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AP US History

2011 Ryan OShea


Chapter Outlines & Class Notes American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. by Alan Brinkley

Page 2 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Chapter Outlines
Chapter 1: America Before Columbus
Sunday, September 05, 2010 9:42 PM

Ryan O'Shea 11B

America Before Columbus

Civilizations of the South o Incas Peru 6 million Complex political system large network of paved roads helped extend rule over many tribes Cuzco, Machu Piccu o Mayas Central America, Yucatan sophisticated written language, numerical system, accurate calendar, advanced agricultural system Mayapn o Aztecs succeeded Mayas once-nomadic warrior tribe from the north late 13th Century - established precarious rule over central/southern Mexico elaborate administrative, educational, medical systems human sacrifice conquered by Spanish in 1519 Tenochtitln- capital (Mexico City) huge population great structures Civilizations of the North o societies that subsisted on hunting, gathering, or fishing o Eskimos Arctic Circle dogsled moose and caribou o Pacific Northwest tribes salmon fishing permanent settlements along coast constant, violent competition with each other for resources o Far West tribes wealthy, densely populated communities fishing, hunting small game, gathering o Southwest tribes agricultural irrigation systems trade, crafts, civic ritual pueblos o Woodlands Indians
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Page 3 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Eastern US best food resources more mobile than other regions farming techniques designed to exploit land quickly language groups Algonquin tribes Atlantic seaboard Iroquois Confederation New York 5 Nations and links to Cherokees & Tuscaroras farther south Muskogean Southeast Tribal Cultures o Natives experiencing agricultural revolution before Europeans arrived population growth, new sources of food, clothing o Religion and gods associated with nature o Societal tasks divided by gender women - caring for children, preparing meals, gathering certain foods some tribes reserved farming for men (Pueblos) some tribes reserved farming for women, hunting for men (Muskogees, Algonquins, Iroquois) women controlled social/economic organization, family

Europe Looks Westward


Leif Eriksson crossed Atlantic in 11th century no incentive for Europeans to cross Commerce and Nationalism o significant population growth after Black Death (15th C) rising land values, reawakening of commerce, increased prosperity emerging merchant class brought exotic goods o advances in navigation and ships o rise of new, stronger governments kings consolidated power and increased wealth eager to enhance commercial growth national tax systems o dreamed of trade with East, monarchs financed explorers Prince Henry the Navigator Portuguese wanted to explore the western coast of Africa, establish Christian empire, find gold Bartholemeu Dias 1486 - rounded Cape of Good Hope Vasco da Gama 1497 - reached cape of India Pedro Cabral 1500 - expedition blown west, found Brazil Christopher Columbus o born Genoa, Italy; served Portuguese in early years o wanted to reach Asia by going West underestimated size of world Portuguese rejected plan o backed by Spain (Queen Isabella & King Ferdinand) August 1492 90 men, 3 ships (Nia, Pinta, Santa Mara) sailed for Japan reached island in Bahamas (Japan), then Cuba (China)
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Page 4 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

returned to Spain in triumph w/ captured "Indians" second attempt - discovered more Caribbean islands left small colony on Hispaniola third attempt - reached mainland, South American coast realized he wasn't in Asia when he passed mouth of Orinoco River (Venezuela) such a large freshwater stream could only emerge from a large body of land still convinced Asia was nearby, returned to Spain believing he had explored fringes of Far East o "Admiral of the Ocean Sea" o representative of new secular & scientific impulses, though Columbus was deeply religious believed himself on divine mission o Amerigo Vespucci Florentine merchant wrote series of vivid descriptions of lands he visited, recognized Americas as new continents o Spain replaced Portugal as leading seafaring nation Vasco de Balboa 1513 - fought his way across Panama, became 1st European to see the Pacific Ocean Ferdinand Magellan Portuguese sailing for Spanish went around S. America; made it to the Philippines named the "Pacific" for its calmness died in Philippines in conflict with natives 1519-1522 - expedition completed 1st circumnavigation without him The Conquistadores o considered America as source of wealth rivaling the Indies o Spanish claimed the whole New World (except a piece of Brazil reserved by Pope for Portugal) o mid-16th C - Spain establishing substantial American empire o Hernando Corts 1518 - led small (600) military expedition into Mexico strong Aztec resistance led by emperor Montezuma accidentally exposed Aztecs to smallpox; decimated population Spanish conquered most brutal conquistator o Silver attracted more conquistadores o Francisco Pizarro 1532-1538 - conquered Peru revealed to Europe wealth of the Incas; spurred more exploration of the south o Hernando de Soto 1539-1541 - led quest for gold, silver, jewels through Florida west into the continent 1st white man to cross Mississippi o Francisco Coronado 1540-1542 - travelled to New Mexico, settled southwest gold, jewels Spanish America o Three Periods First age of discovery and exploration Columbus to 1620 Second age of the conquistadores established dominion over lands ended 1540 Third

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Page 5 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

began 1570 new Spanish laws Ordinances of Discovery banned most brutal military conquests began colonization o Spanish American mines made Spain the wealthiest and most powerful nation o settlers came to create profitable agricultural economy o Pope forced Spain to make Catholicism only religion of colonies settlements highly religious o Missions settlements whose primary purpose was converting natives to Catholicism Presidios - military bases alongside missions missionary impulse became one of the principal motives for European emigration to America Northern Outposts o First permanent settlement in USA - Spanish fort at St. Augustine, Florida (1565) o 1598 - Don Juan de Oate traveled north from Mexico, claimed for Spain some lands of the Pueblo Indians harsh treatment of natives (New Mexico) distributed encomiendas - licenses to exact labor and tribute from the natives in specific areas first used in dealing with the Moors in Spain ousted in 1606 settlement faced danger from Apache and Navajo raiders economies - cattle and sheep, instead of gold and jewels, raised on the ranchos that stretched out around the small towns 1680 - colony almost destroyed by Pueblo revolt Spanish began to suppress native religious rituals "Pope" (Indian) led uprising that killed hundreds of Spanish, captured Santa Fe, drove Spanish temporarily from the region Spanish returned, crushed final revolt in 1696 o Spanish could not prosper while battling natives Intensified efforts to assimilate the Indians (baptizing, enforcing Catholicism) Permitted Pueblos to own land, stopped commandeering Indian labor, replaced encomienda system w/ less demanding/oppressive one, tolerated tribal rituals somewhat successful Pueblos considered Spanish allies in battles vs. Apaches & Navajos The Empire at High Tide o colonies vastly different from later British ones end of 16th C - monarchy extended authority into governance of colonies Spanish much more successful at extracting surface wealth (gold/silver) strict and inflexible Spanish commercial policies hurt economy British quickly populated colonies, Spanish did not Biological & Cultural Changes o To New World: import of European diseases aided by brutality of conquistadores considered natives "savages" - uncivilized peoples whom they considered not fully human conquistadores destroyed natives' empires because they posed a threat to their ambitions eliminated all underpinnings of native empires (records, documents, temples, monuments) by 1540, all empires conquered import of new European crops (sugar, bananas) import of domestic livestock (cattle, pigs, sheep, horse) horse transformed native society o To Europe: new agricultural techniques new crops (maize) European languages and Catholicism mixed with natives' to create hybrid dialects and religions

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Page 6 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Intermarriage was frequent mestizos - mixed race created elaborate racial hierarchy eventually replaced by economic separations Natives were principal work force in some cases, slavery needed more labor, imported from Africa Africa and America o most from large region in west Africa below Sahara, called Guinea o whites thought of Africans as primitive, but they weren't o Guinea traded with the Mediterranean (ivory, gold, and slaves) o Ghana kingdom collapsed around 1100A.D., replaced by kingdom of Mali great city - Timbuktu o southern Africa more isolated, politically fragmented o no large empires in South o African civilizations developed economies based on climates and resources upper Guinea - fishing/rice + trade south - wheat/livestock/fishing o matrilineal societies - like NAs - traced heredity through mothers o women played dominant role in trade and farming, child care and food prep elected parallel female leaders to manage female issues o unless Muslim, African religion was polytheistic gods associated with natural world ancestor worship o social ranks small elites of priests/nobles middle class of farmers, traders, crafts workers slaves - captured in wars or criminals not permanent, had some legal protection o Slave trade began before European migration to New World 8th C - Africans began selling slaves to Mediterranean traders European demand for sugar cane increased, production moved to island of Madeira (Portuguese colony) off African Coast, then Caribbean Islands & Brazil slave traders increased recruitment of workers from Africa African kingdoms warred with each other to gain slaves to trade most slave traders Portuguese & Spanish at first Dutch took control by 17th C English took control by 18th C 1700 - slaves began arriving in British colonies

The Arrival of the English

England's 1st documented contact with New World was 5 years after Spain - 1497 o 1497 - John Cabot (of Genoa) sailed to northeastern coast of North America sponsored by Henry VII searching for Northwest Passage The Commercial Incentive o part of attraction was newness place where society could start anew Sir Thomas More's Utopia described a mythical and nearly perfect society on an imaginary supposedly discovered by a companion of Amerigo Vespucci in the waters of the New World o frequent/costly European wars, almost constant religious strife, harsh economic transformation of countryside o growth in wool trade caused increased enclosure and eviction of tenants gov't passed ineffective laws to halt this limited England's ability to cultivate food
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Page 7 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

both contributed to serious surplus population rising class of merchant capitalists prospering from expansion of foreign trade merchants created domestic cloth industry some merchants joined together in chartered companies - given a monopoly in a certain region from the monarchy Muscovy Company (1555), Levant Company (1581), Barbary Company (1585), Guinea Company (1588), East India Company (1600) extremely profitable mercantilism - nation as a whole is the principal actor in the economy, not the people within it. Goal of economic activity should be to increase the nation's total wealth. principles guided economic policies of all European nations in 16th and 17th C increased national competition Richard Hakluyt - outstanding English propagandist for colonization argued that colonies were new markets for English goods also help alleviate poverty/unemployment source of resources The Religious Incentive o European and English Reformations o Protestant Reformation Martin Luther - 1517 challenged Catholic belief that salvation could be achieved through good works or through loyalty (or payments) to the church itself denied church's claim that God communicated to the world through the pope and the clergy; Bible only voice of God salvation by faith alone insisted on reform within the church excommunicated 1520 broke away John Calvin Swiss predestination Huguenots (France), Puritans (England) o English Reformation Henry VIII, Church of England Henry's Catholic daughter Bloody Mary succeeded him persecuted, slaughtered Protestants d. 1558 Elizabeth reverted to Church of England cut ties w/ Catholic Church, Spain incorporated some of Calvinism into CoE, but not enough to satisfy critics refugees who fled Mary returned w/ even more radical religious ideas Puritans most radical were Separatists - worshipped as they pleased in independent congregations despite laws women were religiously equal Quakers more moderate Puritans wanted CoE to focus more on spiritual responsibility than worldly ambitions simplify Anglican worship, reduce power of bishops, reform greedy, uneducated clergy Elizabeth succeeded by James in 1603 James was Divine Right of Kings believer antagonized Puritans (taxation)
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Page 8 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Puritains looked toward New World

The English in Ireland o 1560s-1570s - colonists moved to Ireland native population considered "savage" o Sir Humphrey Gilbert viciously suppressed Iris rebellions founded first unsuccessful British colony in New World (Newfoundland) Gilbert, Sir Walter Raleigh, Sir Richard Grenville took vicious attitudes about natives to America The French and Dutch in America o France 1st permanent settlement in America - Quebec in 1608 French exercised influence in NW disproportionate to their numbers, b/c of their relationship to the natives British stayed close to coast, traded w/ natives through intermediaries French forged close, direct ties w/ natives deep inside continent French Jesuit missionaries 1st to penetrate Indian societies coureurs de bois - adventurous fur traders and trappers, penetrated far into the wilderness, developed extensive trade, formed underpinnings of French colonial economy acted as agents for Algonquins and Huron fur traders French limited by how well they could form partnerships seigneuries - agricultural estates along St. Lawrence River French alliance w/ Algonquins put them at odds with Iroquois, enemies of the Algonquins Iroquois had central role in fur trade 1609 attack by Samuel de Champlain (founder of Quebec) on a band of Mohawks was ordered by Algonquins o Dutch Holland won independence from Spain in early 17th C leading trading nations Henry Hudson sailed up Hudson river, explored what he thought was NW Passage, but led to Dutch claims to American land Dutch had active fur trade in New York 1624 - Dutch West India Company est. series of permanent trading posts on Hudson, Delaware, & Connecticut Rivers encouraged settlement of the region by all Northern European countries granted land to patroons (landlords) The First English Settlements o Jamestown, VA (1607) first permanent English settlement preceeded by many failed efforts o mixed feelings about NW under Elizabeth I, developed powerful sense of nationalism, encouraged expansion but, England leery of Spain both in NW and of the navy in Europe 1570s-80s - Francis Drake & "sea dogs" changed attitudes staged successful raids on Spanish merchant ships & built confidence in England's ability to challenge Spanish sea power Spanish Philip II built the Armada, one of largest naval fleets in history attempted to invade England squashed in one battle by English, ended Spanish domination of the Atlantic o Sir Humphrey Gilbert & Sir Walter Raleigh pioneers of British colonization friends of Queen Elizabeth 1578 - Gilbert obtained patent from Elizabeth granting him the exclusive right to inhabit & possess all foreign lands not already possessed by Christian prince
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Page 9 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

1583 - Gilbert led expedition to Newfoundland, claimed it for Elizabeth lost at sea

Roanoke o Raleigh secured similar 6-year grant, sent small band of men to explore North American coast returned with 2 natives & great reports enthusiastic about island called Roanoke o Raleigh offered to name the region Virginia for Elizabeth, but she didn't offer financial assistance o 1585 - Raleigh recruited cousin Sir Richard Grenville to lead group of men to Roanoke to establish a colony angered natives, left Francis Drake encountered Roanoke later, saved the survivors o Raleigh tried again in 1587, sent people for budding colony Virginia Dare - 1st American-born child of British parents father, John White (commander of expedition) left for England, kept from returning for 3 years by Spanish, returned, and found the island deserted found an inscription "Croatoan" either slaughtered for hostitlities or joined native society o 1603 - James I succeeded Elizabeth, accused Raleigh of plotting against the king, imprisoned him, executed him o 17th C - group of London merchants who owned Raleigh's charter rights renewed attempt at colonizing Virginia rival group from Plymouth also wanted to James issued new charter dividing rights to East coast (London merchants got south, Plymouth merhants got north) led to enduring English colonies North American Indians left untouched by Spanish until British, French, & Dutch came Where Historians Disagree o positivists - believe that history is an exact science and that it's possible to create definite histories that would survive without controversy Comte, Huxley o almost all historians refute this The American Population Before Columbus o arguments o 8.4 million to 112 million

Conclusion

Other Sections

Chapter 2: Transplantations and Borderlands


Sunday, September 12, 2010 9:04 PM

Ryan O'Shea 11B

The Early Chesapeake


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1606 - James I issued charters to London & Plymouth companies Plymouth group est failed colony at Sagadoahoc, Maine; then abandoned colonization London company est Jamestown via 3 ships: Godspeed, Discovery, Susan Constant The Founding of Jamestown 1607 poor choice of location to avoid mistakes of Roanoke, settlers selected easily defended location - inland low, swampy, hot, malaria lay within territory of Powhatan Malaria killed some of colony
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Page 10 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

settlers need to provide a profit to London company, spent their energy searching for gold didn't grow food London company not interested in families, sent no women no "society" didn't intermarry contributed to greed, which caused growing lack of food supplies arrived 1608, only 38 / 104 settlers still alive survived crisis thanks to Captain John Smith became council president of Jamestown imposed work & order organized raids on Indian villages to steal food/kidnap natives o

Reorganization London company renamed Virginia Company obtained new charter 1609 - increased power, enlarged land sold stock to "adventurers" - remained in England, got cut of profits attracted new settlers by offering additional stock to "planters" - migrated at own expense provided free transport to poorer people who pledged 7 years service to Company 1609 - launched "great fleet" of 600 people lost two ships more disaster many died of fever winter of 1609-1610 - "starving time" - worst winter local Indians killed livestock, contained colonists lived on what they could find, even dead settlers only 50/600 survived survivors headed home, but intercepted ship carrying supplies and their first governor, Lord De La Warr turned around Lord De La Warr and successors imposed harsh/rigid discipline on colony communal labor system Virginia unhappy, but survived discovered marketable crop: tobacco Tobacco first seen used in cigaros by Cuban natives Spanish tobacco spread through Europe in 17th C many opposed: King James I - Counterblaste to Tobacco (1604) - urged people not to imitate savages aided Spanish not English 1612 - Jamestown planter John Rolfe produced high quality tobacco, sold to England production spread around Jamestown Tobacco changed colonies profitability, uncertainty, land & labor demands transformed Chesapeake society most important was pressure tob acco cultivation created for territorial expansion tobacco needed large areas of farmland colony spread into interior encroached on natives' land Expansion Virginia company still had no profits by 1616 1618 - launched last campaign to attract settlers & make colony profitable "headright" system headrights - 50-acre grants of land for new settlers existing residents got 100 acres
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Page 11 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

new settlers got 1 headright encouraged families anyone who paid the passage of another immigrant received another headright Company transported ironworkers & other skilled craftsworkers to Virginia 1619 - sent 100 women to Virginia to be purchased as wives 1619 - delegates from various communities met as the House of Burgesses first meeting of elected legislature in US Dutch ship brought 20+ blacks, not necessarily slaves use of black labor was limited until 1670s, instead European indentured labor 1619 marked 1st step towards enslavement of Africans suppressed local Indians who resisted expanding English Sir Thomas Dale led assaults against Powhatan Indians, kidnapped Powhatan's daughter Pocohontas Powhatan refused to ransom her, Pocohontas converted to Christianity, married John Rolfe, moved to England Powhatan eventually stopped attacks, died, succeeded by brother Opechancanough who resumed defensive attacks killed 347 whites in one attack in 1622 English responded mercilessly, finally crushed Opechancanough in 1644 Virginia company went bankrupt in England, lost charter in 1624, Jamestown fell under control of crown until Am Rev Exchanges of Agricultural Tehnology English saw culture as superior to natives' technology more advanced when unable to find gold in Jamestown, John Smith and others blamed backwardness of the natives thought Spanish had found wealth because of advanced native empires but survival of Jamestown thanks to agricultural tech of natives grew beans, squash, maize English didn't use all of the techniques Natives uprooted & killed all trees, but English girdled them & killed in place Natives grew food in straight rows, English in curves around trunks CORN easy to cultivate, stalks provided sugar, harder to spoil beans + corn enriches soil Maryland and the Calverts George Calvert- 1st Lord Baltimore convert to Catholicism, shrewd businessman wanted colony as speculative venture & Catholic retreat died, son: Cecilius Calvert - 2nd Lord Baltimore huge charter for Pennsylvania, Delaware, Virginia, Maryland he & heirs were absolute lords of land made brother governor, Leonard Calvert 1634 - two ships (Ark & Dove) entered Patomac, settled village of St. Mary's befriended natives Catholics were a minority in colony adopted religious toleration - "Act Concerning Religion" religious strife 1655 - civil war replaced government and replaced it w/ Protestant-dominated one adopted headright system b/c of labor shortage Maryland became center of tobacco cultivation indentured servants first, then slaves

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Page 12 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Turbulent Virginia population & economy increasing political contention factions competed policy toward natives? frequent border conflicts w/ them Sir William Berkeley made governor of Virginia 1642 by Kind Charles I popular explored western VA put down 1644 Indian uprising attempted to protect some native land, but failed population increased by opponents of Oliver Cromwell (1649) after English Civil War moved westward by 1652, took over 3 of the Indians' counties VA evolved into autocracy 1619 - 1st burgesses elected, all men > 17 had suffrage 1670 - vote restricted to landowners in rare elections loyal burgesses stayed in office each county had 2 reps, despite population backcountry (in west) underrepresented Bacon's Rebellion 1676 - Nathaniel Bacon wealthy Cambridge grad owned farm in west, seat on governor's council backcountry counties were on land promised to natives threat of attack from natives western settlers resented Berkeley's attempts to hold the line of settlement thought it was effort by easterners to hold down westerners actually to protect Berkeley's fur trade w/ Indians Bacon excluded from governor's inner circle (Green Spring group) also denied a cut of the fur trade 1675 - Doeg [sic] indians raided a western plantation, killed a white servant whites retaliated erratically, attacked Doeg & Susquehannock tribes fighting escalated, westerners rebelled against Berkeley (who refused to help) attacked Jamestown twice, burned it & ousted Berkeley Bacon died of dysentery, Berkeley regained control w/ help of British troops 1677 - Indians forced to sign treaty to allow whites to settle more land significance: part of struggle to define boundary between Indian & White lands revealed bitterness of competition between eastern/western landowners revealed potential for instability in colonies mostly landless men caused landed men began to recognize common interest in preventing social unrest from below turned to African slave trade for labor Plymouth Plantation illegal to leave England w/o consent of King 1608 - Scrooby Separatists began slowly emigrating to Leyden, Holland Puritans for religious freedom had to take poorly paid jobs tolerant Dutch killed dreams of close-knit Christian community
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The Growth of New England


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Page 13 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

moved to New World to create place where they could spread "the gospel of the Kingdom of Christ in

those remote parts of the world"


led by William Bradford 1620 - sailed on Mayflower 35 saints (Puritan separatists) 67 strangers (not full members of church) landed & settled Cape Cod, called Plymouth by John Smith Mayflower Compact signed by Pilgrims est. civil government w/ allegiance to the king changed environment of Plymouth - eliminated natives w/ smallpox, depleted animals for fur, brought

new animals & crops


friendly w/ natives initially Squanto & Samoset taught pilgrims Squanto helped form alliance w/ local Wampanoags Thanksgiving smallpox almost wiped out natives 1622 - Miles Standish imposed semi-military regime to discipline settlers finally grew enough corn to trade, small fur trade chose William Bradford as governor 1621 - persuaded Council for New England to grant permission for Pilgrims to be there ended Standish's communal labor plan made "all hands very industrious" very poor community o

Massachusetts Bay Experiment James I stressed relationship w/ parliament through effort to claim DRoK & repression of Puritans Charles I also persecuted Puritan merchants got a charter from king for Massachusetts Bay Company originally economic goal, but later for religious reasons 1630 - emigrated to America under Governor John Winthrop 1,000 people mostly in families (helped assure commitment) settled Boston (HQ), then Charlestown, Newtown (Cambridge), Roxbury, Dorchester, Watertown, Ipswich, Concord, Sudbury 1634 - est colonial government w/ elections Puritans didn't want to break from Church of England but each parish free to choose own minister & regulation, unlike Anglican church Congregational Church very pious Theocracy colony had bad winter, but recovered quickly social stability Expansion of New England non-Puritans immigrated, but forced out to Connecticut Hartford Thomas Hooker 1635 - led his congregation in establishing Hartford est gov't & constitution - Fundamental Orders of Connecticut New Haven reflected impatience w/ increasing religious laxity in Massachusetts Fundamental Articles of New Haven (1639) established even stricter religious gov't Hartford & New Haven combined into Connecticut in 1639 Rhode Island
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Page 14 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Roger Williams Separatist who wanted to break away from CoE called for complete separation of Church & State banished from Mass took refuge w/ Narragansett tribesmen, bought land from them & created Providence received charter for government 1644 religious freedom Anne Hutchinson argued that non"elect" had no right to hold spiritual office all ministers except leader John Cotton & her brother-in-law were nonelect Antinomianism - "hostile to the law" influence grew prevented Winthrop's reelection in 1636, but reelected next time, tried her for heresy convicted, banished, moved to Rhode Island & New York (New Netherland) clergy responded by restricting activities of women Hutchinson's followers emigrated to New Hampshire & Maine had been established in 1629 by Captain John Mason & Sir Ferdinando Gorges grant from Council for New England, divided into provinces along Piscataqua river few settlers 1639 - John Wheelwright's followers moved to Exeter, NH followed by more NH became separate colony in 1679, Maine in 1820 Settlers & Natives Indians assisted early settlers taught local food crops (corn, beans, pumpkins, potatoes) agricultural techniques bought European goods peacefulness didn't last colonists concentrated more on raising domesticated animals: cattle, sheep, hogs, horses caused them to search for more land Puritans wanted to "civilize" natives John Eliot - translated bible into Algonquin converts called "praying indians" others wanted to displace or eliminate population decrease caused alcoholism & rebellion The Pequot War: King Philip's War, and the Technology of Battle Pequot War 1637 - English in Connecticut vs. Pequot Indians competition over trade & land English allied w/ Indian rivals of Pequots (Narangansetts & Mohegans) Captain John Mason led raiders who set Pequot stronghold on fire bloodiest event King Philip's War 1675 - Wampanoags under leadership of "King Philip" (Metacomet) rose up saw conflict as only way to stop Europeans taking land & imposing government natives attacked Massachusetts 1676 - settlers won w/ help from Mohawks English also competed w/ French & Dutch Technology Flintlock Musket - replaced matchlock rifle lighter bought by natives

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Page 15 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Forts Narragansetts had enormous fort in Great Swamp of Rhode Island, but burned down then built stone fort w/ technology from English destroyed by English tech natives got from English not enough to stop English

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The Restoration Colonies


Virginia, Massachusetts, Maryland, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New Hampshire English Civil War Charles I dissolved parliament 1629, began ruling as absolute monarch caused dissent, especially among Puritans Cavaliers (King) vs. Roundheads (Parliament) 7 years Roundheads decapitated Charles I, put Oliver Cromwell as "Lord Protector" Charles II eventually restored, resumed colonization granted faithful courtiers w/ grants of NW land New York, New Jersey, Carolina, Pennsylvania proprietary, modeled on Maryland goal of new colonies was permanent settlements for land & power Carolinas 8 court favorites got huge charter ran it like Maryland expected to profit from landlords & spectators headrights, quitrents (annual payments) incentives for settlement: religious & some political freedom (Christian, at least) Anthony Ashley Cooper, earl of Shaftesbury- urged partners to finance migrations to Carolina founded Charleston wanted planned and ordered community helped by John Locke to make Fundamental Constitution for Carolina (1699) created system of land distribution & designed elaborate social order but Carolina developed very differently than the utopian dream never united in anything more than name Northern settlers backwoods farmers no aristocracy, no slaves Southern fertile lands, good harbor at Charleston = prosperous economy, aristocratic society rice had ties to English colony on Barbados main trading partner both were slave-based plantation society very unstable 1719 - colonists seized control from proprietors divided by king into North & South royal colonies New Netherland, New York, and New Jersey English vs. Dutch economic rivalry spread to NW Dutch in America = provided bases for Dutch smugglers evading English customs laws 1644 - English fleed under command of Richard Nicolls sailed into port of New Amsterdam, forced Dutch governor Peter Stuyvesant to surrender British assumed control under Articles of Capitulation New York James, Duke of York, brother of Charles II got grant for New Netherland, renamed New York very diverse
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Page 16 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

religious freedom no representative assembly power unequally dispersed prosperous most people lived in Hudson Valley James II gave southern portion of grant to Sir John Berkeley & Sir John Carteret Carteret named it New Jersey, but it failed and returned it to the king very diverse, but no large landowners Quaker Colonies Pennsylvania Society of Friends George Fox & Margaret Fell rejected predestination & original sin women equal to men anarchistic & democratic, pacifistic tried to emigrate to other colonies, but banished most of the time William Penn son of British Naval admiral 1681 - inherited Irish lands & large debt from King Charles II paid via grant excellent advertising for settlers died in poverty established Philadelphia protected natives, no conflict some resisted absolute power of Penn Charter of Liberties established unicameral representative assembly (unique) limited Penn's power allowed Delaware to break off into faux-colony

Borderlands and Middle Grounds


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Chapter 3: Society and Culture in Provincial America


Sunday, September 19, 2010 7:11 PM

Ryan O'Shea 11B

Colonies were outposts of British world o adopted British tastes, styles, customs o most considered selves English but different also o environment vaster, less tamed o more diverse population o interaction w/ natives European/African population grew rapidly most of population English laborers (esp in Chasapeake) Indentured Servitude o 25% women o English gov't dumped shiploads of convicts to be sold o solved labor shortage o headrights = incentive for people to buy servants
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The Colonial Population


Page 17 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

servants' incentives voluntarily - to escape troubles in England or establish selves in NW after release most ended up landless/unemployed large population of roaming young men source of social unrest o families moved to more prosperous areas frequently o slowed after 1670 o after 1700, most went to Pennsylvania/New York southern conditions/prospects were terrible Chesapeake colonies troubled by social impact of servants both are reasons for slave trade in southern colonies Birth And Death o early settlers faced hard living, but improved o conditions improved, population expanded o New England & Midatlantic by 1650 - caused by natural reproduction & extended longevity much higher than England cool climate, disease-free, clean water, absence of large population centers o Chesapeake & Southern colonies grew slower low life expectancy, high infant mortality malaria o sex ratio improved o seasoning - developing immunity to diseases Medicine in the Colonies o high childbirth death rates infections o limited extent of medical knowledge Midwives assisted in childbirth popular hated by doctors humoralism - 4 humors determined health Galen yellow bile, black bile, blood, phlegm balance little support for scientific method until Enlightenment Women and Families in the Chesapeake o almost all women married o husbands had absolute control over wives, families broke up often patterns of male authority constantly undermined o sexual standards more flexible in south indentures prohibited from marriage, premarital sex frequent had tons of children women commanded more freedoms than in north o 18th C - life in south started to change life expectancy up, indentures down, sex ratio leveling, women lost power new patriarchal society Women and Families in New England o more even sex ratio o family structure more stable o increased longevity, lower infant & overall death rates
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Page 18 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

parents lived to see children mature children dependent on parents men = land, women = dowries, o women less independent b/c less were widowed, less choice in men o fewer premarital pregnancies o family structure/role of women defined also by religion established churches in south were weak Puritans made women equal to men but they really weren't equal, authority only men e.g. Anne Hutchinson Puritans - absolute patriarchal family women crucial to New England agriculture The Beginnings of Slavery in British America o began with tobacco o southern colonies & caribbean built substantial slave trade o late 17th C - slaves plentiful o 11 million o African chieftains captured enemies & sold them in lines called coffles "middle passage" - journey to America prisoners chained to bowels of ships, horrible conditioned auctioned in America o 1st laborers - before 1620 North America had lesser slave trade than Caribbean & Brazil (sugar economies) slaves to America worked first in West Indies, direct trade started 1670 o Royal African Company English monopoly on slave trade - prices high, supplies low 1690s - monopoly of RAC broken prices plummeted trade to North America increased o high Male:Female slave ratio - little reproduction South Carolina - difficult conditions of rice cultivation - high death rate - little reproduction except in Chesapeake o 1700-1760 - slave population 10 = 250,000 small number in NE, more in middle colonies, almost all in South o Status of Slaves at first unclear (17th C) South Carolina (highest black population) - whites & blacks at first nearly equal 18th C - distinction established whites felt superior to blacks colonial assemblies began passing "slave codes" ensured absolute authority to white masters based on color only mixed race considered black Changing Sources of European Immigration o early 18th C - flow of immigrants from England declined better economic conditions, new restrictions on emigration o new immigrants from France, Germany, Switzerland, Ireland, Wales, Scotland, Scandinavia French Huguenots - French Calvinists Edict of Nantes (1598) - had allowed Huguenots to create a virtual state within France, but revoked in 1685 Germans (Pennsylvania) Protestants suffered from arbitrary religious policies of rulers

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Page 19 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

all Germans suffered from wars with Louis XIV Rhineland/Palatinate more exposed to French invasion winter 1608/9 destroyed economy Palatinates settled in NY, but forced out to Pennsylvania ("Dutch") many moved to New Bern, North Carolina Scots-Irish Presbyterians most numerous had settled in Ireland (Ulster) 18th C - English Parliament prohibited Ulster colonists from selling their wool (basis of economy) to England moved to America, disregarded who actually owned the land they settled other groups Highlanders were Catholics who had been defeated in rebellions Presbyterian Lowlanders faced high rents in Scotland, immigrated to America just before Revolution established Presbyterianism as major religion in New Jersey, Pennsylvania Catholic Irish almost as numerous as the Scots in America many abandoned religion & culture population skyrocketed (1700 = 250,000; 1775 = 2 million)

Colonial Economies
colonies traded w/ natives, French, and Spanish settlers farming dominated all areas The Southern Economy o Chesapeake tobacco boom-and-bust cycle from 1640 on planters never understood that excess supply hurt economy o South Carolina & Georgia rice made rice paddies that could be flooded & drained terrible work conditions, whites refused extremely dependent on African slaves slaves better at the job indigo 1740s - Eliza Lucas introduced indigo to mainland grew on land rice wouldn't grow on, harested when rice was growing popular English import south dependent on large-scale cash crops, developed less of an industrial/commercial economy trading handled in London Northern Economic and Technological Life o soil conditions prevented large-scale commercial farming o wheat NY, Pennsylvania, Connecticut were major suppliers to England o substantial commercial economy developed alongside agricultural one most colonists had home industries craftsmen & artisans established themselves in colonial towns cobblers, blacksmiths, riflemakers, cabinetmakers, silversmiths, printers, water mills, shipbuilding Metal Industry Saugus, Massachusetts - 1640s - iron ore deposits discovered
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Page 20 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

technological success, financial failure Peter Hasenclever - German ironmaster moved to NJ 1764 founded ironworks w/ British capital metal industry became more popular o obstacles to industrialization Iron Act of 1750 - restricted metal industry in colonies other laws restricted manufacture of wollens, hats, etc inadequate labor supply, small domestic market, inadequate transportation facilities & energy supplies o many industries took advantage of natural resources lumbering, mining, fishing produced triving commercial class The Extent and Limits of Techology o most people totally underequipped (lack of plows, firearms, pots, kettles) because of poverty or isolation most common item was axe - famers spent tons of time clearing land ability of people to acquire manufactured implements lagged far behind the economy's capacity to produce them o most weren't self-sufficient, instead bought products The Rise of Colonial Commerce o merchant class miraculously survived, despite: no accepted medium of exchange (gold/silver coins, tobacco certificates, land certificates) relied on barter almost impossible to impose order on their trade few channels of information existed to inform traders of what to expect in foreign ports tons of small, competitive companies o Triangular Trade merchants carried rum and other goods from NE to Africa, exchanged their merchandise for slaves, whom they then transported to the West Indies, exchanged slaves for sugar and molasses, which they shipped back to New England to be distilled into rum but almost never so simple actually maze of complex trade routes between Northern & Southern colonies, America & England, America & Africa, West Indies & Europe, etc o Emerging Merchant Class evolved out of this chaotic trade Northern cities only (Boston, NY, Philadelphia) protected from foreign competition by Navigation Acts had markets in England for colonial goods, but needed markets for goods England had ignored laws restricting colonial trade to England, developed markets w/ French, Spanish, Dutch West Indies o commercial system stabilized eliminated competition, but still growing, so open to newcomers The Rise of Consumerism o rise of materialism (social status) o causes: increasing division of American societies by class people more intent on demonstrating membership in upper class early stages if Industrial Revolution England/Europe making rapid advances, selling products to affluent Americans increasing tendency to take on debt to purchase goods o effects: advertisements rose items once considered luxuries became necessities once readily available association of material goods with virtues and "refinement"

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Page 21 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

rise of gentlemen & ladies manners & fashion conversationalism evolution of cities: parks, squares, boulevards marked emergence of the concept of a society

Patterns of Society
deep class system in England didn't translate to America o England scarce land: rich had immense power over poor o America abundant land, aristocracy based on control of labor force rather than landownership, less powerful new forms of community The Plantation o emerged along with tobacco in Virginia & Maryland o few were large Charles Carroll of Carrollton - richest man in colonies o economies of plantations were precarious o self-contained communities: planter lived in "great house" service buildings, slave quarters o large slave presence's effects: wives had servants to do household chores men had affairs with black women wives ignored it, black women resented it Plantation Slavery o smaller farms - not a rigid separation between blacks & whites blacks developed semi-independent culture o blacks developed strong family structure b/c of increased life expectancy, improved sex ratio, natural growth of population but families often broken up by being sold, Africans developed extended "Kinship" o languages Gullah - hybrid of English & African languages reinforced African heritage & enabled conversations with masters o white intrusion women raped, mulatto children went unrecognized by fathers o resistance Stono Rebellion 1739 South Carolina 100 Africans rose up, killed several whites, attempted to escape to Florida crushed, executed o slaves on larger plantations sometimes learned crafts hired out to other planters, shared profits with owners some bought freedom The Puritan Community (17th Century) o town - main social unit mainly independent from colonial government yearly "town meeting" led by "selectmen" only adult males social distinction made by level in the church "elect" were full members all others had to attend Church services Puritans didn't adopt primogeniture - passing all property to firstborn son
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Page 22 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

divided up lands among all sons fathers exercised great control over sons daughters much more mobile o tight-knit social structure was strained by commercialization of culture by population growth larger towns - people moved farther away from the community center, tried to break away estates became tinier as generations passed parents relied on children to run the farm/household (women gained more independence) The Witchcraft Phenomenon o 1680s-90s o Salem, Massachusetts adolescent girls exhibited strange behaviors, labeled witches 19 residents of Salem executed by end of trials in 1692 o most middle-aged women widowed, few children, low social position, in domestic conflicts, annoying others who had inherited large lands, challenged traditional gender norms many witches were women who didn't fit in the male-dominated structure o caused mainly by gender conflict o reflected highly religious nature of NE Cities o very small o NY, Philadelphia, Boston, Charleston, Newport (RI) o served as trading centers for the farmers of their regions, marts for international trading o led by merchants w/ large estates o disparity of wealth common o centers of industry ironworks, distilleries, o schools, shops o urban social problems: crime, vice, pollution, epidemics, traffic established governments Constables, fire departments systems for supporting the urban poor o vulnerable to fluctuations in trade o place where new ideas could circulate and be discussed newspapers enabled by printing press books taverns/coffeehouses - forums for debate cities were birthplace of AmRev

Awakenings And Enlightenments

intellectual competition in colonies o traditional outlook of 16th & 17th Cs, w/ outlook of a personal God, intimately incolved with the world, keeping watch over individual lives witchcraft, placed great value on stern moral code faith more important than intellect o vs. Enlightenment thought - stressed the importance of science and human reason suggested that people had substantial control over their own lives/societies lives/societies could be structured along scientific lines The Pattern of Religions o Toleration flourished in colonies o variation in religion prevented leaders from imposing one Church of England - Virginia, Maryland, NY, Carolinas, Georgia largely ignored
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Page 23 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Puritans - NE many new congregations formed (e.g. Congregationalism & Presbyterianism) Dutch Calvinists in NY/NJ formed Dutch Reformed American Baptists (started by Roger Williams) believed in rebaptism Calvinists o Protestants feared the Pope were more tolerant of Protestants than of Catholics viewed Catholics in New France as commercial/military rivals & agents of Rome Catholics persecuted most in Maryland o Jews very small numbers only free to practice in Rhode Island o 18th C - Americans worried about decline in piety movement westward caused people to lose touch w/ religion commercial prosperity led to secular outlook 1660s NE - Puritan oligarchs warned of decline in power of the church preached sermons of despair (jeremiads) The Great Awakening o 1730s-40s o renewing of religious fervor o attracted those who had least to inherit (women, 3rd/4th gen sons) o emphasized potential for every person to break away from the constraints of the past and start anew in relationship with God o Preachers: John & Charles Wesley - founders of Methodism - visited Georgia George Whitfield - evangelized throughout colonies Johnathan Edwards - New England Congregationalist orthodox Puritan, but highly original theologian pulpit in Northampton, Mass attacked doctrines of easy salvation o GA divided congregations between New Light & Old Light also founded new ones o some thought education was hindrance to salvation, others saw it as a means of furthering religion The Enlightenment o argued that humans had moral sense, didn't need to turn to God for guidance o men could achieve new heights of civilization through reason o undermined traditional authority new emphasis on education o early 18th C - Enlightenment ideas borrowed from Europeans (John Locke, Francis Bacon) later, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Paine, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison Education o colonists placed high value on education Puritans passed Mass law in 1647 making every town to have a public school Quakers set up schools "dame schools" - private classes in homes of widows craftsmen set up schools for their apprenticies o few children received education, but white men were very literate Alamanacs o women lagged behind men in education still relatively high literacy rate o black literacy discouraged eventually by laws o Native Americans had some education by missionaries
o
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Page 24 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

colleges & universities 6 colleges by 1763 4/6 were founded by religious groups, but influenced greatly by Enlightenment Harvard est. by General Court of Massachusetts John Harvard - Charlestown minister 1st American college 1636 William & Mary College named for English king and queen 1693 Yale founded by Congregationalists dissatisfied by Harvard's liberalism 1701 Princeton (College of New Jersey) arose out of Great Awakening Jonathan Edwards was one of early presidents 1746 offered liberal education Harvard tried to disseminated new scientific (Copernican solar system) to the public via almanacs Columbia (King's College) (1754) no theological faculty interdenominational from the start University of Pennsylvania (Academy and College of Philadelphia) (1755) offered utilitarian courses 1st Medical school founders influenced by Ben Franklin The Spread of Science o many colleges had chairs of natural sciences, introduced some advanced scientific theories of Europe o leading merchants, planters, and theologians became corresponding members of the Royal Society of London Ben Franklin proved lightning in 1752 Smallpox vaccine Cotton Mather (theologian) heard about vaccines, encouraged them during epidemic 1720s proved successful Jonathan Edwards also supported vaccines Concepts of Law & Politics o believed they were recreating the Old World in the New o but created something very different o scarcity of English-trained lawyers o court system was similar to British rights like trial by jury translated well but people didn't want to kill or maim potential workers, so punishments became less severe crimes redefined Andrew Hamilton, lawyer, argued for John Zengel argued and won: criticisms of public officials were not libelous if factually true o law seen as something natural or divine, and not expression of the power of an earthly sovereign o Political System colonies created their own group of institutions that in reality gave them a large measure of selfgovernment colonial assemblies exercised powers of Parliament in England limited power of Governors
o
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Page 25 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Governors appointed by England, detached from life in colonies, had effectively little power expectations about rights of Colonists spread throughout America 1763 - English government tried to tighten control over colonies, imperial crisis developed...

