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Reciprocating compressors Grasso Operating Manual

0089292gbr_2

Operating Manual | Grasso Reciprocating compressors

COPYRIGHT
All Rights reserved. No part of this publication may be copied or published by means of printing, photocopying, microfilm or otherwise without prior written consent of Grasso. This restriction also applies to the corresponding drawings and diagrams.

LEGAL NOTICE
This publication has been written in good faith. However, Grasso cannot be held responsible, neither for any errors occurring in this publication nor for their consequences.

GEA Refrigeration Netherlands N.V. | 0089292gbr_2 | Generated 15.07.2013

Operating Manual | Grasso Reciprocating compressors

SYMBOLS USED IN THIS MANUAL


Danger! Stands for an immediate danger which leads to heavy physical injuries or to the death. Warning! Stands for a possibly dangerous situation which leads to heavy physical injuries or to the death. Caution! Stands for a possibly dangerous situation which could lead to light physical injuries or to damages to property. Hint! Stands for an important tip whose attention is important for the designated use and function of the device.

SAFETY INSTRUCTIONS
General Caution! This manual must be carefull read and understood prior to servicing and running the compressor (package). For all safety instructions refer to Chapter 1, page 7 This user manual is written with great care, but the contractor/installer is held responsible for examining this information and to take care of possible additional and/ or deviated safety measures. Please consult your contractor (supplier). Hint! Before consulting your contractor (supplier) for any reason, make note of the data on the type plate fixed on the compressor, package and/or other package components.

GEA Refrigeration Netherlands N.V. | 0089292gbr_2 | Generated 15.07.2013

Operating Manual | Grasso Reciprocating compressors

PREFACE
This operating manual is meant for the end-users of Grasso reciprocating compressors and/or packages. This manual describes all safety instructions, global product information, required periodical inspections and a trouble shooting list. The users of this equipment have to follow all instructions as given in this manual. In case of any doubt, the supplier of the refrigeration plant should be consulted. For safety instructions refer to Chapter 1, page 7. Hint! GEA Grasso herewith declares that the machines mentioned are intended to be incorporated into a refrigeration package (= assembly of refrigeration components) or to be assembled with other equipment to constitute machinery covered by Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC and do therefore comply with the provisions of this directive that apply to partly completed machines. Furthermore it is not allowed to put the machines mentioned into service until the machinery in which it is to be incorporated, or, of which it is to be a component, has been found and declared to be in compliance with the provisions of Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC i.e. as a whole system including the machinery referred to in this declaration.

GEA Refrigeration Netherlands N.V. | 0089292gbr_2 | Generated 15.07.2013

Operating Manual | Grasso Reciprocating compressors

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1 SAFETY 1.1 REGULATIONS 1.2 MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS 1.3 REFRIGERANT 1.4 OIL 1.5 OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS PRESSURE EQUIPMENT 1.5.1 Intended Use 1.5.2 Safety Notes and Warnings 1.5.3 Transport and Storage 1.5.4 Finishing and Installation INTRODUCTION 2.1 SURVEY COMPRESSOR TYPES INSPECTION 3.1 DAILY, WEEKLY AND MONTHLY INSPECTIONS 3.2 PERIODICAL INSPECTIONS TO BE CARRIED OUT BY YOUR CONTRACTOR (SUPPLIER) FAULT ANALYSIS 4.1 GENERAL MAINTENANCE 5.1 CONSULT YOUR CONTRACTOR (SUPPLIER) 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 13 13 14 14

2 3 4 5

GEA Refrigeration Netherlands N.V. | 0089292gbr_2 | Generated 15.07.2013

Operating Manual | Grasso Reciprocating compressors

GEA Refrigeration Netherlands N.V. | 0089292gbr_2 | Generated 15.07.2013

Operating Manual | Grasso Reciprocating compressors

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1.1

SAFETY
REGULATIONS
Hint! It is the task of the contractor (supplier) to inform and explain to you as user, about the operation of the compressor (Package). Do respect all international, federal, state and local safety regulations/ legislations during inspection, trouble shooting and operating this compressor (package). Caution! In compliance with the regulations of the Pressure Equipment Directive it is mandatory that no changes be made to the construction of pressurised parts such as the crankcase housing, suction filter housing, oil separator(s), etc. After having run the initial 100 operating hours,it is essential (in both new and modified plants) to replace the running-in filter element with the permanent filter element supplied. This operation is only to be carried out by well-trained and qualified personnel. Consult your supplier to carry out this service. This manual includes a check list for daily, weekly and monthly inspections. Temperatures and pressures need to be checked at several point (eg setting of all pressure safety switches). In case this manual does not give these values then your contractor (supplier) should instruct you with regard to their correct setiings. When reference is made to the plant manual, your contractor (supplier) should take care that your are instructed in being able to undertake proper inspections and trouble shooting. Hint! In case of shut downs longer than 1 month, it is advisable to put warning labels on vital parts of the compressor saying that the plant is out-of-operation and must not be started up. Consult your contractor (supplier).

