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ESL 4 Week 4 Gallagher

Section Five Research Based Best Practices RESUBMIT

April

You ill conduct your own research into 5 or more L1 and L2 research based best practices for an!ua!e ac"uisition and de#e opment !ou have read a"out or conducted #urther research a"out$ hile in this course% &his paper is orth '( points% )n !our *+ page paper$ !ou are to include the #ollo ing in#or,ationa% &itle o# each ,ethod "% Re#erence .itation /APA #or,at to cite the sources !ou used to get the in#or,ation0 c% 1escription o# each o# the ,ethods d% Your e2planation o# ho each ,ethod supports L3 or L* language ac4uisition or develop,ent% /.ite e2a,ples to support hat !ou have stated i# !ou #ind !our paper is too short%0

Research5"ased "est practice $1 ESL students should "e o##ered e%tended time #or learning$ co,pleting ork$ and taking assess,ents% Studies have sho n that schools hich adopt a ,ore #le2i"le acade,ic schedule #or ELLs tend to have signi#icantl! higher rates o# student success% &he 4uestion a district ,ust ask is- Have we explored all of the possible ways in which our ELLs use their instructional time during the school day? Can we adapt and be more flexible if the result of the effort is a surge in student progress? Is it possible to differentiate each students schedule to create an ideal learning situation for each member of our ESL population? /Rance5Roone!$ *((60 )n their report ouble the !or"$ Short and Fit7si,,ons /*((80 assert that this #le2i"ilit! ,ight even

entail e2peri,enting ith an e2tended school da! / ith the possi"ilit! o# night and9or eekend classes0 or even an e2tended acade,ic !ear% &he! cite the successes o# several alternative schools that individuali7e schedules on a student5"!5student "asis% At the :% E% B% Stuart ;igh School in Fair#a2 .ount!$ <irginia$ the ESL sta## sets up goals #or students that ,a! include su,,er sessions$ a#ter5school tutoring$ "lock scheduling$ and literac! intervention classes% &he! also partner ith a local co,,unit! college so that their adolescent students can "egin taking college classes hile #inishing an e2tended high school acade,ic !ear%

Research5"ased "est practice $2 Research indicates that ESL students ,ust "e taught earl!$ e2plicit$ and intensive phonemic awareness to ensure success#ul English ac4uisition%

=uch research has "een done to stud! the e##ects o# phone,ic a areness in the ESL population o# A,erican schools% Francis$ Rivera$ Lesau2$ and Rivera /*((>0 e,phasi7e the need #or pointed #ocus

o# intructing this topic to ELLs i,,ediatel! upon their entrance to an ESL progra,% &he! assert that these learners need ,uch practice ith ?cracking the code%@ &he! also co,,ent negativel! on schoolsA ha"it o# having a ? ait and see@ approach in regards to teaching phone,es$ ,aking the case that this is har,#ul in the long run and that earl! intervention is ke! to ELLs "uilding pro#icienc! in the L*% &he! advise against dela!ing phone,ic instruction #or an! reason% So,e strategies to help "uild phone,ic a areness are Pla!ing a ?.lap )t@ ga,e to encourage students to clap #or each phone,e chunk in a ord$ phrase$ or sentence% /&he! can start s,all and ork up to larger selections%0 Bse #lashcards to encourage students to identi#! initial phone,es or endings% &he! can also use the phone,es represented "! the #lashcards to do grouping and sorting activities% &he teacher can take ,ediu,5si7ed ooden "locks and rite co,,on phone,es on all si2 sides o# several "locks% Bsing the di##erent sides o# the di##erent "locks$ students ?"uild@ ords using phone,es% &his is a great activit! as a ga,e in pairs$ too% Cne student "uilds a ord$ then the other student e2changes one "lock #or a di##erent one to ,ake a ne up ith% ord% &he! can continue to see ho ,an! uni4ue ords the! can co,e

Research5"ased "est practice $& ESL success is o#ten linked to a studentAs level o# Literacy% &hus$ it is critical to increase ELLsA ,otivation to ork on reading and riting%

=elt7er and ;a,ann /*((40 provide several research5"ased "est practices #or encouraging and ,otivating ELLs to hone their reading and riting skills$ ith the ulti,ate goal o# i,proving their overall literac!% &he! cite the #ollo ing as "eing the three ,ain practices that teachers should utili7e =ake reading and riting i,portant "! connecting the content to the studentAs li#e%

.reate a learning environ,ent that centers around social interaction% Share ne s$ colla"orate$ use positive language$ and pro,ote active learning% DSee also- #esponsive Classroom /Ctt,ar$ Ri,,5Eau#,an$ *(3F0

;ave students interact ith te2t ,uch like the! interact ith one another% Students should #eel ?involved@ in the "ooks the! are reading$ and al,ost have a sense o# ?co,,it,ent@ to the orks the! are riting% A teacher ho can "uild that sense o# having a ?relationship@ ith their literar! orks is giving students a "etter sense o# o nership over their o n literac!%

Research5"ased "est practice $' Activating prior (now ed!e and "uilding bac(!round (now ed!e are t o ke! co,ponents to an! ESL progra,$ "oth in the ESL classroo, and in the regular content courses%

