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)
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, LTE-Advanced.
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2015-2020 .
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,


.

,
, LTE
,
WiMAX .

1. "Mobility Management Challenges and Issues in 4G Heterogeneous Networks".


ACM Proceedings of the first international conference on Integrated internet ad
hoc and sensor networks (May 30 - 31, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
2. http://www.nestor.minsk.by/kg
3. http://en.wikipedia.org
4. http://www.connect4g.narod.ru
5. http://www.intuit.ru/wifi


, .
c.
,
, ,
.
,
,
.

, .

,
, 90- .
:
-
(TDMA) (CDMA)

(FDMA);

() .
. 1995 .
- GSM, D-AMPS (IS-54, IS-136) PDC.
GSM,
Group Special Mobile (GSM),
ETSI. , GSM,
1992 . .
. 1800
(GSM-1800) 450 (GSM-400) 1900 (PCS) .
IS-54,

AMPS, 1989 . TR45.3 TIA. TDMA(D-AMPS)

, 3
AMPS ( 30 ).
1992 . TDMA
- 40% .
TDMA . 100 ,
36 .
,
PDC (Personal Digital Cellular)3 -
.
1994 . PDC
. PDC
, 99%
.
CDMA 1995 . . IS-95
ITU .1073 ITU-R. , CDMA (IS-95) ,
, . CDMA
,
.

- .

(, .).
.
, , .
1992 . DECT (Digital European Cordless
Telecommunications),
(10-25 )
. 1995 .,
2 . . , 5 DECT
WLL. 2001 .
50 .,
(45 .).


, (
)
. , ,
,
.
.
(SmartTrunk II, LTR, Multi-Net, Accessnet, Smartnet, EDACS, MPT
1327).
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. ,

.
( Inmarsat-A)
( ) .

90- : , (DSP). . (Iridium, Globalstar),
(ICO), (AceS Thuraya).
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1998 . , .
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.
(1987 .),
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Iridium.
Iridium , . , , .

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.

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.

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(), 30 (TDMA) 3 .

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.

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.

.
80- .
. :
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, 800 ) ,
, , ;
;
,
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, (
D-AMPS),
. AMPS/DAMPS
Rubicon Wirelesss Communications;
TACS (Total Access Communications System ,
900 ) , , , ,
, ETACS () JTACS/NTACS ();
; 1995 .,
,
1997 .
;
NMT 450 NMT 900 (Nordic Mobile Telephone
, 450 900 )
;
; ;
NMT 450
;
-450 ( 450 ) ;
RTMS (Radio Telephone Mobile System ,
450 ) ;
Radiocom 2000 ( 170, 200, 400 ) ;
NTT (Nippon Telephone and Telegraph system
, 800900 )
.


(
signaling).

(Frequency Division Multiple Access FDMA),
12,5 30 .
,

.
80- ,
,
.
.


.

- 2G
AMPS ,
.
- ,
.
1988 . 1992 .;
D-AMPS, IS-54 (IS Interim Standard,
). 1993 .
(
). GSM
(GSM 900 - 900 ). 1982, ., 1987 .
, 1988 .
. 1991 .
, D-AMPS,
1993 .; JDC, 1994 . PDC
(Personal Digital Cellular ).
.
D-AMPS
. , IS-54
AMPS, .
IS-136,
1994 . 1996 . AMPS
IS-54,
.
GSM, (
1, 2 2+), 1989 . 1800
. .
GSM 900 ,
:
()
,
, ,
. (
GSM 900) 19901991 .

DCS 1800 (Digital Cellular System ;


PCN Personal Communications
Network, )
1993 . 1996 . GSM 1800.
1800 ,
1900 ,
(PCS Personal Communications
Systems), 800 ,
(cellular). 1900 1995 .;
D-AMPS ( IS-136, AMPS
1900 ), GSM
( GSM 1900 IS-661).

2.5G
GPRS - (. General Packet Radio Service
) GSM,
. GPRS
GSM ,
. GPRS /
, .
EDGE - (. Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution)
, 2G 2.5G (GPRS) .
TDMA GSM . EDGE GSM
. EDGE
: ECSD CSD, EHSCSD
HSCSD, EGPRS GPRS. EDGE 2003
.
1xRTT - (. One Times Radio Transmission Technology)
2.5G , CDMA-.
.
144 /., 40-60 /. 1xRTT
,
, .

- 3G

(Time Division
Multiple Access TDMA). 19921993 .

(Code Division Multiple Access CDMA) IS-95 ( 800 ).
1995 1996 . , , ,
- ,
1900 .
, 19911992 . 1995 .
PHS 1800 (Personal Handyphone System
).

3.5G
HSDPA - (. High-Speed Downlink Packet Access
)
,
(4G).
14,4 /.,
3 /.

- 4G
(ITU)
"4G", ,
. , 4G (
4G): LTE, mobile WiMAX, UMB.
2008 - WiAX, 2009
- LTE, UMB - , ( )
.
, ,
2-3 .
2.2.

1G
2G
2.5G
3G
3.5G
4G

1970
1980
1985
1990
<2000
2000

1984
1991
1999
2002
2006-2007
20082010

,
,


IP
,

(SMS),

,

2 /




9,6 /

384
3-14
1,9 /
14,4 /
2 /
1 /

/
/
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WCDMA,

TACS,
CDMA,
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PSTN

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GSM /
UMTS (3GPP)

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UMTS

GSM
GPRS
EDGE (EGPRS)
o EDGE
Evolution
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HSCSD

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CDMA2000 (3GPP2)
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cdmaOne (2G)

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SSMA

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W-CDMA

170 ,
200 ,
400 ,
450 ,
800 ,
900

800,
900,
1800,
1900

800,
1800,
1900,
2200

Cellular
o GSM
o UMTS
o PCS
SMR


1.

. . 3- . ,
., 2000. ISBN 5-93184-006-0.

2.

http://en.wikipedia.org

3.

- 3G
3G ( . third generation ),
, 3 ,
,
, ,
.
3.1

2G
3G
W-CDMA
o UMTS
o FOMA
CDMA-2000
TD-SCDMA

3,5G

3,75G

HSDPA

HSUPA

4G
LTE
WiMAX
Wi-Fi

3G

.
:
,
;
, ;
;
;
;
;
;
;
2 /.

,
,
, ,
, .
- 3G
2 , 2 /.
,
. . 3G: UMTS ( W-CDMA)
CDMA-2000. UMTS , CDMA2000 . Wireless Intelligence,
2006 . 364 . 3G, 93,5 .
UMTS 271,1 . DMA-2000.
3G NTT DoCoMo (40 . ).

W-CDMA
W-CDMA (. Wideband Code Division Multiple Access
CDMA) ,
3G.
UMTS FOMA.

, , ,
; : 2 /
384 / -
.
, W-CDMA 5.
GSM PDC,
W-CDMA
.