1.2

MAINTENANCE AND REPAIRS


Warning! All maintenance and repairs have to be carried out only by your contractor (supplier), except the maintenance as explicitly mentioned in this manual. Do not open the compressor for service.

1.3

REFRIGERANT

The compressor/package must be filled with REFRIGERANT, to be able to operate.

GEA Refrigeration Netherlands N.V. | 0089292gbr_2 | Generated 15.07.2013

Operating Manual | Grasso Reciprocating compressors

Warning! For safety instructions in relation to the refrigerant used in this refrigeration plant, refer to separate information, to be supplied by your contractor (supplier).

The type plates for identification of the pressure equipment looks like this:

1.4

OIL
fig.1: Example type plate economizer ICH, compressor, package

The compressor/package must be filled with oil, to be able to operate. Warning! For safety instructions in relation to the oil used in this refrigeration plant, refer to separate information, to be supplied by your contractor (supplier).

1.5

OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS PRESSURE EQUIPMENT


Hint! For pressure equipment (oil separator OS, housing suction gas strainer, Economizer ICH, compressor package) manufactured by Grasso according to the European Parliament"s and the European Council"s Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EG of 29 May 1997

fig.2:

Example Type plate oil separator

General The following operating instructions according to the European Pressure Equipment Directive No. 97/23/EG (subsequently referred to as PED) describe how to handle the pressure equipment for finishing and installation. The pressure equipment is intended for installation in compressor packages or refrigeration plants and can be equipped with specific accessories during installation by the customer. The pressure equipment has been manufactured according to the requirements of the PED. Its design meets the requirements of the AD2000 regulations. If applicable the finisher/installer (at installation in compressor package or refrigeration plants and equipping ready for operation) is obliged to prepare his own risk analysis and operating manual according to the European Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EG.

If the type plate is covered by finishing/installation, make sure that the information can be seen by the end user on another location on the pressure equipment.In case of queries regarding the operating instructions, please contact Grasso.

1.5.1

Intended Use

The pressure equipment described here may not be used for any other than the stated purpose. The equipment may only be installed by the finisher/ installer and not by the end user. If the pressure equipment is not used according to these regulations, safe operation of the equipment is not guaranteed. The finisher/installer or the operator and not the manufacturer is responsible for all personal injury and damage to property resulting from unintended use. When not installed by Grasso the finisher/installer has to properly install accessories for the pressure equipment. The pressure equipment may not be damaged during installation and it shall be painted after installation.

GEA Refrigeration Netherlands N.V. | 0089292gbr_2 | Generated 15.07.2013

Operating Manual | Grasso Reciprocating compressors

The pressure equipment may only be filled with refrigerant of refrigerant groups L1 and L2, substance groups 1 and 2. The pressure equipment has to be installed in the compressor package or plant so that no vibrations or pulsations can be transmitted to the equipment.The connecting lines have to be installed to be tension free. The pressure equipment is not designed for dynamic loads.Where there is a risk of lightning strikes, the pressure equipment must be earthed. The finisher/installer has to include instructions for regular inspection of the pressure equipment in his instruction manual and has to define the end user"s behaviour in case of damage. To avoid burns or frostbite, the pressure vessel may not be touched in the operating state. This can be achieved by means of contact guards. Install appropriate warning signs. Caution! Optionally supplied safety valves are only intended for the protection of the oil separator against excessive presssure caused by an external heat source during standstill. This device may not be used for the protection of the complete refrigeration system. (The finisher/installer has to equip the installation with a safety valve acc. EN 378) The oil separator may only be installed vertically. The foundation has to be of sufficient stiffness.

for the new part). For recurring tests please refer to EN 378 T1 to T4 and local regulations.

1.5.3

Transport and Storage

Transport and store the oil separator in a dry environment. Ensure that the oil separator is not subject to damage relevant to its further use. In case of transport damage notify Grasso immediately.