Chapter 4: The Empire in Transition


Sunday, September 26, 2010 2:39 PM

Ryan O'Shea 11B

1750s - not many Americans saw reasons to break away from England o imperial system provided opportunities for trade/commerce, military protection, political stability o British didn't really regulate colonies 1770s - relations strained to the point of breaking revolution o 1760s-70s o cause by differences between colonial institutions and those of England o 1763 - British gov't imposed new policies toward colonies cause by changing international realities & new political circumstances in England exposed the difference between the two societies English government became British government in 1707 (Scotland + England [+ Wales] = Great Britain) After Glorious Revolution of 1688, GB made no serious effort to tighten control of colonies o but did make NJ, Carolinas, Georgia royal colonies o also passed laws to supplement Navigation Acts, prohibiting paper currency, restricting colonial manufacturers, regulating trade o but remained uncertain of the extent to which it should interfere w/ colonial affairs A Tradition of Neglect o Kings George I & II German, unaccustomed w/ British government (1714-1727-1760) prime minister & cabinet members really ruled the country less inclined to control the colonies (depended on merchants who feared that control would require tons of money) Robert Walpole (1st modern PM) - refused to strictly enforce the Navigation Acts o day to day administration of colonies was inefficient no colonial office in London real power rested in Privy Council (central admin. agency for the entire government), admiralty, & treasury much confusion London officials had no idea of conditions in colonies only info came from representatives of the colonies, lobbying for American interests e.g. Ben Franklin o royal officials in America governors, collectors of customs, naval officers most were incompetent some never came to America corrupt resistance to imperial authority centered in assemblies 1750s - American assemblies claimed right to levy taxes, make appropriations, approve appointments, pass laws legislation subject to veto by Governor or Privy Council
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Loosening Ties

Page 26 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

assemblies controlled Governors via colony budgets

The Colonies Divided o colonists still considered themselves loyal English subjects more than united amongst selves o forged connections between colonies intercolonial trade postal service spread to more colonies o but colonies reluctant to cooperate during French & Indian War 1754 - conference of colonial leaders met in Albany to negotiate treaty w/ Iroquois Albany Plan - delegates discussed forming a colonial federation for defense against the Indians Ben Franklin proposed one colonial gov't, but all colonies kept constitutions would have a "president general" appointed & paid for by the King & a "grand council" elected by colonial assemblies plan rejected 1750s-60s - French & Indian War o small part of the 7 Years War cemented Britain as world's great trading, naval, and North American power o was final stage in struggle between Britain, France, & Iroquois o 1750s upset the unease balance of power between these 3 o raised to surface underlying tensions between colonies and Britain New France & the Iroquois Nation o 1750s - religious & commercial tensions strained British/French relationship causes: Expanding French presence in America in late 17th C, under Louis XIV fur trade attracted new settlers, Mississippi attracted French from Canada Louis Joliet & Jacques Marquette - explored down the Mississippi in 1670s Ren Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle - (1682) explored down to Mississippi delta, claimed it (founder of Louisiana) Pierre Gaultier de Varennes, Sieur de La Verendrye - (1743) pushed from Lake Superior to Rockies, claimed whole continental interior to secure enormous claims, French founded string of communities, fortresses, missions, & trading posts Fort Louisbourg - guarded gulf of St. Lawrence seigneuries - would-be feudal lords along St. Lawrence River Quebec - center of French Empire in America, on a high bluff Montreal, Sault Sainte Marie, Detroit plantations along lower Mississippi had black slaves, owners called Creoles New Orleans - (1718) founded to support plantations French shared interior w/ large Indian population ("middle ground") relations w/ natives crucial to shaping the empire also shared w/ English settlers English & French both tried to make Indians allies English commercial economy could offer Indians more plentiful goods, but French offered tolerance & integrated themselves into native culture Iroquois Confederation 5 nations: Mohawk, Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida had defeated Hurons in 1640, now most powerful tribe forged commercial relationship w/ English & Dutch while continuing trade w/ French avoided too close a relationship w/ any group Ohio River Valley claimed by French
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The Struggle for the Continent

Page 27 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

populated by rival Indian tribes English expanding into it Iroquois attempting to establish trading presence there Anglo-French Conflicts o tensions remained mile until Glorious Revolution (English throne passed to William III, principal enemy of Louis XIV) o succeeded by Queen Anne (daugher of James II) 1702 continued struggle against France & ally Spain spurred wars in Europe o Anglo-French Wars in Europe impacted colonies: King William's War (1689-1697) - caused a few clashes in New England Queen Anne's War (1701-1713) - generated more substantial conflicts: border fighting with the Spaniards in the South & French/Indians in North ended by Treaty of Utrecht - gave good deal of French NA territory to English Anglo-Spanish disputes over British trading rights in Spanish colonies caused war between Spain & England and clashes in America (reason for founding of Georgia in 1733) Anglo-Spanish conflicts soon merged into large European war England & France took opposite sides in war between Frederick the Great of Prussia & Maria Theresa of Austria English colonists in America drawn into what they called King George's War from 1744-48 via conflicts w/ French English captured Louisbourg, but forced to abandon it by Treaty o after King George's War, relations among English, French, Iroquois deteriorated Iroquois granted concessions in the interior to English merchants set off chain of events that destroyed Confederacy French feared that British would use concessions as way to expand into French lands, built new fortresses in Ohio River Valley English saw France's actions as hostile, made military preparations (fortresses) 5 Iroquois nations allied themselves w/ the British o 1754 - governor of Virginia sent militia force under command of George Washington into Ohio Valley to challenge French expansion Washington's men lost @ Fort Necessity marked beginning of French and Indian War The Great War for the Empire o French & Indian War lasted 9 years, 3 Phases o 1st Phase: Fort Necessity (1754) to expansion of the war to Europe (1756) Colonists had very little, inept British assistance British Fleet failed to prevent French reinforcements from arriving from Canada General Edward Braddock failed 1755 to retake the fork of the Ohio River (Fort Necessity) colonists had to fend off raids by Indians in Ohio Valley all tribes allied w/ French except Iroquois (barely allies w/ British) o 2nd Phase: 1756 (beginning of Seven Years' War) British allied w/ Prussia (former ally of the French), French allied w/ former enemy Austria 1757 - William Pitt, secretary of state, brought American war effort under British control Americans resented/resisted impositions (riots) o 3rd Phase - 1758 - Pitt relaxed policies that colonists hated turned much control back to colonies, caused increased enlistment additional troops 1756 - French had bad harvests, war turned for English Louisbourg, Fort Duquesne both captured 1758 Quebec: 1759 after siege, General James Wolfe led men up hidden ravine, surprised Marquis de Montcalm

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Page 28 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

1760 - French surrendered British used brutal tactics uprooted entire French communities, spread into British colonies offered "scalp bounties" to anyone who could prove they killed a native French responded with brutal raids Peace of Paris George III became king, Pitt resigned Peace of Paris - 1763 Britain - French ceded some West Indian islands & most colonies in India, Canada, all territory east of Mississippi except New Orleans Spain - got French New Orleans + west of Mississippi Effects of French & Indian War on Britain: greatly expanded British territory greatly increased Britain's debt resentment toward Americans from British leaders for American military ineptitude angry that Americans contributed little money to war some Americans had been selling food to the French major reorganization of colonies necessary Effects on Colonies: forced colonies to work cooperatively w/ British 1756-7 - friction over British requisition & impression policies followed by 1658 return of power to assemblies: confirmed the illegitimacy of English interference in local affairs colonial militias emerged, were communal Effects on Indians: those allied w/ French were now enemies of Britain Iroquois' loyalty doubted b/c of passive fighting in war Confederation began to crumble

The New Imperialism


Treaty of 1763 = England's 1st peace in 50 years Burdens of Empire o F&I W - showed that increased involvement in colonies would be difficult o 1763 - shift in Britain's imperial design land itself now seen as valuable, not just trade Commercial Imperialists (wanted to trade Canada for Guadeloupe) vs. Territorial Imperialists (wanted to keep French Canada) Ben Franklin was Territorial kept Canada (1763) - doubled empire debate over settlement some wanted to restrict Canadian settlement (save for hunting, prevent conflict with natives) some wanted to settle immediately who should govern? o Huge War Debt outrage over tax increases England forced to station British troops on Indian border - cost a lot England couldn't rely on colonies to gather funds needed tax system administered by London o George III takes over 1760 determined to be active/powerful removed the Whigs from power (had ruled much of the century) replaced by coalition of his own through patronage and bribes serious intellectual/psychological difficulties (fits of insanity) o George Grenville
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Page 29 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Prime Minister 1763, appointed by George III didn't sympathize w/ Americans like William Pitt had colonists had been too long indulged, should be compelled to obey the laws and pay part of cost of defending/admin'ing empire The British and the Tribes o English settlers began moving into Ohio Valley o Indians objected, alliance of tribes led by Pontiac struck back Proclamation of 1763 forbade settlers to advance beyond line in Appalachian Mtns beneficial to British allowed London to control west-ward movement of whites limited conflicts, orderly migration, slow emigration from eastern settlements supported by the Cherokees (thought it would end white encroachment) improved relations w/ natives Indian Superintendents John Stuart (southern) Sir William Johnson (northern) Proclamation of 1763 failed to meet expectations of NAs ineffective, people settled west anyway The Colonial Response o Grenville ministry moved to increase authority in colonies stationed British troops permanently o Mutiny Act of 1765 colonists required to assist in provisioning/maintaining army customs service reorganized/enlarged royal officials forced to take up posts in person, no substitutes colonial manufacturing limited (no competition for England) o Sugar Act of 1764 to eliminate illegal sugar trade between continental colonies and Franch & Spanish West Indies enforced duty on sugar established vice-admiralty courts to try accused smugglers o Currency Act of 1764 required colonial assemblies to stop issuing paper money o Stamp Act of 1765 imposed tax on printed documents o new imperial program - effort to reapply mercantilism to colonies effective - officials collecting 10x revenue o Problems angered colonists, but colonists found difficulty evading new regulations colonists hated each other as much as England Atlantic societies vs. Backcountry backcountry underrepresented in colonial governments Paxton Boys (1763) western Pennsylvanians marched on Philadelphia demanded relief from colonial taxes, help to resist natives concessions made Regulator Movement (1771) civil war in North Carolina Regulators were farmers who opposed high taxes of local sheriffs westerners badly underrepresented, Regulators failed in assembly resisted tax collections by force Governor William Tryon - raised militia, defeated Regulators at Battle of Alamance

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Page 30 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

new British policies angered colonists, calmed tensions Northern merchants feared restraints on commerce Northern backcountry resented closing of West to land speculation/fur trading Southern planters feared having to pay additional taxes Professionals depended on merchants/planters for livelihood, shared concerns small famers feared increased taxes, abolition of paper money workers opposed limits on manufacturing laws came at beginning of economic depression F&IW stimulated wartime boom (English capital) funds stopped flowing 1763, then England tried to extract more money from colonies colonists feared imperial policies would doom them to permanent economic stagnation, declining standard of living but most Americans coped with new policies economy declined only a little rising sense of unease frequent urban slumps depression of 1760s growing destabilizing group of unemployed Political Consequences late 18th C Americans accustomed to self-government (assemblies) key to the power of assemblies was right to give or withhold appropriations for the colonial governments which the British were now challenging

Stirrings of Revolt

1760s - hardening of positions in America & England The Stamp Act Crisis o Sugar Act had affected only NE merchants, but Stamp Act affected all o opposed by most powerful members of society Merchants, Lawyers, Tavern Owners, Printers o taxes actually cheap, but still upsetting: taxation w/o representation!! feared future taxes o VA House of Burgesses sounded "trumped of sedition" group of VA aristocrats that aroused action in America hoped to unseat Tidewater planters who dominated Virginia along w/ royal governor Patrick Henry fiery orator speech to House of Burgesses 1765, accused of treason Virginia Resolves set of resolutions declaring that Americans possessed same rights as the English, especially right to be taxed only by their own representatives, Parliament has no right to tax VA printed/circulated o James Otis Massachusetts persuaded assembly to call intercolonial congress for action against the new tax Stamp Act Congress (October 1765) delegates from 9 colonies petitioned king/Parliament conceded that Americans owed to Parliament "all due subordination," but it denied that the colonies could be rightfully taxed except through their own provincial assemblies o Riots 1765 - riots broke out along coast
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Page 31 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Boston - Sons of Liberty terrorized stamp agents, halted stamp sales in continental colonies ceased Boston - crowed attacked "pro-British aristocrats" like lieutenant governor, Thomas Hutchinson (opposed Stamp Act, but felt he needed to defend it) o London calmed down but not because of riots or resolutions Boycotts spread throughout colonies English merchants begged Parliament to repeal Stamp Act Marquis of Rockingham succeeded Grenville as PM convinced King to repeal in 1766 opponents passed Declaratory Act - asserted Parliaments over the colonies "in all cases whatsoever" The Townshend Program o appeasement of Rockingham government less popular in England landlords claimed that government had sacrificed itself to traders feared that backing down on colonies would cause gov't to tax them King dismissed Rockingham ministry o recalled William Pitt critic of Stamp Act reputation as friend of colonists so old/sick that government controlled by: o Charles Townshend, Chancellor of the Exchequer brilliant, reckless colonists opposed to Mutiny Act, British though it was reasonable Massachusetts & New York Assemblies refused to vote the supplies to troops Townshend tried to enforce the law 2 measures: 1st disbanded New York Assembly until colonists agreed to obey Mutiny act 2nd levied new taxes (Townshend Duties) on goods from England thought colonists couldn't object efforts failed to satisfy colonists new taxes unacceptable to colonists disbanding of NY assembly resented by all colonies Mass. Assembly circulated letter to colonial governments urging them to stand up against every tax imposed by Parliament Lord Hillsborough, secretary of state for the colonies - issued circular warning that colonies supporting Mass. circular would be dissolved Mass, PA, and other colonies rallied behind Mass Townshend tried to strengthen enforcement of commercial regulations by establishing new board of customs commissioners in America helped end corruption in colonial customs boars, smuggling Boston, Philadelphia, NY merchants signed nonimportation agreement 1768 1767 - Townshend died suddenly o Lord North - New PM had to deal with consequences of Townshend program repealed Townshend duties (except tea tax) The Boston Massacre o Boston colonists harassed customs officials, 4 British regiments placed inside city "redcoats" were symbols of British oppression o March 5, 1770 "liberty boys" - crowd of dockworkers British Captain Thomas Preston 5 civilians killed

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Page 32 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

became powerful propaganda symbol Paul Revere's engraving Mass. jury found soldiers of manslaughter, sentenced to token punishment o Samuel Adams radical, led the outrage old, morally centric man (Puritan) England had become a morass of sin & corruption spoke at town meetings 1772 - proposed creation of "committee of correspondence" in Boston to publicize grievances against England other colonies followed The Philosophy of Revolt o calm for 3 years after Boston Massacre o rise of revolutionary ideology o Sources: religious (mainly Puritan) sources or political experiences from abroad "radical" ideas of some in GB Scots - considered England tyrannical "country Whigs" - felt excluded from power drew arguments from philosophers, John Locke o New concept of government gov't needed because people inherently corrupt but b/c gov't run by corruptible people, needed safeguards English Constitution - considered best system yet ensured balance between: monarchy, aristocracy, common people king & ministers getting too powerful English saw constitution as flexible "way things are done" Americans saw it as a permanent set of basic principles o Americans believed in taxation only with consent English saw representatives as representing the whole country, not a region virtual vs. actual representatives The Tea Excitement o tensions calmed 1770s, but picked up: o British enforcing Navigation Acts more strictly o People gathered to discuss politics o Rebellion: 1772 - colonists in Rhode Island seized the British Gaspe, set it on fire o 1773 - East India Company (had official monopoly on trade w/ Far East) on verge of bankruptcy Tea Act of 1773 gave company right to export merchandise directly to colonies w/o navigation taxes could undersell American merchants outrage: merchants - replaced/bankrupted by monopoly revived concerns about taxation w/o representation (Townshend duty on tea still survived) many boycotted o Boycotts: Women: Mercy Otis Warren - satirical playwright many women important in writing dissident literature in 1760s Daughters of Liberty - fought for freedom Boston Tea Party

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Page 33 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

December 16, 1773 colonists in Philadelphia, NY, & Charleston held back EIC's tea from leaving ports Boston - failed to keep tea off ships, instead: men pretended to be Mohawks, threw tea into the harbor Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts) - 1774 1774 - Parliament closed port of Boston, drastically reduced colonial self-government, permitted royal officials to be tried in England or other colonies, provided for the quartering of troops in colonists' houses

Quebec Act to provide civil government for French-speaking Roman Catholic inhabitants of Canada & Illinois extended boundaries of Quebec to include French communities between Ohio & Mississippi granted rights to Catholics considered a threat to English in colonies (feared Pope) consequences of Intolerable Acts Massachusetts seen as a martyr

Cooperation and War

New Sources of Authority o passage of government from royal authority to colonists began on local level new extralegal bodies emerged Sam Adams called convention of delegates to sit in place of General Court also Sons of Liberty most effective were committees of correspondence first was Sam Adams in 1772 followed by Virginia o VA took biggest step toward united action in 1774 royal governor dissolved assembly people met at Raleigh Tavern at Williamsburg declared that Intolerable Acts menaced liberties of all the colonies called for Continental congress o 1st Continental Congress (1774) delegates from all colonies except Georgia met in Philadelphia 5 major decisions: rejected plan for colonial union under British authority endorsed statement of grievances approved series of resolutions (for one, make ready for military defense against possible British attack) agreed to nonimportation, nonexportation, & nonconsumption as means of halting trade w/ GB agreed to meet again o Parilament debated proposals for conciliating the colonists William Pitt urged withdrawl of troops from New England Edmund Burke called for repeal of Coercive Acts Conciliatory Propositions led by Lord North, but much less conciliatory than the other proposals colonies would now tax themselves at Parliament's demand hoped to divide moderates from extremists didn't reach America until after beginning of War Lexington & Concord o "minutemen" had been arming themselves in Massachusetts o General Thomas Gage - refused to attack until reinforcements arrived ordered to arrest Sam Adams & John Hancock in Lexington hesitated, but attacked when he learned that minutemen were storing gunpowder at Concord o April 18 1775 - Gage send 1,000 soldiers from Boston to Lexington & Concord intended to seize powder w/o bloodshed
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Page 34 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Paul Revere & William Dawes - rode to warn the village minutemen defeated by British, but farmers attacked British on the way back - many casualties Americans circulated cry that British had fired first - caused great enthusiasm from people in all colonies

Chapter 5: The American Revolution


Tuesday, October 12, 2010 10:10 PM

Ryan O'Shea 11B


2 conflicts: military & political Military o low casualties o Savage Began 1775, colonies unprepared Defining American War Aims o Second Continental Congress (1775) strong disagreement about purpose of war 1 - Complete independence from GB Adams Cousins, Richard Henry Lee of VA 2 - modest reforms in imperial relationship to permit reconciliation John Dickinson of PA most delegates moderate Olive Branch Petition - one last conciliatory appeal to the king Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms - antagonistic o movement from reconciliation to independence: (reasons) most Americans high human & financial costs of war made original goal seem too modest English began recruiting Hessian mercenaries, natives, & American slaves Prohibitory Act - closed colonies to all overseas trade (blockaded ports) o Common Sense Thomas Paine 1776 tried to turn American anger away from various acts and to the English Constitution itself America should break completely The Decision for Independence o Continental Congress declared all ports open to ships of all nations except GB o communicated w/ foreign powers o recommended to colonies that they establish governments o Declaration of Independence drafted July 2, 1776; approved July 4 Thomas Jefferson, Ben Franklin, John Adams drew on many similar local documents 2 parts 1 - restated familiar contract theory of John Locke governments formed to protect rights of Life, Liberty, & Property (Pursuit of Happiness) 2 - how King George III had broken contract thus forfeited all claims to their loyalty "all men are created equal" borrowed from George Mason inspired French Declaration of the Rights of Man
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The States United


Page 35 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

claimed that colonies were now sovereign nation: United States of America created deep divisions among Americans Responses to Independence o some rejoicing, others disapproved Loyalists (Tories) o colonies became States had been operating independently even before revolution by 1781 most had Constitutions o Americans uncertain whether they even wanted national government o 1777 - Articles of Confederation war forced colonists to balance some central power w/ state government Continental Congress was chief coordinating agency of war effort very limited power Mobilizing for War o new governments faced challenges raising armies supplying armies finding funds no British markets, shortages o gunsmiths couldn't keep up w/ demand Congress created governmental arsenal in Springfield, Mass in 1777 relied heavily on captured weapons o Financing the war: Congress had no authority to levy taxes States couldn't provide funds either sold long-term bonds, but never caught on Congress printed paper money inflation merchants preferred to deal w/ British (gold & silver) Congress borrowed heavily from foreign nations o Enlistment: after initial patriotism faded in 1775; very few enlisted in army States resorted to persuasion & force decentralized system 1775 - Congress created Continental army w/ single commander-in-chief, GW o Washington very popular, unanimously elected dealt w/ serious morale problems low pay/small rations open mutinies Continental Congress interfered w/ Washington's conduct of military operations instead of supplying him w/ necessary supplies/manpower aided by Marquis de Lafayette of France & Baron von Steuben of Prussia

The War For Independence


British had all advantages American advantages: o fighting on own ground o patriotism o 1777 - substantial foreign aid Reason the Americans won: British mistakes o coupled w/ American fervor, foreign help, and a new type of warfare The First Phase: New England (1775-6) o 1st year - British unsure whether it was a war
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Page 36 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

after Lex & Conc - Americans besieged army of General Thomas Gage in Boston Battle of Bunker Hill (June 1775) - severe American casualties, lost territory, but killed many more British than any other battle in the War o 1776 - British realized Boston wasn't best place to wage war center of Patriotism; indefensible March 17, 1776 - Evacuation Day - British cornered, forced out of Boston o elsewhere, war was inconclusive South: Moore's Creek Bridge, NC (Feb 1776) - Patriots crushed Loyalist uprising discouraged British plan to invade American South had expected good Tory support Canada: Americans launched attack to drive British out totally/win minds of Canadians Benedict Arnold (commander of small American force) seiged Quebec 1775-6 aided by Richard Montgomery Quebec campaign ended in failure (Montgomery died) Ben Franklin took civilian commission to win allegiance of Canadians, failed also o British evacuation of Boston was symbol of changing British assumptions about war 1776 - realized that War would be larger conflict The Second Phase: The Mid-Atlantic Region (1776-8) o British would have won w/o mistakes o second phase was more traditional war o summer 1776 - Britain amassed huge army 32,000 disciplined soldiers under command of William Howe nonhostile toward Americans wanted to awe them into submission, not fight them met with Congress, offered ultimatum (submission w/ pardon, or destruction) o Washington only gathered 19,000 men (Continental Army + state militias) poorly trained no navy o American defeats: lost Long Island, Manhattan, New Jersey, Delaware River, into PA British settled down for winter in New Jersey left outpost of Hessians (German mercenaries) at Trenton Washington crossed back over the Delaware River on Christmas 1776, took over the Hessian settlement advanced to Princeton, kicked out British but eventually lost Princeton & Trenton, spent winter in Morristown, NJ o 1777 - Northern Campaign - British devised plan to cut United States in two Southern force led by Howe - move north from NYC to Albany Northern force led by John Burgoyne Burgoyne planned two-pronged attack along Mohawk & upper Hudson approaches to Albany Howe abandoned plan o 1777 - Howe launched attack on Philadelphia to discourage Patriots, rally Loyalists, end War gathered troops from NY, landed in Chesapeake brushed by Washington at Battle of Brandywine Creek took over Philadelphia easily Washington made unsuccessful attempt to take Georgetown (outside of Georgetown) settled in Valley Forge for the winter o Continental Congress moved to York, PA
o o
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Page 37 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Burgoyne continued northern campaign: sent Colonel Barry St. Leger up St. Lawrence to Mohawks Burgoyne set off down upper Hudson Valley seized Fort Ticonderoga had huge supply Congress upset, replaced General Philip Schuyler w/ Horatio Gates Burgoyne had 2 staggering defeats: Oriskany, NY (Aug 6) - German farmers led by Nicholas Herkimer defeated Tories/Indians under St. Leger Benedict Arnold had time to aid Fort Stanwix, close off Mohawk Valley to St. Leger's advance Bennington, Vermont (Aug 16) - NE militia under Bunker Hill veteran John Stark mauled British detachment sent by Burgoyne to seek supplies Burgoyne cut off from supplies, retreated to Saratoga Saratoga - Oct 17, 1777 - Burgoyne's 5,000 men surrendered to Americans Colonial response to Saratoga Victory: New York Campaign seen as remarkable victory. Saratoga was major turning point Saratoga led directly to alliance between American & France o British Blunders reason British didn't win war during this period William Howe abandoned his own most important strategic initiative - Northern Campaign never made final attack on Continental Army in PA allowed Washington to retreat/regroup e.g. Valley Forge some accused him of sympathizing w/ colonists (he had ties) others blamed his alcoholism, romances failed to understand nature of the War The Iroquois and the British o New York campaign was upset for major Iroquois leaders hoped to involve Indian forces in English military effort o Iroquois Confederacy was neutral, but some leaders were passive in Northern Campaign o Joseph & Mary Brant - popular in Indian culture - persuaded their tribe to contribute to British cause played important role in Burgoyne's unsuccessful northern campaigns o Iroquois Divisions: only 3 of 6 Iroquois nations supported British o Iroquois joined British in raids of towns in NY Americans harshly retaliated under General John Sullivan some fled to Canada Securing Aid from Abroad o America won indirect support from many European nations, direct support from France o Congress dispersed "militia diplomats" - reps to European countries to establish trade relations inexperienced in Old World diplomacy o Louis XVI of France 1774 foreign minister Count de Vergennes France supplied large numbers of supplies to America, but withheld diplomatic recognition Ben Franklin went to France became hero among French Feb 6, 1778 - France formally recognized the United States of America as a sovereign nation b/c Vergennes wanted to forestall a British peace offensive that could discourage the American war effort
o
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Page 38 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

France stepped up participation contributed money & munitions, navy, expeditionary force The Third Phase: The South o defeat @ Saratoga + French limited British commitment o decided to enlist support of Loyalists - thought they were the majority Loyalist sentiment strongest in South o British spent 3 years (1778-81) fighting through the South, frustrated way less Tories than expected Virginia had fervent Revolutionary spirit British offered freedom to slaves, pissed off southerners Patriots blended into population o "revolutionary" war - mobilized and politicized large groups of people support for independence greatly increased o Sir Henry Clinton replaced Howe 1778 moved troops from Philly to NY Washington surrounded and watched them for over a year American forces in NY did so little fighting that Washington sent some to deal w/ Indians in west o George Rogers Clark under orders from VA led expedition 1778 over mountains; captured settlements in Illinois from British/Indians o Benedict Arnold became traitor convinced American cause was hopeless tried to betray West Point, on Hudson River o decisive fighting in south: Dec 1778 - British captured Savannah then Charleston British constantly harassed by Thomas Sumter, Andrew Pickens, & Francis Marion, the "Swamp Fox" Lord Cornwallis crushed Gates's Patriot force @ Camden, SC Gates replaced by Nathaniel Greene able King's Mountain (1780) - band of Patriots defeated huge force of Tories divided Americans into small, fast groups, confused Cornwallis Cowpens (1781) - Greene's contingents surprised Cornwallis Guilford Court House, NC - Greene forced Cornwallis there, destroyed Cornwallis's men Carolina Campaign abandoned by British Yorktown Cornwallis launched raids on VA, but Clinton ordered him to move to Yorktown built fortifications George Washington & Count Jean Baptiste de Rochambeau (commander of French expeditionary force) & Admiral Franois Joseph Paul de Grasse (commander of French fleet in America) trapped Cornwallis at Yorktown (land & sea) Cornwallis surrendered Oct 17, 1781 British still held Charleston, Wilmington, Savannah, NY British defeated French fleet Winning the Peace o defeat of Cornwallis provoked outcries against the war in England o Lord North resigned as PM o succeeded by Lord Shelburne o British emissaries went to France to negotiate w/ American diplomats (Ben Franklin, John Adams, John Jay) Americans had to cooperate w/ French in negotiating w/ England Vergennes insisted France couldn't agree to any settlement until Spain had gained Gibraltar from British

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Page 39 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Americans sidestepped Vergennes, signed preliminary treaty w/ GB Franklin pacified Vergennes Treaty of Paris (1783) - Spain & France agreed to end hostilities

War and Society


Loyalists and Minorities o 1/5 - 1/3 of population was Loyalist officers of royal government merchants tied to imperial trade isolated people minorities worried they wouldn't be protected by white revolutionaries o Harassment: 100,000 fled the country Thomas Hutchinson, Governor of Massachusetts - forced to flee some went to Quebec o Most were of average means, but many were wealthy left behind estates, political/economic positions Patriots took over - caused social changes o Minorities Anglicans many Loyalist members VA & MA governments disestablished Anglican Church (eliminated subsidy) losses during Revolution permanently weakened Anglicanism Quakers also weakened (pacifism) Catholics improved Charles Carroll of Carrollton (MA) - supported Patriots John Carroll became Archbishop of Baltimore 1st American bishop (1789) The War and Slavery o how AmRev affected African-Americans: o Emigration: tons of slaves defected to England during the war o Rebellion: Thomas Jeremiah conspired to smuggle British guns to SC slaves (1775) o Liberty: Lemuel Hayes wrote about how Africans deserve freedom inspired by AmRev's ideas o South Carolina & Georgia had conflicting opinions about the Rev Slaveowners opposed British efforts to free their slaves others feared Rev would foment slave rebellions Evangelical Christians spread antislavery sentiment o Revolution exposed tension between commitment to liberty & commitment to slavery feared impact of free blacks Native Americans and the Revolution o Patriots & British tried to persuade them to remain neutral o didn't trust Patriots, some joined Patriots o Dragging Canoe led Cherokee attack on white settlements (1776) o Patriots suffered attacks throughout the war on western crops o AmRev weakened natives: Americans demanded more Western land after victory people divided over whether to conquer the natives or act paternalistically Thomas Jefferson - viewed them as "noble savages" Divisions in the tribes: 1774 - Lord Dunmore's War - Shawnee Indians (VA) tried to lead uprising against western settlers, failed tribes unable to act in unison o end of AmRev didn't end native attacks
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Page 40 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

1782 - white militias slaughtered band of peaceful Delaware Indians at Gnadenhuetten, Ohio Women's Rights and Women's Roles o populations of impoverished women increased as men went to fight in AmRev o some flocked to Patriot camps GW called them "camp followers" saw them as disruptive hated by many very beneficial: did "women's" duties (cooking, laundry, nursing) many aided in combat (Molly Pitcher) o after war, new perceptions of women Abigail Adams - "I desire you would remember the ladies and be more generous and favorable to them than your ancestors." ~ to John Adams Judith Sargent Murray - (1779) - called for equal education Ben Franklin & Ben Rush - called for equal education Married women had no rights, unmarried had some revolution didn't change much legally rev actually strengthened patriarchal structure most women accepted their place but women now seen as more important b/c of help in the war

Where Historians Disagree

Political and intellectual event o Initially seen as struggle over ideals George Bancroft then Robert E. Brown, Edmund S. Morgan or social and economic phenomenon? o Progressives see it as socioeconomic Carl Becker, J. Franklin Jameson, Arthur Schlesinger o New Left Jesse Lemisch, Dirk Hoerder, Joseph Ernst, Gary Nash, Edward Countryman, Rhys Isaac Neoprogressives: some believe in synthesis of two opinions o Linda Kerber, Mary Beth Norton, Silvia Frey, Colin Calloway, Gordon Wood proposed that it was a radical (freak) event Revolution influenced by Enlightenment: o John Locke's notion of popular sovereignty o Voltaire's individual freedom o Rousseau's equality of all people AmRev inspired other revolutions: o one in France destroyed the ancien regime o Hatian slave uprising o revolutions in Latin America after being attack by Napoleon Mexico, Guatemala, etc Simon Bolivar won Brazilian independence

America In The World

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Page 41 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Chapter 6: The Constitution and the New Republic


Sunday, October 24, 2010 7:54 PM

Ryan O'Shea 11B

Framing a New Government


Confederation Congress became meaningless by 1780 most of the time, members weren't there; had to flee from various people Advocates of Centralization o main problems were economic o Society of the Cincinnati upset that Congress wouldn't pay pensions envisioned military dictatorship - Newburgh Conspiracy (1783) o artisans wanted to replace state tariffs w/ national duty o merchants wanted national commercial policy o land speculators wanted "Indian menace" removed o large property owners wanted protection from mobs o tension between individual rights and public safety o Alexander Hamilton (NY) reformer called 4 convention to overhaul AoC allied w/ James Madison (VA) convinced VA to convene interstate conference only 5 states send delegates (Annapolis, MA) 1786 - approved proposal by Hamilton that Congress call convention in Philadelphia o centralizers knew they needed GW's support 1787 - Shay's Rebellion Thomas Jefferson saw occasional rebellion as a good thing GW took it less calmly, attended the Convention A Divided Convention o 1787 - Constitutional Convention Philadelphia 55 delegates, all states except Rhode Island GW chosen to preside over sessions Virginian Delegates James Madison - intellectual leader; had detailed plan for national government Edmund Randolph - proposed that "national" gov't ought to be established: Virginia Plan supreme Legislative, Executive, & Judicial branches bicameral legislature lower house - population-based representation upper house - arbitrary representation resisted by small states New Jersey Plan William Paterson of NJ - plan for "federal," instead of "national" government one-house legislature gave Congress extended powers to tax, regulate commerce compromise: agreed to allow upper house be elected by state legislatures, so each state always has one rep should slaves be full people? Compromise o July 2 - created "grand committee" to resolve disagreements o Great Compromise 1787)
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Page 42 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Legislature: bicameral lower house by basis of population slaves = 3/5 person upper house represented equally accepted July 16, 1787 o southern states feared regulation of trade Congress forbidden to tax exports; impose duty of more than $10 on imported slaves; couldn't stop slave trade for 20 years o Left more difficult issues out: Constitution provided no definition of citizenship no individual rights Constitution of 1787 o James Madison biggest contributor to Constitution solved questions of sovereignty & limiting powers Sovereignty balance state & federal power? all power, at all levels of gov't flowed from the people many feared a too-powerful, tyrannical government Baron de Montesquieu - best way to avoid tyranny is to keep gov't close to people large republic would cause tyranny Madison helped change opinions about large government large republic would prevent tyranny (no one group could dominate) David Hume - many centers of power "checking each other" and preventing any single, despotic authority from emerging Separation of Powers: system of "checks & balances" among legislative, executive, judicial branches o federal structure (division between state & national) and checks/balances were done to avoid despotism also to avoid mob rule/tyrant o 39/55 delegates signed Constitution Federalists & Antifederalists o changed unanimous decision process to 9/13 o Confederation Congress accepted Constitution, presented it to states o huge debates (violence in Albany) o Federalists - Supporters of Constitution: better organized term that opponents of centralization once used Publius - Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay published Federalist Papers - essays promoting constitution o Antifederalists Constitution betrayed AmRev's principlesby establishing strong center of power would favor rich over commoners lacked a Bill of Rights basic mistrust of human nature o F/AF debate: battle between 2 fears: Federalists afraid of disorder/anarchy feared unchecked power of the masses Antifederalists feared dangers of concentrated power o Ratification: Delaware was first NJ, Georgia, PA, Mass ratified New Hampshire was 9th state to ratify - June 1788

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Page 43 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Virginia & New York approved by narrow margins 2 biggest states NY approved b/c feared commerce would suffer if not under "new roof" many states ratified on assumption that Bill of Rights would be created NC took no action Rhode Island didn't ratify Completing the Structure o 1789 - GW elected President; John Adams VP inaugurated April 30, 1789 o The Bill of Rights (1789) 10/12 amendments ratified by states 9 limited power of congress 10th reserved to states all powers except those specifically withheld from them or delegated to the federal government o Judiciary Act of 1789 provided for Supreme Court of 6 members 13 district courts (1 judge) 3 circuit courts of appeal - 2 justices + district judge Supreme Court has power to make final decision in cases involving constitutionality of state laws o The Cabinet executive branch - State, Treasury, War Secretary of the Treasury - Alexander Hamilton (NY) Secretary of War - General Henry Knox (Mass) Attorney General - Edmund Randolph (VA) Secretary of State - Thomas Jefferson (VA)

Federalists & Republicans

Federalists (centralizers) o America required strong national government o mission was to become a genuine nation-state complex commercial economy proud standing in world affairs Republicans o American society should remain mostly rural & agrarian o most power in hands of civilians Hamilton & the Federalists o Federalists controlled for 12 years GW favored strong gov't o GW believed president should stay out of political controversies, avoided personal involvement in Congressional deliberation o Alexander Hamilton became main Federalist figure had very aristocratic tastes/philosophy, despite his humble beginnings stable gov't required enlightened ruling class needed support of wealthy gov't should take responsibility for existing public debt exchanged debts for payable bonds (funding the debt) assumed responsibility for States' debts during Revolution wanted to establish permanent national debt so that wealthy classes most likely to lend would have a permanent stake in government's survival national bank make loans to businesses deposit of federal funds help collect taxes, disburse government's expenditures keep up price of gov't bonds through judicious bond purchases
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Page 44 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

funding/assumption of debts would require money, since gov't now had to pay interest Hamilton proposed 2 new kinds of taxes excise paid by distillers of alcoholic liquors - fell on whiskey distillers of backcountry tariff on imports - helped to protect American manufacturing Report on Manufactures - 1791 - laid out grand scheme for stimulating growth of industry in US Enacting the Federalist Program o many opposed accepting debt "at par" (face value) - original owners of certificates had sold to speculators for much lower prices some thought certificates should be returned to original owners Madison proposed dividing bonds between purchasers & speculators Congress passed Hamilton's version o states w/ few bonds (VA) would have to pay taxes to pay states w/ lots of bonds struck bargain: established Washington, D.C. (replaced Philadelphia) o Bank of the United States (1791) Madison, Jeff, Randolph opposed (Congress shouldn't exercise powers not explicitly granted by Constitution) o Congress passed reduced versions of distiller excise & tariff Speculators reaped huge profits Manufacturers aided by tariffs Seaport Merchants aided by banking o Opposition: small farmers complained about excise tax The Republican Opposition o most people opposed permanent parties o some were convinced that Federalists had become overbearing majority appointed/rewarded supporters o Republican Party born went to greater lengths to create apparatus of partisan influence Jefferson, Madison Jefferson believed in agrarian republic, but supported commerce too suspicious of large cities & urban mobs opposed advanced industrial economy b/c it would increase number of propertyless workers o Differences over French Revolution 1790s - grew increasingly radical attacked organized religion, monarchy, executed king/queen Federalists horrified; Republicans applauded spirit of the Jacobins (revolutionaries) o Regional/Economic differences Federalists numerous in commercial centers of Northeast, southern seaports like Charleston Republicans numerous in rural areas of south & west o 1792 presidential election - GW urged by Jeff & Hamilton to run again GW very Federalist, but not publicly

Establishing National Sovereignty


Federalists stabilized western lands, strengthened America's International position Securing the Frontier o despite Northwest Ordinance, Confederation Congress failed to take control of western lands o 1794 - Whiskey Rebellion - western PA farmers refused to pay whiskey excise terrorized tax collectors GW called out militias of 3 states, led them into PA o accepted new western states into union NC (1789), Rhode Island (1790), Vermont (1791), Kentucky (1792), Tennessee (1796) Native Americans and the New Nation o border ordinances of 1784-87 created border conflicts
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Page 45 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Indians barely mentioned in Constitution considered separate legal entities, but not foreign nations didn't address land Maintaining Neutrality o 1791 - Britain sent 1st minister to US o 1793 - French (revolutionary) gov't declared war on Britain US maintained neutrality o Edmond "Citizen" Genet - French minister didn't meet president when he landed in Charleston made plans to use American ports to outfit French warships, encouraged Americans to serve as French privateers commissioned George Rogers Clark to lead military expedition against Spanish lands in south infuriated Washington & Federalists, but his party was out of power in France granted political asylum in US o 1794 - British Royal Navy began seizing American trade ships in French West Indies Anti-British sentiment rose governor general of Cana delivered war-like speech to northwestern Indians Hamilton had to avoid war Jay's Treaty & Pinckney's Treaty o Hamilton - no time for ordinary diplomacy Jefferson had resigned didn't trust State Department, Edmund Randolph was too pro-French Hamilton persuaded GW to create commissioner to England o John Jay Commissioner to England, Chief Justice of Supreme Court, Federalist 1794 - Jay's Treaty failed to achieve goals: compensation for seized ships removal of British troops from frontier new commercial treaty settled conflict w/ Britain established undisputed American sovereignty over Northwest produced commercial relationship w/ GB heavily criticized in America opposed by all Republicans James Monroe, Randolph opposed it in Senate eventually ratified 1795 Pinckney's Treaty Spanish now afraid the GB & America would join together against them in America Thomas Pinckney sent to Spain, gained almost everything Americans wanted Spain recognized the right of Americans to navigate the Mississippi, deposit goods at New Orleans fixed northern border of Florida @ 31st Parallel Spanish authorities required to prevent Indian raids from crossing border
o

