ max,NRZ 2 2
b p
7 c 2
RZ L L
16R D 3
o
t

Example
R
b
=10Gb/s
|D|=17ps/nm/Km
= 1550 nm
L
max,NRZ
~ 60Km
L
max RZ
~ 40Km
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide76 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - O.F. BANDWIDTH O.F. BANDWIDTH

p
=1550nm max,RZ
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
Attenuation / Dispersion influence on the tx distance Attenuation/Dispersioninfluenceonthetx.distance
MaximumDistancevs.BitRate
s
2 2
b p
c
L
4R D
t

L
m
a
x
)
( )
b
P 0 10
L log
E R o
| |
s
|
\ .
b p
l
o
g

(
L
min b
E R o
\ .
Feasible
Regime
l (R )
Regime
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide77 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - O.F. BANDWIDTH O.F. BANDWIDTH
log (R
b
)
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
EquivalentFiberTransferFunction:OpticalBandwidth
TimeDomain FrequencyDomain
Gaussian Function
( )
h t
( )
H f
Gaussian Function
1
1
q p
( d )
(
| |
(
|
( \ .

2
T T
1 t
exp
L L o to
GaussianFunction
( )
(


2
T
exp f L t o
GaussianFunction
T
L t o
1 2
0 0
(3dB)

2ln 2
2
O
T
B
L t o
=
2 2 2
T crom mod
o o o +
1 e
t f
2B
O T
2 L o
o
T
L:Std.Deviation B
0
:3dBBW
Equivalent Fiber Bandwidth per unit Length EquivalentFiberBandwidthperunitLength
[Hzm]
O
2ln2 2ln2
B
2 L L
= =
O O
2ln2
f B L =
tt
2
T T
t o [s]
T T
2 L L to tt
T
tt
=
2ln2
f o
f
0
[Hzm],[GHzkm]:Bandwidthperunitlength
SIunits Prop.units
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide78 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - O.F. BANDWIDTH O.F. BANDWIDTH
=
0 T
f
2
o
t
0
[ ], [ ] p g
t,o [s/m],[ns/km]:Dispersion
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
Electricalvs.OpticalBandwidth p
Source
Optical
TX
Electrical
Photo-
Detector
RX
Electrical Optical Electrical Detector Electrical
I
IN
P
IN
P
OUT
I
OUT
2
E IN
E
E OUT
P
H
P

2
OUT
2
IN
I
I
=
I
OUT
/I
IN
2
E
1
E
H
2
B f
=

OUT
IN
I 1
I
2
=
1
2 1
Gaussian
Profile
2
O IN
O
P
H
P

IN
OUT
P
P
=
OUT
I
I
=
2 1
O
O OUT
P

B B >
IN
P
IN
I
2 1
O
B f
OUT
I 1
=
B
E
B
O
f
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide79 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - O.F. BANDWIDTH O.F. BANDWIDTH
E O
B B >
2
O
1
O
H
2
B f
=
IN
I 2
=
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
2
2
H exp f ( = o

Gaussian Profile p (

E O
B 2 B =
2
O O
1
B exp B
2
( o =
O
ln2
B =
o
GaussianProfile
E O
B 2 B
2
E E
1
B exp B
2
( o =

o
E
ln2
B
2
=
o
E B
B 2 R s
Nyquist
2
2
0
f
H exp ln2
B
(
| |
= (
|
( \ .

2
E
ln2 f
exp
2 B
(
| |
= (
|
( \ .

EffectiveChannelsBandwidth
0 ( \ .