;ill and Fl!nn /*((>0 detail ,an! o# the "arriers that prevent English Language Learners #ro, "eing a"le to opti,i7e their acade,ic e2perience% &he authors "elieve that a "reakdo n in understanding o#ten co,es not Gust #ro, an un#a,iliar ord or phrase$ "ut also #ro, a lack o# the "ackground kno ledge necessar! to ,aster a speci#ic topic% &here#ore$ e2plicitl! activating prior kno ledge$ then "uilding upon that kno ledge$ can "e a great tool #or teachers to help their ELLs avoid those co,prehension stu,"ling "locks% &aking the ti,e to investigate holes in their prior kno ledge /#or e2a,ple$ "! using a E5W5L chart0 can help a teacher #ill in the gaps that are preventing an ELL #ro, understanding a lesson%

Research5"ased "est practice $5 Bsing intentional !roupin! techni"ues and ,aking colla"orative thinking the nor, in an ESL classroo, "oosts Reading$ Writing$ Speaking$ and Listening pro#icienc!%

Pa!ing special attention to the a!s in hich e group our students during colla"oration can "e integral to an increased pro#icienc! in the #our do,ains o# ESL instruction /Lucido$ Pohan$ .anales$

1elgado$ =ontague$ *((>0% &he authors cite research done that supports #le2i"le grouping "! skill level$ readiness level$ co,,on interests$ genders$ learning pro#iles /i%e%$ ,ultiple intelligences0$ and other #actors% &he! assert that so,e activities call #or di##erent t!pes o# grouping$ and that a t!pe o# grouping hich proves success#ul #or one activit! ,ight not "e so success#ul ith a di##erent kind o# activit!% Learning to recogni7e hich grouping opportunities lead to the ,ost positive interaction is a skill that "ene#its "oth the ELLs and the instructor% E2a,plesSocial heterogeneous grouping$ Bse ?ice "reakers@ designed to teach ?people skills@$ to encourage introverts and e2troverts to engage ith one another% Linguistic grouping$ Pair or group students ith di##erent pro#icienc! levels so that students ho are stronger in the L* can rein#orce their kno ledge "! ,odeling speci#ic skills% Students ith lo er pro#icienc! levels "ene#it #ro, having interaction ith peers ho are capa"le o# ,odeling the desired skill% &his ,ethod is ,utuall! "ene#icial #or "oth categories o# students% %cademic grouping$ Students are grouped intentionall! "! other criterion related to acade,ic per#or,ance% &he authors cite research that details ,ultiple t!pes o# acade,ic levels that are not necessaril! grade5level5related% For e2a,ple- co,prehension a"ilit!$ co,#ort ith orking independentl!$ or personalit! t!pe /ie% #rustrates easil!H0% .lassi#!ing students in these alternative a!s can "e ver! use#ul #or ,a2i,i7ing positive outco,es on acade,ic tasks% BRIE) *+,*LUSI+, &he co,,on thread in all #ive ?Best Practices@ ) chose is that each one re4uires getting to kno !our students and individuali7ing their educational e2perience in a a! that "est suits their personal and acade,ic needs% &eachers ho vie ESL educational planning as a ?cookie5cutter@ or ?one si7e #its all@ practice are doing a disservice to their students and their studentsA #a,ilies%

Rance5Rone!$ :% /*((6$ April0% ?Best Practices #or Adolescent ELLs%@ Educational Leadership% >>/80% F*5F8% Short$ 1e"orah :%$ Fit7si,,ons$ Shannon /*((80$ ouble the !or"$ Challenges and Solutions to %c&uiring Language and %cademic Literacy for %dolescent English Language Learners' *>5*I% Francis$ 1%$ Rivera$ =%$ Lesau2$ J%$ and Rivera$ ;% /*((>0% Research5Based Reco,,endations #or )nstruction and Acade,ic )nterventions% (ractical )uidelines for the Education of English Language Learners$ Retrieved April 33$*((I$ #ro, http-99 %centeroninstruction%org9#iles9ELL35)nterventions%pd# =elt7er$ :% K ;a,ann$ E% /*((40% *eeting the literacy development needs of adolescent English language learners+ (art two$ ,ocus on classroom teaching and learning strategies+ Jortheast and )slands Regional Educational La"orator!$ 3453>% Ctt,ar$ E% R%$ Ri,,5Eau#,an$ S$ E$ Berr!$ R% L% K Larsen$ R% A% /*(3F0% -he #esponsive Classroom %pproach increases the use of standards.based mathematics teaching practices % Retrieved
#ro,- http-99curr!%virginia%edu9uploads9resourceLi"rar!9.AS&LMResearchMBrie#5

Ctt,arMetMal%M/*(3F0MES:%pd# ;ill$ :$ Fl!nn$ E% /*((>0% Classroom instruction that wor"s with English language learners+ Ale2andria$ <A- AS.1$ p% 44%

Lucido$ F%$ Pohan$ .%$ .anales$ :%$ 1elgado$ .%$ =ontague$ J% /*((>0% /est practices for English language learners+ &he )nstitute #or Second Language Achieve,ent$ &e2as AK= Bniversit! .orpus .hristi$ p% F3%