Downfall of the Federalists

1790s - most Americans believed that organized opposition shouldn't be present in organized republic o Republicans seen as grave threat by Federalists o Federalists never won election after 1796 Election of 1796 o Washington's "Farewell Address" sharp reaction to Republicans "insidious wiles of foreign influence" - warning against international entanglements denunciation of Republicans who had been conspiring w/ French
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Page 46 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Republicans - Jefferson Federalists - John Adams, VP Hamilton had too many enemies without Washington, Federalists suffered factional rivalries nomination: Adams vs. Pinckney Adams assumed presidency under inauspicious circumstances Hamilton remained most influential Federalist Adams was talented diplomat, but terrible politician Quasi-War w/ revolutionary France o French vessels captured American ships o Charles Cotesworth Pinckney - arrived in France, refused by French gov't o Thomas Pickering - favored war o Hamilton recommended conciliation o Adams appointed bipartisan commission to negotiate Charles Pinckney, John Marshall (F-VA), Elbridge Gerry (R-Mass) XYZ Incident arrived in France 1797, 3 agents of Prince Talleyrand demanded loan for France & bribe before negotiations Pinckney: "No! No! Not a sixpence!" Adams outraged, told Congress to prepare for war deleted names of agents - "messers X, Y, & Z" report created public outrage caused undeclared war w/ France o The Quasi War Congress cut off all trade w/ France 1798 - created Department of the Navy constructed new warships won a few battles w/ French Adams sent another commission in 1800 "first consul" Napoleon Bonaparte agreed to treaty Repression & Protest o conflict w/ France gained Federalists majority in Congress most controversial legislature in history o Alien Act (1798) placed new obstacles to new citizens strengthened president's hand in dealing w/ aliens o Sedition Act (1798) allowed government to prosecute those who engaged in "sedition" against the government o Adams signed laws, cautious in implementing didn't deport anyone, prevented Congress from launching crusade against Republicans o repressive effects: Alien Act discouraged immigration Sedition Act used to arrest 10 Republican newspaper editors who criticized Federalists o Republican opposition from State Legislatures: Virginia & Kentucky Resolutions Jefferson - Kentucky Madison - VA used ideas of John Locke to argue "contract" theory State legislatures had power to "nullify" laws beyond the scope of federal power republicans didn't gain wide support for nullification succeeded in elevating dispute w/ Federalists to national level deep political division Griswold vs. Lyon: Smackdown on floor of Congress
o o
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Page 47 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Revolution of 1800 o 1800 Election: Adams (F) vs. Jefferson (R) supporters were vicious: Federalists accused Jefferson of being dangerous radical; would bring reign of terror Republicans portrayed Adams as tyrant conspiring to become king; plotting to subvert human liberty, impose slavery election decided in NY Alan Burr mobilized Rev veterans, Tammany Society as Republican political machine carried NY unexpected complication: electors voted for 2 canditates (usually P & VP from party) Jefferson & Barr ended up w/ same votes House of Representatives had to break tie old Federalist Congress still in power, eventually decided on Jefferson o Federalists still controlled Supreme Court: Adams tried to secure their hold Judiciary Act of 1801 reduced # of SC justices by one; greatly increased # of federal judges "midnight appointments" - Adams appointed Federalists to new positions Where Historians Disagree: Background of Constitution motivations: o to some, effort to preserve ideals of Revolution by eliminating disorder & contention Fiske, Brown, McDonald, Wood, Rakove o to others, effort to protect economic interests of existing elites, even at cost of ideals of Rev Beard, Main

Chapter 7: The Jeffersonian Era


Saturday, October 30, 2010 4:10 PM

Ryan O'Shea 11B

The Rise of Cultural Nationalism


reflected Republican vision of nation's future Patterns of Education o Jefferson called for "crusade against ignorance" Rs believed in public schools o State support: Mass reaffirmed public school law 1789 little enforcement all other states ignored o Private Schools religious groups secular ones in NE: based on schools of Phillips Family in Andover, Mass & Exeter, NH Aristocratic, trained kids to be elites tiny amount open to poor accepted only men - (Republican) paternalistic view of society virtuous white men presiding benevolently over a world in which all other groups were dependents Women in Education o new emphasis on "republican mother" as trainers of new generation mothers needed to be educated
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Page 48 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

1770s - network of female academies created 1789 - Mass schools required to serve females still no need for advanced education/training 1784 - Judith Sargent Murray published essay defending female education men & women equal in intellect, should have same opportunities o education o occupation o role in society Indian Education o Jeff & Republicans saw Indians as "noble savages," not innately inferior like Africans should be educated in white culture to tame & uplift the tribes o missionaries set up schools Africans - no one thought it was necessary; very few educated o Higher Education badly wanted by Rs (Jeff built University of Virginia) very uncommon all were semi-private, even if created by state legislatures (Georgia, NC, Vermont, Ohio, SC) limited: classics/theology William & Mary, Columbia offered Law programs Medicine and Science o Penn created first med school o people had very limited understanding of anatomy, epidemics common o scientific methods scorned o Benjamin Rush Philadelphia physician warned of sanitation problems advocate of "scientific" treatments of bleeding & purging o midwives declined; replaced by physicians poor mothers couldn't afford physicians to care for infants many women lost jobs o efforts to promote education and increase professionalism had the effect of strengthening existing elites rather than eroding them Cultural Aspirations in the New Nation o high nationalism, aspired toward national culture o Literary & Artistic Life "Poem on the Rising Glory of America" - Americans believed that their land would be the final stage of civilization; glorious works of engineering/art Jedidiah Morse - Geography Made Easy - said that country needed its own textbooks to free it from aristocratic ideas of England Noah Webster - educate students w/ nationalistic ideals insisted on simplified spelling o American Spelling Book ("blue-backed speller) o An American Dictionary of the English Language obstacles to elevating literary life: large reading population, but few opportunities for authors to get work circulated o printing required money authors struggled to create native literature: Joel Barlow - The Columbiad - popular epic poem o so that "true ideas of glory may be implanted in the minds of the men here to take the place of the false and destructive ones that have degraded the species in other countries" Charles Brockden Brown - wrote novels (new at the time) but didn't imitate British o Philadelphian o fascinated by horror and deviantism
o o o
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Page 49 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Washington Irving o New York o satirical histories of early American life Sleepy Hollow, Rip Van Winkle Mercy Otis Warren o wrote histories that glorified nation's origin o History of the Revolution Mason Weems o little interest in historical accuracy o Life of Washington - extremely popular portrayed Washington as a Republican cherry tree story Religious Skepticism o Revolution weakened traditional religious practice detached churches from government elevated ideas of individual liberty & reason o Deism Jefferson, Franklin considered God remote being who had no further involvement w/ human race Thomas Paine - The Age of Reason - refuted Christianity o Universalism & Unitarianism within NE Congregational Church rejected predestination & the Trinity James Murray founded Universalist Church 1779 Unitarian Church - 1782 Second Great Awakening o conservative theologians fighting spread of rationalism 1790s o Presbyterians tried to arouse faith in frontier militant response to "New Light" dissenters (combined tradition w/ rational ideas) o Methodists (John Wesley) became official in 1784 under Francis Asbury sent itinerant preachers to evangelize fastest growing denomination o Baptists - grew quickly, esp in South o reached greatest heights in West o Cane Ridge, Kentucky - first "camp meeting" - revival that lasted several days o Awakening combined a more active piety with a belief in God as an active force in the world whose grace could be attained through faith and good works growth of new denominations, not old ones o Women lots of young women men had gone west changing economic roles o movement of industrial work from home to factories o religion helped compensate for the loss of social roles o African Americans many blacks at revivals

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Chapter 27: The Global Crisis, 1921-1941


Friday, March 18, 2011 10:48 AM

Ryan O'Shea The Diplomacy of the New Era Critics claimed American foreign policy in 1920s was isolationism o America had rejected Wilson's view & turned its back on the world o America was actually more active in the 20s than any previous time Replacing the League o Harding takes office 1921 o Sec. of State Charles Evans Hughes secured legislation declaring war w/ Germany at end Negotiated separate peace treaties w/ Axis powers All benefits of Versailles treaty, none of the responsibilities o Hughes makes effort to build safeguards against future wars Washington Conference of 1921 Attempt to prevent naval armaments race between America, Britain, & Japan Radical proposal scared the delegates successful Five-Power Pact of 1922 - established limits for naval tonnage, ratio of armaments among the signatories Nine-Power Pact - pledged continuation of the Open Door policy in China Four-Power Pact - promised to respect one another's Pacific territories & cooperate to prevent aggression Wash. Conf. began US effort to protect peace without accepting international responsibilities Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928 concluded this effort Aristotle Briand, French foreign minister Asked the US to joint an alliance against Germany Secretary of State Frank Kellogg proposed unilateral treaty outlawing war as an instrument of national policy Wasn't enforced Debts & Diplomacy o Hughes & Kellogg believed that 1st responsibility of deplomacy was to ensure that American overseas trade faced no obstacles to expansion and that, once established, it would remain free of interference o US prosperity depeneded on European economy Europe suffering from debt, + damage from WWI Germany faced reparations, other nations had to pay money they lent from US Dawes Plan of 1924 Dawes Plan did little to solve the problem set up troubling circular loans US lent to Germany Germany used that to pay off reparations to GB & Fr GB & Fr used that to pay off debts to the US system operated on virtue of US banks/corps that held the debts Led to growing US economic presence in Germany US banks/corps becoming more involved in Euro economy taking advantage of the devastation pf Euro industry & inability of domestic corps to recover some warned that US was becoming too dependent on unstable Euro economies o tarrifs from Fordney-McCumber Acr of 1922 were creating additional problems Euro nations couldnt make money because they couldn't sell in US nothing happened until Great Depression o Economic Expansion in Latin America US military had presence in LA during 20s
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investments in LA doubled 1924-29 roads, loans helped US gain access to natural resources LA nations also having trouble repaying US loans because of tariff led to resentment of "yankee imperialism" Hoover & The World Crisis o global economic crisis began 1929 created dangerous nationalism threatened weak international agreements toppled some old leaders, replaced with powerful, belligerent governments bent on expansion o Latin America Hoover tried to repair relations with LA new regimes replacing old ones Hoover's new policy: US will grant diplomatic recognition to any new regime in LA, without questioning how it obtained power rejected Roosevelt's corollary to the Monroe Doctrine by refusing to permit US intervention when LA nations defaulted on debts o nations defaulted on US loans o new Euro regimes posed threat to peace: Mussolini's Fascist Party took control of Italy in 20s in 30s, regime grew militaristic & nationalistic threatened imperial expansion Nazis replaced Weimar Republic in Germany Hitler o crisis in Asia Japan concerned about increasing strength of Soviets & Chiang Kai-shek's nationalist China China ambitiously claimed Manchuria Japanese military leaders staged coup in 1931 Japan invaded Manchuria US response: Sec. of State Stimson hoped that moderates would regain control of Japan warned Japan Hoover forbade him from cooperating in LoN's economic sanctions Japan didn't care, invaded Shanghai o international system of the 1920s collapsed based on voluntary cooperation & US refusal to commit to goals of other nations US could adopt more energetic form of internationalism & form stronger alliances or US could resort to nationalism & rely on own devices to deal with problems US tried elements of both Isolationism & Internationalism FDR took office 1933 Depression Diplomacy o Hoover had argued that economy could only recover by resolving war debts & reinforcing the gold standard o World Economic Conference of 1933 Hoover's idea to attend FDR had already allowed the gold value of the dollar to fall to enable US goods to compete in world market FDR issued "bombshell" message - repudiated the orthodox views of most of the delegates & rejected an agreement on currency stabilization o FDR abandoned Hoover's efforts to settle war debts through international agreements let the issue die, stopped the circular system o FDR wanted to improve US position in world trade

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Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act of 1934 - authorized agreements lowering tariffs in return for reciprocal agreements from other nations Sec of State Hull nogotiated treaties with 21 nations led to increase in exports, but only noncompetitive products were allowed in by US, so imports continued to lag America & the Soviet Union o FDR wanted to improve relations w/ Soviets mistrust since the Bolshevik revolution of 1917 o US wanted trade, Russia wanted help containing Japan o Soviet Foreign Minister Litinov reached agreement w/ FDR Soviets would cease propaganda efforts in US, protect US citizens in Russia US would recognize communist regime o relations soured again: trade was unsiccessful US never promised to help w/ Japan by 1934, mistrust Good Neighbor Policy o improved relations in LA o US import/exports from/to LA more than doubled in 30s o Hoover had abandoned practice of using military power to compel LA gov'ts to comply o FDR went further Inter-American Conference in Montevideo (1933) Sec of State Hull signed convention declaring "No state has the right too invervene in the internal or external afairs of another." o GNP was essentially replacing military force with economic influence Rise of Isolationationism o FDR ended Hoover's hopes for international economic agreements & hopes for world peace through treaties and sarmament o arms control conference in Geneva was doing nothing FDR submitted new US proposal for arms reduction 1933 Geneva Conference failed o Japan withdrew from London Naval Conference o Americans chose isolationism over active efforts to stabilize the world reasons: LoN failed to stop Japanese expansionism - internationalism had failed FDR's last attempt at internationalism - asked Senate to approve US joining the World Court treaty failed in face of isolationist opposition some believed that business interests tricked US into WWI Nye investigation revealed exorbitant profiteering and tax evasion by corporations during WWI o Mussolini preparing to invade Ethiopia in 1935 Neutrality Acts of 1935, 36, & 37 designed to prevent US from being dragged into the conflict established mandatory arms embargo against both victim & agressor in any military conflict empowered president to warn Americans of traveling on ships of warring nations Act of 37 established cash-and-carry policy - belligerents could purchase only nonmilitary goods from the US (had to pay cash, carry goods away on own vessels) o Ethiopia Oct 1935 - Mussolini invaded Ethiopia Italy withdrew from LoN, formed alliance "Axis" with Germany o Spanish Civil War Falangists - group like Italian fascists

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Page 53 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

revolted 1936 against republican gov't Hitler/Mussolini supported Francisco Franco, leader of the Falangists

Asia

Japan attacked China's 5 northern provinces in 1936 FDR trying desperately to loosen the grip of the isolationists FDR's Quarantine Speech warned against dangers that Japanese aggression posed to world peace aggressors should be "quarantined" to prevent spread of war public response was hostile, FDR drew back Panay Attack Japanese bombed US's Panay gunship in China very deliberate isolationists persuaded administration to accept apologies and overlook attack Failure of Munich o German aggression 1936 - Hitler takes the Rhineland, violating Versailles treaty 1938 - Hitler unites Austria & Germany 1938 - Hitler demands the Czechoslovakia cede to him part of the region where many Germans lived Western nations refused to aid Czech. o Munich Conference Hitler met w/ leaders of GB & Fr Chamberlain GB & Fr accepted German demands in Czech. for assurance that Germany wouldn't expand further best example of appeasement o 1939 - Hitler occupied remaining areas of Czech. appeasement had failed o Hitler began threatening Poland GB & Fr agreed to come to Poland's defense asked Stalin to do the same Stalin declined, signed nonagression pact w/ Hitler 1939 o Hitler invades Poland 1939, GB & Fr declare on Germany, beginning WWII From Neutrality to Intervention Neutrality Tested o 1939 - FDR asked Congress to revise Neutrality Acts to open up US armaments to Allies passed o winter of 1939 was a lull in WWII Soviets took advantage, invaded Baltic neighbors invaded Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Finland US didn't really respond o 1940 - Germany launched Western invasion of Denmark, Norway, then Netherlands, Belgium o France fell to joint German & Italian invasion o FDR worked around cash-and-carry to provide GB with armaments o major shift in American public opinon Americans started to believe that Germany posed a serious threat to the US o Burke-Wadsworth Act - 1st peacetime military draft in US history o Isolationists vs. Interventionists debate began 1940 Committee to Defend America, led by William Allen White, lobbied for increased US assistance to the alles, but opposed intervention Fight for Freedom Committee lobbied for declaration of war America First Committee - attracted many US leaders Robert E. Wood, Charles Lindbergh, Hugh Johnson, Gerald Nye, Burton Wheeler Third-Term Campaign
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Page 54 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

FDR waited to annouce candidacy, and was nominated VP Henry A. Wallace was too liberal for his own party, but nominated anyway o Republicans decided to fight president on his own ground nominated Wendell Willkie supported FDR's positions vigorous campaigner Neutrality Abandoned o FDR began making subtle changes to US role in war o 1940 - GB virtually bankrupt o Lend-lease US could lend or lease armaments to any nation deemed vital to the defense of the US o how would shipments of armaments get to Britain? shipping lanes were dangerous Sec of War Stinson argued that US should convoy vessels to England FDR decided to rely on "hemispheric defense" - US would only defend vessels in the Western hemisphere o 1941 - Operation Barbarossa - Germany invades USSR FDR/Congress extended lend-lease to USSR eventually would form Soviet-American alliance o finally, Germany responded with submarine offensive against US ships German sub fired on the Greer FDR ordered all US ships to fire on German subs on sight Nazi sub destroyed the Reuben James, caused outrage in Congress approved measure allowing US to arm its merchant vessels, sail all the way to belligerent ports effectively launched naval war against Germany o Atlantic Charter disguised statement of US/GB war aims Road to Pearl Harbor o Tripartite Pact of 1940 - Japan & Germany signed loose defensive alliance o Japanese offensives Japan invaded Indochina/Vietnam (French-owned) FDR knew Japan would invade Dutch East Indies, so issued complete trade embargo w/ Japan Japan either had to repair relations w/ US, or search for supplies elsewhere Japanese Prince Konoye was willing to compromise, but was forced out of office replaced w/ General Hideki Tojo o 1941 - Japan submitted a modulus vivendi to US that refused to change stance on China US wouln't accept anything less than reversal on China Sec of State Hull rejected it o US decoded messages, knew that Japan would attack didnt know where most officials thought first Japanese move would be on British or Dutch possessions in the South Dec 7, 1941 - Japanese bombers bombed the naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii massive losses in men, ships, & planes House declared war Dec 8, 1941 on Japan 388 to 1 Germany & Italy declared war on US, US reciprocated Dec 11
o

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Chapter 28: America in a World at War


Saturday, March 26, 2011 5:44 PM

Ryan O'Shea 11B War on Two Fronts Striking unity of opinion in support of war Containing the Japanese o Japanese quickly destroyed Allied Pacific power: Manila, Guam, Wake Island, Hong Kong (GB), Singapore (GB) o Americans planned 2 offensives against the Japanese General Douglas MacArthur - north from Australia, New Guinea, to the Philippines Admiral Chester Nimitz - west from Hawaii toward Japanese islands in Central Pacific Eventually both were to invade Japan o Battle of Midway (1942) - turning point, US regained control of the central Pacific o Battle of Guadalcanal - long, savage conflict that resulted in US victory, US gained control over Southern Pacific Holding Off the Germans o General George C. Marshall - Army Chief of Staff Supported plan for US invasion of Europe through France Soviets supported it, British wanted to delay Roosevelt torn, decided to support British plan to launch offensives in Africa & southern Europe o US joined British counterattack against Edwin Rommel in Africa Germans won at Kasserine Pass George S. Patton launched effective counteroffensive Drove Germans from Africa in 1943 o Soviets resisted German offensive at Stalingrad Massive civilian losses o Italy 1943 - Roosevelt & Churchill agreed to invade Sicily Might knock out Italy from War Conquered Sicily, moved on to Italy, Mussolini's gov't collapsed New gov't joined Allies Hitler moved into Italy to set up defensive line Effects of Italian invasion: Postponed French invasion, embittered Soviet Union Allowed Soviet Union to move into Eastern Europe America and the Holocaust o US resisted calls to use military to end Holocaust (bombing crematoria at death camps) o Official Anti-Semitism Clear effort to keep Jews out of US Assistant Secretary Breckinridge Long St. Louis - ship carrying German Jews - wasn't allowed to enter US The American People in Wartime Prosperity o WWII ended Great Depression o Federal Spending Government started pumping tons of money into economy Budget soared, and so did GNP Wartime production Created shortage in consumer goods, so people saved money - helped extend prosperity in postwar years
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The War and the West o West Coast became launching point of offensives against Japanese Gov't made huge manufacturing & infrastructure investments in West West became center of airplane, shipbuilding industries Labor and the War o War created serious labor shortage o Workforce expanded o Unions grew Restricted to prevent inflation from hindering prosperity Little Steel formula - wages couldn't rise by more than 15% No-strike pledge - unions agreed not to stop production in wartime In return, maintenance of membership agreements - ensured that new workers pouring into unionized plants would be automatically enrolled in unions Smith-Connally (War Labor Disputes) Act United Mine Workers defied gov't, strike 1943 Required Unions to wait 30 days before striking, empowered president to seize struck war plant Public animosity toward Unions Stabilizing the Boom o Concerns over inflation: Anti-Inflation Act of 1942 - gave admin authority to freeze agricultural prices, wages, salaries, and rents Office of Price Administration (OPA) - set up to enforce Led by Leon Henderson & Charles Bowles Never popular o Spending WWII cost 10x WWI Debt rose dramatically Funding: Bonds Revenue Act of 1942 - raised income tax drastically Mobilizing Production o War Production Board - set up to mobilize the economy Donald Nelson Was ineffective, everyone worked around it o WPB replaced by the Office of War Mobilization James Byrnes Only slightly more successful than WPB o Economy mobilized nonetheless Defense Plants Corporation set up factories Synthetic rubber industry emerged Wartime Science & Technology o Gov't poured money into R&D o National Defense Research Committee Vannevar Bush o Beginning of war, all technological advantages lay with Germans/Japanese Mechanized armor, submarines, Japanese naval-air tech o British & American advantages Mass production Quickly developed naval, air, and sub technologies o By 1942, Allied tech was even with Axis o Defense tech - Allies reduced effectiveness of Axis tech developments Radar, sonar Reduced effectiveness of U-boats
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Page 57 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

"centimetric radar" Mine detection Antiaircraft tech o Air war: Four-engine bombers: British Lancaster B1 & American Boeing B17F Gee navication system o Intelligence Ultra Project British top-secret intelligence project Cryptologists cracked German Enigma ciphers Alan Turing - improved the Bombe machine to decrypt German encrypted messages quickly Colossus II - first real, programmable, digital computer Magic Operation American intelligence program Broke Japanese ciphers African Americans and the War o Determined to use war to improve position in society through demands o A. Philip Randolph, head of Black Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, insisted that government require companies receiving defense contracts to integrate their ork forces Roosevelt established Fair Employment Practices Commission o Labor shortage caused blacks to migrate to cities o Congress of Racial Equality mobilized mass resistance to discrimination o Randolph, Bayard Rustin, James Farmer & other leaders organized sit-ins & demonstrations in segregated places o Military Armed Forces forced to change policies toward blacks Partial integration o Traditional patter of race relations slowly eroding Native Americans and the War o "Code-Talkers" - worked in military communications, spoke their own language (harder for enemies to understand) o Many Natives left reservations, assimilated into society o National unity undermined efforts to revitalize reservations Mexican-American War Workers o Mexicans entered US to fill labor shortages on West Coast o Braceros - contract laborers Temporary visas o Labor shortage caused owners to start hiring Hispanics again Factory jobs o Mexican-American neighborhoods Hispanic teenagers joining gangs (Pachucos) in LA Wore "zoot suits" Zoot Suit Riots broke out between gangs and sailors Women & Children at War o New roles for women Many women entered work force Obstacles Employers categorized jobs by gender Women treated with solicitude and patronization - prevented equality o Women in industry: Took on traditionally "men's work" in heavy industrial jobs Rosie the Riveter o Most women workers in service-sector jobs:

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Page 58 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Worked for government as "government girls" - typists, clerks, secretaries Female communities emerged since men were gone Women enlisted in military as WACs (army) and WAVEs (navy) Limited child care Women forced to leave children home alone Rise in juvenile crime o "baby boom" Wartime Life and Culture o Anxiety from absence of men o Economic good times Entertainment industries thrived o War became about fighting for future prosperity o Romanticized image of "home" gave hope to soldiers Material comforts Women Loved ones Pinups o USOs Recruited young women to serve as hostesses in their clubs To maintain morale for troops still in US Internment of Japanese Americans o Unlike WWI, WWII didn't produce censorship or violations of civil liberties o Still some racial tensions Zoot-Suit Riots Racial conflicts in cities Restrictions & imprisonment of Italian "enemy aliens" o WWII did more to blur racial distinctions than to heighten them o Except the Japanese o Japanese were depicted in propaganda as a devious, malign, and cruel people Politically powerless o Pearl Harbor confirmed suspicions o Earl Warren, attorney general of California said that because there was no reason to suspect the Japanese, we should suspect the more o Officials more prejudiced than public: Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox accused Japanese of sabotage at Pearl Harbor General John L. DeWitt claimed to have no confidence in Japanese-American loyalty o War Relocation Authority (1942) authorized to intern Japanese Americans Over objections of the attorney general and J. Edgar Hoover, director of the FBI Moved to "relocation centers" Harsh, not brutal Pitched as places where the Japanese could be "Americanized" Some wanted to use Japanese as forced laborers o Public basically forgot about Japanese once they were interned, no significant opposition o Conditions began improving in 1943: Young Japanese allowed out to attend college o Korematsu v. US (1944) - ruled internment as constitutional o By 1944, most internees released Chinese Americans and the War o American alliance w/ China enhanced legal/social status of Chinese Americans o Congress repealed Chinese Exclusion Acts The Retreat from Reform o FDR decided to back away from the New Deal and concentrate on winning the war o Conservatives in Congress used war to dismantle New Deal
o o o
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End of mass unemployment Ended CCC & WPA New Republicans elected to Congress o FDR accepted New Deal defeats to win support for war programs o Election of 1944 Republicans nominated Thomas E. Dewey FDR agreed to party demands, replacing VP Henry Wallace with Harry S. Truman Had been head of Senate War Investigating Committee - uncovered corruption in wartime production Election revolved around domestic economic issues & president's health FDR won Dems retained control of House & Senate Defeat of the Axis Liberation of France o Allied bombing raids of German cities destroyed industrial facilities, demoralized (and killed) the population Cleared the way for Allied invasion of France o Luftwaffe severely weakened by dogfights over Germany o D-Day 3 million troops June 6, 1944 - General Dwight D. Eisenhower sent the armada into action Invaded Normandy o Allied troops liberated most of France Stopped at a line of German defenses on Rhine River Battle of the Bulge - Germans made impressive drive, but were eventually stopped Ended German resistance in the West o Berlin American Omar Bradley's First Army closed in from the West Soviet forces swept in from the East British Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery advanced from the north through central Germany April 30, 1945 - Adolf Hitler committed suicide V-E Day - May 8, 1945 - all German forces surrendered unconditionally The Pacific Offensive o 1944 - US naval forces under Admiral Chester Nimitz cracked outer Japanese perimeter, destroyed other Japanese bastions US subs crippled Japanese shipping o Asian mainland Gen. Stilwell's forces pushed back by Japanese Constructed the Ledo Road (aka Stilwell Road) to China Feud between Stilwell & Chiang Kai-shek Chinese were using troops to maintain border containing the Chinese communists instead of fighting the Japanese o Pacific American armada struck Mariana Islands Captured Tinian, Guam, & Saipan Close to Tokyo Battle of Leyte Island Gen. MacArthur's troops took on the entire Japanese fleet Largest Naval conflict in history 1945 - Marines captured Iwo Jima Costliest battle in history of Marine Corps Okinawa - island just South of Japan Japanese sent kamikaze planes against Allied ships Japanese resistance was fierce, but Allies eventually took the island in 1945

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Page 60 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Invasion of Japan wasn't necessary Japan had virtually no planes or ships left Allied ships bombarded from offshore Hit industrial targets Firebombing of Tokyo Emperor Hirohito appointed new premier to sue for peace Couldn't convince military leaders to give up the fight Tried to obtain mediation with the Soviet Union Soviets weren't interested Manhattan Project o 1939 - word reached Allies that Germany was trying to develop atomic bomb o Einstein proposed the theory, warned FDR o Enrico Fermi discovered radioactivity of uranium 1930s o Scientists at Columbia University began chain-reaction experiments o Fermi (US) achieved first controlled fission chain reaction in 1942 o Manhattan Engineer District Office of the Army Corps of Engineers took over development Under General Leslie Groves Under direction of J. Robert Oppenheimer Detonated the Trinity Bomb - first atomic detonation in history Atomic Warfare o Pres Harry S. Truman took office, offered ultimatum to Japanese Japanese premier wanted to accept, but couldn't persuade military leaders Truman ordered Air Force to drop the bomb o Truman saw it strictly in military terms Bomb would end war quickly, preventing Soviets from moving into Asia o Aug 6, 1945 - Enola Gay dropped atomic bomb on Hiroshima Japanese government unable to agree on a response o Aug 9, 1945 - US dropped another bomb on Nagasaki, Japan o Sep 2, 1945 - Japanese government surrendered

Chapter 29: The Cold War


Friday, April 01, 2011 9:24 PM

Ryan O'Shea 11B Atomic bomb became main weapon, stockpiled Rivalry between democratic capitalism and communism American foreign policy shifted to containment - containing communism to within its present boundaries Politics: o weakened grip of Democratic party o Made Communism a central part of postwar politics McCarthyism and the Red Scare Origins of the Cold War Sources of Soviet-American Tension o Fundamental difference in the ways the great powers envisioned the postwar world Atlantic Charter of 1941 Nations abandon beliefs of alliances and spheres of influence and govern relations democratically, w/ international organization serving as arbiter of disputes, protector of nations' right of self-determination Soviet Goal Britain supported it Soviet Union determined to create secure sphere for itself in Central/Eastern Europe Wartime Diplomacy

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Page 61 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Casablanca, Morocco (1943) Roosevelt & Churchill couldn't accept Stalin's demand to open a second front in western Europe o Teheran, Iran (1943) First meeting w/ Stalin Roosevelt lost his bargaining chip: Stalin's need for assistance Stalin agreed to enter the Pacific theater after war in Europe ended, in return for the second front o Poland Roosevelt & Churchill accepted Stalin's annexation of some Polish territory Thought the ex-Polish gov't would regain power Stalin wanted to institute Communist government Yalta (1945) o In return for Stalin's promise to enter Pacific war, Roosevelt agreed that Soviet Union should receive some of the territory won in the Pacific o United Nations General Assembly, Security Council started with 50 nations, April 25, 1945 o failures of Yalta: Polish gov't Stalin had already installed gov't of pro-communist Lublin poles US/GB insisted on London poles having part in government Germany Roosevelt wanted to reunite Stalin wanted to divide US, GB, France, Soviets would control "zone of occupation" in Germany Would eventually be reunited o Yalta set down principles that avoided the real questions Soviets began establishing Communist gov'ts in Central/Eastern Europe o FDR died 1945 Collapse of the Peace Failure of Potsdam o Harry Truman took over as president o Truman's "Get Tough" Policy Chastised Soviets for violating Yalta Thought he could get "85%" of what America wanted Poland Truman recognized a pro-Western Government in Poland, hoping to stir up support Never happened o Potsdam To deal w/ issue of Germany Truman accepted adjustments of Poland-Germany border that Stalin wanted Refused to permit Russians to claim any reparations from the American/French/British zones of Germany The China Problem o American hopes for the world required strong China o Chiang Kai-shek's corrupt government was huge obstacle Friendly to the US Losing to Mao Zedong's communist gov't Truman continued supporting Chiang o US shifted attention to Japan Lifted all industrial restrictions Containment Doctrine o US shifted away from ideal of open, unified world o Containment - prevent the further spread of Communism
o
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Page 62 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Causes: British stopped assisting Turkey resist Stalin o Truman Doctrine (1947) - drew on the ideas of George E. Kennan Marshall Plan (1947) o Proposal to aid in the reconstruction of Western Europe o Motives: Humanitarian Strengthening pro-Western gov'ts o George C. Marshall announced plan in 1947 o Economic Cooperation Administration set up to exercise the plan Mobilization at Home o 1948 - new draft, revived Selective Service System o Redoubled atomic research Atomic Energy Commission- supervised all nuclear research Approved dev of Hydrogen bomb o National Security Act of 1947u Established Department of Defense National Security Council Central Intelligence Agency Road to NATO o Merged US/GB/French areas of Germany into West Germany Stalin imposed Blockade around West Berlin Berlin Airlift - 10-month airlift of supplies into West Berlin o NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization 12 nations Military alliance Formed to prevent threat of Soviet invasion o Warsaw Pact - alliance between Soviet Union and European communist regimes Reevaluating Cold War Policy o 1949 Soviets detonated first nuke Collapse of Chiang Kai-shek's nationalist government Responded by ending American occupation of Japan o NSC-68 - National Security Council report in 1950 Agrued that the US could no longer rely on other nations to take the initiative in resisting communism Must establish firm and active leadership of noncommunist world Called for major expansion of American military power & defense spending American Society and Politics after the War Problems of Reconversion o Expected economic collapse after the war o Didn't happen: Government spending dropped sharply Consumer spending increased, compensated $6 billion tax cut pumped money into economy GI Bill of Rights - provided economic/educational assistance to veterans o Rise in consumer demand caused inflation o Postwar Labor Unrest 1946 - United Mine Workers strike Led by John L. Lewis Shut down coal fields Truman forced workers to return
o
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1946 - two major railroad unions strike Almost total shutdown Truman pressured workers back o Women & Minority Workforce Employers pushed women & minorities out of jobs as soldiers returned Women moved into the service sector The Fair Deal Rejected o Truman submitted domestic program calling for: Expansion of Social Security benefits Raising minimum wage from 40-65 cents Program to ensure full employment through spending Permanent Fair Employment Practices Act Public housing & slum clearance Long-rang environmental and public works planning Government promotion of scientific research o Increasing conservatism crippled Fair Deal Republican Congress Reduce gov't spending Chip away at New Deal Lifted remaining wage/price controls Deregulated economy Inflation caused outrage Sen. Robert Taft: "Eat Less" Republican Congress refused to appropriate funds for education, SS, reclamation & power projects in West, raise minimum wage Tax cut for wealthy Wagner Act of 1935 had granted unions new powers of legislation Resented by Republicans Taft-Hartley Act (Labor-Management Relations Act) of 1947 - made illegal so-called closed shop (workplace that only hires union members) Allowed states to pass "right-to-work" laws prohibiting union shops (workplaces that forced union membership once hired) Election of 1948 o Much of electorate didn't like Truman o Democrats 2 factions deserted Southern conservatives were angry at Truman's civil rights bill States' Rights (Dixiecrat) Party Nominated Strom Thurmond Progressive Party Nominated Henry A. Wallace Hated slow progress of liberal reform, confrontational stance towards Soviets Tried to nominate Eisenhower, but he refused o Republicans nominated Thomas E. Dewey again Dewey campaigned calmly o Truman attacked Dewey and the Republican Congress o Truman won surprising victory Fair Deal Revived o Truman won some victories in Congress Raised minimum wage to 75 cents Expanded SS National Housing Act of 1949 - provided for construction of 810,000 new low-income houses o Truman Stymied:

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Page 64 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

No progress on health care Education Civil rights legislation o Truman vs. Segregation Ordered end to discrimination in hiring of federal employees Worked to end segregation in armed forces Shelley v. Kraemer - courts cannot be used to enforce private"covenants" meant to bar blacks from residential neighborhoods The Nuclear Age o Film noir - presented loniliness of individuals in an impersonal world o Twilight Zone - often portrayed aftermath of nuclear war o Awareness of nukes was heightened in daily life o Also optimistic Nuclear power "secret of the atom" The Korean War June 24, 1950 - armies of Communist North Korea invaded South Korea Divided Peninsula o US & Soviets divided nation in 1945 @ the 38th parallel North was a communist government armed w/ Soviet weapons South was a pro-Western government, led by Syngman Rhee o Truman appealed to UN Security Council to intervene; approved o General Douglas MacArthur put in command of UN troops o Korean War was first exercise of NSC-68 Effort at "liberation" From Invasion to Stalemate o MacArthur invaded North Korea Pyongyang, capital of N. Korea, fell o China entered war on side of N. Korea o UN offensive stalled, collapsed o N. Koreans captured Seoul, capital of S. Korea o UN forces retook South Korea, then war settled in stalemate o Truman-MacArthur Controversy Truman wanted to avoid war w/ China Looked into peace settlements once Chinese entered war Gen MacArthur pushed for victory, opposed Truman's attempts at peace Martin Letter - MacArthur published that there was "no substitute for victory" Had been resisting Truman 1951 - Truman relieved MacArthur of his command Public outrage; most of country supported MacArthur Limited Mobilization o Office of Defense Mobilization - to fight inflation by holding prices, discouraging high union wage demands Didn't work o 1951 - railroad strike stopped when Truman seized the railroads o 1952 - steel strike; Truman seized steel mills Supreme Court ruled that Truman had exceeded authority Unions got their demands o Korean War significantly spurred economy Crusade Against Subversion Red Scare's causes o Communism was a real enemy o Korean stalemate

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Page 65 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Loss of China Soviet dev of atomic bomb HUAC & Alger Hiss o Much anticommunist furor came from Republican Party Wanted an issue to attack the Democrats o House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) held investigations; proved that Democratic government had encouraged Communism Accused many in Hollywood o Alger Hiss charged with disloyalty Whitaker Chambers (former communist) accused Hiss of passing classified documents through him to the Soviet Union Chambers was able to produce the documents ("pumpkin papers") Richard Nixon pushed and got Hiss sentenced for perjury Federal Loyalty Program & the Roserberg Case o Truman launched program to prove loyalty of employees o McCarran internal Security Act - required all communist organizations to register w/ the government, publish records o Soviet Atom Bomb created suspicions Klaus Fuchs confessed to delivering details of the atom bomb to the soviets Julius & Ethel Rosenberg accused of being masterminds of the conspiracy David Greenglass (brother of Ethel) led case against them Had worked on Manhattan project, delivered info to Soviets through agents like Fuchs Rosenbergs sentenced to death McCarthyism o Joseph McCarthy claimed to have the names of 205 members of the State Department that were communists o Expanded accusations to other areas of gov't o Held investigations, interrogations o McCarthyism was an issue into which Republicans could channel frustrations over many issues Fear of communism Animosity toward country's "eastern establishment" Frustrated partisan ambitions Republican Revival o Korea & Red Scare hurt the Democrats o Election of 1952 Democrats nominated Adlai E. Stevenson "soft," not strong enough to counter communism (according to Republicans) Republicans nominated Dwight D. Eisenhower, commander of NATO Pledged to "go to Korea" himself to break the stalemate Richard Nixon was running mate Attacked Democratic "appeasement, cowardice, & treason" Both candidates pledged to "clean up the mess in Washington" (corruption of Truman administration) Eisenhower won landslide, Republicans took House & Senate
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Chapter 30: The Affluent Society


Monday, April 11, 2011 4:39 PM

Ryan O'Shea 11B The Economic Miracle Sources of Economic Growth o 1945-1960 - GDP + 250% o Unemployment dropped o Government Spending
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Page 66 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Still spurring economy Military spending (Korean War) o Baby boom o Suburban growth stimulated economy Cars Housing Roads Rise of the Modern West o Huge population increase o Growth result of federal spending Infrastructure o Petroleum industry supplied east o Universities (U of Texas & California) o Climate drew people New Economics o Keynesian economics made it possible for the government to regulate/stabilize the economy without intruding directly into the private sector Economics - text book by Paul Samuelson Theory verified when in 1953, Treasury Secretary George Humphrey & Fed worked to ease credit & make money easily available, helping economy JFK proposed tax cut in 1963 to stimulate economic growth o Belief in permanent economic growth 30s - redistribution of wealth favored theory 50s- solution to poverty was increased production Capital & Labor o Huge corporate consolidation o Agriculture Agricultural workforce declining Mechanization o Concessions to unions Walter Reuther, pres of United Auto Workers, got contract from GM that included escalator clause automatic cost-of-living increased pegged to consumer price index Factory wages rose substntially Postwar Contract Workers got increased wages, and unions wouldn't raise other issues o AFL-CIO - American Federation of Labor merged with rivals Congress of Industrial Organizations Under George Meany o Union corruption Teamsters Union under investigation in 1957 David Beck charged with masappropriation of union funds Replaced by Jimmy Hoffa United Mine Workers tainted by corruption John L. Lewis Tony Boyle - convicted of complicity in murder of Joseph "Jock" Yablonski o Unorganized labor saw few advances Taft-Hartley Act &state right-to-work laws made it difficult to create unions "Operation Dixie" - CIO recruiting drive in South after WWII Targeted poorly paid workers South home to antiunion sentiment Explosion of Science & Technology Medical Breakthroughs o Antibacterial drugs fought infections Louis Pasteur, Jules-Francois Joubert