E ( \ .

f 0 1874 o
What limits the transmission speed is the electrical bandwidth
O
f
f
f 0 1325 o =
E
C
f
B =
T 0
f 0.1874 o =
O
E
f
2
=
T E
f 0.1325 o =
T T
2o = t
f
E
[Hzm],[GHzkm]
E,C
B
L
2 2 2
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide80 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - O.F. BANDWIDTH O.F. BANDWIDTH
t,o [s/m],[ns/km]
2 2 2
T crom mod
o o o +
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
R B Relationship Signals Bandwidth:
NRZmodulation
R
B
B
E
Relationship Signal sBandwidth:
SignalSpectra
R 1
B
B
E
= =
1
0.8
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e
2 1
NRZ
RZ
RZmodulation
2 T 2
B
E
0.6
0.4
r
m
a
l
i
t
z
e
d

A
m
2 1
0
0.2
N
o
r
R
1
B = =
1/T
B
0
Frequency (Hz)
2/T
B
4/T
B
3/T
B
-1/T
B
-2/T
B
-3/T
B
-4/T
B
0
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide81 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - O.F. BANDWIDTH O.F. BANDWIDTH
B
B
E
R
T
B = =
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
MaximumDistanceduetoDispersion
(BandwidthCriterion)
NRZModulation
p
2
B E
E S E C
ln2 R f
B B
2 L 2 L
t
= s = =
2
B
ln2
R
L
t
s
o
RZModulation
E,S E,C
T
2 L 2 L o T
L o
2
E
E,S B E,C
ln2 f
B R B
L 2 L
t
= s = =
o
2
B
T
ln2
R
2 L
t
s
o
T
L 2 L o
1
R R =
T
2 L o
Example:ChromaticDispersion
B,max,RZ B,max,NRZ
max RZ max NRZ
R R
2
1
L L =
R
b
= 10 Gb/s
|D| = 17 ps/nm/Km

c
= 1550 nm
L
max,NRZ
~ 40 Km
L
max,RZ
~ 20 Km
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide82 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - O.F. BANDWIDTH O.F. BANDWIDTH
max,RZ max,NRZ
2
c
Af = R
b
2
1
2
crom
o | e = A
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
APPENDIX APPENDIX
PROPAGATIONINO.F.
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide83 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - APPENDIX APPENDIX
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
WAVE EQUATION WAVE EQUATION
MaxwellsEquations
WAVEEQUATION WAVEEQUATION
q
B
E
t
c
V =
c
,
,
B
E
t
c
V =
c
,
,
noconductor
mediumwithout
freecharges
t c
D
H
t
c
V =
c
,
,
D 0 V
,
t c
f
D
H J
t
c
V = +
c
,
, ,
,
OPTICAL
FIBER
D 0 V =
B 0 V =
,
f
D V =
B 0 V =
,
nomagnetic
FIBER
o
D E P = c +
, , ,
0
B H =
, ,
0
B H M = +
, , ,
o
D E P = c +
, , ,
g
medium
c
0
,
0
:freespaceelectricalpermittivity
1
2
0 0
1
c
| |
=
|
c
\ .
E,H:electric&magneticfieldvectors
D B: electric & magnetic flux density
0
,
0
p p y
&magneticpermeability

f
:freechargesconcentration
J
f
:electriccurrentdensity
0 0

\ .
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide84 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - APPENDIX APPENDIX
D,B:electric&magneticfluxdensity
P,M:polarization&magnetizationdensity c:freespacespeedoflight

