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Chapter 10

Quadratic Functions
Standards
14.0 Students solve a quadratic equation by factoring or completing the
square.
19.0 Students know the quadratic formula and are familiar with its proof
by completing the square.
20.0 Students use the quadratic formula to find the roots of a second-
degree polynomial and to solve quadratic equations.
21.0 Students graph quadratic functions and know that their roots are the
x-intercepts.
23.0 Students apply quadratic equations to physical problems, such as the
motion of an object under the force of gravity.

The human cannonball
act is a performance in which a
person (the "cannonball") is ejected
from a specially designed "cannon".
It reaches a height of 70 ft and
travels a distance of 160 ft before
landing in a safety net.
Equation of the path flown:
f(x) = -7 (x 80)
2
+ 70
640

for 0x160.
All objects that are projected in the
air follow a parabolic path.
Completing the Square
Lesson 10.1
Objectives:
1. Solve quadratic equations by taking the square root
of both sides.
2. Solve quadratic equations by completing the square.
3. Use quadratic equations to solve for missing parts of
right triangles.


Think & Share
Suppose a deposit of
$3,000 in a savings
account that paid an
annual interest rate r
(compounded yearly) is
Worth $3,456 after 2
years. Using the formula
A = P(1+r)
t
, we have


3, 456 = 3,000 ( 1 + r)
2

Solve for r to find the
annual interest rate.
Solution:

456 = 3,000 (1 + r)
2

456 = 3,000 (1 +r)
2

3000 3,000

1.152 = (1 +r)
2

1.73 = 1 + r (take the square root of both sides)

0.73 = r

Therefore the interest rate is 735%.


Think & Share
An escalator in a
department store is to
carry people a vertical
distance of 20 feet
between floors. How long
is the escalator if it
makes an angle of 45
with the ground?


Solutions

c
2
= 20
2
+20
2


c
2
= 400

+400


c
2
= 800

(take the square root of both sides)


c = 20 2

Therefore the escalator is about 20 ft long.


45
45
90
20 ft
20 ft
c?
The square root Property
If b is a real number and a
2
= b,
then

b a =
Solve x
2
= 49
2 = x
Solve (y 3)
2
= 4
Solve 2x
2
= 4
x
2
= 2
7 49 = = x
y = 3 2
y = 1 or 5
2 4 3 = = y
Square Root Property
Solve x
2
+ 4 = 0
x
2
= 4
There is no real solution because the square
root of 4 is not a real number.
Square Root Property
Solve (x + 2)
2
= 25
x = 2 5
x = 2 + 5 or x = 2
5
x = 3 or x = 7
5 25 2 = = + x
Square Root Property
Solve (3x 17)
2
= 28
7 2 17 3 = x
3
7 2 17
= x
7 2 28 = 3x 17 =
Square Root Property
What is completing the square used for?
Completing the square is used for all
those not factorable problems!!
It is used to solve these equations for
the variable.
Rule for Completing the Square
bx x +
2
2
2
2
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
b
bx x
2
2
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
b
x
This is now a
Perfect Square
Trinomial!
So, it factors into
this!
Example: Find the value of c that makes this
a PST, then write the expression as the
square of a binomial. x
2
-3x+c
b=-3

2 2
2
3
2
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
.
|

\
|
=
b
c
4
9
=
2
2
3
|
.
|

\
|
x
4
9
3
2
+ x x
Example: Solve by completing the
square. x
2
+6x-8=0
x
2
+6x-8=0
x
2
+6x=8
x
2
+6x+___=8+___


x
2
+6x+9=8+9
(x+3)
2
=17


( ) 9 3
2
6
2
2
2 2
= =
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
b
17 3 = + x
17 3 = x
Dont forget: Whatever
you add to one side of an
equation, you MUST add
to the other side!
Solving a Quadratic Equation by
Completing a Square
1) If the coefficient of x
2
is NOT 1, divide
both sides of the equation by the
coefficient.
2) Isolate all variable terms on one side of
the equation.
3) Complete the square (half the coefficient
of the x term squared, added to both sides
of the equation).
4) Factor the resulting trinomial.
5) Use the square root property.
More Examples!
5x
2
-10x+30=0
x
2
-2x+6=0
x
2
-2x=-6
x
2
-2x+__=-6+__


x
2
-2x+1=-6+1
(x-1)
2
=-5


3x
2
-12x+18=0
x
2
-4x+6=0
x
2
-4x=-6
x
2
-4x+__=-6+__


x
2
-4x+4=-6+4
(x-2)
2
=-2
( ) 1 1
2
2
2
2
2 2
= =
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
.
|

\
|
b
5 1 = x
5 1 i x =
( ) 4 2
2
4
2
2
2 2
= =
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
.
|

\
|
b
2 2 = x
2 2 i x =
Last Example! Write the quadratic function
y=x
2
+6x+16 in vertex form.
What is the vertex of the functions graph?
y=x
2
+6x+16
y-16=x
2
+6x
y-16+__=x
2
+6x+__


y-16+9=x
2
+6x+9
y-7=(x+3)
2

y=(x+3)
2
+7
If the equation, in vertex
form, is y=(x+3)
2
+7,
then the vertex must
be (-3,7).
( ) 9 3
2
6
2
2
2 2
= =
|
.
|

\
|
=
|
.
|

\
|
b
And ye are complete in Him
[Jesus Christ] which is the head
of all principality and power." -
Colossians 2:10
IFL IFL IFL IFL IFL
Homework

Problem Set 10.1
TB pp. 603-605, Multiples of 4 (4, 8, , 76)