1.5.4

Finishing and Installation

Design details can be seen in drawings at Grasso. Compare the identification (type plate) with the documentation included in the delivery before finishing, installing and equipping the oil separator. Mark the oil separator with the note "Do not use" until the issue has been resolved with Grasso or an authorised third party (named authority according to the PED).

1.5.2

Safety Notes and Warnings

Visually inspect the pressure equipment with the naked eye for corrosion, scoring and similar damage. Check the equipment for shape consistency of the connection areas. In particular check and assess the sealing surfaces for possible damage such as scratches, scoring or similar. Keep corrosive substances such as acids away from the oil separator. Wall thicknesses may be no more than 1 mm less than those given in the drawing. Drain or suck off the medium (refrigerant/oil) prior to service and repair. These tasks may only be carried out by trained professionals and in compliance with the appropriate safety regulations, see standard EN 378. Carry out a detailed check of the previous operating history, when an oil separator that has already been in service is newly finished, installed and equipped. This includes visual inspection (as described above

GEA Refrigeration Netherlands N.V. | 0089292gbr_2 | Generated 15.07.2013

Operating Manual | Grasso Reciprocating compressors

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2.1

INTRODUCTION
SURVEY COMPRESSOR TYPES
Series Single stage Grasso 412E Grasso 612E Grasso 912E Grasso 1212E Grasso V 300 Grasso V 450 Grasso V 600 Grasso V Grasso V 700 Grasso V 1100 Grasso V 1400 Grasso V 1800 Grasso V 700 CM Grasso V 300T Grasso V 450T Grasso V 600T Grasso 212 Grasso V 700T Grasso 312 Grasso V 1100T Grasso 412 Grasso V 1400T Grasso 612 Grasso V 1800T Grasso 12 Grasso V 700T CM Grasso 1212 Grasso V 1100 CM Grasso VCM Grasso V 1400 CM Grasso V 1100T CM Grasso V 1400T CM Grasso V 1800T CM Grasso 310 Grasso 45HP Grasso 5HP Grasso 55HP Grasso 65HP Grasso 212E *2 Grasso 12E Grasso 312E Grasso 3112E Grasso 610 Grasso 810 Grasso 2112E *3 Grasso 6210 Grasso 4210 Grasso 10 Grasso 410 Grasso 3110 Grasso 2110 Grasso 210 Grasso 35HP Grasso 7212 Grasso 8412 Grasso 9312 Grasso 10212 Grasso 912 Grasso 6312 Grasso 5112 Grasso 4212 Grasso 3112 Grasso 2112 Grasso 10212E Grasso 9312E Two stage Grasso 4212E Grasso 5112E Grasso 6312E Grasso 7212E Grasso 8412E Type *

General A survey of the full range of Grasso reciprocating compressors, is given in the table below. Please refer to the type plate of the compressor to determine the type of compressor you are currently using.
Type *1 Series Single stage Two stage

Grasso V 1800 CM

1 2 3

Type designation can be extended on the type plate of the compressor with K(Approval), M(Marine application), ... Grasso 12E compressor, with 2 cylinders. Grasso 12E compressor, with 2 low pressure cylinders and 1 high pressure cylinder.

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GEA Refrigeration Netherlands N.V. | 0089292gbr_2 | Generated 15.07.2013

Operating Manual | Grasso Reciprocating compressors

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3.1

INSPECTION
DAILY, WEEKLY AND MONTHLY INSPECTIONS
daily CHECK POINTS * FREQUENCY

monthly

These inspections should be made during the operating periods. The table below sums up all the points on the compressor that have to be inspected by the user. Warning! The compressor can be factory fitted with gauges and switches and/or with a micro processor system. In the case of a micro processor system, refer to the user manual(s) of the micro processor and/or to the plant manual. Consult your contractor (supplier).
FREQUENCY CHECK POINTS *4

weekly

REMARKS *

Oil temperature max.

Refer to plant manual, consult your contractor (supplier); Max. __________oC

Oil leakage of shaft seal

Consult your contractor (supplier). Check against design conditions. Refer to plant manual, consult your contractor (supplier); Min./Max. __________oC

Suction pressure

monthly

weekly

daily

REMARKS *5 Discharge pressure

Refer to plant manual, consult your contractor (supplier); Min./Max. __________oC R404A/R507 15 K

Oil level in crankcase

Between 25% and 75% height of the sight glass. For topping up oil, consult your contractor (supplier). The oil should be transparently clear. A disappearing white colour points to dissolved refrigerant. Range1.5-3.0 bar Setting 2.5 bar Consult your contractor (supplier): Min. __________bar

Suction superheat Intermediate superheat Discharge temperature max.