f
g
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
FreeSpace Wave Equation
B c
,
,
FreeSpaceWaveEquation
0 P
,
( )
H c V
,
,
2
E c
,
H c
,
B
E
t
c
V =
c
0 M
0 P
=
=
,
( )
0
H
E
t
c V
VV =
c
P
H
c
V =
c
,
,
0 0
2
E
t
c
= c
c
0
H
t
c
=
c
0
E c
= c
c
,
0 J
,
( )
, , ,
2
E E E VV = V V V
t c
0
D E 0 V = c V =
, ,
,
2
E = V
0
t c
0
0 J
f
f
=
=
( )
0
M H 0 V = V =
,
2
2
1 E
E E
c
VV = V =
,
, ,
B
E
t
D
c
V =
c
c
,
,
,
, ,
E E
c t
VV = V =
c
f
f o
D
H J
t
D D E P
c
V = +
c
V = = c +
, ,
, , , ,
0
t
E
c
1
E
2
2
2
2
=
c
c
V
,
,
1
2
0 0
1
c
| |
=
|
c
\ .
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide85 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - APPENDIX APPENDIX
0
B 0 B H M V = = +
, , , ,
t c c
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
Wave Equation in linear nondispersive homogeneous and
, ,
WaveEquationinlinear,nondispersive,homogeneous,and
isotropicmedia
o
P E = c _
0
t
E
v
1
E
2
2
2
2
=
c
c
V
,
,
o
D E P = c +
, ,
( )
o
1 E E = c + _ = c
, ,
( )
_: electrical susceptibility (scalar)
t v c
1
2
1
v
| |
=
|
\ .
( )
o
1 c c + _
_:electricalsusceptibility(scalar)
c:mediumselectricalpermittivity
0
|
c
\ .
n:mediumsrefractiveindex
c
v
n
=
c
n
v
=
1
2
o
| | c
=
|
c
\ .
( )
1
2
1 = + _
InhomogeneousMedium
E ) r ( P
o
, ,
_ c =
In an inhomogeneous medium both electrical
susceptibility and permittivity are position dependent
(and so is the refractive index)
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide86 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - APPENDIX APPENDIX
( )
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
Anisotropic medium Anisotropicmedium

_ c =
j ij 0 i
E P
In an anisotropic medium, the relationship between
electric field and polarization density vectors depends
j
on the direction of field vector and they are generally
not parallel
_
ij
:susceptibilitytensor
Dispersivemedium
In a dispersive medium, the relationship between
}

_ c = ' dt ) ' t ( E ) ' t t ( ) t ( P


0
, ,
In a dispersive medium, the relationship between
electric field and polarization density vectors is
dynamic (with memory) rather than instantaneous
c
0
_(t):impulsiveresponse
Nonlinear medium Non linearmedium
( ) ... E E E P
3 ) 3 ( 2 ) 2 ( ) 1 (
0
+ _ + _ + _ c =
, , , , In a nonlinear medium, the relationship between
electric field and polarization density vectors is
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide87 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - APPENDIX APPENDIX
generally not linear
_
(i)
:iordernonlinearcoefficient
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
Wave Equation in Optical Fibers
B
E
c
V =
,
,
WaveEquationinOpticalFibers
Dielectricmedium
Nonmagneticmedium
f
E
t
D
H J
t
V =
c
c
V = +
c
,
, ,
,
( )
B
E
t
c V
VV =
c
,
, ( )
0
H
t
c V
=
c
,
Isotropic linear medium
f
o
D
B 0
D E P
V =
V =
= c +
,
,
, , ,
t c t c
2
0 2
D
t
c
=
c
,
2 2
0 0 0 2 2
E P
t t
c c
= c
c c
, ,
2 2
2
0 0 0
2 2
E P
E
t t
c c
V = c
c c
, ,
,
P(r t) (r t t ') E(r t ')dt '

= c _
}
, ,
Isotropic,linearmedium
(farfromresonances)
o
0
B H M = +
, , ,
2 2
t t c c 0
P(r, t) (r, t t ) E(r, t )dt

= c _
}
FourierTransform
Monochromaticlight
}


e
e dt e ) t , r ( E ) , r ( E
~
t j

) , r ( E
~
) , r (
~
) , r ( P
~
0
e e _ c = e
2 2 2
0 0 0
E E P V = e c e

( )
2
0 0
1 E = e c + _

2
k E =

1
( )
2
2
1 E
c
e
= + _

28FEBRUARY 2011
slide88 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - APPENDIX APPENDIX
( )
1
2
k 1
c
e
+ _ wavenumber
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
2 2
E k E 0 V