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Page 67 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Joseph Lister used antiseptic during surgery Sulfa drugs - 30s, one popular form of antibacterial drug o Penicillin - Alexander Fleming Produced by Howard Florey & Ernest Chain @ Oxford o Immunization Smallpox vaccine - Edward Jenner Typhoid - Almorth Wright Tetanus Tuberculosis Viruses Yellow fever Influenza Polio - Jonas Salk 1954 Albert Sabin developed oral version Pesticides o DDT - Paul Muller Toxic (long-term) Postwar Electronic Research o Television invented o Transistor made at Bell Labs in 1948 Postwar Computer Technology o Universal Automatic Computer (UNIVAC) Successor to ENIAC Made by Remington Rand Company Used to predict 1952 election results o IBM Bombs, Rockets, & Missiles o 1952 - first US H-bomb detonation o Missiles Struggle to build long range rockets Atlas, Titan ICBM - 50s Polaris - could be launched from underwater (subs) Space Program o 1957 - Sputnik - Soviet Union's satellite o 1958 - Explorer I - 1st US satellite o NASA created 1958 o Yuri Garagin first manned suborbital flight 1961 o Mercury Project - Alan Shepard first American in space1961 o John Glenn - first orbit 1962 o Gemini Program o Apollo Program 1969 - Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, Michael Collins first to walk on moon o Space Shuttle 1986 - Challenger disaster - exploded, stalled program for 2 years o Hubble Space Telescope o Space program gave huge boost to american aeronautics industry People of Plenty Prosperity based on broad consensus about value of capitalism David Potter's People of Plenty - middle class in 50s Consumer Culture o Consumer crazes Mickey Mouse - turned entertainment into marketing

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Page 68 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Landscape of the Automobile o Federal Highway Act of 1956 - $25 million for highway construction Dramatically reduced travel times Resulted in decline of railroads Caused movement of business out of cities and into suburbs Edge cities o Garages added to houses o Motels (e.g. Holiday Inn) o Drive-in theatres - Royce Hailey's Pig Stand o Fast food - McDonald's o Air pollution caused by cars Suburban Nation o William Levitt came to symbolize new suburban growth Used mass production to build housing development on Long Island "Levittown" o Reasons for migration to suburbs Importance place on family life after WWII Attracted to living in community of similar people Race: most suburbs restricted to whites Suburban Family o Professional men: Rigid division between working & personal worlds o Women: increased isolation from the workplace o Family live of 50s strengthened prejudices against women o Dr. Benjamin Spock's Baby and Child Care - 1946, child-centered theory of child rearing o 50s weakened Feminism, but led to larges movement in US history in 60s League of Women Voters Red Cross YWCAs PTAs Birth of Television o Rapid growth o National Broadcasting Company, Columbia Broadcasting System, American Broadcasting Company Started on radio o Based on advertising o Impact of TV: Replaced newspapers/radio as principal source of information Principal source of entertainment Programming created common image of American life (homogenizing message) White, middle class, suburban Ozzie & Harriet, Leave It to Beaver Reinforced gender roles Father Knows Best The Honeymooners I Love Lucy Our Miss Brooks My Little Margie Amos 'n Andy (hapless blacks) Contributed to sense of alienation and powerlessness among groups excluded from the world it portrayed Travel, Outdoor Recreation, Environmentalism o Idea of paid vacations o National parks Echo Park
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Page 69 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Environmentalists stopped building of a damn Bernard DeVito - The Saturday Evening Post Organized Society and Its Detractors o Education Growth of specialized education - science, math, foreign languages o Rise of bureaucratic, organized life Had detrimental effect on the individual William H. Whyte, Jr. - The Organization Man (1956) Described special mentality of the worker in a large, bureaucratic setting Self reliance being replaced by ability to "get along" & "work as a team" Davin Reisman - The Lonely Crowd - argued that the traditional "inner-directed" man was giving way to new "other-directed" man, interested in winning approval of peers Saul bellow - The Adventures of Augie March, Sieze the Day, Herzog - addressed of Aerican Jews J.D. Salinger - The Catcher in the Rye Beats and the Restless Culture of Youth o Beats - wrote harsh critiques of what the considered the sterility and conformity of American life Allen Ginsberg's "Howl" Jack Kerouac's On The Road Bible of the Beat Generation o Widespread restlessness among young Americans in 50s o Juvenile delinquency Public attention Dire warnings about growing criminality of youth Blackboard Jungle (1955) - violence in city schools James Dean became icon of unfocused rebelliousness Rock 'n' Roll o Elvis Presley Rebellious Huge figure in pop culture o Black roots Presley, Buddy Holly, Bill Haley Popular black bands: BB King, Chubby Checker, Temptations Funded mainly by Barry Gordy, founder of Motown Records o Music TV American Bandstand - Dick Clark o Payola - payments from promoters to station owners & DJs to play records Became scandals The Other America On the Margins of the Affluent Society o Michael Harrington's The Other America Chronicled poverty Refuted claim that economic growth would lead people out of poverty Rural Poverty o Declining farm prices o Some made money, but most fell to or below sustenance level Inner Cities o Inner city neighborhoods became "ghettos" for poor o Substantial Black urban migration o Poor Hispanic neighborhoods o Causes of poverty: New migrants were victims of their own pasts Rural structures didn't work well in cities

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Page 70 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Declining blue-collar jobs, inadequate support for minority-dominated public schools, & racism "Urban Renewal" - effort to tear down buildings in the poorest areas, replacing them with new housing (often for middle class) Rise of the Civil Rights Movement Brown Decision and "Massive Resistance" o Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas Ruled that segregation on basis of race was illegal NAACP lawyers - inc. Thurgood Marshall Chief Justice Earl Warren o Massive Resistance Southern opposition to the Brown decision 1956 "manifesto" signed by 100 Southern members of Congress denouncing decision "White Citizens Councils" - worked to obstruct desegregation "segregation academies" - all white public schools "pupil placement laws" - allowed segregation on basis of ability Little Rock Central High School, Little Rock, AR Angry white mob blocked integration Eisenhower sent in National Guard Expanding Movement o Montgomery Bus Boycott -started by Rosa Parks Completely effective SC decided 1956 segregation of public transit illegal Established new form of racial protest o Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. Nonviolence o Jackie Robinson + Brooklyn Dodgers in 1947 o Eisenhower's Civil Rights Act of 1957 Federal protection for blacks who registered to vote Causes of Civil Rights Movement o Causes: Black men & women served in military/worked in war plants Derived broader view of world & place in it Growth of urban black middle class Pop culture/TV o White supported Civil Rights Movement: Cold War Political mobilization of blacks in North Labor unions had many blacks Eisenhower Republicanism "What Was Good for General Motors" o Eisenhower administration populated with businessmen/lawyers o Accepted Keynesian economics o Eisenhower's inclination = limit federal activities, encourage private enterprise Survival of Welfare State o Eisenhower didn't destroy New Deal o Most significant accomplishment of Eisenhower was Federal Highway Act of 1956 o Election of 1956 Eisenhower ran against uAdlai Stevenson Decline of McCarthyism o Eisenhower only acted against McCarthy when he accused Secretary of the Army Robert Stevens o Army-McCarthy Hearings Devastating to McCarthy
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Page 71 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Eisenhower, Dullies, and Cold War Dullies & Massive Retaliation o John Foster Dulles, Sec of State under Eisenhower Corporate lawyer Hated communism Massive Retaliation - Announced 1954 US wouldn't use conventional forces to contain communism, but nuclear weapons Had economic benefits: people calling for reduction in military spending (nukes were costeffective) France, America, & Vietnam o France trying to restore authority over Vietnam o Ho Chi Minh's nationalist/communist forces opposing France o Dien Bien Phu - disastrous siege, French surrounded US needed to intervene to prevent French defeat US didn't intevene, French fell Cold War Crises o Israel 1948 - Israel proclaimed independence Truman immediately recognized nation Arabs fought against Israelis US had significant Oil interests in Middle East, couldn't intervene to help Israel Muhammad Mossadegh, PM of Iran, began to resist presence of Western corps CIA engineered a coup, replaced Mossadegh with Muhammad Reza Pahlevi - became absolute dictator o Suez Crisis General Gamal Abdel Nasser Developed relationship with Soviets Dulles withdrew American offers to assist in building Aswan Dam across the Nile Nasser seized Suez Canal from British o 1956 - Israeli forces attacked Egypt British & French sided with Israel US didnt want to risk pushing Middle East towards the Soviets o Latin America Cuba Fulgencio Batista - leader Cuba became fiefdom of American corporations Fidel Castro staged coup in 1957 Castro accepted Soviet assistance Eisenhower cut all relations w/ Castro Europe and the Soviet Union o Problems of Third World creeping into American foreign policy, but principal concern was communism & Soviet Union o 1955 - Eisenhower & NATO meet with Nikolai Bulganin, Soviet Premier Couldn't agree, relations chilled o 1956 - Soviets crushed Hugarian insurrection, restored Soviet puppet regime U-2 Crisis o 1958 - Nikita Khrushchev demanded that NATO leave West Berlin o Khrushchev suggested that he and Eisenhower talk about it o 1960 - right before meeting in Moscow, Soviets shot down American U-2 Spy plane o Eisenhower increased tensions w/ Soviets o Eisenhower's Restraint: Brought his own interpretations of American power Resisted military intervention in Vietnam
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Page 72 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Warned of the unwarranted influence of a "military-industrial complex" Last president to have such restraint

Chapter 31: Civil Rights, Vietnam, & the Ordeal of Liberalism


Thursday, April 21, 2011 11:08 AM

Ryan O'Shea 11B Expanding the Liberal State John Kennedy o Election of 1960 Nixon vs. JFK Kennedy's platform "New Frontier" - set of ambitious domestic reforms tariff reductions tax cut o JFK made personality integral part of presidency o JFK assassinated 1963 Warren Commission - concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald & Jack Ruby had acted alone, ant that there was no wider conspiracy behind the murders Lyndon Johnson o 1963-1968 o remarkable legislative record o "The Great Society" - LBJ's reform program o gained support of virtually everyone o Election of 1964 Republican fell under sway of right wing, noinated Barry Goldwater Assault on Poverty o Medicare (1965) provided federal aid to elderly for medical expenses o Medicaid (1966) provided federal aid to the poor for medical expenses o "war on poverty" - coined by Johnson o Office of Economic Opportunity (OEO) committed to the idea of "community action" effort to involve members of poor communites themselves in the planning and administration of the programs designed to help them unsustainable Cities, Schools, and Immigration o Housing Act of 1961 - $4.9 billion in federal grants to cities for the preservation of open spaces, development of mass-transit, and subsidization of middle-income housing o Department of Housing & Urban Development (1966) led by Robert Weaver, first black in cabinet o Model Cities program - offered subsidies for urban redevelopment o Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 - extended aid to private & parochial schools, based on needs of students, not schools o Immigration Act of 1965 - strict limit on number of immigrants (170,000) eliminated "national origins" system of the 20s lots of Asians began to immigrate Legacies of the Great Society o Great Society = major increase in federal spending o 1964 - Johnson passed $11.5 billion tax cut increased federal deficit, but economic growth compensated
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Page 73 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

by 1980s, people convince that Great Society experiments hadn't worked, gov't couldn't solve social problems o achievements of GS reduced hunger made medical care available to millions of elderly & poor greatest reduction in poverty in US history Battle for Racial Equality Expanding Protests o Woolworth's sit-in in Greensboro, NC in 1960 o more protests spread through the south in 1960 o Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) - worked to keep spirit of resistance alive o Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) (1961) "Freedom Rides" - tried to force desegregation of southern bus stations Kennedy forced integration of all bus & train stations o Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) - created citizen-education and other programs to help fight Jim Crow laws e.g. Ella Baker o 1962 - federal court ordered University of Mississippi to enroll 1st black student, James Meredith Kennedy sent troops to fight white resistance o Martin Luther King, Jr. launched series of nonviolent demonstrations in Birmingham, Alabama Police Commissioner Eugene "Bull" Connor supervised brutal effort to break up peaceful marches Governor George Wallace pledged to stand in doorway of University of Alabama to prevent enrollment of several black students Federal marshals + Robert Kennedy forced Wallace to give way National Commitment o events in Alabama & Mississippi signaled that JFK couldn't ignore race issue o JFK proposed legislation prohibiting segregation, discrimination o March on Washington of 1963 200,000 demonstrators JFK supported march MLK's "I Have a Dream" speech o JFK's civil rights efforts stalled after his assassination o Johnson pushed through the Civil Rights Act Battle for Voting Rights o "Freedom Summer" - 1964 campaign for black voting rights produced violent white response Andrew Goodman, Michael Schwerner, James Chaney murdered by the KKK Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) led by Fannie Lou Hamer challenged regular party's rights to seats at the Democratic National Convention Johnson enlisted King's help to broker a compromise o 1965 - MLK organized demonstration in Selma, Alabama sheriff Jim Clark led brutal attack on demonstrators televised, shocked nation o events in Alabama helped push LBJ's Civil Rights Act of 1965/Voting Rights Act provided protection to blacks attempting to exercise their right to vote Changing Movement o blacks moving out of rural areas, South, into urban communities o push toward addressing job discrimination - "affirmative action" o 1966 - campaign in Chicago to direct national attention to housing and employment discrimination in northern cities Urban Violence o violence broke out in black neighborhoods in major cities
o
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Page 74 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

1964 - Harlem Watts Riot of 1965 (Los Angeles) largest race riot since end of WWII televised violence shocked nation again o Commission on Civil Disorders issued report in 1968 - recommending massive spending to improve ghetto conditions Black Power o Suggested move away from interracial cooperation and toward increase awareness of racial distinctiveness o Drew from the Garvey movement o BP instilled racial pride in blacks o Caused division within Civil Rights Movement Moderate - NAACP, Urban League, SCLC Radical - CORE, SNCC o Black Panther Party - founded by Huey Newton & Bobby Seale Promised to defend black rights even through violence Malcolm X o Nation of Islam - based in Detroit Led by Elijah Poole Taught blacks to take responsibility for their own lives, reject dependence on whites o Malcolm X was the most celebrated Black Muslim o Intelligent, great speaker, harsh opposition to racism o Didn't advocate violence o Rivals within Nation of Islam killed Malcolm in 1965 o Autobiography of Malcolm X "Flexible Response and the Cold War" Diversifying Foreign Policy o JFK wanted more diverse methods of opposing communism than the Eisenhower-era nuclear option o Expanded Special Forces/Green Berets o JFK proposed "Alliance for Progress" - series of projects for peaceful development of Latin America, to repair relations o Alliance for International Development - set up by JFK to coordinate foreign aid o Peace Corps - sent young volunteers abroad to work in developing areas o Bay of Pigs invasion - 1961 - CIA-planned insurrection in Cuba to overthrow Castro Failed Confrontations with the Soviet Union o JFK met in Vienna with Nikita Khrushchev, Soviet premier Didn't reduce tensions Khrushchev threatened war unless US ceased to support a noncommunist West Berlin East Berliners continued to migrate to West Berlin Berlin Wall erected by Khrushchev in 1961 o Cuban Missile Crisis Evidence that Soviets were constructing sites on Cuba for nuclear weapons JFK ordered naval/air blockade of cuba Khrushchev backed down, with US pledge not to invade Cuba Johnson and the World o Johnson had no foreign policy experience o Intervention in Dominican Republic Rebellion in DR General Rafael Trujillo's dictatorship toppled Many factions struggled for control Revolt led by Juan Bosch seemed to Johnson an effort to establish a pro-Castro regime Johnson dispatched troops to quell disorder & ensure conservative forces remained in power Agony of Vietnam
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Page 75 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

First Indochina War o Vietnam was a major power in the region, but a subjugated province of China o Mid-1800s - Vietnam became colony of France o WWII - fell under Japanese control o After WWII, power struggle French trying to reassert control Vietminh - Nationalist movement led by Ho Chi Minh o US interested in growing the economies of Western Europe, so they allowed France to retake control of Vietnam French drove our Ho Chi Minh, established unstable government under Bao Dai o Vietminh challenged French regime French asked US for aid Truman recognized Dai government, agreed to provide military/economic aid o First Indochina War - Truman & Eisenhower supported French campaign against Vietminh Battle of Dien Bien Phu - French surrounded, sieged by Vietminh Led to withdrawl of France from Vietnam Geneva and the Two Vietnams o Geneva Conference Ended First Indochina War Split Vietnam temporarily at 17th parallel o Partition of Vietnam Essentially artificial North Vietnam Controlled by the Vietminh Heart of traditional Vietnamese society - Homogeneous, stable society Poorest region of Vietnam Committed to reunifying the nation South Vietnam Recently settled area Very few Vietnamese - mostly Cambodians Heterogeneous, highly factionalized society area of strongest French influence America & Diem o US became principal benefactor of Southern Vietnam o government led by Ngo Dinh Diem aristocratic Catholic initially successful o Diem started campaign to eliminate Vietminh resistance in South Vietnam o new policy from Moscow in 1959 encouraged communist wars of national liberation encouraged Ho Chi Minh to resume armed struggle for national unification o National Liberation Front (Viet Cong) established to overthrow Diem's regime & reunite Vietnam 1961 - NLF destabilizing Diem's regime o Diem losing support in South Vietnam Diem repressed South Vietnamese Buddhists to establish Catholicism as dominant relgion Buddhists responded with demonstrations Diem responded with troops demonstrations got bigger o US reconsidered support of Diem JFK decided US had to keep supporting South Vietnam Diem refused to reform government US supported plot to topple Diem From Aid to Intervention
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Page 76 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Johnson faced pressures to expand American commitment Johnson's advisers felt need for war in Vietnam Sec. of State Dean Rusk, Sec. of Defense Robert McNamara, National Security Adviser McGeorge Bundy o Vietnam was example of anticommunist ally appealing to US for support Vietnam War was consistent with last 20 yrs of US foreign policy o Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Johnson announced that US ships in Gulf of Tonkin had been attacked authorized Pres to take all necessary measures to protect American forces & prevent further aggression in Southeast Asia o 1965 - Johnson announced that US troops would now take active combat role in conflict o US dropped more tonnage of bombs on North Vietnams than in the entirety of WWII o US established stable government in South under General Nguyen Van Thieu Viet Cong controlled majority of South Vietnam The Quagmire o Vietnam War lasted 7 years o Strategy of "Attrition" belief that US could inflict so many casualties/damage that enemy would give up failed, Viet Cong willing to sacrifice more soldiers than expected US relied heavily on bombing strategic targets devastated North Vietnamese economy didn't work Vietnam wasn't an industrial society Vietnamese build system of underground tunnels, shops, & factories secured aid from Soviet Union & China increased North's will to continue o Strategy of "Pacification" plan to push Viet Cong from areas, then "pacify" those regions by winning the "hearts and minds" of the people o Strategy of Relocation replaced pacification US troops uprooted villagers from homes, sent them fleeing to refugee camps and into cities destroyed remaining cities & surrounding countryside US trying to eliminate Viet Cong sanctuaries The War at Home o "teach-ins" sparked discussion over the war o Peace marches in DC, NY o journalists exposed brutality/futility of war o Senator J. William Fulbright of Arkansas, chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee turned against the war in 1966 o so did George F. Kennan & General James Gavin o Robert F. Kennedy o War-Induced Inflation inflation spiked in because of War, Great Society Programs, & the tax break Congress passed 10% war tax & cut $6 billion in Great Society programs Traumas of 1968 Tet Offensive o communist forces launched enormous attack on US strongholds in South Vietnam o televised, devastated popular support for war o US troops responded effectively, drove Viet Cong out of positions they had taken o Tet Offensive deeply hurt communists had little impact on American opinion Political Challenge
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Page 77 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

1967 - dissident Dems led by Allard Lowenstein tried to mobilize support behind antiwar candidate to challenge Johnson in Primaries supported Eugene McCarthy nearly defeated LBJ o the Robert Kennedy arose as Democratic antiwar candidate LBJ withdrew from campaign RFK became champion of Dem primaries o VP Hubert Humphrey entered race, supported by Johnson, became front-runner King & Kennedy Assassinations o Martin Luther King, Jr. assassinated produced outpouring of grief major race riots broke out in 60 cities o Robert F. Kennedy assasinated had identified his hopes with the "underclass" RFK shaped the "Kennedy legacy" - a set of ideals that would shape American liberalism using gov't to help the powerless o Hubert Humphrey secured Democratic nomination o on night of Democratic National Convention, bloody riot in Chicago televised Conservative Response o American people reacted conservatively, not liberally segregationist George Wallace made surprisingly successful campaign for presidency o Republican party worked to mobilize the "silent majority" that favored stability and order Richard Nixon reemerged as spokesman for "Middle America" Americans tired of hearing about obligations to the poor or sacrifices needed for racial justice o Humphrey surged in last few weeks as questions arose about Nixon's character o Nixon won narrow victory
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Chapter 32: The Crisis of Authority


Friday, April 22, 2011 2:05 PM

Ryan O'Shea 11B The Youth Culture 2 impulses being vented by the youth o creation of a great new community of "the people", which would rise up to break the poer of the elites and force the nation to end the war, pursue racial and economic justice, and transform its political life o "Liberation" - efforts of minorities to demand things from larger society + individualism The New Left o baby boom = more than half of US under 30 o New Left - radicalization of college students embraced the cause of blacks & other minorities o Sources of the New Left some children of "Old Left" parents, grew up with critical view of society relatively few communists but many drew on writings of Marx Labor movement 2 movements broke ties eventually because of anticommunism of the AFL-CIO Civil Rights Movement anti-Vietnam War o Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) Port Huron Statement - expressed disillusionment with society
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Page 78 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

New Left was mostly college students, issues centered on universities Free Speech Movement in Berkeley Students fighting for right to pass out literature and recruit volunteers for political causes on campus Revolts spread through universities in 68-69 "People's Park" - 1960 effort to build a park on a vacant lot owned by UC Berkeley o Student groups grew violent "Weathermen" - violent offshoot of SDS o against Vietnam War Tried to drive out ROTC anti-war protests 1967 march on Pentagon "Spring mobilization" of 1968 Vietnam "moratorium" of 1969 o opposition to military draft government removed ways to get out of draft students began protesting, burning draft cards The Counterculture o "Hippies" long hair, shabby/flamboyant clothing rebellious disdain for traditional speech/decorum drug use free sex o Haight-Ashbury, San Francisco o Theodore Roszak's The Making of a Counter Culture (1969) o Charles Reich's The Greening of America (1970) people should strive for a new form of consciousness o Rock 'n' Roll spread in 60s Beatles, Rolling Stones, Bob Dylan, Joan Baez o movies/TV explored controversial issues Mobilization of Minorities Seeds of Indian Militancy o started calling themselves Native Americans o grievances income less than blacks unemployment 10x national average limited education/training low life expectancy o after John Collier resigned as commissioner of Indian Affairs in 1946 federal policy shaped by assimilation "Termination" Policy government withdrew all recognition of the tribes as legal entities Assimilation & Termination policies were successful in limiting tribes' power o Failure of "Termination" Native Americans hated it 1958 - Eisenhower banned terminations without consent of affected tribes struggle against termination mobilized the National Congress of American Indians Indian Civil Rights Movement o Vine Deloria, Jr.'s Custer Died for Your Sins o Dee Brown's Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee o 1961 - 67 tribes gathered in Chicago to discuss ways to unite Indians against wrongs National Indian Youth Council
o
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Page 79 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

American Indian Movement - militant movement in cities Indian Civil Rights Act of 1968 - guaranteed reservation Indians protection under Bill of Rights dispute over fishing rights of Natives in Washington state some natives seized Alcatraz Island o Nixon appointed a Native to commissioner of Indian Affairs in 1969 o Occupation of Wounded Knee 1973 - AIM seized Wounded Knee for 2 months demanded that government honor treaty obligations brief battle o Cases: US v. Wheeler (1978) - tribes have independent legal standing and cannot be terminated by Congress County of Oneida v. Oneida Indian Nation (1985) - supported Indian claims to 100,000 acres in New York o indianism didn't flourish because there wasn't one single Indian culture o Important Legal Victories won protections that gave them stronger position renewed awareness of/pride in identity Latino Activism o fastest-growing minority group o immigration from Puerto Rico fleeing Castro in Cuba o after WWII labor shortage ended, latinos continued to illegally immigrate o limited prospects: poor education language barrier o "Chicano Activism" - like Black Power o Cesar Chavez's United Farm Workers o bilingualism 1974 - Supreme Court ruled that non-english speaker could be taught their native language in school Challenging the "Melting Pot" Ideal o new ethnics less willing to repudiate their cultural identity and become part of the American culture o advocated cultural pluralism led to "multiculturalism" in the 80s-90s Gay Liberation o 1969 - Stonewall Riot Stonewall Inn - gay nightclub in Greenwich Village, NYC 1969 - police arrested patrons just for being there gays fought back riot started marked beginning of Gay Liberation Movement o Gay Liberation Front o Impact of Gay Liberation Movement helped gays to become proud of who they are changed society's attitudes to the practice o backlash Clinton tried to end Dont Ask Dont Tell in 1993, didn't succeed Bush proposed amendment to ban gay marriage The New Feminism The Rebirth o Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique (1963) women had been trapped in the home, the "comfortable concentration camp" women needed to fulfill their unique possibilities
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Page 80 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

JFK established Commission on the Status of Women Equal Pay Act of 1963 - barred paying women less Title VII amendment to the Civil Rights Act (1964) - extended legal protections of the CRA to women Contradiction in feminism happy domesticity vs. women's duties to America o National Organization for Women (NOW) - founded by Friedan & 1966 Women's Liberation o new, young, more radical feminism o Kate Millett's Sexual Politics (1969) women had to assault the male power structure o Shulamith Firestone's The Dialectic of Sex (1970) o rejected the whole notion of marriage Expanding Achievements o 1971 - government extended affirmative action to women o 1969 - universities begin admitting women o women getting jobs o title of "Ms." became popular o women in Congress o Sandra Day O'Connor in Supreme Court then Ruth Bader Ginsberg o sports Billie Jean King o Equal Rights Amendment of 1972 failed Abortion Controversy o Roe v. Wade (1973) legalized abortion in 1st trimester used "right to privacy" provided by Griswold v. Connecticut Environmentalism in a Turbulent Society causes o environmental degradation o growth of ecology as a science New Science of Ecology o old rationale for environmentalism was beauty, spirituality o new rationale was ecology o science of the inter-relatedness of the natural world o taught that enviro problems were related to causes o Stephen A. Forbes o Aldo Leopold's The Sand County Almanac - humans have a responsibility to preserve nature o Rachel Carson's Silent Spring - exposed dangers of DDT o after WWII, ecology grew Environmental Advocacy o Wilderness Society/Sierra Club, National Audubon Society, Nature Conservancy, Ntionnal Wildlife Federation, National Parks and Conservation Association o new professional environmental activists lobbyists Environmental Degradation o Lady Bird Johnson - wife of LBJ "beatification" campaign in 60s dismayed at ravaging of land by industrial economy o water pollution o smog o oil well in Santa Barbara, CA exploded (1969) o 1989 - Exxon Valdez catastrophe
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Page 81 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

CFCs Earth Day and Beyond o 1970 - Earth Day established o Nixon established Environmental Protection Agency in 1970 o 1970 - Clean Air Act o 1972 - Clean Water Act Nixon, Kissinger, and the War withdrawal from Vietnam would shatter American "credibility" Vietnamization o Henry Kissinger appointed as National Security advisor to Nixon o Kissinger & Nixon set out to find solution in Vietnam o "lottery system" - only a limited group would be subject to the draft movement toward all-volunteer army o Policy of "Vietnamization" training and equipping South Vietnamese military to take over for US started US withdrawal - most out by 1972 Escalation o best way to help win War was to bomb North Vietnamese bases in Cambodia o Cambodian invasion enraged the anti-war movement o Kent State - 4 students killed during demonstration o Congress repealed Gulf of Tonkin Resolution o Pentagon Papers - exposed government dishonesty about motives/status of the War o decay in military: My Lai Massacre - William Calley oversaw massacre of 300 S. Vietnamese o White House approved FBI & CIA illegal infiltrations of antiwar groups o VP Spiro Agnew criticized people who criticized the administration o invaded Laos to test the vietnamization program failed o Easter Offensive - N. Vietnamese 1972 offensive Americans/S. Vietnamese held communists off made it clear that without US, S. Vietnam would fall "Peace with Honor" o Election of 72 pressured Nixon to work toward peace agreement dropped insistence on withdrawal of Northern troops before US withdrawal Oct 26, Kissinger announced that "peace is at hand" talks broke down again negotiating with Le Duc Tho Thieu's regime in S Vietnam balked, wanted withdrawal of N troops o "Christmas Bombing" of 1972 US bombed N Vietnamese targets high casualties o US & NV returned to talks 1973 - signed agreement, pressured Thieu to accept Defeat in Indochina o Paris accords collapsed in first year of cease-fire o Saigon & S Vietnam fell o Lon Nol regime in Cambodia fell to communists of Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge Nixon, Kissinger, and the World America must adapt to "multipolar" world - where US & Soviet Union weren't the only powers Nixon/Kissinger wanted to create stable "balance of power" China & the Soviet Union o US refused to recognize China after fall of Chiang Kai-shek
o
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Page 82 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Nixon/Kissinger wanted to form relationship with communist China to offset power of the Soviets Nixon's China Visit surprise initiated diplomatic relationship o SALT I - US agreement w/ Soviets to freeze nuke production Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty Problems of Multipolarity o Nixon Doctrine - US would participate in defense/development of allies, bt would leave basic responsibility for the future of those allies to the nations themselves declining interest in contributing to Third World growing contempt for United Nations, where developing nations rose to prominence simply because of numbers increasing support to authoritarian regimes o 1970 - CIA funded Chilean government resisting Communist rebellion 1973 - US funded destabilization of that government when a Marxist was elected to office o "Six-Day War" 1967 Israel routed Egyptian, Syrian, Jordanian forces gained control of Jerusalem and other territories Gaza Strip, West bank of the Jordan River, Golan Heights Palestinians upset, began causing problems in neighboring countries Yom Kippur War, 1973 - surprise attack by Syria, Egypt on Israel Israel turned war around, was about to exploit advantage US intervened, forced Israel to accept cease-fire Arab Oil Embargo - stopped selling oil to supporters of Israel (including US) evidence of growing dependence on Arab oil Politics and Economics under Nixon Domestic Initiatives o Nixon believed he had to work for the "silent majority" - middle-class people who wanted stability o removed penalties for schools that didn't integrate o Dismantling the Great Society & New Frontier abolished office of Economic Opportunity From the Warren Court to the Nixon Court o many americans viewed Supreme Courts support of civil rights had contributed to moral decay Engel v. Vitale (1962) - prayers in public schools unconstitutional Roth v. US (1957) - limited authority of local governments to curb porn strengthened rights of defendants, weakened law enforcement Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) - every felony defendant entitled to lawyer Escobedo v. Illinois (1964) - defendant must be allowed access to a lawyer before questioning by police Miranda v. Arizona (1966) - confirmed obligation of authorities to read Miranda rights o Warren Court became target of many Americans Baker v. Carr (1962) - required state legislatures to apportion electoral districts so that all citizens votes would have equal weight legislatures had given disproportionate power to rural areas now blacks, latinos, and other minorities would have increased voting power o Nixon used judicial appointments to make court more conservative Nixon replaced Earl Warren w/ Warren Burger then appointed Clement Haynesworth Senate rejected him Nixon chose G. Harrold Carswell also rejected now Nixon appointed reputable justices:
o o
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Page 83 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Harry Blackman Lewis F. Powell William Rehnquist o Nixon court fell short of conservatives' expectations o Swann v. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education (1971) - ruled in favor of use of forced busing to achieve racial balance in schools o Furman v. Georgia (1972) - established strict guidelines for capital punishment o Roe v. Wade (1973) - legalized abortion o Milliken v. Bradley (1974) plan to transfer students across district lines to achieve racial balance in Detroit o conservative rulings: Bakke v. Board of Regents of California (1978) - established restrictive guidelines for affirmative action Stone v. Powell (1976) - agreed to certain limits on right of defendant to appeal state conviction to federal courts Election of 1972 o Nixon was calm in 72 election didn't campaign o George Wallace ran for Democrats again good news for Nixon Wallace shot, paralyzed in May o Democrats nominated George McGovern - very liberal helped Nixon VP Eagleton withdrew, which condemned the ticket o Nixon won landslide Troubled Economy o success of 50s, 60s based on: absence of significant foreign competition easy access to raw materials in Third World o inflation soared significant increase in federal deficit spending Vietnam significant competition from industrializing nations nations with resources beginning to realize their value o increasing cost of energy Organization of Protroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) began to exercise real strength in 70s Arab Oil Embargo o decline of manufacturing sector now US manufacturing faced competition Japan, Europe 70s marks beginning of Deindustrialization replaced with "knowledge-based" industries that would cause surge in 80s-90s rising unemployment Nixon Response o moved to reduce spending, raise taxes unpopular turned to controlling the currency o placed conservative economists at head of Federal Reserve Board ensured sharply higher interest rates contraction of money supply did little to curb inflation o living costs rose, economic growth declining stagflation - rising prices + economic stagnation o 1971 - Nixon imposed freeze on all wages/prices for 90 days

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Page 84 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

then Phase II - mandatory guidelines for wage/price increases, administrated by federal agency recession continued Nixon reversed let interest rates drop increased federal spending = huge deficit gave up on Phase II inflation skyrocketed Watergate Crisis Nixon began to consider criticism a threat to national security The Scandals o public expectations of president had increased dramatically since WWII o constraints on presidency grew as well o thus, presidents began bending/breaking rules created bureaucratic structure that channeled almost all power to the White House o Watergate Break-in 1972 - Police arrested 5 men who had broken into offices of the Democratic National Committee at the Watergate Hotel Washington Post discovered that men were former Nixon campaign employees had been paid by secret fund of reelection committee went on trial under prodding from judge John J. Sirica, James W. McCord testified to cooperate w/ jury o 2 sets of scandals emerging: general pattern of abuses of power by White House & Nixon included Watergate break-in Cover-up of the Watergate scandal Nixon manipulated investigations to obstruct justice refused to give up tapes of conversations in Oval Office "Saturday Night Massacre" Archibald Cox appointed by Nixon to prosecute took Nixon to court to force him to relinquish tapes Nixon fired Cox Attorney General Elliot Richardson & his deputy resigned in protest caused House to look into impeachment The Fall of Richard Nixon o VP Spiro Agnew involved in scandal - accepted bribes/kickbacks as gov of Maryland resigned Gerald Ford appointed as VP o US v. Richard M. Nixon (1974) - Supreme Court ruled that Nixon had to give up tapes o House Judiciary Committee voted to recommend three articles of impeachment obstructed justice in Watergate cover-up misused federal agencies to violate rights of citizens defied Congress by refusing to deliver tapes o Nixon surrendered the "smoking gun" - the last of the tapes o Aug 8, 1974 - Richard Nixon resigned the presidency o Gerald Ford sworn in as President o Nixon's downfall seemed to confirm radical beliefs about character of American politics
o o o

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Page 85 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Class Notes
First Colonies
Saturday, September 25, 2010 10:36 AM

Virginia

Large numbers of settlers leads to conflict w/ natives o pushed further westward o 1640s - coastal region (Tidewater) mostly settled new governor appointed 1642: Sir William Berkeley o tried to deal with problem of natives by establishing fur trade w/ them o 1660s - people moving further west, pushing natives farther west o 1670s - Berkeley decides to halt westward expansion o 1670s - Sir Francis Bacon - aristocrat kept out of Green Spring Group, Berkeleys inner circle (got money from Berkeley) Bacons Rebellion o westerners decide to take matters into their own hands, have demands: Representation in the Burgesses keep pushing frontier westward o 1675 - war on frontier vs Indians want governor to send Virginia militia to the frontier Berkeley refuses o landless, indentured men could no longer get headrights (Company went under) only place left for land is the frontier they rose up with Bacon o Bacons army moved on Jamestown to replace Berkeley w/ Bacon Berkeley flees but Bacon dies of dysentary Berkeley contacts Parliament, asked for military assistance rebellion collapses o Repercussions of Bacons Rebellion Slavery planters who had used indentured servants became suspicious of unstable labor force turned to African slaves 1690s - explosion in slave trade decline in indentured servants due to improvement in English economy also, all the good land had been taken Royal African Company had monopoly on slave trade price of slaves plummets led to dramatic increase in slave trade in Carolinas, rice is being grown, demand for labor high whites refuse to work on rice plantations slavery firmly entrenched in plantation economy of the south by beginning of 18th C all colonies had slaves Oglethorpe tried to keep them out of Georgia, but failed conflict between settlers in east & west 1634 - founded haven for Catholics in the New World
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Maryland

Page 86 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

1625 - James I dies, succeeded by Charles I o closet Catholic o wife Henrietta Marie was openly Catholic o but still head of the Anglican church couldnt openly tolerate Catholicism 1st Lord of Baltimore o also Catholic o 1632 - got charter from Charles I to establish colony out of Virginia claims o wanted to create safe-haven for Catholics, but dies before 2nd Lord of Baltimore - Celcilius Calvert o sent settlers aboard Ark & Dove o made first settlement St. Marys o Catholics were minority o Calvert forced to attract more Catholics instituted Headrights o 1649 - issued An Act of Toleration b/c of tension between catholics and Protestants all Christians could worship freely didnt end problems o pressured into forming a representative assembly dominated by Protestants repealed Act of Toleration forbade Catholics from saying mass Maryland indistinguishable from VA o slaves, tobacco, plantation economy 1620 Virginia (London) company hired John Smith to map out coastline of New England o 1616 - called area New England o set up base for Company in Plymouth Religious Strife in England o Elizabethan Compromise didnt solve problems o Calvinists want further reform in Church of England too much like Catholic Church too much ornamentation Pulpit replaces Altar Ministers replace Priests mass changes radically Predestination

New England

French & Indian War


10/11
Monday, October 11, 2010 3:48 PM 1750 - Iron Act o to limit production of iron products o could continue to mine iron ore, but couldnt build any more plants to finish the iron o Peter Hasenclavens Ironworks Edmund Burkes salutary neglect o Robert Walpole argued that theres no reason to aggravate colonists Let sleeping dogs lie. o Navigation Acts werent really being enforced
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Page 87 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

smuggling continued customs officials bribed vice-admiralty courts - to try accused smugglers no trial by jury never used 1763 - New Imperialism o Colonial Wars second 100 Years War o War of the League of Augsburg (King Williams War) [1789-97] coalition founded to stop advances of Louis XIV expanding into Dutch, German territory o Dutch stadholder William of Orange (becomes William III) o William makes England join League of Augsburg Ended by Treaty of Ryswick - no land awarded o French in the NW st 1608 - France established 1 permanent colony in New World - Quebec private stock company (New France = corporate colony until 1660s) Louis XIV takes control of New France in 1660s ruled w/ iron fist refused to allow assemblies most French settlers were Fur Traders French befriended the Natives b/c they werent farmers - didnt need to push Indians off their land taught NAs to hate the English 1685 - Louis revoked Edict of Nantes no protestants (Huguenots) allowed in New France New France had small population 1750 England had 1 million so French allied themselves w/ the Natives French claimed a ton of land in the continental interior middle ground Iroquois o noncommittal o War of the Spanish Succession (Queen Annes War) Louis XIV tried to get relative on Spanish throne another coalition formed against Louis, England joined neither GB nor France thought they needed to send troops here casualties very low Treaty of Utrecht - GB wins lots of French land Newfoundland & Nova Scotia o Europe now trying to avoid war o 1738 - English captive Robert Jenkins stopped in Caribbean by Spanish War Ship Asiento - English right to bring slaves to Spanish colonies (won in Utrecht) Robert Jenkins bringing slaves became belligerent, got ear cut off 1739 - Jenkins presents his ear to Parliament o drove the English to naval war w/ Spain o War of Jenkinss Ear o 1740-8 - War of Austrian Succession (King Georges War) Frederick II of Prussia invades Austria Massachusetts militia captured Louisbourg (protected St. Lawrence River) Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle GB agrees to turn over Louisbourg to French

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Page 88 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

French begin to build string of forts in Ohio Valley Fort Duquesne Ohio, Allegheny, & Monongahela Rivers Governor Dinwiddie (VA) concerned about the fort o investor in Ohio Company (1747) Virginia had claimed western PA given 500,000 acres by England many wealthy planters invested in company George Washington o George Washington b. 1732 father Augustine George became surveyor @ 16 developed close ties to Iroquois joined VA Militia (Lieutenant Colonel) 1754 - sent w/ Indian scouts to see whats going on w/ Fort Duquesne realized that it was almost done Washington built Fort Necessity sent out Indian scouts to find French presence beyond Fort Duquesne Washington attacked in early hours of the morning, massacred French French commandant of Duquesne attack Fort Necessity retreat, surrendered Necessity Washington requests British troops to deal w/ Frehch Washington fired 1st shots of French & Indian War o Edward Braddock sent to America w/ British soldiers egotistical refused to trust NAs as scouts 1500 British + 1500 Virginia Militiamen + 8 Indians 1755 - tried to take Duquesne but ambushed while marching by Natives Braddock killed 976 died Washington almost died Seven Years War o French took many British forts o Montcalm directing French forces French used French troops, but British used colonial militias
o