UMTS
UMTS (. Universal Mobile Telecommunications System -
) , 3G.
W-CDMA.
UMTS
(3GPP)
().
3G
IMT-2000.
, UMTS 3GSM
3G
GSM.


UMTS, W-CDMA,
14 . (
HSDPA). ,
384 / R99 3,6 /

HSDPA .
9,6 /
GSM, HSCSD
9,6 / ( 14,4 /
CDMAOne), , (CDMA2000, PHS, WLAN) WWW
.
3G
GSM, IS-95, PHS, PDC
, .
2,5G,
2G GPRS.
GPRS 171,2 /,
56 /,
,
, . GPRS
GSM, -
EDGE, ,
473,6 / 180 / . ,
EDGE, 2,75G.
2006., UMTS

- HSDPA, 3,5G.
2008. HSDPA 7,2 /.

HSUPA. , 3GPP,
UMTS - 4G,
100/ 50/
,


OFDM.
UMTS
,
.
,
:
2,5G.

UMTS4
UMTS W-CDMA,
TD-CDMA, TD-SCDMA GSM.
, UMTS, FOMA,
W-CDMA.
UMTS
5. , CDMA-2000
1,25 .
, UMTS,
W-CDMA: , FOMA.
4

, W-CDMA:
,
, , , .
, UMTS :
1885 2025
2110 2200
. 1900 GSM
1710 1755 2110 2155 .
, (, AT&T Mobility)
850 1900. ,
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900 (
Nokia Elisa).
, GSM,
UMTS
:
,
.
UMTS GSM
GeRAN.
UMTS ISDN,
Internet, GSM UMTS.
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) ,
( RRM).
(
).


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USB
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.
, ,
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). ,
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2004. 120
, WCDMA GSM.
,
, ,
. 50
,
( Mobilcom Sonera Telefonica).
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(
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.
, UMTS ,
: 1900
Personal Communications Service (PCS) 2G, 2100
. ,
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Cingular, AT&T 2004.,
. UMTS
1900. - T-Mobile,
2100/1700.
AT&T 850
. Telstra
2008. CDMA 850 UMTS
2100. , 850

1700/1900/2100.


, UMTS
,
FOMA, CDMA-2000 TD-SCDMA. FOMA
W-CDMA.
, ,
UMTS. UMTS ,
WiMAX Flash-OFDM.
UMTS-FDD, UMTS,
. UMTS, UMTS-TDD,
W-CDMA (TD-CDMA)

, .


, WiMAX, UMTS.
CDMA-2000, W-CDMA
IMT-2000 3G TD-CDMA, EDGE
TD-SCDMA.
UMTS CDMA-2000
, .
UMTS, GSM,
.
,
.
GSM ,
, EDGE 3G .
AT&T Wireless 2003., T-Mobile
USA - 2005., Rogers Wireless 2003.
Bit Lietuva ,
EDGE ( 2003.), TIM 2004.
EDGE , ,
GSM,
. , ,
GSM: UMTS
.
CDMA-2000.

UMTS
( )
,
UMTS , .
,
.
GSM , ,
,
.
,
.
UMTS




UMTS GSM
( 11,5 )

FOMA
FOMA (. Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access) 3G ,
NTT DoCoMo. FOMA
W-CDMA 3G , 2001 .
2004 FOMA ,
. 29 2007 , FOMA
40 . .
W-CDMA FDD 1920 1980 2110 - 2170 .

CDMA
CDMA (. Code Division Multiple Access)
.

,
. ,
. ,
, ,
.

. , , 1935
.. .
CDMA
, , . 80-

.

,
CDMA
CDMA,
,
.
CDMA-2000 3G CDMAOne
( IS-95). , IS95A, CDMA .
CDMA
CDMA-2000.
CDMA-2000 1x 153 /,
, ,
, , ,
. CDMA-2000 1xEV-DO
1,23 ,
2,4 / 153 / ,
3G
, .

1xEV-DO Rev.A,
3,1 / 1,8
/ - . ,
Rev.0, , , ,
IP . .
,
1xEV-DO Rev.B,
4,9 / 2,4 / .

. , 15- (
) 73,5 / 27 /
. -
VoIP, Push to Talk, ,
, .
CDMA-2000
, (
), .
,
,
.

. , CDMA-2000
250, GSM-900 2 (
), GSM-1800 1 ( ). ,

, .

TD-SCDMA
TD-SCDMA (. Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access)
.
CDMA2000 W-CDMA.

3G
2007 Uzdunrobita,
, , 3G.
3G- .
, 13 2007 .
Unitel ( ,
)
,
IMT-2000/UMTS (3G) .
3G
, OOO Unitel
.
,
.

3G
() , ,
,
.
02 2008 3G

3G.
3,6 /,
, .
4 2008 .
(3G) . ,
3G,
3G.


3.

. . 3- . ,
., 2000208 . ISBN 5-93184-006-0.

. 3G . , 72 (1846),
23 2007.
5. http://www.celler.ru/news/2005/11/01/5705.html
6. http://www.megafonnw.ru/info/rus/news/pressreleazes/umts_first.html
4.

4.

LTE.
.
.
.
3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) ,
3GPP UMTS
.
, , ,
, ,

. 3GPP LTE
326,4 / (download) 172,8 / (upload).
LTE 2004. ,
UTRA ( UMTS)
3GPP.
SA WG2
- System Architecture
Evolution (SAE), ,
3GPP ,

,
(RAT). SAE
" 3GPP", 2004.
2007. 3- ,
"E-UTRA", -

2008. .
, LTE/SAE
.


.
Ericsson, 2011 1,5
. ,
HSPA/LTE.
:
-
, HSPA;
HSPA- DSL-;
- , 3G-.
LTE, , , 8 3GPP
(Release 8),
.
( ,
, ).
3GPP 3GPP2
CDMA-2000 LTE/SAE. CDMA-2000,
, LTE/SAE.
LTE/SAE
:
-
(OFDM) QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM;
-
(SC-FDMA) BPSK, QPSK,
8PSK 16QAM.
E-UTRA
, 1,25 20 (
UTRA 5).
E-UTRA
UTRA,
.
/
MIMO ( . Miltiple In - Multiple Out) 10-
3GPP WCDMA.

LTE IP-
SAE.
LTE/SAE IP-
. ,
GSM/W-CDMA.
,
.
LTE/SAE . ,
, , ,
( ),
. ,
.
LTE ,
3GPP, .
:
100/,
(RAN) 10;
5 20
;
(FDD)
(TDD).


.
LTE
, ,
, .


LTE/SAE :
(GW) ;

(
);
IP ;
RAN-CN, WCDMA/HSPA;
/
(MME) ;
, 3GPP,
IP .
LTE/SAE (.4.1).

.4.1. LTE/SAE
LTE (PDN-GW)
(Service GW),
, . PDN-GW
, IP-

. Service GW
3GPP-.
- MME :
,
.
GSM W-CDMA/HSPA LTE/SAE
, SGSN (
GPRS) .
MME
, IP-
(UE). GSM W-CDMA/HSPA
GGSN ( GPRS).