Other refrigerants 0K Min. __________oC

Colour of the oil

Max. 170 C

Lubricating oil pressure difference

Oil temperature min.

During compressor standstill the lower part of the crankcase must remain warmer than the surroundings: 20 C (NH3) Min. Actual condensing temperature + 10 K ( Tc + 10 K)

Min. control oil pressure

Cooling water temperature (if present)

During the first 50 operating hours the compressor should be checked regularly for all the points mentioned above, at least twice every 24 hours and more frequently in cases where irregularities are found. Values of temperatures, pressures etc. as mentioned in this table, are given by the manufacturer. Actual values for this refrigeration plant, currently used can differ for the min./max. values as given in this table. Your supplier has to inform you about the actual/currently used values for this plant.

GEA Refrigeration Netherlands N.V. | 0089292gbr_2 | Generated 15.07.2013

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Operating Manual | Grasso Reciprocating compressors

3.2

PERIODICAL INSPECTIONS TO BE CARRIED OUT BY YOUR CONTRACTOR (SUPPLIER)

SAFETY Caution! For a safe operation of the compressor/package, your contractor (supplier) must carry out the checks as mentioned in the table below.
Inspections by contractor FREQUENCY CHECK POINTS *6

monthly

weekly

daily

REMARKS

Wear (fraying, cuts etc.) and ensure that they do not touch the groove bottom. Condition of V-belts Tension. Too low a tension gives rise to excessive flapping or oscillation in operation. For correct tension Grasso instruction sheet 0087516 must be used.

Adjustment and operation of pressure safety switches

Refer to instructions of switch manufacturer.

Capacity control (if provided)

The time lag between the unloading and loading of one cylinder or cylinder group should generally be at least 3 5 minutes. The time interval between stopping and starting should be at least 10 minutes and between starting and restarting 15 minutes.

Switching frequency of the compressor

During the first 50 operating hours the compressor should be checked regularly for all the points mentioned above, at least twice every 24 hours and more frequently in cases where irregularities are found.

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GEA Refrigeration Netherlands N.V. | 0089292gbr_2 | Generated 15.07.2013

Operating Manual | Grasso Reciprocating compressors

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4.1

FAULT ANALYSIS
GENERAL
Warning! In case you find any problems in the installation, or one of the issues mentioned in the inspection list are not OK, (temperatures, oil level, pressures , ...), the compressor must be switched off. Your contractor (supplier) should inform you how the compressor has to be stopped safely. Refer also to the plant manual. Warning! If crankcase is frosted or wet: stop compressor immediately.

Instructions in case of any failure; 1. Stop compressor 2. Make note of the information on the type plate of the compressor 3. Consult your contractor (supplier) Typical faults, to be solved by your contractor (supplier) are:
Typical faults FAULTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 Discharge pressure too high Discharge temperature too high Suction pressure too high Suction pressure too low All cylinders inactive while compressor is operating Too high oil consumption Too high oil pressure during normal operation at working temperature Too low lubricating oil pressure Too low or no control oil pressure (For Grasso V, Grasso (12)E and Grasso10 only)

GEA Refrigeration Netherlands N.V. | 0089292gbr_2 | Generated 15.07.2013

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Operating Manual | Grasso Reciprocating compressors

5
5.1

MAINTENANCE
CONSULT YOUR CONTRACTOR (SUPPLIER)

All maintenance works are only to be carried out by the contractor (supplier). Example of works to be carried out by your contractor; 1. Leak testing 2. Evacuation, drying the refrigeration system 3. Initial oil charging 4. Initial refrigerant charging 5. Adjustment of all safety devices 6. Checking direction of rotation compressor 7. Installing drive guard 8. Initial start of the compressor 9. Preparing the compressor for a shut down period (>6 months) 10. Topping up oil 11. Draining and change of oil 12. Evacuation and purging compressor 13. Replacement of filters 14. Reset GMM (Grasso Maintenance Monitor) 15. Adjustment V-belt tension

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GEA Refrigeration Netherlands N.V. | 0089292gbr_2 | Generated 15.07.2013

Operating Manual | Grasso Reciprocating compressors

GEA Refrigeration Netherlands N.V. | 0089292gbr_2 | Generated 15.07.2013

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