Pre-War Tensions
10/20
Wednesday, October 20, 2010 4:20 PM British troops stationed in Boston Lobsterbacks soldiers had very low pay soldiers looking for jobs worked mostly on the docks competing w/ Bostons lowest class willing to work for much less than Bostonians March 5 1770 - Boston Massacre - in front of the Customs House, Kings Street sentry posted outside the house
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Page 89 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

kids start pelting him w/ snowballs called for more soldiers captain of soldiers (Preston) shows up crowd getting angrier, dockworkers show up situation gets nastier throwing sticks, cobblestone soldier gets knocked over, musket goes off other soldiers begin to fire 5 Americans killed, 8 wounded trial held afterward to try soldiers soldiers defended by John Adams charges are bogus changed the charge to manslaughter all but 3 acquitted, 3 convicted of manslaughter Sons of Liberty try to stir up opposition Paul Reveres Engraving circulated all over colonies Massacre caused repeal of Townshend duties Lord North is new PM (Pitt/Townshend out) - 1770 had support of Parliament Townshend Duties not working total 21,000 out of 700,000 losses to commerce boycotts had succeeded made Parliament repeal TDs, but left the Tea duty as a matter of principle Colonists kept boycotting tea Calm for 2 years until June 1772 Gaspee incident British revenue spooner; caught smugglers hated by colonists Gaspe runs aground in Narragansett Bay Colonists dress as Natives, overpower sentry on ship, burn the Gaspe 1st time colonists destroyed British Property British set up unlimited commission to investigate transported anyone suspected to England to stand trial but, no one would talk Americans began to suspect conspiracy among policymakers in London to undermine liberty North were conspiring to undermine British constitution by setting up unlimited commission, violated English Bill of Rights NY, Mass assemblies had been suspended Most historians believe that Revolution wasnt caused by taxes instead caused by a threat to American liberty taxes were catalyst Gaspee was important propaganda tool Sam Adams creates Committees of Correspondence keep colonies informed of every action of GB 1773 - Tea Act East India Company had monopoly on Tea would use profits to run India EIC on verge of Bankruptcy

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Page 90 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

would be forced to control India directly Eliminated duties, bypassed tea wholesalers (middlemen) made tea much cheaper

Oct 25, 26, 28; Nov 2-4

Revolutionary War
Monday, October 25, 2010 5:20 PM Lexington & Concord o Gage gets orders to crush the rebellion knew militias were stockpiling weapons in Concord Samuel Adams & John Hancock, both wanted, hiding out in Lexington o Patriots one step ahead of Gage Gages wife might have leaked information knew that Gage would move against Concord, but didnt know the date o April 18th Sons of Liberty forced rector of Old North Church to surrender keys to the belfry highest steeple in Boston 1 lantern British moving by land 2 lanterns British moving by sea British actually came by water to Charlestown peninsula Paul Revere & William Dawes meet Dr. Sam Prescott in Lexington to inform everyone of which

route the British were taking The Regulars are coming! tell Hancock & Adams to get the hell out of dodge Dr. Sam Prescott dating a girl in Lexington Revere stopped by British patrol Dawes tries to jump a fence, gets thrown off horse, runs into the woods Prescott carries news to Concord o Concord hide their stash in the forest o Battle April 19, 1775 Lexington John Parker sounds alarm that British are on their way militia assembled in Buckmans Tavern Parker assembles men on Lexinton green instructs men not to fire unless fired on Major John Pitcairn commanding British marines orders militia to disperse Parker tells men to go home (saw there were a ton of British) st 1 shot fired no one knows who? 8 americans killed o Pitcairn goes to Concord & search town & homes cross small bridge on way back Concord militia attack on bridge Patriots start taking shots from anywhere they can along the Britishs way back to Boston Pitcairn needed reinforcements from Gage 72 British KIA, 200 wounded 49 American KIA, 50 wounded o Postriders carried new to other colonies Hartford local militia volunteered to assist the Mass militia Hartford militia led by Benedict Arnold Vermont Ethan Allen & Green Mountain Boys volunteered Benedict Arnold & Ethan Allen knew Fort Ticonderoga was lightly defended, offered to take the fort
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Page 91 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

May 10 Ticonderoga surrenders w/o battle found gunpower, muskets, flints, 50 pieces of artillery May 10, 1775 Second Continental Congress o Congress assumed governmental powers o decided to create Continental Army June 14, 1775 John Adams recommended that George Washington be given command Washington was only delegate to show up in full dress military uniform Adams knew Washington would bring the South into the war Battle of Bunker Hill Charlestown, PA redowbt earthen fort British under Howe try to get Patriots off the redowbt didnt exactly work Israel Putnam commanded militia @ Bunker Hill dont fire until you see the whites of their eyes rd 3 Assault militia ran out of ammo orderly retreat off of Breeds Hill, back into Charlestown tons of British casualties General Clinton (on Howes staff): one more victory such as this, and we will lose this war British expected Americans to run away moral victory for colonists Washington realizes job before him 13,000 militiamen in Continental force ill-trained, ill-equipped has almost no supplies o John Dickinson Causes & Necessities of Taking Up Arms Congress wanted to remain part of the Empire o Reasons Opinions Change: War escalates Common Sense Thomas Paine just arrived from England defended John Wilkes in writings had openly criticized Peace of Paris, G3, & Bute Govt member of Parliament fled to France, returned, ran & won for Parliament became symbol of oppression of King John Barre was another critic of English govt Franklin asked Paine to write for his newspaper, said yes January 1776 Publishes Common Sense over 300,000 copies printed almost every white adult Age of Reason Paine is atheist reason there arent any statues of Paine in America Why it was popular: first book to point to G3 as tyrant only made Biblical references, no classical references written in common language still appealed to intellectuals: God never meant us to be under British control put an ocean between us refuted every single pro-British argument Parliament rejects Olive Branch Petition
o o
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Page 92 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Prohibitory Act closed all ports to Colonial trade enforced by British navy King George III hired additional German (Hessians) troops th June 7 , 1776 Lee Resolution Richard Henry Lee o Henceforth, these colonies ought to be free and independent states. o 4 colonies voted it down, but had majority The Declaration of Independence (1776) o 5-man committee: Ben Franklin (PA), Robert Livingston (NY), Roger Sherrman (Mass), John Adams (Mass), Thomas Jefferson (VA) o Jefferson (b. 1743) 1774 The Summary Rights of Englishmen well known father Peter was surveyor, had vast tracts of land in VA Jeff was aristocrat sister Jane was important in younger years taught him how to read, French, violin th got 5,000 acres for 15 birthday went to College of William & Mary studied under William Small instilled lifelong love of science George Wyeth was lawyer, trained Jeff 1769 Ran for Virginia House of Burgesses, met GW, became friends most admired Patrick Henry because he stirred passion through speech; Jeff was shy instead, was Jeff great writer everyone expected Adams to draft the Declaration Adams told Jeff to draft it: Virginia should be at the head I am unpopular and obnoxious 10x the writer I am o Jefferson spent June pouring over many pamphlets o debates raging to persuade opposing colonies to support Lee Resolution eventually agreed o July 2, 1776 Colonies proclaimed their independence o July 4, 1776 Jeffersons final draft we hold these truths to be self-evident - Franklins words Jefferson upset while Congress criticized removed all sections about slavery o July 8 - 1st public reading o July 9 - GW reads it to his troops o The Declaration itself Persuasive essay Preamble Opening statement and thesis Body Conclusion Written for 3 audiences Americans, British and a world audience In the eyes of the Americans they were changing the world

MISSED NOTES ABOUT DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE


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Page 93 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

British in Boston evacuated on Evacuation Day o Henry Knox moved artillery from Ticonderoga to Boston o GW set up artillery on Dorchester Heights above Boston o William Howe didnt see strategic value in Boston, evacuated took some loyalists too to Nova Scotia, to plan next step Sir Richard Howe brought Navy to New York Howe Brothers: o sympathetic to Americans o William originally turned down command, persuaded by Germaine Howe wanted to break back of Revolution by taking NY o large city o port o Hudson cut off NE New York o British had huge armada wanted to end the war militarily & politically o Washington confronted w/ flotilla & Howes army outnumbered, no idea where Howe would strike on Long Island forced to split his forces (Manhattan & Long Island) o Aug 27 British attack Long Island Americans left path undefended, outflanked Americans broke ranks & ran untrained Howe doesnt take advantage of victory didnt press on and destroy army Aug 29 Miracle GW organizes retreat, without detection on East River back to Manhattan Howe requests meeting w/ Washington didnt call him General, pissed Washington off Howe requests meeting w/ Franklin only if Washington surrendered forces, so never happened o British come up East river, attack Manhattan unopposed o Washington set up key defenses in Manhattan but just went right through them, British capture NY o Fort Washington & Fort Lee fell to British Fort Washington over 3,000 troops surrendered John Adams In general, our generals were out-generaled. GW had major strategic difference from British o Washington lost 6/9 set battles o thought it was a war of attrition as long as the war drags on, we can win British are eventually going to give up didnt make sense to continue war in order to get tax money Washington continued retreat into PA o army disintegrating many leaving when term was up armies settled down through winter o Washingtons spy network finds out that German troops celebrate Christmas w/ extra rations of rum & beer th planned attack for morning of 26 on Trenton Jersey filled w/ Loyalists William Franklin (son of Franklin) was governor of Jersey, Loyalist
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Page 94 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Ben never talked to him again after stating he was a Loyalist 60,000 80,000 fled America 20-30% was Loyalist in Jersey o Washington extremely afraid of this battle o Disasters: 2 armies supposed to cross river in south, prevented by ice army was late crossing, waiting for Henry Knox weather was terrible Washington wanted complete silence Knox loading artillery into boats Harry, sit your fat ass down! laughter o Battle of Trenton Knox set up artillery on every road out of the town Hessian commandant of Trenton General Johann Rall had spies watching americans one saw them crossing river, came back spy tried to see Rall, who was drunk playing cards never looked at message all hell broke loose, Americans won o also won Battle of Princeton Trenton & Princeton victories saved the army o liberated NJ o Howe pulled troops out winter 1777 Morristown, NJ 1777 - Year of the Hangman ~British o 3 pronged plan to cut off NE from rest of colonies, by taking NY State John Burgoyne, from Canada, to Albany Gentleman Johnny took Hessians, Mohawks with him Colonel Barry St. Leger, from Canada, through Mohawk River, to Albany Howe, from Hudson, to Albany o Howe changed his mind left Clinton in NY attacked Philadelphia rebel capitol thought the Americans would negotiate if they lost Philadelphia psychological blow would force Washington to Philadelphia, where he could defeat Washingtons army landed force of 11,000 in Maryland, where there were lots of Loyalists Washington races back to Philadelphia GW had no idea where the British would strike Sep 11, 1777 British attack via Brandywine GWs forces stretched too thin, exposed flank, Howe defeats Washington Washington almost killed did his own reconnaissance along with Lafayette before battle British Captain Patrick Ferguson had invented new rifle, G3 ordered Ferguson to form a separate detachment GW & Lafayette were in plain sight, but had backs to him, didnt fire Howe enters Philly, Congress had already fled General Anthony Wayne left to shadow Howe, while GW crossed the Schuykill o Hessians found & attacked Waynes troops Paoli Massacre

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Page 95 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

How takes Philly unopposed Washington camps in Fort Washington o wanted to win one more battle o tried to dislodge Howes forces in Germantown Battle of Germantown o planned elaborate 3-pronged attack main body under GW proceed down main road (Germantown Avenue) one would come down the great ridge last would come down Limekiln Pike o supposed to coordinate attack at dawn army along ridge got lost, dont arrive until after battle begins the two side contingents started engaging each other o British completely surprised, sentries ran down Germantown Pike to spread the alarm o Chew Mansion - Mansion on Germantown Avenue, prevented Americans from winning GW decided to take out the mansion, fails tried 2 frontal attacks tried Knoxs artillery, but house made of stone took so much time, Howe could regroup, defeat GW crossed over into Valley Forge for winter o snowfall below average, didnt suffer from cold o lack of supplies Congress neglected them local farmers wouldnt sell, because GW had paper money (worthless) o mutinies Conway Cabal (Plot) to remove GW, replace him w/ Charles Lee Congress didnt remove GW, but many pushed for it W/L record was poor o deaths dysentery typhoid fever Burgoyne in upstate NY o moving very slowly o his baggage train lasted 3 miles his and his wifes crap o took Crown Point & Ticonderoga o supplies running low supplies coming from Canada mistake: sent 1,000 Hessians to look for supplies in Vermont Battle of Bennington - attacked by John Stark every Hessian surrendered to Stark o alienated many by using Mohawk Indians despite Burgoynes orders, attacked instead of being just scouts o Horatio Gates in charge of Northern Continental Army set up defensive lines at Bemis Heights (on Hudson) local militias gathered there o militias tormented Burgoyne o Gates sent Benedict Arnold to Mohawk Valley to stop St. Legers troops most of St. Legers forces were Native American Arnold knew that natives thought that insane people had to tell the troops sent 2 fake crazies to natives, said that army of 10,000 was going to attack Fort Stanwicks St. Legers troops desert, campaign falls apart
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Page 96 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Clinton had no idea what was going on with Burgoyne o his orders were to assist Burgoyne if there was trouble Arnold rejoins Gatess army o now 11,000 under Gates o British only have 7,000 Howe still thinks he can defeat Gates September 17, 1777 Battle of Saratoga Arnold did most of fighting, repelled Burgoyne o Burgoyne tried again, failed o Oct 17, 1777 Burgoyne surrendered at Freemans Farm as long as troops get safe passage back to England devastating loss for British complete disbelief in London o turning point led to alliance w/ France Carlisle Commission o set up by British Lord Norths govt o war should be negotiated in terms of everything colonists demanded in the last decade all of the taxes would be gone return to pre-1763 policies home rule for Colonies o began to realize that war wasnt winnable Franco-American Alliance of 1778 o B. Franklin sent to get treaty w/ French loved by French epitome of Rousseaus noble savage great man of enlightenment, but came from backwoods of America refused to be excessively formal o Vergennes agreed to Franklins request to set up secret company Pierre Beaumarchais watchmaker in French court ran the Hortaley Company which funneled money to American cause refused to accept America as a company Saratoga demonstrated that Americans could win the war o Alliance France would fight until America got independence wouldnt demand territory France didnt want British to get out of war unscathed Spain enters into alliance w/ France 1779 but not w/ America Spain didnt want Republicanism of American Colonies to spread to their Central/South American colonies turned AmRev into global war critical to American success French Army, Navy, money GW @ Valley Forge when he learns of Alliance Baron von Steuben arrives at VF Feb 1778 Prussian drillmaster disciplined the troops before, wasnt even a manual of drill st wrote the 1 manual of drill for the American army in German turned Continental Army into fighting force comparable to the British Howe spent winter doing nothing in Philadelphia o relieved of command in June, 1778 Clinton takes over
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Page 97 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

evacuated Philadelphia (saw no reason to keep it) Washington sees opportunity to hit Clinton before he can get to NY took forever to get out of Philly, moving to NJ, caught by Americans Battle of Monmouth Court House June 28, 1778 Charles Lee in command of Americans there inept GW relieves Lee immediately rallied Americans scorching heat Molly Pitcher (probably didnt exist) GWs horse died under him ended in draw Clinton got most of army back to NY Last major battle in the North Clinton decides that war should be ended in South (Loyalists) o overestimated support hed receive from Loyalists tried to free slaves to disrupt American war effort pissed off Southerners, joined Patriots o British take Savannah Dec 1778 large-scale guerrilla warfare Francis Merion (Swamp Fox) o 1780 Defeated at Charleston under Benjamin Lincoln 5,000 largest number of American soldiers to surrender in any battle o Horatio Gatess forces destroyed @ Camden by Cornwallis Washington fired Gates, replaced w/ Nathaniel Greene o Clinton sailed back to NY, left Lord Cornwallis in charge o tide turned in Americans favor Battle of Kings Mountain Oct 1780 unique Americans vs. Americans Tories under Patrick Ferguson overwhelmed by Americans no prisoners taken, all bayoneted to death Ferguson killed Nathaniel Greene nd Quintus Fabius Roman dictator during 2 Punic War employed hit-and-run, delaying tactics Greene used Fabian Tactics knew that they couldnt suffer another defeat vs. Cornwallis Battle of Cowpens Jan 1781 Daniel Morgans men caught Tarletons flank Banastre Tarleton ruthless, hated British officer Morgan beat Tarleton Greene decides to take on Cornwallis Guilford Court House draw, but Cornwallis lost men convinced Cornwallis to retreat to coast, Wilmington, NC (because of the navy) Cornwallis then went to VA, then back to the coast after some skirmishes
o
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Page 98 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Yorktown French navy had arrived, under Admiral de Grasse, in Caribbean had 20 state-of-the-art frigates along w/ soldiers under Rochambeau, in Newport, Rhode Island Clinton & British Navy in NY de Grasse headed to Chesapeake Washington faked an attack NY, so Clinton kept British Navy in NY French joined w/ Washingtons forces and moved to VA GW moved Am/French troops to VA, outnumbered British 18,000 vs. 8,000 plus French Navy used artillery on Britis h positions Alexander Hamilton British down to 2 redoubts, Hamilton begged to lead the assault successfully took one redoubt, another took the last redoubt Cornwallis forced to surrender British band played The World Turned Upside Down last major engagement of the war North Government falls o North resigns Confederation Congress sent Franklin & Adams to France to negotiate treaty o went behind Vergenness back, violated orders from congress, and opened negotiations w/ British France didnt want powerful USA might lead to revolution in Spanish colonies Spanish wanted Gibraltar if British didnt give us everything we wanted, well enter into permanent alliance w/ France/Spain want everything to the Mississippi Adams concerned w/ Fisheries in Canada - wanted to use them British allowed Americans to fish in their waters o needed to sell this preliminary treaty to France Spanish trying to take Gibraltar told French to go the Spain and tell them that Americans went behind our backs, but the only way to rectify is to declare war on America, which were not goint to do Just give back Florida to Spain to make them happy then they dont have to get Gibraltar Vergennes sold it to the Spanish o French got nothing, led to French Revolution o Treaty of Paris - September 3, 1783 - ended war ratified in Annapolis - capital of USA

Republicanism in Society
Thursday, November 11, 2010 4:38 PM

most governments were Absolute Monarchies o no large republics Commonwealth Period - British attempt at Republicanism ended in Cromwells military dictatorship Roman Republic - also ended in military dictatorship Framers needed to find a way to create successful republic
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Page 99 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Virtue people have to be willing to sacrifice own self-interest for betterment of community needed education to be virtuous Republican Motherhood - duty of mother is to educate children in virtue put interest in community before self-interest Commonwealths o Equality no artificial aristocracy instead meritocracy Mr/Mrs became common titles white males only, since only they had land, werent dependent, and thus could be virtuous property ownership required (people needed to be economically independent) farming > cities, which had lots of dependent workers Slavery belief in the innate inferiority of blacks o Education Women should go through primary school Judith Sargent Murray women didnt gain much ground Religion o Anglican Church disestablished o Congregational Church declined o growing factions Methodists Baptists o Catholics gained good `standing o Statute of Religious Liberty - provided for separation of church and state Art o John Trumble o Joel Barlowe Nationalism o Noah Webster - American Spelling Book changed spellings o Classicism Troy, Syracuse, Cincinatti o Architecture D.C. - Roman & Greek Social Changes o see all white men as equal (Mr/Mrs) o servants now called help o Guild system virtually disappears no longer apprenticed o Patriarchal structure reinforced a few states eased divorce laws New Jersey granted female suffrage (recinded) o Slavery British army emancipated thousands of slaves in the South Most northern states abolished slavery Northwest Ordinance banned slavery in the Northwest Territory Societies manumission - freedom for slaves many societies in the south
o
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Page 100 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Native Americans Americans owed them nothing Economic Effects o Merchants saw transformation no more British restrictions Empress of China was ship that now traded w/ Asia 1st Mill 1790 - Pawtucket - Moses Brown/Samuel Slater
o

Articles of Confederation
Monday, December 13, 2010 5:02 PM

Articles of Confederation drafted 1777, went into place 1781 very limited executive, much like state constitutions o except Mass, which realized that strong executive was essential for stability unicameral congress - equal votes for states Lacked critical powers o States were sovereign o no power to tax had authority, but no enforcement o command over army had to rely on state militias o congressmen term limits of 3 years John Fiske - called this time the critical period of American history o govt couldnt pay down debt couldnt even pay salaries of soldiers paid it in worthless paper money all gold silver paid to British since they only accepted it States printing their own money inflation - too much money, too few goods debtors very happy, creditors screwed creditors legally obligated to accept it stopped making loans o couldnt control internal trade Congress attempted to pass protective tariff could never get it passed States passing competitive tariffs Spain trying to make American fail in West closed Mississippi & New Orleans to American trade hoped the farmers would become Spanish sent John Jay to negotiate treaty, didnt work Britain closed West Indies down to American commerce refuse to make commercial treaty claimed that we violated the Treaty of Paris, by not reimbursing Loyalists for land they left behind so they refused to remove troops from the West, supplying natives w/ guns o Mount Vernon Conference (1785) group of Virginians convinced Washington to host meeting, to get Maryland & Virginia to compromise over use of the Patomac succeeded
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Page 101 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

inspired Annapolis convention Annapolis Convention (1786) James Madison - disappointed b/c only 5 states show up to the convention wanted to strengthen the Articles to allow Congress to regulate interstate commerce but needed unanimous approval nothing accomplished, but general agreement on significant changes Alexander Hamilton convinced this was needed proposed a meeting in Philadelphia o Constitutional Convention (1787) reasons 12 states showed up: Shays Rebellion - caused the Constitution Successes of the Confederation Government o Treaty of Paris o Land Ordinance of 1785 divided west into 36-sq-mi townships each township divided into 36 blocks sales of one used for Public Education instead of natural boundary lines, artificial used instead The Grid o Northwest Ordinance set number 60,000 for applying for statehood to form 3-5 states from the Territories which would be equal to the existing 13 banned Slavery in the new states Confederation Congress too weak Shays Rebellion (1786-7) o western Massachusetts o Daniel Shays - former member of Mass militia during Revolution o many states began to stop printing money at behest of creditors less money, increased value, made it difficult for farmers to pay back loans lands of farmers being foreclosed o demands more paper money moratorium on debt o Mass ignored them started breaking into jails and releasing prisoners o Mass finally decides to send troops Shays attacks Springfield, to get new weapons o rebellion failed o people afraid of future rebellions
o

Constitutional Convention
Monday, December 13, 2010 5:03 PM

12 States attend o Rhode Island was radical, liked weak central government didnt like that govt would be able to prohibit states from printing their own money 55 elite delegates o Northern merchants, Southern planters o most lawyers, had graduated college o conservatives o young (43) o Ben Franklin, in 80s
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Page 102 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

James Madison architect of the Constitution born to VA planter went to Princeton volunteered to serve in army, turned down sickly & frail engaged in debates over VA constitution, met Jefferson friends o Jefferson, Adams 1&2, Patrick Henry - absent Virginia Plan (Madison) - Large States Plan o Edmund Raldolph introduces Madisons plan Bicameral congress lower house - based on population lower house would elect upper house independent executive & judiciary branches Small States Plan o unicameral, all states had 1 vote Franklin set up comittee to reach compromise o Roger Shermann The Great Compromise bicameral congress lower house - represented by population upper house - 2 from each state elected by states all legislation had to be passed by both houses Slavery o no discussion of morality o didnt want representation by population (half were slaves) wanted slaves counted northerners didnt want slaves counted o 3/5th Compromise slaves worth person only productive as free white labor federalism - sharing of powers between national and state governments
o

Battle Over Ratification


Anti-Federalists: Opposed Constitution o Reasons: government would be far away from people, no matter where it was no bill of rights response: promised bill of rights federal government too powerful response: document had checks & balances to prevent branches from taking control overturned current government response: Confederation government was terrible no money anti-business foreign laughingstock most supporters were elites/merchants/planters o controlled the media o Washington, Franklin supported the Constitution Delaware ratified first (1787) o PA second o Mass third
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Page 103 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

NY & VA seemed like they werent going to ratify Hamilton enlisted John Jay & James Madison to write essays in support of Constitution, under name Publius Federalist Papers eventually ratified by Fall of 1788, got 9 ratifications Rhode Island waited until 1791

Constitution Outline
Sunday, December 05, 2010 11:01 AM

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. Domestic Tranquility - referring to Shays Rebellion

Article 1

Section 1 o legislative powers vested in Congress, which shall consist of Senate & House of Reps Section 2: House of Representatives o 2-year term o those who can vote for members of state legislative branches can vote in national election o Qualifications at least 25 years old citizen of USA for 7 years must be resident of state they were elected from o number of reps (and counts for taxes) decided by state population slaves worth 3/5 of a person Census every 10 years every state guaranteed one representative Redistricting every time states gain or lose representatives, district lines had to be redrawn highly partisan, has huge effect on politics for the next decade o if representative loses position, governor chooses replacement o House can choose its own leaders Speaker of the House Majority Whip (gathers votes) Minority Leader Minority Whip o House decides whether or not a public official has an impeachable offense Section 3: Senate o 2 senators per state chosen by state legislators o 6-year term every election cycle (2 years), only 1/3 of senate up for reelection o Chief Justice is presiding official when president is being impeached Section 4 o By law, Congress can regulate the date of elections. o Congress has to meet at least once a year. Section 5 o Each house can write its own laws. o Each house can expel members with 2/3 majority vote. o In elections, members can see other votes if 1/5 of them request to do so.
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Page 104 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Section 6 o Representatives and Senators cannot be arrested on the floor, going to the floor, or coming from the floor. As long as there was not felony committed. o Separation of powers: Officials can only serve in one branch at a time. Section 7 o House of Representatives issues all tax/revenue bills. Gets rid of the No Taxation w/o representation problem. o Tax bills MUST be passed by the House or Representatives. o President can sign, veto, or pocket veto a bill. Pocket Veto = let it sit on the desk. Automatically passed after a certain time though. Section 8 o Congress has the power to lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts and excises. o Congress also has the power to pay debts, and provide for the common defense and general welfare of the United States (a.k.a. the power to declare war). o Necessary & Proper Clause (aka Elastic Clause) allows Congress to stretch its powers Congress has resulting powers to pass laws necessary and proper for carrying out their enumerated powers first came up when deciding whether Bank of US was constitutional o Congress determines patent and copyright laws. o Congress can declare war and declare letters of marque. o Congress sets up the entire court system below it. o Congress has the authority to call out the national militia. They also fund and dictate how the militia is trained. o Congress makes all laws regarding the District of Columbia. Section 9 o until 1808, Congress cant prohibit importation of slaves o Congress can tax slaves though o Congress cant suspend the Writ of Habeus Corpus, unless to protect public safety o no Bill of Attainder - act to punish single individual o no Ex Post Facto - cant punish someone for a crime that wasnt a crime when committed o head taxes must be on basis of Census o no export taxes or taxes on interstate trade creates a free trade zone within US, like Prussia o No nobility. Section 10 o No state can coin money, declare war, give letters of marque etc. All of that power goes to Congress. o Only Congress can impose duties. Section 1 o The number of electoral votes is determined by population and the number of representatives. o You need a majority of electoral votes to become president. o Qualifications to be president: 35 years of age. 14 years of citizenship. Must be a natural born citizen. Or, in the case of Madison, a citizen during the making of the constitution. o Originally, there was no separate ballet for President and Vice President. However, this was revised in the 12th amendment. Also the top 3 voters are eligible to run for presidency if the election is taken to the House. o Tries to check the democratic tendencies of the people.
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Article 2: Executive Branch

Page 105 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Vice president takes over for the president if something happens. If the Vice president dies then congress decides who should be V.P. o The president has a set salary, which cannot be threatened by anyone. Section 2 o Powers given to the executive branch are few and checked. o President = Commander in chief of the Army, Navy, Militia etc. This power is checked by Congress power to declare war. o President can get opinions from the heads of the executive departments. Known as the cabinet, and it is chosen by Congress. o President can make treaties with 2/3 of the Senators present agreeing. o President = Chief Diplomat Can recognize nations, and appoint Supreme Court justices (approved by Congress). o President can fill vacancies during the Recess of the Senate, but only for that specific session. Section 3 o President can call Congress into session. o President commissions army officers. Section 4 o All civil officers can be impeached on treason, bribery and other high crimes.
o o

Article 3: The Supreme Court

Section 1 o Judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court. o Federal judges are appointed for life. Makes them unsusceptible to public whim (no fear of not being re-elected). Section 2 o Original jurisdiction = where the case begins. Between two states. Between public ministries and ambassadors. o Appellate jurisdiction = case started out in a lower court, but was moved up by appeal. Supreme Court District Courts Circa Courts Congress can affect the appellate jurisdiction by determining whether to admit the case or not (They can determine what types of cases to hear). Congress cannot affect original jurisdiction however. o Any federal crime that is committed will lead to trial by jury. Section 3 o To be found guilty of treason, the suspect must confess. Or two witnesses must testify to the overt act of the treason. o Treason = Levying war or aiding the enemies. o If somebody is convicted of treason, only they will be punished. The family will not be tried. In England the government tried the entire family so that they could get the familys land. Section 1 o Full faith and credit. Marriage, drivers licenses etc. apply in all the states. Doesnt apply to gay marriage yet. Section 2 o Criminals who flee states shall be tried in the state(s) in which the respective crime(s) were committed. Section 3 o New States can enter the union, but they must give up their territorial claims. o Congress shall make all laws regarding territories. Once the territory reaches a population of 60,000, it can apply to become a state and Congress loses power over them. Section 4
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Article 4

Page 106 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

o o

The United States guarantees a republican form of government. The United States will protect states from invasion. Referring to Shays rebellion.

Article 5

Two ways an amendment can be proposed: o Through 2/3 of Congress (both houses). o Through a convention by 2/3 of the states. How an amendment can be ratified: o 3/4 of the state legislatures approval. o 3/4 of the vote through state convention.
o

Article 6

The government still owes pre-existing debts from before the war. o Helped with ratification. National law rules over States, which have their own, weaker, laws. No religious tests are required to hold an elected office.
o

Article Seven

9 states necessary for ratification of constitution. Edmund Randolf didnt sign the constitution even though he proposed the Virginia Plan.

Bill of Rights The First Ten Amendments


3. 4. 5.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

No established religion. Freedom of speech and press. The right to peaceably assemble and petition government. Two interpretations: o The right to bear arms for the militia. o The right to bear arms by all the people, for themselves. No quartering of troops. No search and seizure without probable cause and specific warrant. Right to trial by jury. Grand Jury determines the legitimacy of the case through evidence given by the accuser. o Different from military trial. o No double jeopardy Cant be tried twice for the same crime. o Cant be your own witness; no one can force you to confess something. o No deprivation of life, liberty, or property w/o due process of law. You have the right to know your crime. Right to an attorney. You can have witnesses. If the value of a civil suit exceeds $20.00; you can have trial by jury. Jury is the determiner of facts. No excessive bail required. No cruel and unusual punishment. Other rights aside from those listed may exist, and just because they arent listed doesn't mean they can be violated. Any powers not given to the central government go to the states and people of the states. No State can deprive citizens of life liberty and property w/o due process of law.

The New Government


Monday, December 13, 2010 5:05 PM

Judiciary Act of 1789 o set up Federal Courts District Courts Circuit Courts - only apellate jurisdiction John Jay became first supreme court justice 4 Executive Departments o Department of State T. Jeff - 1st secretary of State
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Page 107 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

o o o

Department of War Henry Knox - 1st secretary of War Justice Department Edmund Randolf - 1st Attorney General Department of Treasury Alexander Hamilton

New Government

1st Priority - Pay back war debts o Hamilton came up with a plan o calculated debt to be $54,124,464.56 o Report on Public Credit - plan on how to pay down debt at face value controversial: wanted to pay back money at 4% interest but the original debtholders would get screwed, because they sold the bonds at $.50 on the dollar o Madison opposed Hamilton proposed that original owners and new owners would split the value o Hamilton vs. Madison Hamilton wanted to reward the speculators, because they would be more likely to invest in the future let his friends know his plan, so they went and bought the credits, so it guaranteed Hamiltons victory over Madison controversial: Hamilton wanted to assume the state debts Hamilton wanted to because meant that States would have a stake in the new government controversial because States had raised taxes to pay down that debt Madison & Jefferson band together to stop Hamilton, so Hamilton lets slip his plan, so the Congressmen could buy up debts at state level but it wouldnt be enough to get the Assumption plan passed Hamilton meets w/ Madison & Jefferson offered to move the Capital to Virginia 3 Parts to Hamiltons Plan o Hamilton saw permanent debt as a good thing proposed to issue new bonds for ever dollar paid out on the debt o National Bank Hamilton looked at England as a model for the future of America England had a national bank would become depository for all money collected by the government would be loaned out to make more money you could store it in State banks, but Hamilton thought they werent stable enough would have working capital of $10 million, coming largely from private sources from the government from private investors made it a quasi-public institution of the board would be held by government officials of board would be controlled by private officials Bank would issue Banknotes reliable alternative for all the assorted banks throughout the country would facilitate greater commerce Hamilton wanted great industrial/commercial nation Congress had no power to create a Bank GW sided with Hamilton chartered the bank for 20 years Was an immediate success o Government should use tariffs to protect American infant industries didnt succeed, because Southerners would have to pay more money
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Page 108 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

and Northerners were afraid that Britain would put tariffs on our goods

Political Parties o reasons for emergence Democratic Republicans evolved out of resistance to Hamiltons policies Foreign affairs American responses to French Rev & other wars French Revolution o initially applauded French, but it spun out of control o French king trying to escape country to organize resistance to rebellion, but he was caught French 1st Republic declared o killed King Louis, things began to get more radical 1793 - Austria & Prussia at war w/ France; Britain joined in tough position for americans (Franco-American Alliance would drag the Americans into the war) GW asked Jefferson (who loved the French) told GW that he should play one country off of the other if we dont proclaim neutrality, we keep Britain guessing; force them to abandon the forts in the Northwest Hamilton thought they should repudiated the alliance GW supported Hamilton proclaimed neutrality but he did accept the French Ambassador, Edmund Gent o one group in the Rev was the Girondist faction Gent was a Girondist Started issuing letters of Marque attempted to organize expeditionary force against Spanish Florida both of these violated neutrality Washington warned him, then tried to deport him, but the Girondists lost power in France Jacobins took over; Gent would have been executed Britain o Dec 1793 - British begin to attack American shipping in the Caribbean o America believed it had the right to trade any non-contraband item with any nation during the war o Girondists needed to get sugar from their islands in the Caribbean, but didnt want to risk French ships, so they opened up the islands to the Americans o British began to confiscate any American ship trading in the islands operating under the Rule of 1756 any port of any nation, closed by mercantile restrictions in peacetime, cannot be opened up to neutrals in times of war o British also searched for deserters, impressed them into the British navy o 1794 - General Anthony Wayne sent to the West Lord Dorchester, Governor General of Canada delivered speech encouraging the natives to fight back, supplied them with weapons o War hysteria against Britain in the US, Hamilton terrified, doesnt think they can take a war with Britain whole Financial structure would collapse, because 90% of US trade was with Britain urged Washington to send special envoy to negotiate w/ British sent John Jay do deal with issues Forts in Northwest indian impressment slaves taken during AmRev confiscation of cargo Jay had leverage: America could join a league of Armed Neutrals arm ships in case the British decided to seize a ship
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Page 109 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Hamilton secretly meets with George Hammond, British Minister in Philly if Jay attempts to play the Armed Neutrals card, make sure that British government knows that US has no interest in joining it because Hamilton was afraid British would walk away from the deal (might have been on British payroll) Jay didnt achieve much: British agreed to reimburse American shippers for cargo but they will continue seizing ships if America doesnt abide by the Rule of 1756 to evacuate the forts in the Northwest, as long as fur trappers can continue fur trade with the indians would continue impressment would reimburse planters for slaves only if they repay pre-Revolution loans Washington appalled by British arrogance reluctant to submit treaty to Senate got exactly vote in senate for the first time in Washingtons career, he was publicly criticized took it personally, convinced him not to run for Pres again Pinckneys Treaty of 1796 o Thomas Pinckney, US minister to Spain o US and Britain had pledged to cooperate to open up Mississippi to American and British traders Spain closed Mississippi during 1780s o Pinckney told the Spanish that that clause was a military one Britain & US will use force to get the Mississippi o Spanish gave everything, received nothing: allowed free navigation of Mississippi and right of deposit in Port of New Orleans o unanimously approved in Senate Treaty of Greenville (1795) o Mad Anthony Wayne defeated the Miamis under Little Turtle @ Fort Greeville Miamis forced to give up substantial land to the US temporarily ended Indian conflict on the frontier Hamilton asks Washington not to publicly announce that he wont run for a third term until December of 1976, so that Democratic Republican opposition didnt have time to organize o Federalist caucus nominated John Adams o D. Republicans nominated Thomas Jefferson Washingtons Farewell Address o warned against 2 things: Permanent Political Parties Permanent Foreign Entanglements

John Adams
Monday, January 03, 2011 4:44 PM

close, T. Jeff made VP vowed to cooperate French felt attacked by Jay Treaty because US had accepted British Rule of 1756, French broke off all Diplomatic relations w/ US confiscated American cargo Adams doesnt want a war w/ France XYZ Affair Adams sends special mission to France
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Page 110 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

John Marshall Elbridge Gerry Charles Pinckney Talleyrand was French foreign minister approached by 3 Frenchmen with message from Talleyrand o if youd like to meet, itll cost you $250,000 Pinckney ~ No, not a sixpence! Adams upset Anti-French sentiment spreading through US o Federalists lose seats in House & Senate o popular demand for war by 1798 1798 - Adams gets Congress to build a department of the Navy Washington asked to take command Hamilton pushing for Declaration of War against France Quasi-War w/ France Naval war in the Caribbean Hamilton wanted to take Spanish Florida (allies of France) Hamilton asked for 2nd in command under Washington o gave position to Henry Knox o Hamilton comes to hate Adams Hamiltons supporters known as the High Federalists sentiment in France started to change o George Logan, Philly Quaker in France approached by Frenchman who claims to be speaking for Talleyrand there has been a change of heart, communicate this w/ your government comes back and tells Adams that there might be a chance to repair relations w/ France Hamilton mad that Logan negotiated on behalf of US Logan Act - private individuals cant negotiate on behalf of US o Adams sends another commission, Talleyrand agrees to meet 1799 - Consolate took power in France, Napoleon Bonaparte in power Napoleon wants to end nonsense w/ Americans Convention of 1800 - Napoleon agrees to repudiate 1778 alliance, stop attacking American commerce ends Quasi-War America offered nothing to French Adams considers this the greatest act of his presidency was being pressured by High Federalists (in his own party) to go war during war, federalist-dominated Congress tried to take advantage of anti-French sentiment o Alien & Sedition Acts (1798) Alien Act - in War, President has authority to expel any alien increased years necessary to be a naturalized citizen from 5 to 14 a lot of the Democratic Republicans support came from immigrants this would limit Republicans support in election of 1800 Sedition Act - would expire March 3, 1801 (day before new president was inaugurated) anyone who publishes anything false that slanders someone, they can be punished anyone who presents opposition to the President or Government shall be punished Matthew Lyon (DR) - first victim of the Sedition Act most victims were Newspaper editors DRs responded w/ Kentucky & Virginia Resolves Madison & Jefferson Sedition Act is unconstitutional violated 1st amendment basis for theory of nullification - that a state can rule a law unconstitutional =
o o o
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Page 111 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Calhoun later proposed special conventions for states to decide on constitutionality if government accepted nullification, it could repeal the law or pass constitutional amendment if government didn't accept nullification, states could secede

Thomas Jefferson
Monday, January 03, 2011 4:47 PM

Ryan O'Shea 11B

Election of 1800 o Hamilton trying to get Pinckney elected o the 2 Republicans, Jefferson & Burr got 73 electoral votes each House chooses president Burr refuses to give his support to Jefferson, actively campaigns to be president took 35 ballots to elect Jefferson Hamilton worked behind the scenes for Jefferson told Federalists to vote for Jefferson 12th Amendment - Separate Ballots for President & VP o Jeff called election the Revolution of 1800 for 1st time in American history, there was a peaceful transfer of power "We are all Federalists, we are all Republicans" ~ Jefferson difference in leadership style much less extravagant than Washington & Adams no big inauguration didn't bring slaves from Monticello to the executive mansion Jefferson answered the door of the mansion in his bathrobe sometimes informal gatherings always had the best wine, though wasn't really a revolution continued policies of Washington allowed the Bank to keep functioning Thomas Jefferson o repealed excise tax because it hurt farmers o Alien & Sedition acts had already expired o believed in a wise and frugal government tariffs & land sales were only source of government income, besides taxes cut taxes to shrink government power worked w/ Robert Gallatin - also concerned w/ size of government downsized the army canceled contracts for new frigates hurt preparedness for War of 1812 instead built cheap underpowered gunships set up West Point in 1802 reduced debt in half wouldn't sell new bonds once old ones were paid debt o waged successful war against Barbary Pirates in Tripoli Pasha of Tripoli demanded tribute from US Washington & Adams, & Britain had paid tribute Pasha declared war (chopped down US flagpole) Jeff sent navy, won o hated entrenched Judiciary
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Page 112 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Adams - Judiciary Act of 1801 during lame-duck session, when Federalists had lost elections created 16 new district courts, & 3 justices of the peace for DC Midnight Appointments - appointed all federalist judges to those courts Jefferson had the Judiciary Act of 1801 repealed instructed Secretary of State, James Madison, not to hand over commissions to the Justices of the Peace for DC Marbury v. Madison (1803) John Marshall was supposed to hand over the commission Adams named Marshall chief justice, Marbury never got his commission Madison refuses to hand it over Marbury sues Madison Judicial Act of 1789 writ of mandamus - Supreme Court can compel an official of the government to do something Marshall presided over case decided that Article 3 didn't give that power to the Supreme Court Congress exceeded Constitutional powers in giving that authority that section of Judicial Act of 1789 is unconstitutional established the power of judicial review for the Supreme Court Jefferson realizes what had happened utilized impeachment to get back at Marshall impeached John Pickering Federalist, crazy impeached Samuel Chase, associate justice of the Supreme Court Senate acquitted Chase would have undermined the Judiciary Louisiana Purchase Pinckney Treaty allowed American use of the Mississippi & New Orleans 1800 - Treaty of San Ildefonso secret treaty between Spain & France French got Louisiana France had sugar islands in Caribbean, needed to ship food to the islands needed that food for his troops Louisiana could provide food for the sugar islands Toussaint L'Ouverture starts slave revolt on Santo Domingo in Caribbean Napoleon sends 20,000 troops to the island, wiped out by malaria & dysentery Napeoleonic Wars had ended by 1802, but war was inevitable with Britain needs money October 16, 1802 - Spanish revoked right of deposit in New Orleans Jeff realizes that French have control, Pinckney Treaty defunct French could close the Mississippi Jeff turns against the French writes letter to minister in Paris, Robert Livingston whoever owns New Orleans is our natural enemy we must marry w/ Britain when French take over find out if the French own Louisiana see if you can purchase New Orleans for $2 million Talleyrand initially hides it from Livingston 1803 - Napoleon tells Talleyrand to sell Louisiana Talleyrand calls Livingston in French will sell USA all of Louisiana for $15 million Monroe joined Livingston