GSM, W-CDMA/HSPA LTE SGSN MME .
(Home Subscriber Server, HSS)
, , ,
Diameter, SS7.
IP-,
Diameter.
LTE RAN-CN.
MME , .

IP.

LTE
.
CDMA-2000
, CDMA-2000 LTE.
,
CDMA LTE.
QoS GSM W-CDMA
, LTE/SAE QoS,
, .
LTE/SAE ,
. ,
.


, 3GPP,
, OFDM
SC-FDMA .
, ,
.
, LTE
.
LTE ,
(Hybrid
Automatic Repeat Request, HARQ) ,
, HSPA. OFDM SC-FDMA
, .
LTE 15 .
HSPA.
, .
LTE HSPA.
, LTE , (
).
LTE. ,
, NAS (Non-access Stratum),
eNodeB .
PDCP (Packet Data Convergence
Protocol)
; RLC (Radio Link Control)
;
MAC (Media Access Control)
HARQ.
RRC (Radio Resource Control) ,

, NAS
.

LTE
LTE
. c

Ericsson
. 1,72,7
/// 0,7 ///
(ISD), 500.
0,180,28 ///
0,0220,05 ///

. UTRA (UMTS
Terrestrial Radio Access UMTS), 3GPP Release 6
.
, LTE
100/ 50/
.
20 LTE
325/ 80/ .
7,
3,5, HARQ 5.
, LTE/SAE,
.
. , ,
LTE/SAE. ,
, (
) ,
. ,

,
, ,
LTE/SAE .


LTE , 5
20 (
FDD TDD). , LTE
. ,
10 20. LTE
.
LTE
. ,
.

FDD. ( ) FDD
, , , TDD, ,
, ,
FDD.
LTE/SAE, 3GPP
,
. , ,
(MME) .


, .
,
.
LTE/SAE
MME,
LTE.
,
. ,
,
.
LTE/SAE
W-CDMA/HSPA .
,

W-CDMA/HSPA

LTE.


7.

". ." 3/2008, . 52. , ,


, , , , . Ericsson.

8. http://www.3gpp.org/article/lte
9. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/3GPP_Long_Term_Evolution
10. http://www.ericsson.com
11. . . 3- .

., 2000208 . ISBN 5-93184-006-0.

5.

LTE.


.
, LTE,
E-UTRA,
,
, ,
. IP
, LTE
IP-
(QoS). IP (VoIP),
.
HSPA, UMTS,
LTE 3GPP
, - EPC ( . Evolved Packet

Core). EPC E-UTRAN


, ,
, ,
,
-
. , EPC, EPS
( . Evolved Packet Subsystem).
LTE ,
,
(OFDM),
(MIMO) .
, LTE :
;
, ;
3GPP 3GPP-2.

LTE
, , E-UTRA
, , FTP , , IP
(VoIP), , , push-to-talk push-to-view. ,
LTE

, 5.1.
5.1: LTE


:100/,
: 50/
( 20)

500/,
: 0 15 /

(
)

<100.

<5.

> 200
( 5)

( )

5 100.
30.

1,25 ; 2,5 ; 5 ; 10 ; 15
; 20

(), ,
20M , .

.5.1 .

,
,
.
, LTE

UMTS.
,
(QoS),
LTE.
LTE 3 - 4
, 6 HSDPA, , 2 - 3 ,
6 HSUPA. LTE
, .
, LTE 2G/3G
.

LTE/SAE
LTE/SAE :
(CN) (RAN).
(E-UTRAN) LTE/SAE ,
, , ,
.
LTE/SAE
:
(Mobility Management Entity, MME)
,
,
.
(Serving Gateway, SGW)
2G/3G LTE.
(Packet Data Network Gateway, PDN GW)
, SGW,
,
3GPP (I-WLAN ..).



. ,

. , MME SGW ,
.
C LTE,
, 5.1.

5.1. 3GPP LTE.


(E-UTRAN)
E-UTRAN , .. NodeB (eNB),
LTE-Ub. eNB
: (PHY), (),
(RLC) (PDCP),
.
eNB (RRC),
, , QoS
, , /
, /
.
(MME)
MME LTE.
,
, .
/
SGW , LTE,
(CN).

(Home Subscriber, Server, HSS). ,
(NAS) MME,
ID . ,
,
, .
(termination point)
NAS
.

.
LTE 2G/3G S3,
SGSN. , S6a
HSS.
(SGW)
- Service GW
LTE.
,
LTE
3GPP S4, ( ,
2G/3G - PDN GW).
, .. IP, ..
.
(PDN GW)

, IP-
.
PDN GW ,
.
PDN GW
.
, , ,
.
PDN GW
3GPP -3GPP, WiMAX,
3GPP2 (CDMA 1X EvDO).

.
GSM W-CDMA/HSPA LTE/SAE
, SGSN (
GPRS) .
MME
, IP-
(). GSM W-CDMA/HSPA
GGSN ( GPRS).

GSM, W-CDMA/HSPA LTE SGSN MME .
(Home Subscriber, Server, HSS)
, , ,
Diameter, SS7.
IP-,
Diameter.
LTE RAN-CN.
MME , .

IP.

LTE
.
EPS
EPS ,
(MME), ,
(SGW),
(S11). E-UTRAN
, ,
SGW , SGW ,
,
, .

. ,
SGW

,
.
S1-flex
S1-flex
,
SGW. SGW ,
eNB SGW,
.

LTE
,
(, SGW, PDN GW) ,
E-UTRAN (eNBs).
S1-flex, eNB
. ,
, ID ,
.


http://www.motorola.com TECHNICAL WHITE PAPER: Long Term Evolution (LTE):
A Technical Overview.
13. ". ." 3/2008, . 52. , ,
, , , , . Ericsson.
14. http://www.ericsson.com FULL SERVICE BROADBAND ARCHITECTURE. White
Paper, June 2008.
12.

15. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki
16. . .

.
.., , , 2006.

LTE
.

- QoS.
LTE

LTE/SAE. . 6.1 6.2
, .

. 6.1. .
NAS (Non-access stratum - ,
), MME ,
, , ,
.
NAS , MME
.
RRC ( ) eNB
, , ;
;
; ,
(Channel quality index - CQI)
.
eNB eNB ,
RRC. RRC
.

. 6.2. .

PDCP

/ IP
(ROHC),
.
.
NAS RRC, (, )
, MME,
eNB.
RLC ( )
eNB. RLC
(), (UM) ()
. UM ()
, .
AM, , , , ,
. , ,
, . RLC
(SDU)
SDU. RLC
SDU .

, , (HARQ)
(ARQ) RLC.
ARQ ,
HARQ,
. (Nprocess) HARQ, " " Stop and Wait (SAW)
.
HARQ
. ,
, .
HARQ
, . 6.3. 6.4.
2 ,
. 2 PDCP, RLC .

. 6.3. 2 .

. 6.4. 2
LTE
.
LTE 6.5
6.6, .

