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Attitude

Individual Differences
Influencing Work Behavior:

Hereditary and
Diversity Personality
Factors

Ability and Attitudes


Perception
Skills
Individual Differences in the Workplace
(assess individually to understand)
Individual
Differences
Personality

Perception Ability and Skills Attitudes

Work
• Behavior
Productivity
• Creativity

Performance
Definition
A learned predisposition to behave in a consistently
favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a
given object.

• For instance, when we say we “like” something or


“dislike” something, we are in effect expressing an
attitude toward the person or object.

• What are some examples of people or things that


you may have strong attitudes about?
Attitudes: Three Important Assumptions

1) An attitude is a hypothetical construct - we cannot


actually see attitudes, although we can often see
their consequences.

2) An attitude is a uni-dimensional construct - it


usually ranges from very positive to very negative.

3) Attitudes are believed to be somewhat related to


subsequent behavior, although as we’ll see, this
relationship can be unclear.
Attitude Components and Manifestations
Emotions, Attitudes and Behavior
Perceived Environment
Cognitive Emotional
process process

Beliefs
Emotional
Episodes
Attitude Feelings

Behavioral
Intentions

Behavior
A Simple Representation of the
Tri-component Attitude Model

Behaviour

Affect
Cognition

ABC Model
The Tri-component Model

• Cognitive Component
– The knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by
a combination of direct experience with the attitude
object and related information from various sources.
• Affective Component
– A person’s emotions or feelings about a particular
product or Object.
• Behaviour Component
– The likelihood or tendency that an individual will
undertake a specific action or behave in a particular
way with regard to the attitude object.
Stimuli Manager style The Three
Work Technology
Noise
Components
environm
ent
Peers of Attitudes:
Reward system
factors Compensation plan Cognition,
Career opportunities
Affect,
Behavior
“My supervisor is
Cognition Beliefs and values unfair.”
“Having a fair
supervisor is
important to me.”

Affect Feelings and emotions “I don’t like my


supervisor.”

“I’ve submitted a
Behavior Intended behavior formal request to
transfer.”
Measuring Attitude Components
Cognitive Component (Measuring Beliefs
about Specific Attributes Using the Semantic
Differential Scale)

Diet Coke
Strong taste —— —— —— —— —— —— —— Mild taste
Low priced —— —— —— —— —— —— —— High priced
Caffeine free —— —— —— —— —— —— —— High in caffeine
Distinctive in —— —— —— —— —— —— —— Similar in taste to
taste most
Measuring Attitude Components
Affective Component (Measuring Feelings about Specific
Attributes Using Likert Scales)

Neither
Agree
Strongly nor Strongly
Agree Agree Disagree Disagree Disagree

I like the taste of Diet Coke. —— —— —— —— ——

Diet Coke is overpriced. —— —— —— —— ——

Caffeine is bad for your health. —— —— —— —— ——

I like Diet Coke. —— —— —— —— ——


Measuring Attitude Components
Behavioral Component
(Measuring Actions or Intended Actions)

The last soft drink I consumed was a ___________________.

I usually drink________________soft drinks.

What is the likelihood you will buy Diet Coke Definitely will buy
the next time you purchase a soft drink?
  Probably will buy
Might buy
Probably will not buy
Definitely will not buy
Job-Related Attitudes

• Job involvement
– Extent that a person identifies with his job.
• Organizational commitment
– Extent that a person identifies with the
organization. This is a great predictor for
turnover.
• Job satisfaction
– A person’s general attitude toward work.
EVLN: Responses to
Dissatisfaction
• Leaving the situation
Exit • Quitting, transferring

• Changing the situation


Voice • Problem solving, complaining

• Patiently waiting for the situation


Loyalty to improve

• Reducing work effort/quality


Neglect • Increasing absenteeism
Responses to Job
Dissatisfaction.
Active

Exit Voice

Destructive Constructive

Neglect Loyalty

Passive
Sources of Attitudes

• Sources of Attitudes:
– Acquired from parents, teachers, and
peer group members.
– There are “genetic” predispositions.
– Observations, attitudes that we
imitate.

• Attitudes are less stable than values.


Formation of Attitudes
• Direct Experiences with Object
• Classical Conditioning and Attitude
• Operant Conditioning
• Family and Peer Groups
• Economic Status and Occupation
• Mass Communication
Classical conditioning
• Initially, the bell is paired with food to produce
salivating
• Eventually, the food is no longer required to
produce salivating
• Similarly, a certain person may be paired with a
negative reaction by a parent, leading to the
child becoming upset
• Eventually, the negative reaction is no longer
required to make the child upset
Pavlov’s Experiment

Neutral CR
stimulus (salivation)
(Bell)

UCR
(meat UCR
powder)
(salivation)
Neutral stimulus UCR
(metronome) (meat powder) UCR (salivation)

CS (metronome) CR (salivation)
Classical conditioning

food

bell salivatin
g
parent’
s
negativ
person e child
X reactio upset
Instrumental learning
• Also called operant conditioning
• Rewards and punishments
• Strengthening of responses that lead to:
– positive outcomes
– avoidance of negative outcomes
Instrumental learning

• If a child is praised for holding a certain


attitude, they will be more likely to
continue holding this attitude
• On the other hand, punishment leads to
rejecting attitudes
• Positive reinforcement and negative
reinforcement
Observational learning
• Learning by example
• Attitudes may be transmitted unintentionally by
parents
• Child may observe their parent smoking, which
may lead to a positive attitude towards smoking
• Child may overhear a certain attitude being
conveyed by a parent that they were not meant
to hear
Observational learning
• Attitudes also learned from media
• Individuals want to imitate the people
around them, or people they look up to
• Observational learning is evident in
‘trends’
– E.g., attitudes towards clothes, etc.
Economic Status
• If you are working with management side..

• If you are working with Trade Union…

Difference in attitude
Functions of Attitude
• Determining Meaning
• Organized facts
• Select Facts
• Develop the Rationality
Changing Attitude
• Own Attitude –
• Keep positive Attitude
• Develop Own Attitude
• Keep open mind
• Continuous Education
• Positive Self esteem
• Stay away from – smoking, alcohol, TV
Changing Attitude
• Give feedback
• Working Condition
• Make a positive role model
• Provide New Information
• Keep use of Fear - Moderately