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Page 113 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

April 30, 1803 - purchase finalized Americans had no authority to make the purchase, but they did anyway Jeff called it his "Empire of Liberty" new land would be populated by yeoman farmers had to ignore the unconstitutionality of the acquisition only a few Federalists opposed Jeff won 1804 election in landslide against Charles C. Pinckney Alan Burr was a persona non grata at the executive mansion during the first term Burr runs for NY governorship Essex Junto - conspiracy formed by disgruntled Federalists to secede New England and New York from the union if Burr would take NY with them, they'd give him financial support for the election Burr declined Hamilton published story about Burr + Essex Junto Burr accuses Hamilton of libel, challenges Hamilton to a duel Weehawken, NJ - Hamilton dies in duel Burr wanted for murder in NY, went to Ohio organized expedition with James Wilkinson to take Louisiana out of the Union Wilkinson chickens out while marching to New Orleans tells Jeff about Burr Jeff puts him on trial for treason Marshall presides over trial, Burr acquitted Burr went to Europe until statute of limitations expired Second term plagued by European wars Napoleon wants to capture GB, assembles armada w/ Spain Battle of Trafalgar - Horatio Nelson defeats combined French & Spanish Armada Battle of Austerlitz + other battles secure all of Europe for France Continental System - blockaded all European ports Berlin Decree - sets up the blockade British retaliate w/ Orders in Council - all neutral ships trading with Europe must stop off in British ports and have cargoes inspected before heading to Europe (America was largest neutral trading nation) Napoleon issues Milan Decree - if any neutral ships stops in Britain and heads to Europe, France will seize it for its own British begin impressing Americans Chesapeake-Leopard Affair - USS Chesapeake ordered to stop by HMS Leopard. American commander refuses, Leopard fires into the Chesapeake; British board ship & impress "deserters" Americans want war Jefferson introduces Peacable Coercion Europe needs American products more during war Embargo Act (1807) ended all American trade with other nations ignored by traders if a ship was caught in a storm, it could go to the nearest port started abusing that repealed Embargo 1809 didn't make the British & French stop their trade policies Embargo allowed Jefferson to pick successor, James Madison

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Page 114 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

James Madison
Tuesday, January 04, 2011 1:44 PM

Ryan O'Shea 11B


replaces Embargo Act with the Non-Intercourse Act o opened trade with all nations except Britain & France Macon's Bill #2 - opened trade with all nations o but if Britain or France recognizes American neutrality, then Non-Intercourse will be restored with the other France immediately accepts Indians in the Northwest o Tribes east of the Mississippi trying to organize to block American Expansion Tecumseh, encouraged by the British, is trying to unite o William Henry Harrison, governor of Indiana territory sees Tecumseh as threat when Tecumseh leaves Prophetstown, he attacks (1811) Battle of Tippecanoe - Prophetstown destroyed, Tecumseh killed found British weapons in Prophetstown War Hawks - 1810 Congressional Elections o many new Congressmen from South & West - War Hawks Calhoun, Grundy, Webster, Clay Clay was Speaker of the House o thought they could defeat British & seize Canada & Florida easily o 1812 - Madison asks for a declaration of War

War of 1812
Tuesday, January 25, 2011 4:28 PM

Ryan O'Shea 11B


most anti-war congressmen from New England o labeled Madisons War by Federalists Jeffersons policy of Peaceable Coercion worked o British repealed orders in council 5 days after war began (didnt know about the war by then) o wouldve prevented war US unprepared for war o only 16 frigates vs. worlds greatest Navy o Jeffersons deep military cuts hurt, even though Madison helped increase it Canada o Henry Clay could conquer Canada with the Kentucky militia alone o only 5000 British soldiers in Canada o mounted 3 major attacks on Canada, all failed militias were ill-trained British more concerned with Napoleon than America, most of resources in France Battle of Put-In Bay o Oliver Hazard Perry o We have met the enemy and they are ours. o decisive first major American victory British evacuated Fort Detroit Harrison follows British into Canada
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Page 115 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Battle of the Thames o killed Tecumseh o Harrison 1813 - America still struggling to organize effective army 1814 - Napoleon defeated, British concentrated on America o British trying to cut off New England like Burgoyne in the AmRev o use navy to take control of Chesapeake & control DC o invade New Orleans, control the Mississippi American forces ran away when British tried to invade DC o including Madison Dolly Madison stayed behind to save artifacts from the executive mansion o British Burned DC Fort McHenry o holds off a British Bombardment o Francis Scott Key - on British ship negotiating the freeing of his friend from British, wrote the Star-Spangled Banner made national anthem in 1931 British marching down from Canada under George Prevost o same situation as Burgoyne - stopped by American defenses in Plattsburgh o needs to defeat flotilla on Lake Champlain to keep supply lines open o Americans defeated British in naval battle Thomas McDonough o British went back to Canada British sailed to New Orleans from Jamaica o Andrew Jackson - Battle of New Orleans already won victory at battle of Horseshoe Bend entrusted to defend New Orleans British made huge mistake ordered frontal assault on dug-in American positions 2,000 british deaths, 13 american deaths War was already over 1814 - America signed Treaty of Ghent w/ Great Britain to end the war o British realized the war wasnt worthwile o American negotiators were awesome John Quincy Adams John Adams Henry Clay Albert Gallatin o best British diplomats were in Vienna dealing with French o British demanded evacuation of the Northwest (before they knew about Plattsburgh Americans refused, British changed their mind after Plattsburgh o Treaty provided for status quo ante bellum no word on Canadian border, impressment, Rule of 1756 Rush-Bagot Agreement o mutual disarmament of the Great Lakes Treaty Line of 1818 o Both US & Britain claiming Oregon territory o decided to jointly occupy Oregon Adams-Onis Treaty of 1819 / Transcontinental Treaty of 1819 o John Quincy Adams negotiating w/ Luis Onis over Florida o President Monroe instructed Jackson to take care of the Seminoles if you dont negotiate, well take it o paid Spain $5 million dollars, which just went to citizens that had claims against Spain
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Page 116 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Spain surrendered all land north of 42nd parallel Postwar Nationalism Monroe Doctrine of 1823 o tons of former Spanish colonies declaring independence o Congress of Vienna convened to figure out the map after 1812 o more congresses called some to take care of Revolutions Spanish & Italian Revolutions Congresses sent in troops 1822 - Deal w/ American Colonies Troppau Protocol - allowed anyone in the Congress to interfere in any other state if they were at risk of Revolution opposed by Britain wanted to send troops to the Americas British see opportunity Foreign Minister Canning contacts Rush US & Britain should proclaim recognition of governments, promise not to intervene in new independent countries because the British could trade with the new nations now Adams thinks its a good idea, but shouldnt follow British policy, should declare our own policy o America will not intervene in European Conflicts o America will not let European countries to threaten this hemisphere Any threat against the new countries is a threat against the US o Western Hemisphere is closed to European colonization but America still could... o Monroe Doctrine virtually ignored by Europe, but they couldnt afford colonization anyway
o

Nationalism after War of 1812


Monday, January 31, 2011 4:06 PM

Ryan O'Shea 11B

James Madisons State of the Union wanted 4 things Wanted National Bank renewed Assume State debts from 1812 Protective tariff System of Internal Improvements Federalist agenda coming from Democratic Republican president War changed the Democratic Republican party into the National Republicans Henry Clays American System all of the things Madison wanted 1816 - Congress recharters bank with more capital, branches during war, without Bank, banking system reverted to chaos, using state banknotes st money from new protective tariff1 in American historywould fund internal improvements would bind the nation together rechartered the Bank with more money/branches Madison vetoed the internal improvement bill felt it was unconstitutional
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Page 117 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

James Monroe Nationalist took goodwill tour of New England welcomed Era of Good Feelings ~ Columbia Centinel - 1816-1824 Monroe ran opposed for second term John Marshalls Court strengthened power of the Court & national government provided environment conducive to free enterprise & business Nationalistic Cases McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) was the Bank of US constitutional? McCulloch was chief cashier at branch of Bank of US Maryland tried to tax the notes of that branch of the Bank Marshall ruled that states don't have power to tax power to tax is power to destroy Maryland claimed that Bank was unconstitutional Marshall ruled that Bank was constitutional Jackson ignored decision Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) New York awarded charter to Fultons steamboat company to ferry people across the Hudson Who had authority over the Hudson? - Congress did under Commerce Clause only Congress had authority to grant charters over the Hudson effectively extended Commerce Clause to cover anything that affected commerce Contract Cases Fletcher v. Peck (1810) legislature tried to void a contract on basis that it was granted by bribing Marshall ruled that contracts were finalno state has the right to impair the obligation of a contract Dartmouth v. Woodward (1819) people wanted to make Dartmouth a public institution charter is no longer valid because it was made with King George III Daniel Webster made Marshall cry in final argument Marshall decided to uphold the charter by supporting contracts, Marshall was supporting businessmen 1819 Era of Good Feeling Started to End Because of 2 Events Panic of 1819 Americans moving West in large numbers anyone could apply to become a bank, & print money banks making very risky loans, because everyone wants money for land Missouri Compromise 1819 Missouri applies for statehood as a slave state James Talmadge proposes that Missouri comes in as a free state NO
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thought money would be going to state projects, which it didn't have the authority to do would only be constitutional if the money went to interstate projects, to promote commerce

Page 118 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

issues Could Congress force a state to give up slaves? Moral issue of slavery. Compromise of 1820 Henry Clay Missouri comes in as slave state Maine comes in as a free state Slavery prohibited above the 36/30 line Southerners thought they got the better of the deal in 1820, because all cotton-growing land was below the line led to sectionalism 1824 Era of Good Feeling Ends o Election of 1824 Henry Clay (KY), William Crawford (GA, last to be nominated by caucus), John Quincy Adams (New England), Andrew Jackson (southwest) nobody got a majority of the electoral votes; Jackson won popular vote Corrupt Bargain Clay gives up his votes for John Quincy Adams, who names Clay his Secretary of State Clay & Adams were both Nationalists believed in American System John Quincy Adams (1824-1828) o great diplomat o terrible president corrupt bargain hung over his head o Tariff of Abominations (1828) only success of Adams's presidency supposedly to pay for internal improvements, but it didn't work southerners threw all of their profits back into land & slaves South was convinced the all protective Tariffs would force them to pay more for manufactured goods Vice President Calhoun, who had supported the 1816 tariff, was totally against the tariff South Carolina Exposition in Protest (1828), John C. Calhoun (anonymous) outlined why tariffs were bad, and set up a procedure for nullification Special convention would be called, and could nullify an act of the federal government, if they believed that that act was unconstitutional if federal government wouldnt comply, then state had option to secede South Carolina nullified the Tariff Adams decided to get an amendment to the constitution to make the Tariff constitutional Election of 1828 o Andrew Jackson nominated by Democrats (were differentiating themselves from National Republicans) Democrats stand for average working man depicted Adams as an aristocrat o mudslinging campaign on both sides Jackson is a murderer and adulterer! Coffin Handbill last of people that Jackson had killed in duels Jacksons wife Rachel Rachels divorce proceedings werent over when she married Jackson Jackson never forgave Adamss supporters, because Rachel died shortly after campaign

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Page 119 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Jackson won by huge margin

Andrew Jackson
Thursday, February 03, 2011 11:02 AM inaugurated very humbly like Jefferson o Jackson was frail o got mobbed with people people came to worship their hero followed him down Pennsylvania Avenue, into the White House got the people out by putting whiskey on the lawn Joseph Story, associate Justice of Supreme Court "My God, King Mob has arrived." Democratic Trends in Political Parties o founding fathers saw them as inevitable but evil o view of political parties becoming more positive they give people a choice o 3 democratic trends: o Expanding Electorate states dropping property requirements for voting started with the new Western states very few people there didn't own land, so they let any white male vote pressured Eastern & Southern states to follow suit process continued peacefully, except Dorr Rebellion forced the government of Rhode Island to drop property qualifications o Direct Election of Electors electoral college had been elected by state legislatures o Nominating Conventions death of caucus system State nominating conventions came first then national nominating conventions Election of 1832 - first third party in American history Anti-Mason Party National Republicans Democrats more people beginning to vote Election of 1828 - only 56% of voters participated Election of 1840 - 78% voted Politicians changing into Professionals, campaigning Market Revolution economic change toward industialism canals, turnpikes, railroads factories economic issues affecting the whole nation, and people were worried Jackson's Philosophy o worshipped Jefferson strict interpretation of the Constitution states' rights national debt was a curse government gets in the way government should be simple enough that anyone should serve William Marcy ~ "To the victor belong the spoils."
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Page 120 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Jackson supported the Spoils System people who stay in office too long become corrupt kept most people in office anyway hated the idea of monopoly especially if government granted special privileges o strong presidency president was only person elected by all the people o Jackson was a common man in the eyes of the people Jackson's Presidency o Maysville Road Veto Jackson vetoed a road in the West, because he thought internal improvements were unconstututional West wanted internal improvements; South thought they were a waste; Northeast already had infrastructure Northeast: Industrialists vs. Commercialists Industrialists knew roads to the west would drain the labor supply o Jackson vetoed more bills than anyone o Indian Removal Act of 1830 all native tribes east of Mississippi have to move west of the river Seminole War 1830-1835 US failed to remove the Seminoles Black Hawk War Sac and Fox indians were forced off their land reorganized under Black Hawk Abraham Lincoln & Jefferson Davis both participated Cherokee Trail of Tears Cherokee were the most civilized tribes challenged state of Georgia about removal Worchester v. Georgia - Marshall ruled tribe did have the rights to the lands Jackson ignored the decision subverted constitution by not enforcing the ruling o Jackson's Second Term less successful than first 2 issues dominated : Nullification & The Bank Nullification Crisis Jackson was a States' rights supporter didn't approve of the protective tariffs Vice President Calhoun had outlined the nullification process 1830 - Webster-Hayne Debate started over western land policies South & West wanted to lower the price, Northeast opposed Thomas Benton (rep of the West) wanted cheap land, trying to form alliance w/ South thinks he could work with Robert Hayne debate spun off to a discussion of the tariff Hayne argued it was unconstitutional South Carolina therefore has the right to nullify, or secede if the gov't didn't comply Daniel Webster responded Constitution is not a compact of the states, but of the people "Our Federal Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!" no one knew where Jackson stood party at White House in honor of Jefferson

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Page 121 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Jackson looks straight at Calhoun: "Our Federal Union, it must be preserved." Calhoun's toast: "Our Federal Union, Mr. President, next to liberty, most dear." Lines Being Drawn between Jackson & Calhoun Peggy Eaton Affair Peggy Eaton was daughter of Washington innkeeper Eatons were left off the list in social gatherings Fluoride Calhoun was in charge of party planning Jackson finds out that Calhoun's wife was snubbing Eaton sees it as slander against his own wife told Calhoun to get his wife under control she refused Jackson finds out that back in 1818 when Jackson invaded the Seminoles, Calhoun had harshly condemned the raid Election of 1832 National Republicans nominate Henry Clay first National convention Democrats nominate Jackson third party: Anti-Masons, nominate William Wirt Jackson was a mason New tariff in 1832 raised duties above 1828 tariff Jackson uses it to evoke Nullification from SC, so he can squash it SC Nullifies both tariffs no federal revenue will be collected in South Carolina as of Mar 1, 1833 Nullification was antithesis of Democracy because a minority was forcing a will on the majority Force Act gave Jackson authority to lead an army into South Carolina and kill Calhoun on the way Clay warns Calhoun, offers a compromise to bring tariff down to pre-1828 level no way SC could win Calhoun accepts The Bank War Jackson believed National Bank was unconstitutional Clay thought he could defeat Jackson on the bank issue talked to Nicholas Biddle, president of the Bank of US lets get another bank bill, we can pass it Locofocos - hard money faction of Democratic party Jackson believed that the Bank was the center of corruption Clay knows Jackson will veto it, wanted to use it against him completely backfired Jackson's veto message was brilliant Principal stock of the Bank is owned by only a few Americans much of it was British-owned every dollar collected by US goes to the British government should not be in the business of giving special privileges to everyone says the bank is undemocratic Biddle starts to call back the loans to create artificial panics backfired, stopped Jackson kills Bank by removing all federal funds

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Page 122 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Bank's charter ends 1836, survived in PA until 1841 Jackson wanted country to be debt free by 1836, government had a surplus Distributed the surplus to the states for internal improvements Species Circular upset that so much paper money was used to purchase government land land sales dropped dramatically

Martin Van Buren


Monday, February 07, 2011 1:23 PM

Ryan O'Shea 11B

Election of 1836 o Whig Party tried to portray Jackson as a king succeeded the National Republicans nominated 3 candidates Hugh Lawson White (South) Dan Webster (New England) William Henry Harrison (West) thought they could get the election thrown into the House, plan failed Panic of 1837 o overspeculation by the States borrowing from State banks caused those state banks to fail o Van Buren got blamed for the Panic Van Buren thought the government had been overspeculating Independent Treasury Act attempt to divorce the federal government from banking hated: "Martin Van Ruin" Election of 1840 o Whigs William Henry Harrison John Tyler put on as Vice President to balance the ticket "Tippecanoe, and Tyler too" picture themselves as the real people's party Log Cabin Campaign Harrison pictured as a common man, born in a log cabin and drinking hard cider Van Buren perfumes his side whiskers & drinks champagne E.C. Booze started packaging his whiskey in log cabin bottles - "booze" o Democrats stuck with Van Buren "Stick with Marty and everything will be OK"

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Page 123 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

John Tyler
Monday, February 07, 2011 1:41 PM

Ryan O'Shea 11B


Harrison wanted to look youthful on inauguration day, didn't wear a coat, died soon after John Tyler takes over (was only a Whig because he hated Jackson) Whigs thought they could control Tyler from the background, didn't work o Party wanted to recharter the bank Tyler vetoed Bank bill every single member of Cabinet, besides Webster, resigned Webster was Secretary of State Problems with Great Britain o 1837 - Caroline Affair Canada was trying to gain independence from Britain gun runners were smuggling guns to Canadian rebels Caroline was caught an American was killed, ship burnt Van Buren protested Alexander McLeod - Canadian, got drunk, accidentally confessed to killing Amos Dorphee on the Caroline found innocent (was innocent) o Aroostook / Lumberjack War Aroostook Valley - chunk of territory in northern Maine being used for lumber both Americans & Canadians claimed the land, bad maps the Franklin Map had disappeared Lumberjack War o The Creole Incident "The Creole" was transporting slaves from VA to New Orleans slaves took over the ship land in a British port, British liberate the slaves Southerners demand return or refund for slaves o Lord Ashburton sent from Britain to restore relations with USA promises that the Creole Incident and Caroline Affair will not be repeated but we must settle the issue over disputed land in Maine Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842 they would forge a new Franklin Map USA would give Britain 7/12 of the land if they would get access to an American fort in Canada (Lake of the Woods fort) Wang Hya Treaty of 1842 o Treaty of Nankin ended the First Opium War forced British trade into China, gave GB Honk Kong o Extended American trade and Extraterritoriality in China

Antebellum Era of Reform


Tuesday, February 08, 2011 1:30 PM

Ryan O'Shea 11B

Causes of Era of Reform o Americans starting to realize that they haven't achieved perfection
Copyright 20102011 by Ryan OShea. All Rights Reserved. ryanoshea.com

Page 124 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

slavery, alcoholism, education, women's rights Protestant Evangelicalism Second Great Awakening 1800-1830 Calvinism fading Man is good, not evil everyone capable of salvation evil is the result of society reacting to the Enlightenment Charles Finney o Romanticism & Transcendentalism Romanticism - reaction to cold rationalism of the enlightenment embraces emotion, the conscience embraced nature thought you could escape cold rationalism by getting closer to nature Transcendentalism we have an intuitive side that we must get in touch with let your conscience be your guide everyone of us has an oversoul, a spark of divinity many were too hung up on self-reliance, that they had no time for reform movements o Search for Order & Stability Market Revolution was transforming country into an industrial economy Railroads, factories, immigrants view that Science creates a monster that will kill its creator (Frankenstein) Societies o Utopian Societies tried to escape from this new world Socialism distribution of wealth under Capitalism is unfair, and labor gets shorted Robert Owen's New Harmony first set up a factory in New Lanark, where laborers got a much greater cut founded New Harmony in Indiana everything would be shared equally, no private property people started to resent the lazier people, experiment failed in 4 years George Ripley's Brook Farm experiment failed after 7 years because of fire Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote about how horrible it was in The Blithedale Romance Fourier came up with idea of phalanxes - huge communal towns where capitalists would get 7/12 profits, labor would get 5/12 profits dozens of these experiments in America, all failed Noyes's Oneida Community rejected traditional marriage children raised by the whole community saw leisure time as good o Religious Societies Shakers founded by Ann Lee thrived during 1830s-1840s total celibacy - caused its failure Mormons (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints) Joseph Smith product of the "burned-over district" found gold tablets with the Book of Mormon one of the lost tribes of Israel supposedly came to America God punished them for sins by making their skin dark
o
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Page 125 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

began to preach Mormons persecuted, started moving around Smith killed in prison Brigham Young decided to lead a mass exodus of Mormons into the West, to found a new Jerusalem settled Salt Lake City, Utah Reform Movements o American Temperance Movement mainly women cut back on alcohol consumption limited success some states passed prohibition laws (Maine) laws died out quickly o Prisons & Asylums Dorothea Dix led movement criminals would no longer be flogged or humiliated, treated humanely penitentiaries became places of reform mentally ill now kept in asylums, where they could be treated humanely main constituents were women o Feminism many women participating in temperance, abolitionist, and prison and asylum reform movements Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Dorothea Dix attended an abolitionist conference, but were turned away women still subservient to men not allowed in professions Seneca Falls Declaration parody of Dec of Independence didn't work some colleges opened doors to women Oberlin College - first restricted women's majors Mount Oleoke - first women's college in America o Education Reform Horace Mann - president of Mass board of education status of education grade-school only most kids didn't go teachers weren't trained women were most of teachers rise of industrial culture sparked education reform Horace Mann extended school year to 6 months increased salaries of teachers test had to be passed by all teachers pushed for high schools believed in equality/democracy key to successful society was educated citizenry funding for public schools increased o Abolitionism aka manumission freeing of slaves by slave owners Washington, Jefferson American Colonization Society

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Page 126 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

founded in Virginia wanted to free, and resettle slaves in west Africa Liberia, capital - Monrovia abolitionist societies mostly in north Quakers founded the first one were successful, slavery basically banned in the North cotton gin made it extremely difficult to end slavery, as Cotton came to dominate the economy The Liberator (1831) William Lloyd Garrison every abolitionist had believed that slavery had to end gradually, and owners had to be compensated Garrison called for immediate emancipation Garrison formed American Anti-Slavery Society got a half million members in a decade rejected idea that slavery had to end through the ballot box Frederick Douglass North Star newspaper Underground Railroad Harriet Tubman Fugitive Slave Laws forced lots of slaves to Canada southerners dug in their heels northerners saw the abolitionists as fanatics riots in Philadelphia in 1834 against abolitionists race riots (Irish vs. Blacks) in New York fighting for the same jobs Garrison imprisoned in Boston because mobs wanted to lynch him Eliza Lovejoy - abolitionist in Illinois lynched northern businessmen hated that the movement was stirring up the south abolitionist victories: 1842 - Prigg v. Pennsyvania fugitive slave law was constitutional, but no state authorities can be compelled to do the job of federal officials caused the states' passage of Personal Liberty Laws local law enforcement doesn't have to help in Fugitive Slave Law Uncle Tom's Cabin Harriet Beecher Stowe deeply upset by passage of fugitive slave law best selling book in north for 20 years adapted into plays maudling- overly sentimental for the first time, whites began to see the human side of slavery Simon Legree (cruel overseer) was a northerner northerners came to conclusion that slavery shouldn't spread beyond where it is now southerers felt attacked pro slavery argument Gag Rule (1836) - any petitions regarding keeping slaves out of new states would not be discussed overturned 1844 Wilmot Proviso - banned slavery in any lands acquired from Mexico, effectively eliminated the Gag Rule prohibited abolitionist literature in the south southern preachers attacked abolitionism Jesus told servants to obey their masters professors defended slavery in class

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Page 127 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Prof. Dew John C. Calhoun every country and advanced civilization has had slaves slaves are actually better off than European workers revolutions were going on in Europe in the 1830s the working class & poor were revolting South is much more stable why did non-slaveowning whites support slavery 3/4 of Southerners didn't own slaves average slaveowner worked alongside his slaves slaves were extremely expensive Sen. Seward asked Sen. Brown from Mississippi why they supported slavery social reasons: whites were superior, abolishing would rob whites of their status abolitionism didn't succeed

The Impending Crisis


Thursday, February 17, 2011 10:57 AM

Ryan O'Shea 11B

Campaign of 1844 o issue of the Panic had subsided o main issue was manifest destiny o Democrats nominated James K. Polk "reannexation of Texas, reoccupation of Oregon" wasn't expected to win the nomination Van Buren expected it Polk was rep from Tennessee, Speaker of the House idol was Jackson o Whigs nominated Henry Clay Whigs hesitant to expand at first Clay flip-flops opinion on expansion Clay lost, partly because of that decision third party, Liberty Party, nominated Berney (ex-slaveholder) took votes away from Clay o Texas & Oregon Texas 1822 - Mexico declares independence from Spain Texas sparsely populated offered land at extremely cheap prices Stephen S. Austin bought thousands of acres of land in Texas planted cotton, which thrived Americans who came to Texas brought their slaves with them 1830 - Mexican gov't banned slavery, banned further American immigration Americans freed slaves, signed them as indentured servants Americans hoped that Mexicans would give them home rule didn't happen Santa Anna becomes president of Mexico rejected home rule began policy of centralizing Mexican control over Texas The Alamo group of Americans in San Antonio occupy an abandoned Spanish mission, The Alamo
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Page 128 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Davey Crocket, James Bowie all Americans were killed Goliad Santa Anna wiped out another garrison there Sam Houston (American) begins raising up an army Battle of San Jacinto Santa Anna defeated, captured forced to sign treaty granting independence from Mexico Sam Houston elected President of the Lone Star Republic want to become a state in the union in 1836 Texas adrift, so Great Britain starts trading with Texas 1842 - Tyler is president, wants Texas after Webster resigns 1842, makes Abel P. Upshur his Secretary of State starts negotiating with Texas Upshur killed Tyler replaces Upshur with John C. Calhoun Oregon Britain and USA have joint ownership over Oregon Territory 1838 - renegotiated, agreed that if anything were to change, one side would have to give one year's notice during 1820s, 4 native americans show up in St. Louis said they were from the Willamette Valley, heard about a powerful new God that the white man has triggered missionaries 1830s - missionaries reporting back that the Willamette Valley is beautiful, a garden of eden by end of 1830s, hundreds of Americans migrating over 5,000 by 1844 Oregon Trail carved out in 1843 St. Louis to Willamette Tyler tells the Congress to annex Texas after Presidential election votes come in Texas is annexed Polk's first order of business becomes Oregon The Democratic Review - article by John L. O'Sullivan coined the phrase manifest destiny Manifest Destiny elements of racism superiority of whites geography - God would have put mountains James K. Polk o very successful o Jacksonian one-term president, wasn't concerned with reelection would veto any bill for a National Bank reinstated independent treasury system fought against protective tariffs true democrat o Oregon was #1 priority met Richard Packenham of GB gave GB their one years notice that they would not renew the agreement Packenham didn't even relay message to London Polk was willing to compromise, only get up to the 49th parallel, not what the expansionists wanted "Fifty-four Forty or Fight!"

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Page 129 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Polk furious, Packenham finally tells GB, and GB accepts to avoid war War with Mexico Mexico broke off all diplomatic ties with Washington dispute over border of Texas US claimed the Rio Grande Mexico claimed the Nueces River Polk would rather negotiate than go to War sent Slidel to negotiate, then sent Scott to guard the Rio Grande Slidel offer rejected Polk orders Taylor to advance to the Rio Grande; Mexicans attack Congress declares War Polk micromanaged the war 3 phases send Taylor into Northern provinces send expeditionary force through the Southwest to link up with a force in California Battle of Buena Vista - Taylor followed up his victory at Monterrey 1st time that Robert E. Lee & Ulysses S. Grant saw military action Kearney took Santa Fe 1847, proceeds to California John C. Fremont sent out to join the fleet met up with fleet under John Sloat direct attack on Mexico City Polk worried about Taylor becoming a political force, replaces him with Winfield Scott Scott takes Veracruz (Mar 1847), proceeds inland to Mexico City by May, reaches Pueblo last stretch from Pueblo to MC is hardest-fought of the war Scott takes Mexico City (Sep 14, 1847) Mexican government had collapsed, no one to negotiate with Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) US agreed to pay $15 million to Mexico recognition of Rio Grande as southern border of Texas recognition of US ownership of the Southwest & California o California Gold Rush James Marshall finds gold in Sutter's Fort north of San Francisco must be a clear sign from God to justify taking Mexico o Wilmot Proviso of 1846 introduced banned slavery in all territory acquired by Mexico passed the House only John Calhoun introduced series of resolutions in Senate opposing the Wilmot Proviso all Americans won this land, should be opened up to property rights of all Americans basically said the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional passed Senate only Election of 1848 o Whigs nominate James Taylor avoided Slavery completely o Democrats nominate Lewis Cass avoided slavery completely o Free Soil Party combined two factions Barn-Burners break off from Democrats Van Buren's faction disgusted that Dems said nothing about slavery Conscience Whigs break off from Dems disgusted that Dems said nothing about slavery
o
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Page 130 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

wanted to end the spread of slavery, and make all new territory white-only racist o Taylor wins the election James Taylor o California 100,000 Americans in California by 1849 want statehood as a free state Taylor wanted them admitted ASAP then California could skip the territorial stage, avoiding the contoversy also wanted the New Mexico Territory to draw up a constitution and submit it by 1850, Taylor believes that everything has been decided & controversy had been avoided Southern states hate Taylor, do everything to prevent Cali from coming in o Border War between Texas & New Mexico o Slave Trade in DC, northerners wanted a ban on the trade, or the institution altogether in DC some wanted all interstate slave trade banned o Fugitive Slave Act Southerners upset at loopholes in the Act Prigg v. Pennsylvania caused passage of personal liberty laws which allowed Northern states to refuse to comply with the Law o Henry Clay's Compromise of 1850 "omnibus bill" didn't pass Stephen A. Douglas saved the bill broke the bill into its component parts, each part passes Pres Taylor was opposed to the bills Taylor dies Millard Fillmore succeeds Taylor, ensures the Compromise of 1850 passes South lost control of senate, but got much tougher fugitive slave law Slaves lost their right to a trial statute of limitations eliminated anyone harboring an escaped slave would be imprisoned Uncle Tom's Cabin was a reaction to the law o Foreign Policy Fillmore sent Perry to Japan Japan had isolated itself from the west Only the Dutch West Indies company was allowed to trade with the Japanese through one port Became preoccupied with Japan as Britain was with China Expedition arrived in Edo Bay Brought all sorts of up to date western tech Guns, trains, awesome stuff Japan saw how backward they were Opened up peacefully, unlike china US successfully negotiated exclusive trade rights by 1858 Launched a revolution Scrapped feudal way of doing things Modeled new government on Germany Brought in British Shipbuilders Prussian Drillmasters to reorganize the Army Brought in US tech Was strong enough to defeat china in a war by 1890 Defeated a European Power- Russia- in 1905

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Page 131 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Election of 1852 o Whigs nominate Winfield Scott o Dems nominate Franklin Pierce o both parties endorsed the compromise o 1852 marks demise of the Whig party people breaking off because of slavery (Conscience Whigs) people moving to nativist parties (American Party) o Pierce elected Franklin Pierce o Young America movement served as a distraction from important issues offshoot of Manifest Destiny, expanding beyond America's shores Fillmore, Pierce tried to divert attention by pursuing active foreign policy o Pierce Desperately wanted Cuba Was willing to give $100,000,000 Would take it by force if they didn't accept the offer Meant to be secret, leaked to the press Looked like the expansion of slavery to northerners a way to counterbalance California as a free state o Transcontinental Railroad Pierce offered Mexico $10,000,000 to purchase land south of the Gila River Needed it for the transcontinental railroad Southerners wanted New Orleans to be the Eastern Terminus of the line Would be extremely difficult to build to NE No mountains in the way south of the Gila o Kansas-Nebraska Act Would organize the land west of Missouri and Iowa into territories Introduced by Illinois senator Douglass Saw that unless something was done the southern route would be taken for the railroad Wanted the eastern terminus to be Chicago Owned lots of land, shares in RR company Was the chair of the committee on territories Would have resistance as they would eventually come in as free states Douglass made the major concession of Popular Sovereignty Repealed the Missouri Compromise Line The only way to get southern votes Figured slaveholders would go into Kansas, but not Nebraska Douglass pushed his party to endorse the act Pierce, a mouthpiece for the south, willingly endorsed it Signed into law Single most disruptive act to the US during the 1850s Democratic Party lost over 100 seats in the mid terms due to the act o "Bleeding Kansas" Slave owners from Missouri illegally crossed over the border Elected a pro slave government Drew up a pro slave constitution Pierce administration knew of the fraud Endorsed the Government anyway Free soilers refused to accept the legitimacy of the election Elected another territorial government Drew up another constitution Two governments in Kansas One by fraud, one illegal
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Pro slavers went on the offensive in May 1856 Attacked the free soil capitol Burned hotel, destroyed presses, harassed townspeople Retaliatory raid John Brown Saw himself as an agent of God Heard about the raid of Lawrence God willed him to retaliate Snuck into a small settlement made of log cabins Pottawatomie Creek Dragged 5 unsuspecting citizens out of their cabins Hacked them to pieces with broadswords Brown touched off a civil war in Kansas Over 200 died in the conflict "Bleeding Kansas" Fighting in Kansas reflected in the halls of congress Sen. Charles Sumner of MA delivered a 2 day speech about the evil of slavery Insulted Andrew P. Butler, Sen. From SC Called him the Don Quixote of slavery He wasn't there, his nephew, Preston Brooks, was Two days later he beat Sumner over the head with his cane Congress censured him Went back to his district Ran for reelection Got dozens of canes as jobs well done Republican Party o Conscience Whigs + Free-Soil Democrats formed 1854 o dedicated only to Free-Soil ideology not abolitionist Both Sides Antagonizing Each Other o George Fitzhugh took up pro-slavery argument Cannibals All under Capitalism, it will devour itself (the North) 1857 - Economic Depression only affected the North Southerners saw it as a sign that the Southern system was superior o Hinton Helper The Impending Crisis of the South slavery was causing the destruction of the south not able to industrialize or diversify, fund internal improvements Republican Party distributed the book throughout the south book was eventually banned in the South o John Brown attacks Harper's Ferry meets with the Secret Six, a group of abolitionists that funded Brown's attack recruited free blacks & whites Oct 16, 1859 - Brown + 18 men attacked no slaves showed up willingly first person killed was a free black Militia called in, Brown retreats to a brick building Robert E. Lee led Marines into Harper's Ferry, captured Brown and his men before he died: "The crimes of this land cannot be purged but by blood." in the crowd

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Page 133 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Prof. Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson Edmund Ruffin, extremist who fired first shots of Civil War John Wilkes Boothe Southerners shocked by Northern support for Brown Election of 1856 o Dems desperately looking for someone untarnished by the K-N act James Buchanan Was out of the country at the time Only Pres from PA Only bachelor president o John C. Freemont ran against him Hero of the Mexican American war First republican candidate "Freemont and Free Soil" A very sectional party Couldn't hope to win the election o Whigs had ceased to exist Some supported the Republicans Others supported Millard Fillmore, running as a No Nothing Anti catholic, anti immigrant party o There was really no contest in the election Buchanan carried every single state south of the Mason Dixon Was inclined to support the south as a result Dred Scott v. Sanford o Dred Scott was a slave of John Emerson Was in the army, took Scott with him into free states o Scott sued for his freedom as he had resided in a free state Missouri courts disagreed o Mrs. Emerson remarried Under Missouri law her property was transferred to her eldest male sibling, Sanford Lived in New York Scott would be freed Sanford decided to use as a test case o SCOTUS agreed to hear case Taney made two decisions Scott was not a citizen, had no standing in court Missouri compromise was unconstitutional Reasoning was the 5th amendment Life, liberty, property could not be taken away without the due process of law Congress could not deny someone their property rights o Buchanan supported the Dred Scott decision Put Douglass on a collision course with his president Was a supporter of the now unconstitutional popular sovereignty Would split the party Was up for reelection Abe Lincoln went up against Douglass Lincoln o Was well known in Illinois, not nationally o Was well respected o Born in 1809 in Kentucky Dire poverty Father a drifter Brought the family into Indiana then Illinois

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Page 134 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Had to work on flat boats to supplement the family's meager income Opened a country store in 1832 in New Salem Illinois o Turned to study of law Self educated Curious, avid reader Attached himself to a Lawyer Began to read the law All he had to do was pass the bar Doing this all in his spare time Ultimately passed the Bar Accepted as a lawyer o Married up in 1842 Mary Todd, daughter of a wealthy Kentucky slave owner Respectable middle class lawyer by that time o Became interested in Politics Ran for Statewide office in Illinois as a Whig Ran for a seat in congress in 1844, again as a Whig Lost Elected in 1846, served one term Was opposed to the Mexican American war Retired from congress, continued to practice law Came out in support of Freemont in 1856 Challenged Douglass in 1858 o Mid Term election Lincoln an underdog Challenged Douglass to a series of debates Lincoln trapped him asking how he could reconcile his position of popular sovereignty with the Dred Scott decision Supported popular sovereignty Won him the election but lost him the presidential election Election of 1860 o Democratic Party was the last hope to prevent a Civil War 1860 - Douglas seemed to be the front-runner at the Convention, southerners booed Douglas off the stage no one was nominated northerners reconvened, nominated Douglas southerners nominated John C. Breckinridge o Republicans now had advantage William Seward seemed to be the leader extreme, abolitionist supporters depicted Lincoln as a common man called for protective tariffs, Homestead Act (free western land), restoration of National Bank, federal monies for Trans-Continental Railroad, federal monies for agricultural & mechanical colleges o Constitutional Union Party nominated John Bell stood for "constitution & compromise" o Bell popular in Border States o Breckinridge swept the South o Lincoln dominated the North Secession o South Carolina threatened secession if a Republican was elected Dec 20, Seceded from Union o by February, Confederate States of America had been formed

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o o

President: Jefferson Davis VP: Capital: Mongomery, Alabama Buchanan did nothing some states said that if the gov't attacked the the CSA, they too would secede Lincoln says nothing until he's sworn in Inaugural Address Secession is illegal, because the Union is older than the Constitution I have no interest in ending slavery goal of the civil war is to save the union

The Civil War (Ch 14)


Thursday, March 03, 2011 11:20 AM

Ryan O'Shea 11B

Fort Sumpter & Fort Pickens o 2 southern forts still in Union hands o Fort Sumpter, under Anderson's control, being attacked by the south Winfield Scott said holding the fort wasn't worth it Seward urged Lincoln to support Sumpter o Jefferson Davis not sure whether Union would support the Fort decided to take the fort before supply ships came in o Fort Sumpter galvanized and inspired enthusiasm for the Union cause Advantages/Disadvantages of North & South o Northern Advantages Population North had huge numerical advantage didn't have an effect until 1864 Lincoln decided to fight a war of attrition against Lee kept throwing men at lee Railroads enabled movement of troops, supplies Farms food South hadn't diversified their agriculture, dependent on European imports for food Wealth North had the Capitol, banks, businesses, New York, De Bow's Review - Southern paper had to be printed in the North, filled w/ Northern advertisements Industry Factories, clothing, weapons, shoes were almost exclusively made in the North Gettysburg was fought because the Confederates needed shoes Europe provided almost all Confederate arms Navy North had the entire Navy, made sure that the ships in the South were sunken before they fell to the Confederates South managed to convert the USS Merrimac into the CSS Virginia iron ship South managed to seize Harpers Ferry o Southern Advantages Defensive War North had to come and invade
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Page 136 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Better Officers Lee o Southern Disadvantages States' Rights Jefferson Davis couldn't control his governors hard to run a central government in a nation based on States' rights Davis constantly intervened in military strategy Financing the Civil War o both sides thought it would be a short war o North Bonds borrowed from the people Taxes new taxes on everything first income tax Printing Money North printed $450 million in paper money backed by nothing called "greenbacks" Inflation prices skyrocketed National Bank Act reestablished the National Bank o South Bonds less actual money in the South, so they didn't sell well Taxed could only request money, up to the States to tax Printing Money $1.5 billion 9,000% inflation people resorted to bartering Building the Armies o initial wave of enthusiasm on both sides o volunteers sufficed until 1862 South issued Conscription Act in 1862 if you owned 20 or more slaves, you were exempt from service exempted the entire planter class "20 nigger law" "rich man's war, poor man's fight" Lincoln issued draft you could buy your way out of the draft draft riots in almost every Northern city NYC (1863) bloody draft riots turned into race riots (Irish vs. Black) Emancipation Proclamation meant even more fighting over the same jobs Civil War o first deaths were in Baltimore a few days after the fall of Sumpter Mass. volunteers on their way to DC, had to disembark in Baltimore most people in Baltimore were Confederate sympathizers people started taunting & attacking the troops