. 6.5. LTE

. 6.6. LTE.

(, ).
,
( )

. .
6.7.
, , 3GPP.

. 6.7. LTE.
NB
(AMC)
.
, ,
. , ( CQI)
. , (1) 12 .
,
. E-UTRA QPSK,
16QAM 64QAM ,
64QAM ().
: 2 1
(.. MISO),
. eNB MIMO (
) ,
.
(OFDMA) 15

(SC-FDMA) .
10. 10 14 OFDM-
.


(Quality of Service, QoS)
, 3GPP,
, OFDM
SC-FDMA .
, ,
, ,
.
QoS GSM W-CDMA
, LTE/SAE QoS,

. LTE/SAE ,
. ,
.
3GPP
, .
, , , Wi-Fi

,
. SAE/EPS
, .
,
, , , ..,
.
, GSM UMTS,
, E-UTRAN
. , 8 3GPP ,

.
SAE,
,
, VoIP .
, IP-
LTE/SAE 5
5 10 . , ,
50% 3G.
, ,
3GPP,
QoS.
LTE/SAE QoS (
).
, QoS. ( 3G
PDP (Radio Access
Bearer, RAB)). ,
(.. ,
).
, , .
.
, ,
(Guaranteed Bandwidth, GB), VoIP.
,
:
(admission control)
, .. ,
, ;
,
.
;

.
, ,
(mapping) .

QoS, , ,
, ,

. ,
.


- QoS
QoS (. Quality of Service )
,
, ,
.


:
(Bandwidth),
, .
bit/s (bps), kbit/s (kbps), Mbit/s (Mbps).
(Delay), .
() (Jitter).
(Packet loss). ,
.
,
:
.

FIFO:
(First In First Out). ,
: FIFO (
) , .
,
ToS. :
.
QoS QoS.
VoIP FTP, SMTP
.

QoS
Best Effort Service

ToS Best Effort Service ,


-
.
Integrated Service (IntServ)
(End-to-End)
, . IntServ
RSVP,
. IntServ
(Resource reservation).
Differentiated Service (DiffServ)
QoS
,
. ,
QoS. DiffServ

(
,
,

) ( ,
). DiffServ
.
, QoS

, :

-

VoIP
, ,

QoS
, IP- IP-
, .

, , .
Mean Opinion Score (MOS), (QoE)
, . , QoS
,
.
:
, , , ,
, , , . .,
( ).
20 Windows XP

, QoS Windows XP
20% (
). .
( 16 2006 ) 316666 Microsoft
:
, Windows XP
QoS 20% .

Windows XP, Windows 2000, QoS
API QoS. ,
,
. ,
,
.
20% . ,
, ,
.
, , QoS .

LTE
LTE E-UTRA
LTE E-UTRA

.
(HDTV),
(Movie on Demand) IP- (VoIP).
LTE E-UTRA 7.1.
7.1 LTE E-UTRA.

LTE
A. OFDM
,
E-UTRA
OFDM,
, ,
. OFDM
-, - ,
. ,
- , OFDM
, .
OFDM,
,
( ). , OFDM

(single frequency network, SFN)
.
, ,

.
,
E-UTRA
20 . 7.2
.

7.2. E-UTRA

(cyclic prefix,CP)
,
-
SFN. .
15 , -
( 250/ 2,6)
64QAM.
7.1. ,
, CQI
.

7.1.
.
(Reference symbols, RS) 1- OFDM- (1-
RS) 3- OFDM- (2- RS) -
,

2- RS. , FDD ,
2- RS, , ,

. ( )
(TDM) ,
c 0,5,
( );
, MMSE-FIR (minimum mean square error with
finite impulse response) , IFFT.

FDM ,
CDM .
B. SC-FDMA

SC-FDMA,
E-UTRA. SC-FDMA
OFDM, ,
,
, . , SC-FDMA
,
. SCFDMA OFDM (DFT-SOFDM), 7.2.

7.2. - SC-FDMA
OFDM FFT
, - -,
-.
,
. ,
FFT -
IFFT N-,
.
. DFTSOFDM SC-FDMA ,

OFDM
IFFT.
OFDM
,
DFT-SOFDM .

7.2
.
RS - , /
, ,
,
.
.
RS .
3 , RS
, , ZC- (
Zadoff-Chu). ,
.
C.
E-UTRA 7.3, -
10 1.
FDD, .
TDD,
, . , TDD, 0 5
. E-UTRA
,
LCR-TDD.
, 7.3.

( Ts 1/30720 .)
7.3. E-UTRA
D. 6 UMTS
UMTS
, ,
( ARQ) .
7.3 6 UMTS
E-UTRA.
7.3. 6 UMTS
E-UTRA

E-UTRA, ( ) (frequency domain (or selective) scheduling, FDS)


( 20-30 %)
(time domain scheduling, TDS). , E-UTRA
-, - .
,
, .
F. - (MAS) MIMO
E-UTRA ,

.
, , , .

(spatial division multiple access, SDMA) E-UTRA
MIMO, MIMO,

.
,
- . MIMO

.
G.

, 1, .

, .

, .

.
MIMO OFDM


MIMO (. Multiple Input Multiple Output) ,
N
.
M ,
, ,
.


: N M .
n- m-
hnm.
NxM.
hnm ,
,
.

().
;
;
.
:

MIMO
:
, (ML, Maximum
Likelihood);
,
();
, () (zero forcing,
ZF)

/.


(2K) .

:
:

.
,
, K .
2
:
, 2G
. , G > K.
,

.

-
- .

. ,

MIMO .
() .
. . ,
:
.
-
BER
.
:
;
;
( ZF- zero forcing );
(
,
).
STTC M-PSK M-QAM
( , ).

BLAST
BLAST ( Bell Labs Space-Time Transformation ) :
;
.
BLAST:
BLAST ( D-BLAST ).

, .
WiMax.

:



BLAST (V-BLAST).
:


.


MIMO
:
1. .
2. -
( ).
3. ( ,
).
4. DSSS.
5. ().
.

6. ()
.

MIMO
MIMO
WiMAX IEEE 802.11n.

. ., . . OFDM-MIMO
802.16,
. :, 2007.
. ., . ., . .
. :, 2005.

OFDM
OFDM ,
.
(, )
, ,
. OFDM
( ).
OFDM
. ,
,
- ,
, -.
, OFDM
,
.
,
().

MIMO OFDM
MIMO
OFDM
MIMO
,
.

.
,
,
. MIMO (
) -,
.

MIMO (. Multiple Input Multiple Output) ,


N
.
M ,
,
,
. (. 8.1.)

. 8.1. MIMO
, MIMO
. MIMO:
.
()
, , .

- .
MIMO IEEE 802.11n, 802.16-2004 802.16e,
3GPP.
IEEE 802.20 802.22.


( MIMO)
. MIMO
. -
.
.
H
. (h11)
, (h21) .
s, - r.
.
r = Hs + n,
n .
8.2. MIMO.