Helmholtz Equation 2 2
E k E 0 V + =
HelmholtzEquation
Each component of Electric and Magnetic
fields satisfy this wave equation
PlanarWavewithzpropagation
o:absorptioncoeff.
( ) U Aexp jkz =
( )
1
Aexp j z exp z
2
| |
= | o
|
\ .
|:propagationconstant
( )
1
2
k 1
c
e
+ _
1
j
2
= | o
' j " _ = _ + _ Lossy medium
" ' _ << _
( )
1
2
2
1
2
1 ''
1 ' 1 1
c 2 1 '

(

e _
| |
( | = + _ + + `
|
+ _
(
\ .

)
( )
2
1
2
1 ''
1 ' 1
8 1 '
(
e _
| |
~ + _ +
(
|
\ .

( )
1
2
1 '
e
~ + _
" ' _ << _
c 2 1+ _
(
\ .

)
( )
1
2
2
1
2
''
1 ' 2 1 1
1 '

(

e _
| |
( o = + _ + `
|
(
\ .
( )
c 8 1 '
_
(
|
+ _
\ .

1
'' e _
~
( )
c
( )
1
2
n 1 ' ~ + _
refractiveindex
v
e

e
| = n
e
=
c
n = | ( )
1
2
1 ' ~ + _
( )
c 1 '
_
|
+ _
(
\ .

)
( )
1
2
c
1 ' + _
Phase
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide89 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - APPENDIX APPENDIX
( )
n 1 ~ + _ v
| v
| n
c
n |
e
( ) 1 ~ + _
velocity
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
Transversal Propagation Modes TransversalPropagationModes
An Optical Transversal Mode refers to a particular solution of wave
h f h b d d d b h equation that satisfies the boundary conditions imposed by the
waveguide and its transversal field distribution remains constant
with propagation
x
Cladding
Laplacian OperatorinCartesianand
Cylindricalcoordinates
E

E
z

|
a
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1 1
z y x
+ c
+
+ c
+
+ c
+
+ c
= + V
c
+ c
+
c
+ c
+
c
+ c
= + V
E
|
z
y
Core
2 2 2 2
z c
+
| c
+
c
+
c
= + V
, ,
HelmholtzEquation(lossless)
2 2 2
0
E k n E 0 V + =
, ,
E ( z) F( ) ( )Z(z) | = u |
Propagation z
Variableseparation
F( ) =
jm
e
| j z
e
|
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide90 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - APPENDIX APPENDIX
Z
E ( , , z) F( ) ( )Z(z) | = u |
Propagationz
Periodicity|
F( ) = e e
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
Propagation Modes in StepIndex Fibers PropagationModesinStep IndexFibers
1
n a
n
n a
<

=

>

2 2
2
2 2
F 1 F m
F 0 a
| | c c
+ + k = <
|
Core
2
n a >

2 2

|
c c
\ .
2 2 2 2
0 1
k n k |
Cladding
2 2
2
2 2
F 1 F m
F 0 a
| | c c
+ + + = >
|
c c
\ .
We exclude solutions that tend to for r 0 or
that are not zero when r
|:Propagationconstant
c c
\ .
2 2 2 2
0 2
k n |
jm j z
m
Z
jm j z
m
A J ( )e e a
E ( )
C K ( )e e a
| |
| |
k s
=

>

Z Z
0 2
E H j
E

c c ( e
= | +
(
k c c|

(

jm j z
m
Z
jm j z
B J ( )e e a
H ( )
D K ( )e e a
| |
| |
k s
=

>

Z Z
0 2
E H j
E
H E j
|
c c ( |
= e
(
k c| c

c c ( e
J
m
():Besselfunctionsof1
st
kindandorderm
jm j z
m
D K ( )e e a
| |
>

2 Z Z
0 2
2 Z Z
H E j
H n
H E j
H n

c c ( e
= | c
(
k c c|

c c ( |
= + c e
( K ( ) B l f ti f 2
nd
difi d ki d
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide91 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - APPENDIX APPENDIX
0 2
H n
|
= + c e
(
k c| c