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o o

soldiers fought back Lincoln put Baltimore under martial law rounded up Southern sympathizers John Merryman sympathizer, was cutting telegraph lines taken to Fort McHenry so was Francis Scott Key's grandson sues for his release no writ of habeas corpus was issued Lincoln had suspended habeas corpus argued that that was unconstitutional (only Congress had that power) won the case in a Federal court Lincoln ignored it Ex Parte Merryman both armies think war will be over shortly Format: Battle (Winner) Battle of Bull Run/Manasses Junction (CSA) Union under Irving McDowell CSA under P. G. T. Beauregard people camped and picnicked to watch the battle Union almost won, but were stopped by regiment commanded by Thomas Jackson Bernard Bee nicknamed Jackson "Stonewall" Union forces panic army trying to flee via the roads the civilians are leaving on chaos prevented Beauregard from following the Union army wasted opportunity to march to Washington Battle of Bull Run shocked the nation convinced people that it would be a long war Lincoln completely reorganized the army replaced McDowell with George B. McClellan young, but has lots of experience observed the Crimean conflict first modern war his men loved him too cautious / didn't know how to use the army Western Theater Forts Donnelson & Henry (Union) Ulysses S. Grant became a drunk right before the war, war saved him Nashville (Union) Grant takes it easily first Confederate capitol to fall Grant's target was Corith, Mississippi major railroad hub Shiloh (Union) Albert S. Johnston moves troops to intercept Grant before he could get to Corinth caught Grant's troops by surprise Union forces rolled back Grant didn't arrive until late in the afternoon, when the soldiers finally begin to hold Johnston killed, led to Union victory Grant couldn't follow up his victory @ Shiloh Peninsula Campaign (1862)

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Page 138 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

McClellan's amphibious campaign toward Richmond first objective was to win the Chesapeake C.S.S. Virginia chases off almost the entire Union Navy iron-sided ship U.S.S. Monitor arrived to take on the Virginia resulted in a draw; neither could sink the other C.S.S. Hunley becomes the first modern submarine sank on first mission 115,000 troops under McClellan's command he trained them way too cautious McClellan kept overestimating the Confederates was provided with bad intel Battle of Fair Oaks Joseph Johnston wounded at Fair Oaks, replaced with Robert E. Lee Lee takes advantage of McClellan o

o o

huge death tolls in the early battles because they were fighting in the old Napoleonic style technology made this inefficient Repeating Rifle introduced by Oliver Winchester started adjusting their tactics trenches (favored defensive side) medicine amputations very common chloroform used as anesthetic in the North first medics provided by the US Sanitary Commission Dorothea Dix campaigned for sanitary reform over 300 hospitals in the nation by the end of the war Lee needs a victory on Union soil to get European recognition of the Confederacy Tensions with Britain Trent Affair Charles Wilkes forcibly stops the Trent and demand that two Confederates be released to his custody two were en route to Britain to persuade British to join Confederate cause two were imprisoned immediately England: release them or face war Alabama claims Britain sold warships to the Confederates McClellan put back in charge Battle of Antietam McClellan had advantage: intercepted Lee's battle plans Lee was trying to reach Harrisburg Jackson showed up, preventing huge Union victory Lee still forced to retreat Lincoln fired McClellan for being so cautious bloodiest day in American history Emancipation Proclamation Lincoln needed a victory to boost morale changed his mind about slavery Britain couldn't support Confederates then, because slavery was abolished in England as of Jan 1, 1863 - all slaves still in rebellion against the Union didn't have any effect until after the Union invaded Ambrose Burnside placed in charge of Army of Potomac, replacing McClellan aggressive
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Fredericksburg disaster for the Union forces Burnside resigned o

Joseph Hooker (U) aggressive Chancellorsville Lee's greatest battle huge human cost (including Jackson) convinced Lee that he should win a battle in the North Northern volunteers are dying down Northern army is demoralized Lee targets Harrisburg against the advice of his generals needed shoes, so they stop in Gettysburg Battle of Gettysburg Union forces also entering the town Gettysburg draws in both armies, becomes a major battle Union under George Meade First Day Confederates delayed in taking Cemetery Ridge, allowed the Union to take the high gound Longstreet (C) warned Lee to retreat Second Day Confederates tried to outflank Union, failed Third Day Pickett's Charge - Confederates trying to march across an open field for over a mile Pickett lost more than half his men Lee realizes that it's hopeless, retreats Meade didn't hunt down Lee, so the Confederates escaped Vicksburg last Confederate stronghold on Mississippi fell to Grant on same day as Gettysburg severed Texas from the Confederacy Winfield Scott had a plan in the beginning of the war Anaconda Plan - blockade ports, take the Mississippi then squeeze the life out of the Confederacy Tennessee Grant spends rest of the year there with Sherman wanted to use Tennessee to invade Georgia Grant made general in chief Grant's Wilderness Campaign Grant's ruthless plan to defeat the South fighting a war of attrition attacking Lee's defensive positions Lee would lose forces, but couldn't replace them Sherman's March through the South Sherman vs. Johnston in Georgia/SC Fall of Atlanta huge impact on morale of the South guaranteed Lincoln's reelection news from Grant's horrendous Wilderness Campaign started calls for peace Election of 1864 Republicans rebranded as Union Party Lincoln ran w/ Johnson
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Page 140 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Total War make war against the enemy's civilians, not their troops destroy infrastructure railroads, bridges, crops, cattle Savannah Sherman orders that Savannah not be torched South Carolina Sherman showed no mercy North Carolina

George B. McClellan ran for Democrats calling for negotiated peace first good news since Gettysburg

Richmond falls due to fall of Petersburg in April Lee surrenders at Appomattox Court House April 9, 1865 Lincoln assassinated 5 days after surrender
o

Reconstruction (Ch 15)


Sunday, March 13, 2011 10:12 AM

Ryan O'Shea 11B

South Destroyed o cities were destroyed o infrastructure nonexistent o economy collapsed o 1/5 of males had died in the War o money/bonds were worthless o 4 million former slaves (freedmen) whose condition was up in the air Readmission of the States o Lincoln proposed the 10% Plan (1864) extremely lenient (didn't want to alienate Southerners from the Republican party) general amnesty provided for everyone except high-ranking Confederate officials/generals Southern States had to repudiate their debts recognize end of slavery if 10% of people who voted in election of 1860 signed a loyalty pledge, they could be admitted Tennessee, Arkansas, Louisiana readmitted Congress refused to recognize Lincoln's plan refused to seat representatives of those states Republicans split: Moderates Conservatives Radicals ultimately determined Reconstruction policy o Wade-Davis Bill Congress's plan much harsher No general amnesty anyone who fought against the Union lost right to vote anyone who served in Confederate government would be disenfranchised required a majority of Southern whites to swear allegiance
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Page 141 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Lincoln pocket vetoed W-D Bill Assassination of Lincoln Lincoln had given a speech April 11 talked about need for reconciliation John Wilkes Booth was listening he's calling for "nigger citizenship" April 14, 1864 - John Wilkes Booth assassinates Abraham Lincoln Seward & Andrew Johnson were assassination targets also; survived Booth escaped the Capitol, manhunt found him on April 26 shot & killed Booth planned elaborate conspiracy to bring down Federal government 8 other conspirators 4 hanged the chaos created would inspire the South to keep fighting Booth's plan backfired united the country Andrew Johnson racist & bigot didn't want equality for ex-slaves basically a Southerner but hated the Planter class plan for Reconstruction similar to W-D Bill differed on general amnesty willing to give pardons to high-ranking Confederate officials anyone with an income over $20,000 would have to apply personally to him for a pardon all Southern states agreed to Johnson's plan when Congress reconvened in 1865, refused to seat all Southern representatives/senators Congress upset at the way Executive Branch had increased its power Lincoln's extensive wartime powers Congress has authority, not the President to plan Reconstruction attitudes of Republicans changed Lincoln's assassination sparked anger against the South thought the Democratic party would undermine the Republican achievements made during the war protective tariff national bank Transcontinental Railroad in the North Confederate leaders elected to Congress VP Stevens was elected South hadn't changed at all Black Codes attempt to restore white supremacy in the South spread through Southern states in 1865 prohibited blacks from owning firearms, being out after dark, intermarrying, serving on juries, owning land, holding jobs other than servants vagrancy: any black caught without a job, could be arrested & hired out under a contract blacks must sign labor contracts if they didn't work a whole year, they gave up rights to any wages from that year Southern rationale tons of blacks wandering around unstable work force Congress set up commission to investigate Black Codes & Race riots (1866)

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something needed to be done should blacks receive equality, suffrage Extended life of the Freedmen's Bureau Bureau part of the War Department objective: make transition from slave to free as painless as possible provided blacks with clothing, food, education set up 9,000 schools brief experiment to settle blacks on their own land many plantations vacant after war resettled some Blacks gave the Bureau additional power to nullify the work contracts Civil Rights Act of 1866 Blacks granted citizenship Johnson vetoes both laws Southern states hadn't been allowed representation, laws were invalid Congress overrode both vetoes first time concerned that courts would declare the CRAct unconstitutional decided to amend the constitution Fourteenth Amendment single most important amendment to the Constitution definition of citizenship no state can deny any citizen life, liberty, due process, or equal protection if any state refuses these rights to anyone, then their representation will be reduced accordingly no general amnesty anyone who fought for the Confederates can't vote or hold office Federal Government will not pay any Confederate debts Confederacy won't be obligated to pay it either, once readmitted Military Reconstruction Acts March of 1867 divided South into 5 military districts Federal troops sent into the South to register black soldiers Southern states would have to ratify the 14th, or they wouldn't be readmitted (would remain under military rule) by 1868, 7/10 states were readmitted Virginia, Texas, & Mississippi waited Fifteenth Amendment (1870) 1867 - Tenure of Office Act President could not remove any cabinet member without the consent of the Senate Johnson hated Secretary of War Edwin Stanton radical Johnson vetoes, overridden decides to test it by firing Stanton Congress impeaches Johnson 1868 for violating an act of Congress Senate conducts impeachment trial acquitted by 1 vote in the Senate Johnson's lawyers argued that he'd never violated the act, because he didn't actually appoint Stanton to begin with Tenure of Office Act is dangerous; undermined power of the Executive Branch political life is over for Johnson Election of 1868

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Page 143 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Johnson campaigned against the 14th backfired often showed up drunk, attacked Republicans Thaddeus Stevens - one of the leader of the Radicals in the House Charles Sumner - leader of Radicals in Senate Republicans much more radical, thanks to Johnson wanted to punish the South Tennessee readmitted, because it was the only to ratify the 14th Democrats nominate Horatio Seymour Republicans nominate Ulysses S. Grant Grant won electoral votes, but the popular vote was close Grant won because of the black vote Fifteenth Amendment (1870) prohibited states from denying anyone suffrage became precondition for the 3 remaining southern states no northern state before the amendment gave blacks the right to vote purpose of 15th was to make the black vote universal Blacks voting, running, and being elected in the South for a time Black voters had a numerical majority o Southerners hated the late 1860s the most saw their governments dominated by Blacks, scallywags, and carpetbaggers "scallywags" became term for Republican-sympathetic Southern officeholders "carpetbaggers" - northerners who came down & took advantage of them politically most actually came to help the South rebuild Southerners wanted to overthrow these Republican regimes Ku Klux Klan founded by Nathan Bedford Forest founded as a social club for ex-Confederates turned into terrorist organization to suppress the black vote also the Mississippi Redshirts, Knights of Red Camilia burned black schools, businesses, churches terrorized scallywags, carpetbaggers Klan was successful in suppressing the Black vote Klan Acts / Enforcement Acts (1870-1) aimed at stopping the Klan authorized the president to impose martial law anywhere these groups were operating, and to arrest Klan members Federal courts set up to try anyone who intimidated a freedman expansion of Federal power Klan Acts worked General Amnesty Act (1872) those Confederates disenfranchised by the 14th are granted amnesty only high-ranking officials still disenfranchised Democratic restored in the South Democrats gained control of the House in 1864 Southerners had "redeemed" themselves beginnings of the "Solid South" always voted Democratic until 1960s Reconstruction o Public Schools 50% of whites, 40% of blacks became literate problems whites refused to go to school with black

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Page 144 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

segregated Infrastructure rebuilt the cities taxes skyrocketed to support these improvements outrage: northern businesses employed to do the building corruption rampant but no more rampant than the north one of the most corrupt periods of American politics o Failed in Land Redistribution (now the Democratic governments) one of the great failures of reconstruction increasing numbers of white & black tenant farmers huge decline in white land ownership white keep losing land: taxes debt South had no banking system no fluid capital system of credit developed Crop Lien System loans only went out at extremely high interest rates percentage of crop (lien) would be taken against the loan sharecropping - had to turn over 50% in return for credit to make sure that you can make your payments, Southerners had to grow marketable cash crops was a disaster o Decline of the South Crop Lien System led to increasing tenancy because farmers had to forclose on their farms still failed to diversify their economy still dependent on south widespread poverty o New South needed to industrialize, diversify needed to do away with prejudices against Yankee businesses Henry Grady led the movement new image of the south never really materialized South did begin to industrialize more rapidly especially in textile manufacturing tobacco industry grew because of James B. Duke owned American Tobacco Company cigarettes replaced cigars because price of tobacco was so high coal fields discovered around Birmingham, Alabama used by steel mills there railroad mileage doubled New South was more fiction by 1900, Southern industry was at the exact same level as before the war Ulysses S. Grant o unprepared for the presidency o greatest weakness: trusted his friends brought in his friends to staff key cabinet positions o corruption Whiskey Ring
o
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Page 145 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

distillers bribing government not to collect taxes on whiskey Credit Mobilier Scandal building of Transcontinental railroad Credit Mobilier funding the Union Pacific railroad bribed members of Congress & the administration with stock in the company for contracts for the Company Secretary of the Interior accepted kickbacks from Indian organizations Grant not involved in any of the corruption, but held responsible o Election of 1872 scandals weren't enough to stop Grant from being renominated Liberal Republicans - broke away from Republicans because of the corruption nominated Horace Greeley Democrats nominate Greeley too o Republican factions Half-Breeds movement in Republican Party to clean up government by passing Civil Service Reform presidents spent most of their time hiring people for jobs new jobs opened up every time a president was elected that meant that every federal employee could be fired after every election Civil Service Reform wanted some jobs based on merit, not patronage Stalwarts opposed Civil Service Reform wanted to keep patronage o Panic of 1873 caused people to lose interest in Reconstruction helped the Democrats to regain control of the "Solid South" new democratic aristocracy called themselves "Bourbons" robbed of their right to rule the South, now they've been restored to their rightful position Election of 1876 o Rutherford B. Hayes (R) vs. Sam Tilden (D) o Tilden was regarded as honest ended the Tweed Ring - a corrupt political machine in New York City o Hayes also regarded as corruption-free o Tilden seems to win the election wins popular vote 20 electoral votes disputed Tilden needed only one, Hayes needs them all o Compromise of 1877 4 states where electoral votes in dispute 19 were in the South Republicans in the South resubmit the 19 votes in favor of Hayes Constitution never said who should count the votes Senate would give it to Hayes, House would give it to Tilden special commission set up 15 men 7 D, 7 R, 1 independent the independent, David Davis, resigns replaced with a Republican commission votes to give vote to Hayes Compromise Southerners would get a position on the Cabinet internal improvements in the South all remaining Federal troops in the south would be withdrawn

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Page 146 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

still there, ensuring that Blacks can vote, & propping up 3 remaining Republican states in the South 1877 marks end of Reconstruction Freedmen after Reconstruction o 1880s & 1890s - Southerners reimposed White supremacy o Segregation practiced Civil Rights Cases of 1883 - was segregation against the 14th Amendment Court ruled that segregation is fine if practiced privately, not by the states 14th prevent States from segregating, not persons Jim Crowe Laws - name came from the minstrel show actor o 1896 - Plessy v. Ferguson Homer Plessy challenges that public places could be segregated (e.g. trains) separate but equal State had provided equal facilities, so it was legal wasn't overturned until 1954 - Earl Warren overturned it in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas o Black Suffrage Literacy tests & US history tests for voting Poll tax - disenfranchised poor whites grandfather clause - only if your grandfather had voted in election of 1860, could you vote overturned in 1915 - Guinn v. US 1965 - Poll taxes & literacy tests finally abolished blacks leaving the south, moving to border states migration didn't really pick up until WWI - Great Migration o Henry M. Turner's Back to Africa movement didn't have the money o Booker T. Washington basically accepted idea that his race should give up the struggle for restoration of civil & political rights Blacks could prove themselves to whites only if they made economic contribution to growth of new South policy of accommodation founded a school in 1880s - Tuskegee provided practical training to blacks 1865 - gave speech - The Atlanta Compromise "we can be as separate as the fingers in all things social, but one as the hand in all things commercial" o W. E. B. Du Bois The Souls of Black Folk criticized Booker T's approach doesn't think blacks should just hope things are going to change educated blacks need to take leadership role, agitate for an immediate restoration of black civil/political rights 1st black to get Ph.D. from Harvard met with some blacks & whites in Niagra Falls Niagra Movement led directly to the formation of the NAACP in 1909 first success was 1915 when courts overturned the grandfather clause o huge amounts of lynching no white southerner charged for lynching

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Page 147 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Conquest of Far West (Ch 16)


Wednesday, March 23, 2011 10:37 AM

Ryan O'Shea 11B

Native Americans in the West o were not homogeneous Pueblos lived in cities; most were nomadic buffalo hunters often fighting each other Hispanic Culture o arrival of white Anglo-Saxons, Mexicans became second class citizens o Culture had huge influence on White culture in the West Chinese o first attracted to California by the gold rush o most in California o discrimination against the Chinese California passed mining tax on all foreigners many Chinese worked on Central Pacific & Union Pacific Railroads paid lower wages when job ended in 1866, many Chinese out of work most moved to cities San Fran had largest popultion anti-Chinese riots Chinese Exclusion Act - banned Chinese immigration to US, all Chinese banned from naturalized citienship Economy o Mining series of mining rushes in the West 1858 - Gold discovered in Pike's Peak, Colorado - new gold rush Comstock Lode - another rush gold in Black Hills, Dakota new Boomtowns - Virginia City, Carson City Corporations replaced individual miners &dominated mining Homestake Mine corporations caused population decline Anaconda Corporation dominated copper in Montana Lawlessness Mark Twain - Roughing It - talked about lawlessness in the frontier many young men, few women o Cattle Kingdom, 1866-1887 depended on the open range unsettled grasslands Cowboys & ranchers brought cattle to market in Railroad Junction towns Topeka was one 1866 - Texas cattle ranchers began driving combined herds north to Sedalia along Missouri Pacific Railroad beginning of the long drives Chisholm Trail trail to Abilene - center of the cattle trade 1/5 cowboys were black cattle driving provided huge monetary returns for investors Demise of Cattle Kingdom
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Page 148 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Sheep ranchers fighting Cattle ranchers Sheep destroyed the grass Farmers beginning to settle, made drives almost impossible by the 1870s no way to fence off their farms no woods barbed wire Nature Huge drought, harsh winter cycle started - cattle died businesses and investors went under Cattle Kingdom never recovered Romance of the West o the great last frontier in the minds of americans o place of adventure, where you could start over o Rocky Mountain School painters who painted landscapes Albert Bierstadt, Thomas Moran o railroads into the West provided cheap rates o Cowboy culture was most alluring Owen Wister's The Virginian created the noble, rugged cowboy image Easterner, never went west of Harrisburg Wild West Shows Buffalo Bill Cody - opened up the first Wild West Show became national celebrity included mock Indian attacks, shooting expositions Annie Oakley - crack-shot, horseman, celebrity eventually died out o Mark Twain's Tom Sawyer & Huckleberry Finn repudiated constrains of organized society, attempted to escape into the natural world o Frederick Remington - most famous Western painter, & sculptor Turn Him Loose, Bill - painting Easterner, but did go West o Theodore Roosevelt - went to the badlands to become a rancher published The Winning of the West - romantic image of rugged individual that tamed the West o Frederick Jackson Turner - historian of the West from University of Wisconsin for first time since 1607, census claimed that there was no more frontier line Turner shocked The Frontier Thesis what made Americans unique from all other people was the frontier from the time that the first Englishmen set foot in Jamestown, there had always beena frontier frontier shaped who we were closeness with nature made us rugged individuals, and gave us unique brand of democracy American democracy is in danger without the frontier Dispersal of the Tribes o Concentration Policy told the tribes that defined hunting grounds would decrease warfare between the tribes keep tribes separated to achieve "divide & conquer" worked until 1861 - all troops called back East to fight in Cwar Indians start fighting again Gold rushes & mining rushes caused many whites to descend on Indian land, promting Indian defiance of the policy o Indian Wars

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Sioux led by Little Crow rebelled Cheyenne & Arapaho met to settle differences, but it was a trap - massacred by Colorado militia mostly women & children Aftermath of Cwar - regular army sent back into West 4 regiments organized made up exclusively of black soldiers Americans intruded on the Sioux territory to build some building under Chief Red Cloud, attacked Americans Indian Wars were brutal o Large Reservation Policy replaced the Concentration Policy take all of the plains tribes & group them into 2 large reservations 1874 - Gold discovered in Dakota territories prospectors invade reservation land killing buffalo reasons for fall of Large Reservation Policy discovery of gold corrupt Indian agents Sioux had out to Montana General Custer under orders to get Sioux back on reservation Battle of Little Bighorn o every contract with the natives was broken Helen Hunt Jackson's A Century of Dishonor catalogs all of the contracts with the tribes no one else cared o 1886 - last tribe that refused to go on reservations were Apaches Jeronimo, chief of Apaches surrendered to US marks the end of the Indian Wars o LR Policy replaced by the Dawes Act reservations would be broken up head of every household would be given 160 acres of land could gain title to it after 25 years Dawes Act is an attempt to assimilate the natives also, to break up the tribes (b/c everyone who left would have to leave the tribe) Dawes Act was a disaster o late 1880s, belief that a messiah would return to save them from the white man & bring back the buffalo destruction of buffalo herds caused the downfall of the Native Americans Transcontinental Railroad was the biggest catalyst to the destruction of the buffalo herd hired hunters to slaughter buffalo for food for the workers buffalo coats became new style buffalo hunting became a sport by mid 1870s, herds almost gone ghost dance - to bring back the buffalo remaining tribes on reservations left to find buffalo Battle of Wounded Knee - Custer's men chased down band of Sioux, slaughtered them o Oklahoma Reservation was opened to white settlement in 1889 Benjamin Harrison decides to violate terms of treaty, and take all reservation land away, open to white settlement 160 acres for anyone who would claim it thousands of settlers showed up many had snuck into the territory, and claimed most of the good land process of settlement in the west a. miners b. ranchers

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Page 150 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

c. farmers without US gov't, farmers wouldn't have been able to settle Homestead Act was designed for eastern farms (160 acres wasn't large enough) Timber Act (1873) - get an additional 160 acres if you plant trees on your land Desert Land (1877) - 640 acres if you irrigate your land problems w/ farming couldn't fence off their land Glidden invented Barbed Wire finding water drilling solved problem hard ground hard to plow John Deer invents steel plow dry climate pulverized the soil to trap the limited rainfall in it railroads too expensive gov't incentives to companies building railroads gave away land to the companies as long as moving troops would cost half as much as passengers & mail would cost 1/4 the price farmers' experience turned into a nightmare o loneliness o railroads exorbitant rates owned all storehouses where farmers stored products o banks banks charging much more interest to farmers, because farming was risky o federal government/money supply farmers want inflation federal government was on a tight money policy--to restrict the supply Crime of '73 - when nation went off the bi-metal standard o farmers overproducing, hurting themselves

Industrial Supremacy (Ch 17)


Sunday, March 27, 2011 10:06 AM

Ryan O'Shea 11B Sources of Industrial Growth Steel o fueled by: railroads o 1855 - Henry Bessemer & William Kelly invented Bessemer process to convert iron to steel o 1868 - Abram Hewitt - Open Hearth process o Coal needed to fuel furnaces because PA had lots of coal, Pittsburgh became center of steel production also Birmingham, Alabama o close relationship between steel & railroad companies Oil o 1850s - George Bissel - showed that oil could be burned, used for lube o 1859 - Edwin Drake drilled first oil well in US (Titusville, PA) Electricity - Thomas Edison Automobile
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Page 151 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

internal combustion engine invented in Europe Nicholas Otto made 1st 4-stroke engine Gottfried Daimler perfected it for automobiles o US 1903 - Charles & Frank Duryea built 1st gasoline-driven car in US 1906 - Henry Ford began producing cars in Detroit Airplane o 1903 - Wright Brothers launched 1st airplane in Kitty Hawk, NC Telephone - Alexander Graham Bell Minor inventions o Elevator - James Otis 1851 o Typewriter - Christopher Scholes 1860s o Cash register - James Ritty 1870s Department storesWanamaker's - 1st o Marshall Field opened one o Macy's Chain stores o 1859 - Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company Food retailers o A&P o Woolworth's Mail-order houses o ordering through catalogs o 1872 - Aaron Ward - 1st catalog o Sears & Roebuck Research & Development o General Electric created 1st corporate lab in 1900 Thomas Edison also had R&D lab in Menlo Park o Bell Telephone, Dupont, Eastman-Kodak, & others budgeted funds for R&D o Colleges & Universities become closely tied to R&D for corporations Andrew Carnegie & others investing in Universities o Taylorism Frederick W. Taylor - founder of scientific management urged employers to reorganize production by subdiving tasks make tasks so simple that unskilled laborer could routinely do the task would speed up production, lower costs, reduce necessity for skilled laborers led to the Assembly line Henry Ford introduced AL into plant in 1914 cut production time drastically could raise wages, cut price Railroad Expansion o Railroad was principal agent of industrial expansion in late 19th century both demanded industry to build, and gave access to distant markets for other industrialists o altered concepts of time until 1880s, no standard method of keeping time created 4 time zones Railroads created standardized time o tycoons: Vanderbilt, James J. Hill, Collis P. Huntington o railroads did more for corporations than tycoons The Corporation o limited liability - investors can only lose their investment, not everything you own o after Civil War, corporations became dominant form of business organization
o
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Page 152 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Pennsylvania Railroad was one of first major corps Andrew Carnegie opened his steelworks in Pittsburgh in 1883 1901 - sold Carnegie steel to J.P. Morgan merged with other companies to form United States Steel Corporation Gustavus Swift invented refrigerated car to transport meat Isaac Singer invents sewing machine, made one of first modern corporations Consolidating Corporate America o Horizontal Integration - buying up competitors in same enterprise o Vertical Integration - taking over all different businesses on which a company relied Carnegie Steel, Rockefeller's Standard Oil o businessmen saw consolidation as the solution to cutthroat competition o Pools arrangements by different corps to divide marketplace & set prices failed because required cooperation Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 - banned pools o Trusts Rockefeller's lawyers invented it organization where stockholders in individual corps would transfer stocks to group of trustees, in exchange for stocks in the trust itself people more likely to put faith in the huge trust than in one corp 1889 - New Jersey passed law that made trust unnecessary to attract corps allowed companies to buy other companies without breaking the trust Standard Oil reincorporated in NJ Holding Company - central company that would by up stock of members of trust trusts created monopolies Sherman Anti-Trust Act of 1890 - any combination or trust or conspiracy in restraint of trade is illegal law was too vague Corps challenged it in the courts, which were conservative & pro-business 1895 - US v. E.C. Knight & Co. - refined 98% of sugar in country courts ruled it wasn't a trust, didn't violate Act produced greenlight for mergers Capitalism & Its Critics The Self-Made Man o used philosophy of social Darwinism Herbert Spencer - applied Darwinism to society & economics Survival of the Fittest o justified their actions on Adam Smith's invisible hand of supply & demand o if Government intervened, it would disrupt the economy & keep weaker firms alive on life support Andrew Carnegie's The Gospel of Wealth - all excess funds should be used for philanthropic works Public opinion was mixed: o some bought into the whole idea of the self-made man Horatio Alger Mass. minister homo began to write novels one of the most successful authors in history rags-to-riches stories Ragged Dick Russell Conwell Baptist minister became millionaire from inspirational speeches

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Page 153 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

"Acres of Diamonds" 1st president of Temple University o some disagreed with rags to riches philosophy major concern that monopolies would hurt middle class uneven distribution of wealth troubled the socialists American Socialist Party Henry George's Progress and Poverty tried to explain why there was so much wealth, but such a huge difference between rich and poor blamed it on monopolies' ability to grow wealthy on rising land values increase in value of land wasn't result of any improvement by owner, but growth of society around the land proposed tax for the unearned increment - property tax on land could replace all other taxes Edward Bellamie's Looking Backward utopian socialist Industrial Worker in the New Economy 25 million new immigrants o cheap labor Labor Contract Law - industrialists would travel to Europe, pay for passage of workers, take it out of their wages o repealed in 1885 working conditions horrendous no job security below sustenance-level wages long word days Women o 20% of women were wage earners o lower wages than men Children o tons employed on farms, factories o Ineffective Child Labor Laws Unions o attempts to consolidate labor unions 1866 - National Labor Union founded by William Sylvis didn't survive Panic of 1873 1969 - Knights of Labor founded by Uriah Stephens open to any workers, except lawyers, bankers, liquor dealers, gamblers, prostitutes union's purpose was to own workers' cooperatives workers would own their own businesses utopian vision Terrence Powderly made it an open union didn't approve of the strike o Strikes 1877 - Great Railroad Strike of 1877 Eastern railroads announced 10% wage cut strikers disrupted service from Baltimore to Chicago Pres Rutherford B. Hayes sent in federal troops to suppress the strikers 100 people died Powderly, leader of the Knights, saw potential for strike to turn people off to the Union movement many union leaders were foreign; people saw it as evil spread from Europe o American Federation of Labor led by Samuel Gompers

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Page 154 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

o o

very different from the Knights limited only to skilled workers concentrated only on bread & butter issues (better working conditions, etc) accepted capitalism rejected women & blacks 1886 - AFL & Knights called for massive demonstrations for an 8-hour work day already a strike at the McCormick harvesting plant in Chicago Haymarket Square police infiltrated crowds at mass protest there someone threw a bomb into police officers, killed 7 cops cops fired, killed 4 workers police blamed 8 Anarchists, charged with murder no evidence sentenced to death Haymarket & Railroad Strikes cemented in American minds that Socialism, Communism, & Anarchism were great dangers, & were responsible for this violence Strikes in 1890s - AFL & American Railway Union Homestead Strike Amalgamated Association of Iron and Steel Workers affiliated with the AFL Andrew Carnegie & partner Frick decided that the Amalgamated union had to go Carnegie & Frick cut wages, without negotiating Union refused to accept cuts Frick closed down Homestead plant, fires all the workers, brings in 300 guards to protect plant while they hire new workers Battle took place outside of Homestead between Pinkerton Guards & the Amalgamated workers Guards surrendered gov of PA calls out National Guard ended the strike Amalgamated died Pullman Strike Pullman manufactured railway cars near Chicago made a town where all employees rented homes Pullman slashed wages, but refused to reduce rents American Railway Union refuses wage cuts, refuses to handle any Pullman car on any train thousands of railway workers in 27 states went on strike paralyzed transportation governor of Illinois refused to call out National Guard Pres Grover Cleveland sent in National Guard to end the strike attorney general, Richard Olney issued court injunction against the head of the Union, Debs used Sherman Anti-Trust Act - Union was a combination in restraint of trade Debs arrested, became a Socialist - founded American Socialist Party labor unions failed to achieve their goals rejected all unskilled labor middle class associated unions with violence, anarchy, & socialism industrialists had more power than the unions corps forced workers to sign yellow-dog contracts - promise not to join a labor union government openly hostile to Unions both parties pro-business courts dominated by conservatives immigrant work force was willing to work for tiny wages

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Page 155 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Age of the City (Ch 18)


Thursday, March 31, 2011 10:52 AM

Ryan O'Shea 11B

Sources of Urban Growth o Americans leaving farms attractions Women found themselves useless in farming communities Technology refrigerated railroad cars (Swift) typewriter (Sholes) saw the city as a place to escape to o immigration settled in cities most coming from western Europe pattern begins to change in the 1890s: more coming from Eastern/Southern Europe cities completely dominated by immigrants 1920 - more people in cities than in farms new immigrants had hard time assimilating language came from nondemocratic nations lived in ethnic ghettoes public education had huge American influence on the immigrants second generation immigrants pulled away women had trouble adjusting to a more liberated existence revival of nativism/xenophobia organizations being formed to keep immigrants out American Protective Association created to keep immigrants out of America Immigration Restriction League wanted all immigrants to speak english Cities had trouble dealing with all the people o people demanding services, cities couldn't keep up high crime rates inadequate housing plumbing waste disposal o housing row house triple-deckers tenaments multi-family homes charged high rents abomination - no restrictions on the housing no indoor plumbing New York most living in tenaments most in lower east side of Manhattan 1890 - Jacob Riis writes How the Other Half Lives described the poverty of the lower east side photojournalism o fires
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Page 156 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Great Fire of Chicago in 1891 Great Earthquake started fires in San Fran o Cities began to transform themselves plumbing installed parks Central Park (1850s) Frederick Law Olmstead 1857 - depression, New York used Central Park to provide men with jobs every square inch was planned, not natural o roads not paved/big enough o Municipal government weak chartered by States back in the 1820s o Political Machine every single American city being ruled over by a political machine e.g. Tammany Machine in New York, NY head of machine was an unelected official, who ran the city cities divided up into wards political machines sponsored candidates at the ward level then could control the city through these wards George Washington Plunkett - Tammany ward boss in lower Manhattan machines did favors for immigrant families - secured the immigrant vote Improvements o new streets o plumbing o everything improving o revolution in transportation elevated railroads electric streetcar Frank Sprague - inventor by turn of century, 10K miles of track for the streetcars streetcar allowed cities to expand into suburbs middle class moving out of the city increased urban poverty suspension bridges Brooklyn Bridge skyscrapers Louis Sullivan father of modern architecture form should follow function teacher of Frank Lloyd Wright elevator - James Otis Tacoma building (Chicago) - first skyscraper parks (Olmstead) libraries museums City Beautiful Movement to build wide boulevards inspired by "White City" by Daniel Burnham at the Columbian Exposition in 1893 architects persuaded city government/machine to redesign e.g. Ben Franklin Parkway, Philadelphia private institutions dealing with poverty

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Page 157 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Salvation Army (1879) Christian influence churches ignored poverty at first poverty considered laziness combined with social Dawinism - you'd be helping the weak survive, when they should die off Protestant ministers began to preach the Social Gospel 1885 - Rev. Josiah Strong - Our Country said it was duty of Christians to give a helping hand to the poor 1886 - Washington Gladden - Applied Christianity 1891 - Papal encyclical- Rerum Novarum Pope Leo said that the Catholic Church should become actively involved with the poor 1898 - Charles Sheldon - In His Steps huge best-seller "What would Jesus do?" Settlement Houses Jane Addams 1889 - Addams opened up Hull House - first settlement house in the US set up to provide the same services as the political machines but without the vote Lilliam Wald opened Henry House mostly staffed by women, shunned from major professions

Marketing o Chain stores, department stores, mail-order houses Leisure Time o How did urbanization affect culture? o leisure seen as good o spectator sports baseball football Big Ten Alonso Stagg NCAA at urging of Roosevelt boxing John L. Sullivan basketball o Theatre vaudeville musicals George Cohen Irving Berlin movies D.W. Griffith o two cultures mass culture elite culture o literature now attracted to grittier side of life in urban america Realism Theodore Dreyser, father of Realism Frank Norris - Socialist Upton Sinclair - Socialist
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Page 158 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

art Ashcan School realism philosophy Pragmatism William James only philosophy only founded in the US spread of public educasion Land Grants gave land away to the states for use by schools women's colleges

From Stalemate to Crisis (Ch 19)


Sunday, April 03, 2011 10:09 AM

Ryan O'Shea 11B Politics of Equilibrium Party System o 16 solid Republican states o 14 solid Democratic states o 5 swing states o candidates came from swing states o elections were very close o extremely high voter turnout o parties on same page pro-business laissez-faire disagreed on tariffs, but not on party lines o Constituents: Democrats: immigrants Dems less nativist than Reps factory workers Republicans Protestants middle class National Government o Gov't did very little in the postwar period delivered mail, maintained military, conducted foreign policy, spurred industry Rutherford B. Hayes o crippled from the start by the Compromise of 1877 o Dems refused to talk with him, controlled the House o Republicans split: Half-Breeds in favor of some type of civil reform Stalwarts machine politicians led in Senate by Roscoe Conkling both factions were fighting to control patronage Election of 1880 o Republicans still split they split the ticket James Garfield - Half-Breed (P) Chester A. Arthur - Stalwart (VP)
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Page 159 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

James Garfield elected, assassinated o disappointed office-seeker - Charles Guiteau - shoots president, says "I'm a stalwart and Arthur's president now" Thought he'd be getting a job Chester A. Arthur o upon death of Garfield, began to support Civil Service Reform (Half-Breed) o Pendleton Act of 1883 (Civil Service Reform Act) - merit replaced patronage for federal jobs president can, by executive order, increase percentage of jobs that were merit-based all presidents increased it Election of 1884 o Arthur wasn't re-nominated o Republicans turn to James G. Blaine champion of Civil Service Reform corrupt sold a senate vote for Railroad stock Mulligan Letters proved this o Democrats searching for an honest nominee Grover Cleveland attracted some Republicans ("mugwumps") o election was fought over personalities Republicans exploited Cleveland's illegitimate child o Cleveland wins Grover Cleveland (Take One) o Republicas always associated with high tariffs o tariffs directly linked to corruption (more money) Cleveland opposed tariffs, unsuccessful in lowering them Senate controlled by Reps Election of 1888 o Benjamin Harrison for Reps o Cleveland for Dems o Election fought over tariffs o Harrison campaigned for higher tariffs, won Farmers o 3 villains responsible for falling prices blamed Railroads blamed Banks blamed Gov't for failing to provide money o Railroads were the biggest issue offered corporations kickbacks charged more for shorter distances Oliver Hudson Kelley - founded first national farm organization, the Patrons of Husbandry (The Grange) created to deal with loneliness of farmers became a political interest group called for regulation of railroads backed political candidates Granger Laws - imposed strict regulations on railroad rates 1877 - Munn v. Illinois - challenged Granger Laws upheld their constitutionality 1886 - Wabash Case - reversed; states cannot regulate interstate railroads Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 banned pools railroads must charge reasonable & just rates (never defined the rates)
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Page 160 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

set up the Interstate Commerce Commission (first regulatory commission) had no authority by 1880s, farming devastated by drought & harsh winters o Grange replaced by Farmers' Alliances much more political talked about political party led by Mary Lease disagreed over admittance of Blacks held national convention in 1890 in Florida listed the Ocala Demands o created the People's Party later nominated James B. Weaver demands: gov't ownership of Railroads, telegraphs, telephones return to gov't of all lands given to railroads by gov't system of national storehouses owned by the gov't where farmers could store crops graduated income tax direct election of US senators secret ballot ability of people to initiate legislation (initiative) rights of people to recall corrupt politicians free and unlimited coinage of silver end to national banks regulation of wall street Money o money supply was not keeping up with the industrial economy o country was on the gold standard o turned to silver o gov't set the Mint Ratio (16:1 = 16 oz of silver is one oz of gold) more expensive than open market o 1873 - Congress reverted to the gold standard farmers wand Congress to go back to the bimetal standard "Crime of '73" o 6 Western states enter union states had silver mining interests o McKinley Tariff of 1890 - highest tariffs yet needed support of Western states forced to revert to bimetal standard to pass the McKinley tariff Sherman Silver Purchase Act - agreed to purchase a ton of silver at prevailing market rate, paid for by treasury bills redeemable in gold or silver didn't coin the silver Election of 1892 o People's Party demanding unlimited coinage of silver at 16:1 Weaver nominated got a lot of votes, from disgruntled farmers o Cleveland wins again Grover Cleveland (Take Two) o Depression of 1893 - worst until GD starts in eastern railroads bank failures, contraction of credit Cleveland blamed Depression on Sherman Silver Purchase Act decline in value of silver people exchanging treasury notes for gold

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gold reserves shrunk if gold reserves shrunk too much, silver would be only metal backing currency hyperinflation repealed Sherman Silver Purchase Act J.P. Morgan begins buying up gold gov't turned to Morgan to rescue the country

Election of 1896 o William McKinley nominated by Republicans o Democrats hopelessly divided Silver wing Gold wing Speech made by William Jennings Bryan The "Cross of Gold" Speech made Bryan the nominee of the Democratic Party o Populists in a bind, Dems had stolen their platform decided to throw their fate in with Bryan o Bryan conducted first modern campaign in US History o McKinley conducted "front-porch campaign" sat on his front porch, reporters would ask him questions masterminded by Mark Hanna knew he'd have to outspend the Democrats backed by corporate America o Bryan toured the country to counter, but lost o Election between Wall Street & Main Street Wall Street wins o Labor, immigrants frightened by the Democrats' radicalism didn't vote for him o Populism dies with 1896 election McKinley o Currency Act of 1900 - reverted strongly to the gold standard