. 8.2. MIMO
H,
.
,
.
MIMO.
,
:

(8.1)

8.1. fg
-.

. .
MIMO
. ,
Mt ( ) Mr ( )
. ,
2x3 ,
2x4. , MIMO
:

(8.2.)

MIMO .
(, 1x2 2x1)
. CTx/Rx
.

(8.3.)



.
. V-BLAST (. Vertical Bell
Laboratories Layered Space-Time) , Bell.
V-BLAST
- . (.
8.3).

. 8.3. V-BLAST
- .
V-BLAST, -
(.. ) . ,
V-BLAST ,
(multi-stream interferences, MSI). ,
, ,
.
-
.
, ,

.



, , .

- . ,
,
, , .
.
, ,
. ( ,
MIMO.)
:
Tx- (.. ),
(, 2x1);

Rx- (.. ),
(, 1x2).
- . ,
.
, , .
Tx- , , . ,
. Rx-
,
.

,
H. (. 8.4)

. 8.4. .
( A B ).
,
, :
.

-
-
.
, .

. -
, . 8.5.

. 8.5. -
2 .

S1 S2 ,
-
. -
:
- (. STBC) ( 2
. 8.5);
- (. STTC)
FSM (. Final State Machine)

.
.



. ,
60 120 . ,
GSM 120-
.
, .
,
- DoA (. Direction of Arrival).
,
.
. MIMO
.
,
.
. MIMO
(. 8.6):
( )

;
(. AAS) (
) ,
.

. 8.6.
DoA
.
, .

,
. ,
.
, .
,
(.
8.7).

. 8.7. .

OFDM
OFDM ,
.
(,
) , ,
.
OFDM (
).
OFDM
. ,
,
-
,

, -.
, OFDM
,
.
,
().
OFDM/QAM .
OFDM (Orthogonal
Frequency Division Multiplexing) ,

n 1

2
,
,

(n n- ).
OFDM
Tu N , N .

,

. N . ,

.
(

). ,
(,
-),
. - OFDM
. 8.8.
(DFT - Discrete Fourier Transform).
5
FFT

. 8.8. - OFDM 5 .
, OFDM
.
,
(OFDM-).
OFDM :
( ),

(QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM);
(
), , , ( );
OFDM-
.
(
).
OFDM- . 8.9.

QAM

e j 0t
QAM

s(t)

e j nt
QAM

= 1/Tu
/

ej

N 1t

. 8.9. OFDM-.
OFDM-
( Inverse Fast Fourier Transform IFFT) N (.
8.10).
OFDM.
mTu

(m+1)Tu

a(mN+0)
a(mN+1)
mTu

a(mN+2)

IFFT

(m+1)Tu

sm(0), sm(1), sm(2),,sm(N-1),


sm

a(mN+N-1)

. 8.10. IFFT OFDM-.


. 8.10. a(mN+n) n-
Tu mTu < t < (m+1)Tu. sm
IFFT OFDM-. OFDM-
E-UTRAN . 8.11.
QAM- =
N/Tu /

QAM

1:N

1/Tu
/

IFFT

OFDM

1/Tu
/

N:1

OFDM

. 8.11. OFDM- EUTRAN.


OFDM TDD
CP (yclic-Prefix)
TCP 4.7/16.7 ( 15 ).
( 10 ) 20
Tsub-frame = 0.5 . OFDM TDD
8.1.

8.1. OFDM/OQAM
OFDM/OQAM
BW
1.25 2.5


1.92 3.84
( )
(1/2 3.84
)
FFT128
256
76
151
OFDM
(Short/Long CP)
CP
(4.69/9) 6, (4.69/18)
(/samples*)
(5.21/10) 1*(5.21/20)
(16.67/32) (16.67/64)

10
0.5
15

15

7.68
15.36 23.04 30.72
(2 3.84 )(4 3.84 )(6 3.84 )(8 3.84 )
512
301

1024
601
7/6

1536
901

2048
1201

6,(4.69/36) 6, (4.69/72) 6, (4.69/108) 6,(4.69/144) 6,


1(5.21/40) 1 (5.21/80) 1 (5.21/120) 1(5.21/160) 1
(16.67/128) (16.67/256) (16.67/384) (16.67/512)

*) FFT = (samples , OFDM ).

20

H. Jafarkhani: Space-Time Coding Theory and Practice, Cambridge, 2000


M. Jankiraman: Space-Time Codes and MIMO Systems Artech House, 2004
V. Tarokh, N. Seshadri, A.R. Calderbank: Space-Time codes for high data rate wireless
communication: performance criterion and code construction IEEE Transactions on
Information Theory, (1998)
IEEE P802.11n/D1.0: Draft Amendment to STANDARD [FOR] Information
Technology-Telecommunications and information exchange between systems-Local and
Metropolitan networks-Specific requirements- Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access
Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) specifications: Enhancements for Higher
Throughput, (March 2006)
3GPP TR 25.876 V1.8.0: Multiple-Input Multiple Output in UTRA, (15.12.2005)
. ., . . OFDM-MIMO
802.16,
. :, 2007.
. ., . ., . .
. :, 2005.

9
LTE

() -
,
.
,
.
,

.


.



.
. ,
,
, ,
.

, , ,
.
( WiMAX),


, .
LTE
LTE WIMAX
: WiMAX
(TDD), ..
, LTE
(FDD) . , TDD

, FDD ,
() .
, LTE 3GPP
2008., LTE
2009 2010.. . 9.1.
,
LTE , ,
,
.

. 9.1. LTE.
: (Advanced Wireless
Services, AWS)
2006. (FCC)
AWS ( 66),
1087 .
, FCC
. ,
AWS
, 2G, 3G 4G.
AWS 1,710-1,755
2,110-2,155 . 90
A F, A, B, F
20, C, D, E - 10. FCC
AWS
2,100 UMTS . , ,
2,100 UMTS
PCS, , ,

. , FCC
AWS
. ,
AWS 2,100,
UMTS ,
GSM 1,800.
700

2008. 62 ,
5 : (12 ), B (12 ), E
( 6 ), C (22 ), D (10 ).

, ,
.
2005.
,
17
2009. 700
.
, C
.
,
. , ,
, (
, "" ),
, ( ,
"" ). D
, , ,
,
.
, ,
, ,
- ..
. , ,

-.
,

( )
.
900 ( GSM)

900

,
,
,
. , 900MHz


.
GSM
UMTS, 150 ,
GSM-900
.
UMTS (
HSPA/HSPA+). ,

LTE. HSPA/HSPA+,
LTE, ,
,
,
. , UMTS
5 ,
, 900, ,
2010. ,
GSM900 2010. LTE.
, LTE
1,25
GSM,
.
LTE 900
,
LTE
,

.
, , LTE
900 ,
LTE
GSM, GSM LTE
. ,

GSM,
. GSM
EDGE ( E-EDGE)

LTE.
, LTE 900
GSM-900 5-10
GSM.
900
.
IMT
2000. ()
IMT-2000
2500-2690. , 2008.,
140 IMT-2000
FDD, 2500-2570
2620-2690 .
50 (2570-2620)
TDD. ,

.
, , ,
, ,
. (. . 9.1)
9.1.
2500-2690

, LTE
- FDD . , , LTE
, 20.
,
20,

.
-

GSM 1800:
, - ()
, (), ,
GSM.
UMTS: 3,0-3,5,
E
150 . ,
, 5.
,

UMTS/HSPA, ,
LTE 2009-2010..
PCS 1900: ,
, 700
AWS.
850:
700
AWS.
9.2
LTE.
9.2. -
LTE.