K
m
():Besselfunctionsof2
nd
modifiedkind
andorderm
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
Boundary Conditions BoundaryConditions
Boundary conditions force that the tangential components (| i z) of E and H fields
must coincide in the corecladding separation area. We have 4 equations (E, E|,
H, H|) and 4 unknowns (A,B,C,D). A nontrivial solution will be available when the
coefficient matrixs determinant is zero.
Eigenvalue Equation
( )
2
' ' ' 2 '
1 2
m m m 2 m
2 2 2
m m m 1 m
2m n n
J ( a) K ( a) J ( a) n K ( a)
J ( a) K ( a) J ( a) n K ( a) a
( | ( ( k k
+ + =
( ( (
k k k k k

For each value of m an equation system is defined with multiple solutions For each value of m an equation system is defined with multiple solutions
from which we can extract the |
mn
value that determines the propagation
condition (propagation mode).
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide92 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - APPENDIX APPENDIX
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
FieldDistributions
E
Z
E
Z
H
Z
Continuous
J (k) J (k)
u() u()
SpacialDistributions
derivate
Evanescent
ld
J
0
(k) J
3
(k)
K
0
()
K ()
() ()
Field
K
3
()

a
a
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide93 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - APPENDIX APPENDIX
Core
Cladding
Core
Cladding
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
PropagationCondition 2 2 2 2
0 1
k n k |
m
K ( ) e

0 >
0 2
k n | >
F real real k
0 1
k n | s
0 1
|
2 2 2 2
0 2
k n |
2 0 1 0
n k n k < | <
( )
1
2 2
2
2 0 1 2
n n k n n 0 = k = s
2 0
n k 0 | = = cutoff
F real real k
0 1
|
|
( )
2 0 1 2
n: mode index (effective index)
1 0
n k 0 | = k =
( )
1
2 2
2
n n k n n 0 = = s
nonreal
2 1
0
n n n
k
|
< <
n:modeindex(effectiveindex)
( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
NormalizedFrequency
( )
1 0 1 2
n n k n n 0 = = s
u()
n
1
n
2
n
( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 2 0 0
n n k NA k k + = =
X a Y a k
2
2 2 2
a
X Y 2 NA V
| |
|
1 2
a
V 2 NA t
2 2 2
X Y 2 NA V
| |
+ = t
|

\ .
a
2 n 2 ~ t A

a
Core Cladding
NA a trade off
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide94 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - APPENDIX APPENDIX
V 2 NA t

2 1
n n ~
1
2 n 2 ~ t A

NAatradeoff
FIBER FIBER- -OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS
GCO
NormalizedPropagationConstant
2 1
2 0
2 1
2
n n
n k
n n
n n
b

|
=

p g
0 8
1.0
t

(
b
)
HE
11
TE
SinglemodeCondition
m 0
J ( a) J (V) 0
=
k = =
0.6
0.8
a
t
i
o
n

C
o
n
s
t
a
n
t
TE
01
EH
11
0 0
0
J ( a) J (V) 0
0
=
k = =
=
c
V 405 . 2 V = <
0 2
0.4
a
l
i
z
e
d

P
r
o
p
a
g
a
HE
21
HE
31
Tradeoff
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
0.0
0.2
N
o
r
m
a
TM
01
HE
12
V singlemode
V %P P
+ |
| |
Numberofmodes
Cutoff Wavelength
Normalized Frequency (V)
core clad
V %P P | |
V
2
V
M
2
2
SI
~ StepIndexFiber
A t ~ 2 n
V
a
2
1 c
Cut offWavelength
28FEBRUARY 2011
slide95 2. OPTICAL FIBER 2. OPTICAL FIBER - - APPENDIX APPENDIX
4
V
M
GI
~
GradedIndexFiber
V
c

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