The Imperial Crisis (Ch 20)


Tuesday, April 05, 2011 1:44 PM

Ryan O'Shea 11B

New Manifest Destiny o Territory gained (besides Alaska) had always been in North America o Isolationism Washington's Farewell Address Monroe Doctrine France invaded Mexico during Civil War but Lincoln was a bit busy Mexicans overthrew French anyway o William Seward, Sec of State US acquired Alaska & Midway Island criticized for it o Americans after Civil War weren't for expansion domestic problems preoccupied politics Reconstruction o Benjamin Harrison's Administration has the first actively expansionist government o Reasons for New Manifest Destiny Census of 1890 - no longer a frontier
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Page 162 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Turner put the problem into the public spotlight with his Frontier Thesis businesses eager for new foreign markets too much production for the domestic market looking for a way to direct American attention away from domestic problems like the Panic of 1893 Pierce did the same thing with Cuba Europe actively involved with carving up the world & gaining spheres of influence English Empire France Russia Germany under Bismarck Africa completely carved up, except Ethiopia China being fought over as well if America doesn't get into the game, it's gonna be too late Theodore Roosevelt Social Darwinism seemed to provide scientific basis for expansion Josiah Strong's Our Nation was a call to Americans to Christianize the world John Fiske John W. Burgess's Comparative Politics Military arguments Alfred T. Mahan's The Influence of Sea Power Upon History all great powers have become and remain great because of sea power Britain was dominant, US needs to wake up one of the first to advocate the Panama Canal Harrison & Cleveland began to modernize the navy included the need for island territories, coaling stations Mahan's work even influenced Germany Germany build up navy led to deterioration of relationship between Germany and GB Imperialism o James G. Blaine, Sec of State under Harrison first aggressive Sec of State after Seward interested in Central/South America called a Pan-American Conference wanted to create a Pan-American Congress that would work together, under the guidance of the US wanted free trade zone Pan-American Congress was created, but didn't get the free trade zone o Chile any good will created by Pan-American congress was destroyed by Chile group of american sailors on shore leave in Valaparaiso got into a brawl some killed Harrison demanded that Chilean government publicly apologize & reimburse families of the dead sailors Chilean gov't hesitated Harrison asked Congress to declare war Chile apologized, settled o Hawaii US activity in Pacific increased after Japan & China opened to american trade Seward purchased Midway Island US gaining interest Hawaii William Hooper purchased a sugar plantation in Hawaii (first to do so)

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Page 163 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

by 1870s, US gaining control of the island's sugar huge portion of populations dying 1885 - US entered agreement with Hawaiian monarchy allowed Hawaiian sugar to enter US duty-free 1887 - renegotatiated duty-free sugar treaty this time, US gets a naval base at Pearl Harbor Harrison gained another base in Pacific in Samoa McKinley Tariff did away with the Hawaiian agreemment destroyed Hawaiian economy only way for planters to survive was if Hawaii was annexed 1891 - Liliuokalani becomes queen of Hawaii launched nationalistic campaign - Hawaii for Hawaiians Americans began to conspire to overthrow queen Lil Harrison sent warship, U.S.S. Boston - to overthrow Queen Lil topple queen, proclaim provisional government elected Sanford Dole as President of Hawaii drew up annexation treaty in waning months of Harrison's administration Cleveland didn't approve of Harrison's toppling of Hawaiian government Venezuela 1895 - dispute between Venezuela & British Guiana gold discovered on border GB & Venezuela both claimed the land Venezuela asked Cleveland to arbitrate the dispute Richard Olney, Sec of State, saw it was a win-win, convinced president Cleveland tells GB that they are in violation of the Monroe Doctrine US will determine what land belongs to whom Britain didn't reply to Cleveland Cleveland threatens War GB realizes seriousness GB on brink of war with Boors in Africa GB backs down US gave most of the disputed territory to GB anyway Cuba Cubans rebelled against the Spanish, again fought 10-year insurgency before, but Spain had crushed it 1894 - economy of Cuba collapsed because of US Wilson-Gorman Tariff insurrection aimed at Spain Spain determined to crush rebellion, save remaining Spanish Empire sent over Wyler to crush rebellion put insurrectionists into concentration camps 200K people died in camps Cleveland wanted nothing to do with Cuba might lead to war with Spain president McKinley at first wanted nothing to do with Cuba American press yellow journalism - relied on sensationalism/lurid imagery Joseph Pulitzer's The World William Randolph Hearst's The Journal sent reporters to Cuba "Butcher Wyler's Regime"

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Page 164 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

stirred support for intervention business wanted intervention McKinley backed by business demanded that Wyler be recalled, end of concentration camps, armistice with insurrectionists, Spain grant Cuba independence Feb 9 - Hearst intercepts letter from Enrique de Lome, publishes insulting to McKinley says that President will do whatever the public wants him to do Spain has no interest in fulfilling McKinley's ultimatum Feb 15 - explosion of the USS Maine in Havana exploded, sank, killed 264 American officers/sailors many blamed explosion on the Spanish actually the last thing Spain would want actually was faulty boilers Remember the Maine, to Hell with Spain Spanish-American War Congress passed declaration of war, so did Spain Teller Amendment - US is entering war to free Cuba from Spain, not to gain any territory in Cuba as a result of thi war War ended in a few months, shortest in American History John Hay referred to it as "That splendid little war." 1st US victory in S-A War was in Pacific Manila Bay Teddy Roosevelt, Asst. Sec. of Navy, ordered fleet in Hong Kong to move towards the Philippines Dewey, in charge, snuck warships into Philippines at night Sunk the entire Spanish fleet USS Olympia US completely unprepared US only had 26,000 soldiers most in the West, came back to Cuba some segregated black regiments National Guardsmen provided many more troops too little food woolen uniforms in Cuba disease, heat stroke key city was Santiago, home of Spanish fleet Jul 3 - attempted to escape, US caught them & sunk 7 warships land campaign to take Santiago involved taking 2 hills outside Santiago San Juan, Kettle Hill Rough Riders Teddy Roosevelt now a Lt Col in the Army formed Rough Riders fought with distinction at San Juan charged up Kettle Hill TR became overnight hero Jul 17 - Santiago fell Aug 12 - Spain asked for armistice Treaty of Paris (1898) - made US into an imperial power Spain gives Cuba independence US got Guam in Pacific, Puerto Rico, Philippines

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paid $20 million

Philippines McKinley didn't want to give Philippines back to Spain should US take over the island? hesitated people in government wanted to many Americans thought it was a bad idea Anti-Imperialist League Sam Gompers joined new immigrants in work force nativists they're brown! imperialism against the very fabric of the american people McKinley claimed God told him to Christianize the Filipinos even though most Filipinos were already Catholic Senate voted on Treaty of Paris needed democratic support William Jennings Bryan - leading democrat, leading anti-imperialist told friends to vote for acquisition needed an issue to campaign against McKinley Status of People in new territories? Insular Cases Downes v. Bidwell (1901) - do the rights and privileges of US citizens apply to territories court drew distinctions between Hawaii/Alaska & other territories so Hawaii/Alaska got citizenship Puerto Rico Four-Acre Act (1900) - Made Puerto Rico a US territory Governor of Puerto Rico would be directly appointed by Congress bicameral chamber - lower elected by Puerto Ricans, upper appointed by Congress US reserved right to veto any legislation passed by assembly Jones Act (1917) - granted Puerto Ricans citizenship Cuba McKinley didn't think Cubans were ready for freedom military occupation Cubans resented them, despite helping them a lot Platt Amendment (1901) - any Cuban constitution would have to include following: Cuba won't enter alliance or treaty without consent of US US naval base in Cuba US has right to intervene in Cuban affairs to protect life, liberty, & property Cubans recognized Platt Amendment, granted Cuban "independence" Philippines believed that liberation from Spain would mean independence Filipinos started insurrection led by Emilio Aguinaldo very poor American effort first Pacific war first insurgent war first jungle war US took no mercy on Filipinos Aguinaldo captured, rebellion ended quickly US forces commanded by Arthur MacArthur (father of Douglas MacArthur) Teddy appointed Taft as governor of Philippines loved Filipinos
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renewed trust with Filipinos Philippines sparked interest in Pacific especially China

China

Americans wanted access to the Chinese market China being carved up into spheres of influence 1894 - Sino-Japanese War China vs. Japan Japan won easily John Hay, Sec of State under McKinley, concerned about future of US market in China Open-Door Notes became cornerstone of American foreign policy in Pacific European gov'ts shouldn't discriminate against US goods in spheres of influence European powers didn't respond declared that the Europeans had accepted the Open-Door Policy 1900 - Boxer Rebellion - internal rebellion Boxers wanted to overthrow weak Manchu Dynasty anti-Western Hay refused to be passive Boxers had taken over most of Peking other powers had been restricted to a small Embassy area of Peking British embassy had wall round it, being besieged for 55 days All European/US powers sent troops in to stop the rebellion succeeded would Europeans carve up China again? Hay couldn't allow that to happen sent second round of Open-Door Notes US guaranteed "the territorial integrity of China" total bluff Hay again proclaimed that Europeans had accepted Roosevelt now president, also believed in Open-Door 1904 - Russo-Japanese War Japanese attacked Russian Manchuria, defeated them Japanese winning war Roosevelt attempts to mediate end to conflict Treaty of Portsmouth, New Hampshire Roosevelt allows Russian foothold in Manchuria Roosevelt gave Japan greenlight to expand into Korea Roosevelt able to preserve Open-Door Nobel Peace Prize

Japan US relations with Japan deteriorated rapidly anti-asian sentiment in US 1906 - California segregated public school system, pissed off Japan Gentlemen's Agreement of 1907 California would stop segregating Japanese Root-Takahira Agreement of 1908 Japanese pledge to uphold open-door policy in pacific Latin America TR follows aggressive foreign policy Big Stick Diplomacy 1902 - Sipriano Castro - dictator of Venezuela default on European debts

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French, German, Italian warships sent to Caribbean German ships bombarded Roosevelt threatened to send US navy if Europeans wouldn't retreat 1903 - Dominican Republic defaults on debt 1904 - Roosevelt expanded the Monroe Doctrine Roosevelt Corollary US will not sit idly by and watch instability LA neighbors must pay debts no European power can threaten hemisphere US will intevene US sends troops into Dominican Republic took over DR customs 45% of all customs duties would go to European bankers rest to DR Panama Alfred T. Mahan had been pushing for a canal 1850 - Clayton-Bulwer Treaty any canal through central American would be a joint project with US & GB needed to abrogate the C-B treaty 1901 - Hay-Pauncefote Treaty GB allowed US to build canal unilaterally as long as British ships would be able to go through the canal even in wartime Nicaragua or Panama? canal already underway in Panama French canal company had been trying to build one for 15 years Congress authorized President to negotiate w/ Columbia for Panama canal bought canal from French company Negotiating with Columbia Tomas Herrn agrees to a treaty US gets 6 mile wide zone, w/ annual rent of $250,000 dollars up front payment of $10 million Nicaraguan Senate rejected Roosevelt furious Roosevelt secretly plots with Philippe Varilla, chief engineer of canal company starts Panamanian revolution Roosevelt sent USS Nashville to sit off coast of Panama Revolution was successful Government of Panama accepted agreement Canal opened, immensely profitable

Taft didn't believe in big stick diplomacy Philander C. Knox - Dollar Diplomacy penetration of foreign markets using American dollars o Taft ordered marines into Nicaragua in 1909 after new government marines landed, toppled government, put a dictator in power Woodrow Wilson o moved further away from big stick diplomacy o Missionary Diplomacy Wilson wanted to teach LA how to set up viable, healthy democracies o still, sent troops into Haiti during revolution in 1915 o sent toops into Santo Domingo in 1916 o Wilson bought Virgin Islands to secure routes to the canal
o o
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Page 168 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Mexico 1910 - under Taft revolution in Mexico dictator Daz toppled by Madero reformer, but wanted to nationalize US business interests in Mexico Taft worked behind scenes to overthrow Madero 1913 - Madero overthrown by Huerta looked pro-US Wilson didn't like Huerta, because Huerta killed Madero Wilson withheld recognition Wilson works to have Huerta overthrown 1914 - Huerta overthrown by Carranza establishes a constitutional party group of US sailors arrested in Tampico, Mexico Wilson demands release from Huerta demands that Huerta gov't raise US flag and give a 21 gun salute to the flag NEVA. HAPPENED. Wilson sends troops to Veracruz bombards Veracruz Argentina, Brazil, Chile meet in ABC Conference to prevent war w/ US agreed that Huerta would resign, replaced by Carranza Wilson supports overthrow of Carranza by Pancho Villa if Villa overthrows, Wilson will support Villa thought he'd get guns didn't happen Villa pissed off at Wilson, feels betrayed Villa stops train in Northen Mexico killed US miners on the train Villa wants to get Wilson militarily involved w/ Mexico Villa kills some people in New Mexico finally Wilson notices Villa must be taught a lesson organizes expeditionary force to go after Villa under Pershing Villa eludes Pershing Carranza fears that the US force is there to overthrow him his constitutionalists now engaged in skirmishes with the US army 1917 - Wilson forced to give up in Mexico because of WWI recognized Carranza's government

Rise of Progressivism
Sunday, April 10, 2011 10:08 AM

Ryan O'Shea 11B Roots of Progressivism Progressivism is a series of reforms Social Gospel, Settlement House movements Populism o although Progressivism is a middle-class/urban movement o rejection of laissez-faire & social darwinism anti-monopoly
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Page 169 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

belief in progress o if you used science to study a problem, there is no problem that can't be solved o Thorstein Veblen - A Theory of the Leisure Class modern society needs to be governed by engineers in a "machine process" mixed feelings on immigration The Muckrakers o series of journalists, writers, novelists o Ida Tarbell - published text exposing Rockefeller's Standard Oil and its corruption o Lincoln Steffens - wrote The Shame of the City exposed machine politics, corruption of urban life o Jacob Riis - How the Other Half Lives o Ray S. Baker - dealt with race, plight of blacks in South o Frank Norris - The Octopus - targeted railroads o McClure's - magazine women played critical role in progressive reform movements o new generation of women who had gone to college, became actively involved in social work o family size decreasing o some unmarried, lesbian "Boston Marriages" - living in lesbian relationships o women's clubs General Federation of Women's Clubs o Temperance Movement many women believed that root cause of disorder was drunkenness men got drunk on jobs, so corporate interests backed temperance WCTU - Women's Christian Temperance Movement under Francis Willard Anti-Saloon League - more radical joined forces immigrants saw the temperance movement as an attack on them states made laws prohibiting alcohol final push for an amendment peaked during WWI 1919 - Prohibition (18th Amendment) Connecticut, Rhode Island rejected the amendment o Suffragette Movement women got right to vote in many Western states Eastern states denied them suffrage Anna Howard Shaw & Harry Chapman Catt w/ Jane Addams, Ida Tarbell demanded national amendment to give women right to vote National American Women's Suffrage Association argument: actually used the argument that women/men inhabit separate spheres allow women right to vote because they are different would be valuable in politics argument wasn't as threatening as the "we're equal" argument 1913 - Illinois became first Eastern state 1919 - 39 states had granted female suffrage WWI was final catalyst for the 19th Amendment women took over male jobs b/c men were away women extremely active in war bond movement, supporting soldier a few women wanted full equality Alice Paul, Margaret Sanger advocated the Equal Rights Amendment National Women's Party - demanded equal protection for women
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Page 170 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Politics o progressives believed that progress couldn't be achieved without reforming politics o wanted destruction of political machines sought to weaken stanglehold of the political parties o secret ballot - was achieved o nominating conventions were now corrupt advocated primary elections Mississippi - first state to use primary other states quickly followed o initiative, referendum, & recall also demands of Populists initiative - allowed people to initiate legislation referendum - people could veto laws by ballot recall - people could recall a government official States began experimenting o Progressivism led to decline of the strength of political parties linked to decline in voter turnout o Political Machines Progressives successful in small cities in large cities, machines went on but changed 1900 - devastating hurricane in Texas killed over 8,000 destroyed city government couldn't handle aftermath new government put into place by reformers non-partisan commission of businessmen & engineers successful in rebuilding the city 400 more cities adopted the commission system for government city manager plan elected officials would hire outside experts to take charge over government large cities were more difficult to institute reform in many machines saw handwriting on the wall they should at least pay lip service to reform Tammany sponsored reforms after the Triangle fire Factory Reform o Triangle Shirtwaist Fire factory employed immigrant women management locked all exit doors 146 women died o women already trying to get reforms in factories Florence Kelley - state factory inspector, leading reformer 1899 - took control of National Consumers' League Muller v. Oregon women campaigning for 8-hour workday most employers resisted having government restrict businesses Brandeis submitted legal brief showed impact of the long hours on accident rate because he had no legal basis for case Supreme Court agreed that Oregon could restrict workday o Tammany led the reform movement o many states passed laws restricting workdays and granting Workman's Comp Tom Johnson of Cleveland, Sam Jones of Toledo
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Page 171 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

mayors who backed reform initiated Gas & Water Socialism - city takes over public utilities Wisconsin o Robert la Follette - governor of Wisconsin o initiative, referendum, recall, primaries, increased corporate taxes, forbade corps from making donations to candidates, workman's comp, graduated income tax Immigration o white middle class felt threatened by immigrants o Carnegie Foundation experimented eugenics ways of altering human reproduction o Madison Grant - greatest nativist - Passing of the Great Race o Dillingham Report - congressional study led by Dillingham argued that new immigrants couldn't assimilate o 3 immigration restriction laws in 20s Capitalism vs. Socialism o vast majority of Progressives supported Capitalism o some intellectuals, Jews, Germans gravitated to socialism o Socialism never more attractive than in this period 1912 - Eugene Debs - got a million votes peaceful socialism, like European parties, not Marxian & Leninist radicals International Workers of the World - under Bill Hayward 1905 & 1917 Russian Revolutions use of the general strike to bring down government shut down production of timber in 1917 Wilson admin. used this to undermine IWW public saw it as unpatriotic Espionage Act of 1917 - destroyed IWW o Capitalism w/ Regulation Brandeis - Other People's Money deeply influenced Woodrow Wilson all trusts are bad Herbert Crawley - Promise of American Life not all trusts are bad view of majority of Progressives some needed to be broken up or regulated view of Theodore Roosevelt
o o

Battle for National Reform


Sunday, April 10, 2011 11:47 AM

Ryan O'Shea 11B Theodore Roosevelt accidental president o war hero o police commissioner o McKinley assassinated 1901 Roosevelt became president Roosevelt pledged to be the first president to utilize Sherman Antitrust Act o differentiated between good & bad trust o 1902 - instructed Attorney General to break up the Northern Securities Company
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Page 172 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

J.P. Morgan, Hill - had monopoly over northwest railroads Morgan horrified :O SC approved breakup o Roosevelt initiated 44 antitrust suits conservationist, and hunter o 0.o first president to actively side with labor o :O o 1902 - Coal workers go on strike mine operators refused to sit down with union reps Roosevelt worried - people going to freeze this winter told mine operators to end the strike workers wanted 8-hour workday & raised wages Roosevelt sent in troops to mine the coal, not to break up the strike forced the mine operators to sit down called the "square deal" - became name for TR's domestic policy Election of 1904 o Democratics: Alton Parker won solid south, that's it o TR sees victory as call to move further left Second Term o moved further left o strengthened ICC had never defined what "fair and just rates" were had always been ineffective 1906 - Hepburn Act - allowed ICC to fix rates for the first time progressives unhappy lines could still challenge rates in courts, which were conservative o 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act - regulated labeling of food/medicine banned use of addictive drugs in medicines Meat Inspection Act - in response to The Jungle o 1907 - Roosevelt moves farther left Workman's Comp Income Tax criticized "Old Guard" - conservative Republicans conservation Roosevelt & Guilford Pinchot believed in scientific management of wilderness Old Guard opposed all efforts Roosevelt used executive orders to get around them Roosevelt worked with Muir falling out Hetch Hetchy - canyon, ideal place for a dam to supply San Fran Muir was a preservationist - didn't want to develop land at all o 1907 - recession Old Guard blamed Roosevelt Roosevelt gave consent to J.P. Morgan Morgan wanted to prop up NYC banks to prevent depression one bank owned a steel company Morgan proposed that his company, US Steel, buy that steel company to prevent its failure Roosevelt agreed not to go after them with antitrust stuff o Roosevelt decided to retire

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Page 173 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Roosevelt chose Taft as his successor 1907 - Roosevelt proposed lowering tariffs because tariffs were protecting large corporations from competitions Taft seemed to agree nope.avi 1908 - Taft elected president

Taft passive president trying to follow Roosevelt, but that was a bit difficult Taft began pattern of pissing off the progressives Payne-Aldrich Tariff - reduced some duties, but also increased some Taft should have vetoed, but didn't o Ballinger-Pinshot Affair Taft fired Sec. of Interior, James Garfield replaced with Ballinger, corporate lawyer looked at 1891 act that allowed pres to remove timberlands from private domain decided he didn't have authority to remove the lands gave the lands back Louis Glavis - claimed that Ballinger had been paid by companies to give back the lands Taft refused to believe him, fired glavis Pinshot agreed w/ Glavis, fired Roosevelt furious o Taft went after US Steel, which Roosevelt had approved Election of 1912 o Roosevelt returned to US, began campaigning to win nomination over Taft The New Nationalism lower tariff income tax workman's comp regulation of labor for children/women o Taft could control the Old Guard at the convention o Roosevelt refused to surrender ran as nominee of Progressive Party aka Bull Moose Party after assassination attempt, Roosevelt said he was as strong as a bull moose o Democrats saw division in Republican party Woodrow Wilson The New Freedom Wilson didn't differentiate between good/bad trust all trust/monopolies bad o Wilson won easily Democrats won House & Senate o high point of Progressivism Woodrow Wilson o 1913 - Underwood Simmons Tariff - significant tariff reduction tariffs had been main source of income o Progressive Amendments 1913 - 16th Amendment - Income Tax Amendment 1913 - 17th Amendment - Direct Election of US Senators 18th Amendment - Prohibition 19th Amendment - Women's Suffrage o 1913 - Federal Reserve Act created 12 districts
o o o o
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Page 174 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

o o o

any bank could become a member of the system banks could then borrow from the reserve, at a discount rate regulated by a board appointed by president increasing discount rate reduces money supply vice versa federal reserve notes would be printed later 1914 - Wilson starts tacking trust problem Clayton Anti-Trust Act - prohibited corps from acquiring stock of another company, if purchase tended to create a monopoly protected farmers, union members labor unions can be seen as bad combinations now (like in the Pullman strike and In Re Debs) Federal Trade Commission had authority to investigate books of corporations could order corps to stop unfair methods of competition loophole if corp refused to obey an order, could appeal to courts Wilson didn't live up to trust-breaking rhetoric more regulative 1914 midterm election Dems faced setbacks in house/senate Wilson sees it as sign to go further left 1916 - barely reelected 1916 - Keating-Owens Act - made illegal any product made by children courts shot it down by 1916, Wilson's progressivism took backseat to WWI

The Great War


Sunday, April 17, 2011 10:12 AM

Ryan O'Shea 11B


war breaks out 1914, in Austria Wilson pledged neutrality, but was sympathetic to Britain o ignored GB's violations of international law, got mad at Germany's violations o because of trade o Nye Commission later decided that the US entered war because of arms manufacturing 1915 - Sinking of Lusitania - passenger ship carrying americans o sunken by a U-boat o Wilson demanded that Germany stop sinking passenger ships Germany agreed 1915 - Wilson working on Preparedness Policy - building up armed forces Election of 1916 o Wilson pledged that US would not enter WWI o Repubs: Charles Evans Hughes Wilson trying to into a way into the war o Germany announces return to unrestricted sub warfare sunk the Sussex, killing a few americans Sussex Pledge backed down again o Allies start to arm their merchant ships o Germany torpedoes 3 american ships 1917 - Wilson asks for declaration of war o British intercepted Zimmerman Telegram - sent by Germany to Mexico
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Page 175 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

if Mexico entered war on Germany's side, Germany wold regain all land lost to US April 6, 1917 - US enters WWI Selective Service Act - national draft o blacks played major role, except in Marine Corps General John Pershing commanded the American Expeditionary Force into WWI in the last year of the War 2 Russian revolutions in 1917 o 1 set up provisional government o 1 was Lenin's communist revolution o freed Germans of Russian front if US didn't enter, Germany would've then won Shipping in the Atlantic o warships escorting merchant ships, hunting subs Mobilization in US o WWI cost US $32 billion o sold Liberty Bonds o 16th Amendment - Income Tax o War Boards set up to manage portions of the economy War Industrial Board - under control of Bernard Beruke WIB coordinated the economy and conversion to wartime prodction Beruke said that any company who joined war effort would be exempt from antitrust litigation National War Labor Board ensured that workers were granted 8 hour workday, equal pay for men/women guaranteed the right of unions to organize Great Migration o hundreds of thousands of blacks are leaving the south o Push & Pull Syndrome Pull - factories advertising in south for workers to come north Push - segregation o first time large number of blacks living in northern urban areas first settled in the black areas friction between urban blacks and rural blacks Support for the war questionable o immigrants couldn't be counted on Irish hated british o Wilson government concerned about dissent propaganda - Committee on Public Information - George Creel German culture rebranded sauerkraut --> liberty cabbage Espionage Act - penalties for spying, banned seditious material from being sent in the mail Sedition Act - anyone who criticized government in any way could face a jail sentence Schenck v. US upheld constitutionality of Sedition Act targets of acts were socialists, labor unions Debs, IWW, Bill Haward Wilson's 14 Points o 3 categories adjusting postwar boundaries carving nations out of the Austro-Hungarian Empire trying to draw lines based on nationalism principles governing international conduct freedom of the seas free trade reduction in armaments
o
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Page 176 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

o o o

end to all secret treaties mediation of colonial claims League of Nations Wilson confident that Euro powers would accept his 14 points problem with 14 points Europeans wanted to determine things themselves 1918 - Wilson arrives in Paris, met with vigorous welcome Wilson's mistakes midterm elections in 1918 - Democrats lose both houses didn't involve Repubs in negotiations Wilson couldn't get the allies to back down from their demands for reparations Wilson, Clemenceau, David Lloyd George, Bittorio Orlando Wilson believed everything would turn out OK because of League of Nations caved on every issue Kellogg-Briand Pact - outlawed war Wilson convinced he can sell Treaty of Versailles to the Senate Wilson won't accept any amendments Henry Cabot Lodge hated Wilson led the republican investigation into the Treaty worried that League of Nations would handcuff American foreign policy Irreconcilables - wouldn't vote for the treaty no matter what if Wilson had accepted some of Lodge's reservations, might've gotten passed Wilson tried to pressure senate by convincing the public took a national tour collapsed on stage, suffered stroke, half paralyzed democrats & Irreconcilables rejected the amended Treaty

1920s
Sunday, April 17, 2011 11:34 AM

Ryan O'Shea 11B

Aftermath of WWI o War Boards dismantled o prices rise as people demand goods they couldn't get during the War inflation, wages didn't keep up wiped out any gains of workers o Labor 1919 - unprecedented wave of strikes general strike in Seattle steelworkers stroke in eastern and midwestern citites Lenin created organization to sponsor revolution worldwide people blame strikes on communists, socialists o African Americans frustrated after WWI many had served, thought it would change white attitudes race riots of 1919 erupted, more intense than any ever outbreak of lynching in the south white vets replaced blacks, who were kicked out of jobs Black Nationalism blacks actually fighting back in race riots advocated that blacks can't depend on whites for anything Marcus Garvey's United Negro Improvement Association
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Page 177 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

aimed at establishing black businesses Garvey established steamship line to bring Africans back to Africa race riots led to increased Xenophobia, leading to o Xenophobia & Red Scare Communist Party arose in 1919 Post Office intercepted bombs that would explode on arrival 1920 - horrendous explosion in front of the Morgan Bank in wall st., killed 30 people Fed gov't contributed most to Red Scare Palmer Raids - arrested over 6,000 people in radical institutions thought they'd find bomb-making material Saco & Vinzetti - Italians arrested because they were anarchists sentenced to death became symbol of everything wrong with united states, for intellectuals Immigration Policy 1921 - limited # of immigrants on basis of Census of 1910 3% of nationals in 1910 could enter 1924 - National Origins Act 3% reduced to 2% all asians now banned from entering the US 1929 - restricted number of immigrants to 150,000 abandoned the quota system Election of 1920 o Wilson wanted to make election about the League o Dems: James M. Cox & FDR o Reps: Warren G. Harding country needs to look after itself "return to normalcy" o Harding won signaled retreat into isolationism Recession in aftermath of WWI o caused by: reconversion of wartime industries inflation price controls lifted after 1922, economic boom o US had only healthy industrial economy o automobile industry like railroads, propped up other industries rubber, glass, roads, motels, restaurants o radio o home appliances o plastics o telephone Republican administrations of 1920s o didn't enforce antitrust legislation o businesses consolidating o Welfare Capitalism developed to diffuse labor movement shortened work week, raised wages, shortened hours, paid vacations survived only as long as industry prospered o maldistribution of wealth Labor Movement o Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters - all black union o head of AFL frowned on strikes

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Page 178 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

many Mexicans entered US 1921 - conservative court declared picketing illegal farmers hurt most by 1920s o surpluses o many people leaving farms o farmers urged government to use parity - subsidizing price of farm goods as they were in 1914 Youth o youth culture beginning to develop o education spreading Consumerism o electric appliances o women new concept of motherhood now seen as companions to husbands birth control Margaret Sanger women becoming concerned with looks flappers rejection of old clothing, underwear, bras o magazines o advertising The Man that Nobody Knows - Bruce Barton saw Jesus as a super salesman o movies The Jazz Singer o radio KDKA in pittsburg began broadcasting NBC disappearance of ideal of self-made man Culture Wars o increasing secularism caused conflict o prohibition organized crime took over alcohol production in wake of prohibition prohibition supported by Protestants & farmers associated drinking w/ city and immigrants o revival of KKK by 1871, KKK was dead 1915 - Klan revived DW Griffith's The Birth of a Nation celebrated the New Klan saw themselves as defenders of traditional morality David Stevenson, head of section of Klan, raped/murdered a girl Klan virtually disappeared by WWII o immigration laws 1921 - first quota system National Origins Act of 1924 - banned Asian immigration changed percentage to reduce Asian & Southern European immigration o revival of religious fundamentalism fundamentalists insisted that bible be interpreted literally opposed Darwin Billy Sunday Scopes Trial Tennessee adopted measure illegalizing teaching of Evolution
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Page 179 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

ACLU (founded by Jane Addams, Hellen Keller) alarmed offered free council to any teacher who would challenge the law John T. Scopes ACLU hired Clarence Darrow to defend Scopes Williams Jenning Bryan prosecuted judge wouldn't permit the defense to argue that evolution was true Scopes found guilty, but Bryan looked like an idiot Scopes trial put an end to political activism of the fundamentalists Intellectuals in 1920s o many left the US o "The Lost Generation" o saw US of 20s as hostile to individualism, progressivism o WWI had been in vain A Farewell to Arms - Ernest Hemingway o The Great Gatsby o Sinclair Lewis Main Street - lashed out at provincialism of main street america Babbit - criticizes businessmen Aerosmith - criticized religious fundamentalists o William Faulkner, Eugene O'Neale o Harlem Renaissance Langston Hughes Politics of 20s o Republicans in power Democratic support broke apart Culture Wars split the democratic party Repubs had the support of big business o Harding wasn't prepared to be president Ohio Gang - Harding's cabinet thoroughly corrupt Teapot Dome Scandal Albert Fall, member of cabinet, transferred 2 wells to the interior departmet, then leased them to businessmen for a kickback Fall convicted, first cabinet member to be sent to prison Harry Dougherty also became involved with scandals Harding took speaking tour in 1923 to soften blow of the scandals had heart attack, died o Calvin Coolidge like Harding, believed in passive government silent worshipped wealth o Coolidge runs, wins in 1924 o decided not to run in 1928

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Page 180 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Great Depression
Tuesday, April 26, 2011 1:37 PM

Ryan O'Shea 11B

Herbert Hoover o Election of 1928 Hoover seemed ideal candidate self-made man, had education platform high protective tariff prohibition won over Al Smith Catholic first Democrat not to carry south since Reconstruction Causes of Great Depression o 1928 - Bull market - stock prices increased greatly regular people getting involved with the stock market couldn't last stock inflated beyond belief o Oct 29, 1929 - Black Tuesday - all stocks dropped Industrial Index dropped 43 points in one day o 20s had rested on 2 industries, which were declining automobiles housing o maldistribution of wealth due to republican administrations of the 20s - Harding, Coolidge, Hoover Andrew Mellon - Sec of Treasury believed in trickle-down theory of economics slashed tax rates for wealthy, corps, but not for middle class and poor o credit structure especially with farmers crop prices falling, couldn't pay loans, defaulted and lost farms rural banks went under as farmers defaulted larger banks investing heavier in the market when market collapses, money vanishes larger banks also failing Federal Reserve board should have lowered interest rates raised rates further contracted money supply o international trade WWI economics Allies borrowed from US during the war Allies planned to pay off debts with German reparations Germany borrowing from US to pay Allies circular trade system Republican admins were the reason it failed Underwood-Simmons tariff had lowered tariffs in 1912 Fordney-McCumber Tariff raised rates right back up Europe can't sell goods in US, can't pay off debt so US loaning more money Hoover passed Hawley-Smoot Tariff - highest protective rates in US history depression led to collapse of European banks
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Page 181 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

incredibly high unemployment o hobos - hopped trains looking for work 1/3 of farmers lost their land charities o soup kitchens, bread lines o charities overwhelmed people turned states o unemployed people not paying taxes o states' budgets shrinking, can't help people people last turned to federal government o Hoover reluctant to provide relief Dust Bowl - huge drought in 30s o hurt the farmers even more o many farmers went to California many from Oklahoma - Okies John Steinbeck's Grapes of Wrath blacks were first to get laid off o in South, whites demanded that all blacks laid off "blackshirts" o Great Migration continued o Scottsborough Case blacks accused of rape, without evidence white jury sentenced them to death NAACP got involved, forced a re-trial 5 of 4 were ruled innocent Mexicans o discriminated just as blacks o 500,000 mexicans went back to mexico women o many were immune to layoffs, because they didn't work in industry People blamed themselves for depression Middletown people turned to entertainment to take their minds off o Gone With the Wind, the Wizard of Oz o Frank Capra celebrated small-town America It's a Wonderful Life, Mr. Deeds Goes to Town o Hemingway, John dos Pasos o John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath o mostly, popular literature was escapist Hoover o first response is to restore confidence tried to get business/labor to cooperate o Hoover tried to prop up farmers Agricultural Marketing Act of 1929 - attempted to subsidize farmers by creating Farm Board bought up surpluses to raise prices o Hawley-Smoot Tariff - exact opposite of what the market needed Highest tariff in US history caused Economy of Europe to collapse o Reconstruction Finance Act - set up Reconstruction Finance Corporation designed to bail out banks, railroads, and pump money into economy for public works small business wasn't helped by RFC o by 32, 33 - Hoover being blamed for the Depression
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Page 182 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Hoovertowns - shantys that formed outside o major cities Veterans Congress promised bonus to WWI vets by 1945 Vets demanded payment Hoover refused Vets marched on Washington Congress voted down proposal, but vets remained in Washington Hoover ordered army to break up this Bonus Army assured election of democrat in 32

FDR & The New Deal


Monday, May 02, 2011 3:58 PM FDR o got polio paralyzed from waist down o FDR won landslide in 32, Congress dominated by dems in both houses o needed to restore confidence Fireside Chats - used radio to communicate with people first about banks people withdrawing money from banks, reducing them further o New Deal Emergency Banking Relief Act - put poorly managed banks under control of Treasury granted seals of approval to banks that were still functioning public bought into Roosevelt's plan fixed the banking crisis Economy Act - tried to balance budget, but later scrapped this idea legalized beer 21st Amendment - ended prohibition 3 Rs of New Deal Relief, Recovery, Reform Agricultural Adjustment Act - producers in 7 farming commodities would decide on limits on their

crops set up Agricultural Adjustment Administration would tell farmers how much they should produce subsidized farmers leaving their land idle problems land went to land owners, not those who worked the land screwed the tenant farmers struck down by SC Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act - did same thing, but wasn't struck down by courts NIRA - National Industrial Recovery Act - created National Recovery Administration set up code for wages, hours, workweek, abolition of child labor set prices, eliminated overproduction no company would lower prices to compete represented by blue eagle Section 7a - gave workers right to form unions ignored by business Sick Chicken Case - SC struck down Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) - unprecedented experiment in local planning done by Fed Gov to provide electricity, water to rural Southerners believed private sector couldn't provide money to build this in the South TVA transformed that region

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Page 183 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

success took country off Gold Standard Glass-Steagall Act - allowed gov't to deal with overspeculation by banks FDIC - guaranteed all bank deposits up to $2500 Truth In Securities Act - any stock offering had to be backed up by full account of that stock SEC - Securities Exchange Commission - regulated stock market Federal Emergency Relief Administration - provided direct gov't assistance to states Public Works Administration (PWA) - public works projects employed millions pumped money back into economy Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) - provided grants to states for their own PWA projects PWA & CCC excluded blacks, women Farm Credit Administration - to help farmers refinance their mortgages Homeowners Loan Corporation - helped homeowners refinance mortgages NIRA failed miserably Critics of New Deal right-wing Corporate America American Liberty League - led by DuPont family left-wing FDR wasn't going far enough Communist Party of America - most powerful in 30s moderates - forced FDR further left Dr. Francis Townshend - came up with plan to help elderly Townshend Plan - all americans over 60 would receive from gov a monthly pension must quit job, and must spend that money inspired Social Security Act Fr. Coughlin - Populist wanted nationalization of the banks remonitization of silver National Union for Social Justice - moved FDR left into the Second New Deal (attack on big business) Governor Hughie P. Long - the "kingfish" Share Our Wealth Program - gov't could tax wealthiest and end depression Roosevelt afraid that Long would run, take votes away from him Roosevelt raises tax rates dramatically on wealthy Second New Deal shifted drastically left 1945 - Social Security Act pension for employers/employees who contribute to program through payroll tax domestic servants, agricultural laborers not included (blacks, women) expansion of federal aid to women whose children were dependent on them any worker laid off would receive unemployment compensation Works Progress Administration - under Harry Hopkins much bigger budget than CWA/PWA huge success Federal Music Project and other programs helped artists National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) had mechanism to compel employers to recognize & bargain with unions gained workers/labor movement support for Democrats AFL became conservative under Green opposed NLRB

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Page 184 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

Industrial Unionism - believed that all workers in a particular industry should be organized around that industry John L. Lewis - left the AFL to form Congress of Industrial Organizations included unskilled labor, women, blacks more militant tried to organize auto workers in GM plants when GM resists CIO, union develops sit-down strike refused to leave unions they were working in prevented use of strikebreakers governor was liberal, both he and FDR wouldn't call out National Guard successful, GM recognized United Auto Workers Union US Steel recognized union to avoid strike smaller steel companies resisted Memorial Day Massacre - police called out to shoot marchers strike failed public outraged Unions grew immensely in 1930s Election of 1936 Alf Landon nominated by Repubs greatest landslide in history up to this point Roosevelt sees 36 election as referendum to reform the court asked Congress to increase number of justices from 9 to 15 even public opposed the Court-packing Scheme Owen J. Roberts, the deciding vote, switched to supporter of New Deal West Coast Hotel v. Parish - Roberts helped uphold minimum wage Roberts' switch called the "Switch in time that saved 9" by 37, Roosevelt thinks Depression is ending becomes concerned about the deficit tries to balance the budget ended WPA, laid off millions FDR finally realizes that it's hurting the economy asked for emergency 5 billion for public works FDR starts attacking big business Temporary National Economic Committee - to investigate antitrust laws Thurman Arnold appointed to supervise antitrust division of Justice Department Fair Labor Standards Act - established minimum wage, 40 hour workweek, strict limits on child labor Legacies of the New Deal dramatic increase in executive authority growth of bureaucracy broker state - strengthened interest groups to compete against business labor & agriculture now empowered african americans not hostile to blacks like previous admins Eleanor Roosevelt spoke about racial justice, pressured FDR to act on it responsible for first civil rights demonstration in US history DAR refused black opera singer right to sing in Washington Eleanor persuaded FDR to allow her CCC employed blacks FDR unwilling to split the solid south would support anti-lyncing law, poll tax, literacy test native americans John Collier - commissioner of indian affairs during 30s

Copyright 20102011 by Ryan OShea. All Rights Reserved. ryanoshea.com

Page 185 American History: A Survey, 12th Ed. Outlines & Class Notes by Ryan OShea

realized that Dawes Act had been dismal failure Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 - Native Americans could go back to their tribes, which had right to own land collectively led to dramatic increase in Indian agriculture revenue

women first women appointed to cabinet position - Francis Perkins, Sec. of Labor opposed Equal Rights Amendment, because women still needed to be protected West & South benefitted the most South TVA West Coolie Dam - to provide electricity to west biggest building project in New Deal critics expansion of federal power at expense of states defecits uncontrolled bureaucracy

Copyright 20102011 by Ryan OShea. All Rights Reserved. ryanoshea.com