ITU-R .2078
IMT-2000
IMT-Advanced. 2020.
()
500 1. ,
2010. 2 3
2008. 2015 ,
IMT, .

. ,

2007.
(-07)

,


. , -07 2300-2400
450-470 IMT ( IMT-2000 IMT-Advanced)
, 698862 3400-3600
, . 9.3.

9.3. , -07
LTE .

, -07
LTE.
, 698-806

.


.
.

,


LTE.
LTE
.


LTE.
11.


( )


, .
: , ,
.
,
,
Wi-Fi, WiMAX, Bluetooth, RFID.
, .
,
XIX .
, 20- ,
, 1930- -
. 1970-
,
. 1980- GSM,
( )
,
. 90-x

.
, ,
.

(WLAN), Bluetooth ( ).

IEEE (
) 802.11 1990.

. , 2005.
Internet-
.

.
:
(
,
); (
)
(
, , ).

.
,
. .
,
(, ,
, , ,
, . .) -
,
.
,
.
- ,
, ,
, ..
.
,
.


. , :
:

o
o
o

(WPAN Wireless Personal


Area Networks). Bluetooth.
(WLAN Wireless Local Area
Networks). Wi-Fi.
(WMAN Wireless
Metropolitan Area Networks). WiMAX.
(. . 11.1).

. 11.1. .
:
o "-".
o "-" (. . 11.2 , , ).

a)

)
. 11.2. .
:
o ()

;
o
.
,

:
(. . 11.3).

. 11.3.
.
Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi (. Wireless Fidelity - ) 802.11 IEEE
WLAN, Wi-Fi Alliance.

Hi-Fi ( . High Fidelity


).
Wi-Fi ,
.
Wi-Fi ,
. Wi-Fi
, , 100 /.
Wi-Fi ,
. (, ),
- -,

-.

Wi-Fi 1991. NCR
Corporation/AT&T ( Lucent Agere Systems) .
().
WaveLAN.
1 2
/. Wi-Fi (Vic
Hayes) - Wi-Fi ,
IEEE 802.11b, 802.11a 802.11g. 2003.
Agere Systems,
, ,
Wi-Fi-. Agere Systems (802.11abg
all-in-one ( : WARP)) ,
Wi-Fi 2004 .

Wi-Fi ,
() .
-,
,
.
(SSID) 0,1M/
100. 0,1M/
Wi-Fi. SSID , ,
.
SSID,
. Wi-Fi
.

Wi-Fi
.

(. 11.4) ,
PCI, PCMCIA, CompactFlash.
USB 2.0. Wi-Fi
, .
.
Centrino
Wi-Fi, . Wi-Fi
, , (
), .

. 11.4. Wi-Fi .

.
Ad Hoc ("").
- .
.
Ad Hoc,
.
(. 11.5)
- .

. 11.5.

,
. , .
(uplink port),
.
.
(
),
(Wireless Distributed System - WDS).
"-" " - ",
.

.
. -
(Service Set IDentifier - SSID)
, .
(Service Set - SS)
,
.
(Basic Service Set - BSS) -
, .
BSS ,
(access point).


Wi-Fi
:
( 300/),
;
Wi-Fi
, ,
;
,
;
,
;
,
;
,
;
Wi-Fi

.

Wi-Fi :
Wi-Fi . (
Wi-Fi 802.11b 802.11g
45. 90. );
, (. RTP, IP). -
,

( , );
- WEP
(-
). ( ,

WPA,
);

(.
. ,
Wi-Fi , ,
Wi-Fi-);



.

,
. (
,
, );

,
.

2004. IEEE
- 802.11i.
, WEP,

.
IEEE .
802.11i, WPA2
Wi-Fi Alliance.
802.11i
(Robust Security Network - RSN), ,
.
, ..
, RSN,
, WEP.
RSN, WEP,
WEP .
Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
Wi-Fi
. Wi-Fi
:
(-), .
()
.
Wi-Fi
:

EarthLink 2007. .
() . -
, Wi-Fi.
T-Mobile - Starbucks
, 7500 - .
Golden Telecom
Wi-Fi ,
-Wi-Fi.

.
Ozone OzoneParis . 2003.
Ozone OzoneParis
Wi-Fi, . .
Ozone Pervasive Network ,
.
Columbia Rural Electric Association Wi-Fi
2,4 9,500 ,
-
, ( ).
BT Open-zone - ,
McDonald's, TMobile UK ReadyToSurf.
Wi-Fi

- Wi-Fi , ,
, , Wi-Fi ,
,
.
, WiFi . Wi-Fi ,
.
OLSR ,
. WiPeer P2P Wi-Fi.
Netsukuku . Wirel
,
. , WiFi Liberator (
MAC OS Wi-Fi- WiFi-).

(.
) Wi-Fi -
Wi-Fi
. , OzoneParis
, Pervasive Network,
Wi-Fi . Unwire
Jerusalem Wi-Fi
.
Wi-Fi ,
, .
,
,
, , ,
. Sparknet . Sparknet
Open Sparknet ,
Sparknet,
.
12.

WiMAX

()
:
, .
:
,
,

. , IEEE 802.16,
WiMAX,
IMS ( IP )
-
.
IEEE 802.16,
:
, , Wi-Fi.
WiMAX
, .
,

,
. , ,
: ,
. WiMAX.
WiMAX
WiMAX
Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (
()
) ,

(
). WiMAX
WiMAX Forum (
2001.) IEEE
802.16,
(IEEE) (.).
,
(. Line Of Sight - LOS)
10 66.
,
(. Non Line Of Sight - NLOS)
2 11. 802.16-2004 (
802.16d)
, .
, , ,
.
2005. 802.16e,
802.16. 802.16d
, 802.16e
, .
WiMAX WirelessMAN.
7. Where is WiMAX deployed? As of February 2010, WiMAX Forum has
tracking 559 network deployments in 147 countries. Please visit WiMAX Maps at
www.wimaxmaps.org. WiMAX Maps is an interactive WiMAX deployment
mapping database provided by WiMAX Forum and powered by Informa
Telecoms & Medias World Cellular Information Service (WCIS) using the
familiar Google Maps API.
REGION

DEPLOYMENTS

COUNTRIES

Africa

114

43

CALA

110

32

Asia-Pacific

102

22

Eastern Europe

84

21

Western Europe

70

17

North America (USA/Canada) 51

Middle East

10

28

IEEE 802.16
IEEE
. 802,
,
Ethernet (802.3) Wi-Fi (802.11), ,
WiMAX (802.16).
WiMAX (. WiMAX Forum) ,

802.16 (
WiMAX) .
,

. WiMAX
500 , -
( 50%), , .
,
, WiMAX:
D ( - IEEE 802.16-2004)
;
E ( IEEE 802.16-2005)
,

.
, WiMAX
, D
E.
E
E,
D.
WiMAX IMT-2000
, ()
IMT-2000
- 3G, ..


. (ITU Rec. M.1457-6),
IMT-2000
,
(FDMA, TDMA CDMA). , :
CDMA - Direct Spread (CDMA ,
Universal Terrestrial Radio Access-UTRA,
W-CDMA);
CDMA - Multi-Carrier (CDMA , CDMA-2000);
CDMA - TDD (CDMA , - UTRA
TDD);
TDMA - Single Carrier (TDMA , - UWC
(Universal Wireless Communication) - IS 136);
FDMA/TDMA ( FDMA TDMA, Digital Enhanced Cordless Communications - DECT)
OFDMA (IMT-Advanced)

OFDMA FDD.
OFDMA
WiMAX. OFDMA ,
, MIMO, STC
,
.
, LTE
IP-,
, , IMT-Advanced.

WiMAX, ,
IMT2000 ITU Rec. . 1457.
2006., IEEE (ITU-R WP8F/ITU-R
Prop. WP/1065) ,
IP-OFDMA IEEE
802.16. IP-OFDMA
WiMAX, - TDD 5
10 .
WiMAX
, ,
- QoS , ,
. ,

WiMAX -
WiMAX, ,
IMT-2000. , WiMAX
WiMAX
3G IMS,

.
, WiMAX
, , LTE
,
.
, , WiMAX
, LTE
. (. . 12.1).
, ,
,
.

. 12.1. .
, WiMAX
IEEE 802.16.
IEEE 802.16
,
IEEE 802.16m, , ,
IMT-2000, IMTAdvanced. WiMAX IEEE 802.16m
WiMAX .

IMT-Advanced, ,
,
, IMT-2000. ,
, IMT-Advanced
100/ 1/
.
- 4G. (. . 12.2).

. 12.2. .
WiMAX Wi-Fi.
WiMAX Wi-Fi , ,
, , ,
, ( IEEE,
802.),
. , ,
. (. . 12.1).
12.1.


110-480
/

10 .

7,5

UWB

802.15.3a

WPAN

Wi-Fi

802.11a

WLAN

54 / 100 .

Wi-Fi

802.11b

WLAN

11 / 100 .

2,4

Wi-Fi

802.11g

WLAN

54 / 100 .

2,4

WiMax

802.16d

WMAN

75 / 6-10 .

1,5-11


WiMax

802.16e

Mobile WMAN 30 /

1-5 .

2-6

WiMAX - ,
,
. 802.16
, .
Wi-Fi - (
),
.
WiMAX Wi-Fi
Quality of Service (QoS). WiMAX ,

.
, QoS
. Wi-Fi, , QoS,
, Ethernet,
.
QoS .
- , Wi-Fi
.
, , ,
Wi-Fi.
WiMAX
WiMAX 802.16

.
,
Intel,
WiMAX. , WiMAX
,
. ,
, , Intel Fujitsu,
, , ,
.
WiMAX
, ,
. ,

. WiMAX

70M/c, :
,
(
), 2048
20. 56 ,
2-3 /c,
,

.
WiMAX, 802.16, ,
10,
37M/. 5M WiMAX
18,7M/c,
UMTS 5 (14,4
M/c 5).
WiMAX
, ,
3- (3G)
,
.
WiMAX
:

WiMAX ,

-,
-

. MAC -

(). WiMAX ,
() -,
,
.

WiMAX AES
(Advanced Encryption Standard) 3DES (Triple Data Encryption Standard).
WiMAX
(
) ,
.
WiMAX VLAN,
, .

WiMAX ,
,
..
, WiMAX
, , .
WiMAX ,
, .
WiMAX ,
.
, WiMAX
, 2004. ,
,
.


.


.
WiMAX (QoS)
WiMAX
4 :

,
,
. T1/E1
IP (VoIP).


, ,
MPEG.

, ,

, FTP.

,
,
.

WiMAX ,
, ,

.
,
. ,
,
, .

,
WiMAX

, ..
,
.

IEEE 802.16, WiMAX


.

OFDM OFDMA,

- NLOS .
WiMAX
160 /.

, WiMAX
,
,

, ,
.

WiMAX
, BPSK, QPSK,
16-QAM 64-QAM.

,
, 56.

,
.
OFDM, WiMAX,


.
WiMAX
, .

(64QAM) (
7M,
IEEE ETSI), WiMAX
.

802.16
( )
,
.

802.16
2,5, 3,5 5,8, , ,
.
WiMAX

:

,
(,
);
T1/E1 , 2G
3G;
;

(,
).
C 802.16 , WiMAX
, :
VoIP;
, IP-;
,
, Hot-Zone -.
, IEEE 802.16e ,
( 2005.),

. Korea Telecom SK Telecom ,


2,32,4; Sprint-Nextel,
Clearwire, AT&T NextWave Broadband ,
- Wateen Telecom,
. ,
WiMAX
. Wateen Telecom
, Motorola.
WiMAX
WiMAX :

IP-;

802.16e,

OFDMA,
,
802.11g;
,
;
,
, ;
, MIMO;
IP-;
,

QoS ;
,

, ,
..
WiMAX
:
,
,
,

.
WiMAX- , Internet
,

,
.
,
,
.
, WiMAX,
.
WiMAX
, .
,
- WiBro.
,
.
,
WiMAX, WiBro.
, WiMAX

.

802.16,
802.16f (Full Mobile WiMAX) 802.16m.

.
1 /
- 100 /.
2008-2009 .

,
WiMAX.

.
13
WiMAX (IEEE 802.16)
WiMAX
IEEE 802.16
2001. WiMAX ,
802.16.

2001.
IEEE 802.16-2001.

(metropolitan area network, MAN),
WirelessMAN (WiMAN).
"",
(Single-Carrier, SC).
SC - WirelessMAN-SC.
10 66.
, ,
, , 802.16-2001
. ,
.
2003.
802.16 802.16a-2003,
2 11 .

. ,
" " , xDSL 1/1. ,
802.16a
802.11b/g/a
.
.
802.16a 802.16d,

. 802.16d
2004. 802.16-2004. D
802.16d 802.16a
, 802.16d
.
,

. , 2005. IEEE 802.16e
( IEEE 802.16-2005),
WiMAX.
WiMAX ().
,
ETSI
HiperMAN, 2005.
2 11.
HiperMAN


. ,
HiperMAN WiMAX ( IEEE
802.16), WiBro.
IEEE 802.16
HiperMAN IEEE 802.16a-2003
.
2006
802.16-2004,
WiMAX.
WiMAX , ..
,
WiMAX
WiMAX.
, 2006.
WiBro .

Samsung, LG, Korean Telecom South Korea Telecom
. , 2002.
100 2,3 - 2,4;
2004. WiBro
2005. WiBro IEEE
802.16e. , 2006. - Korean Telecom South
Korea Telecom, WiBro.
, WiBro ,
IEEE 802.16e (
WiMAX). WiBro OFDMA
8,75 TDD.
1 5 .
3050 /.
120 /.
WiMAX . ,
2007.
IEEE 802.16e, WiMAX
.

.
IEEE 802.16
WiMAX,
.
,
,

. , IEEE
802.16d IEEE 802.16e .
,
IP-.

.
,

QoS
.

.
,

(, ).
WiMAX ,
, , ,
,
. WiMAX,
IEEE 802.16 e d,
. .
IEEE 802.16-2004, ( IEEE 802.16d
WiMAX).

(OFDM),
.

, PCMCIA- .
3,5 5.
WiMAX, 175
.

DSL.
IEEE 802.16-2005, ( IEEE 802.16e
WiMAX).

, .
OFDM (S-OFDMA),
, .
Mobile WiMAX :
2,3; 2,5 3,43,8.

, Sprint
. 802.16e
(, EV-DO, HSPA).
IEEE 802.16-2004 IEEE 802.16-2005
WiMAX
,
,
. ,
WiMAX (802.16e 802.16d)

. , 802.16d
, 802.16e .
802.16e
, , . ,
802.16d
2006., 802.16e - 2007. ,
,
802.16d,
, . ,
,

.
WiMAX?
, ,
WiMAX
, ,
120 /.
, ..
(
). , WiMAX
.
, 802.16e
802.16d.
802.16d ,

,
802.16e,
802.16d.

. ,

802.16d

- FDD.
802.16e
- TDD.

, TDD FDD
. ,
, 802.16d
802.16e
.
.
802.16d OFDM
256 (256 FFT),
OFDMA 2048 . ,
PHY 802.16d WiMAX
OFDM 256 FFT, OFDMA 2048 FFT.
802.16e
OFDMA (SOFDMA). OFDMA,
802.16e ,
.
OFDM. 802.16e
FFT: 128, 512, 1024 2048,
.
, OFDMA 802.16e
,

.
OFDM
,
-, - .
,
,

,

. ,

,
.


(AMC). AMC
,
.
30%.

.
802.16d
,
.
OFDMA

.

OFDMA 802.16e
OFDM 802.16d.


, 802.16e

, ,
,
, IP. 802.16d
802.16e ,

.
ARQ,
, - (CTC)
(HARQ). ,

802.16d. 802.16e
,
(LDPC)
, CTC, WiMAX.
, ,
802.16d, 802.16e.

- (STC).
802.16e,
.
,

(Advanced Antenna Subsystem, AAS), ( 2-4 )
MIMO .
802.16e
( ),

.
, 802.16e,
,
. ,
,
,
.

802.16e

(Extended Real - Time Polling Service, ERTPS).

(). 802.16e

. QoS
IP (VoIP).
802.16e

OFDMA

(Single Frequency Network, SFN)



.
,
IP (,
IP-TV), ,
.
, , . ,

.
,
.
802.16e
802.16d. , ,
Intel, , 802.16e
WiMAX.
,
WiMAX. , ,
.
,

. WiMAX
,
802.16d , 802.16e. ,
,
WiMAX
.
IEEE802.16e IEEE812.16d,
,
13.1, ,
13.2.

13.1. IEEE812.16d
IEEE802.16e.

13.2.

1. WiMAX: http://www.wimaxforum.org/
2. IEEE: http://ieee802.org/
3. : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
4. M . , :
http://www.osp.ru/nets/2006/17/3607303
5. Motorola WiMAX:
http://www.motorola.com/Business/USEN/Business+Product+and+Services/Wireless+Broadband+Networks/
WiMAX

14

WiMAX
WiMAX
WiMAX IEEE
PHY MAC IEEE 802.16.
Ethernet Wi-Fi,
, TCP/IP, SIP, VoIP IPSec,
, , IETF ( . Internet
Engineering Task Force - ). ,
, , 3GPP
3GPP-2 ,
,
,
. ,
IEEE 802.16 WiMAX. ,
: (. Network Working
Group),
, , ,
(. Service Provider Working Group),
.
:

1. ,
, IEEE 802.16,
, IETF Ethernet.
2. .

IEEE 802.16.
3. ,
, , :
o
o ,
o /
o ,

o , ,

WiMAX WiMAX (Network
Reference Model - NRM), .
NRM ,
.
,
. WiMAX
, WiMAX-:
, ,
, .
WiMAX , -
. ,
()
() ,
- - .
WiMAX
(, , - Reference
points), R1 - R5 () R6 - R8 ().
WiMAX . 14.1.

14.1. (NRM) WiMAX.


. 14.1, WiMAX :
SS/MS: the Subscriber Station/Mobile Station
ASN: the Access Service Network
BS: Base station ( ), ASN
ASN-GW: the ASN Gateway - ASN, ASN
CSN: the Connectivity Service Network
HA: Home Agent , CSN
AAA: Authentication, Authorization and Accounting Server ,
, CSN
NAP: a Network Access Provider
NSP: a Network Service Provider
MS, ASN CSN
.
, .
,
, .

.

WiMAX
- ASN.

ASN

, . ASN
WiMAX,

. , NRM,
ASN
. WiMAX

.
ASN . 14.2.

. 14.2. ASN.
ASN R1 , R3
CSN R4 c ASN. ASN
(BS) ASN (ASN GW). BS
ASN . (. 14.3.)

. 14.3 ASN.
ASN
, R6, R7 R8
. , ASN ,
R4.
,
,
IEEE. IP-
, WiMAX.
CSN
CSN ,
IP- WiMAX. CSN
, AAA -,
. CSN
NSP NSP
WiMAX.

.

, . :
, ,
;

,
.

R1.
R1 ASN
IEEE 802.16-2004. R1
, .
R2.
R2 CSN,
NSP, ASN CSN
NSP, .
R3.
R3 ASN CSN
AAA, .
R4.
R4
, ASN,
ASN ASN-GW. R4
()
ASN.
R5.
R5 CSN,
NSP.

BS.
(BS) WiMAX ( ) ,
MAC PHY IEEE 802.16,
, BS . BS WiMAX
.
BS
ASN.

ASN.
ASN ,
ASN CSN ,
. ASN
.

ASN.
ASN ASN-GW,
, Decision Point (DP)-

Enforcement Point (EP)- . EP


, DP - .
ASN-GW ,
R7. , DP
ASN-GW.

. 14.4. ASN Gateway.


ASN-GW R3,R4,R6
14.4. , R6d R6e BS
DP ASN-GW. R6d R6e R6
RP.

ASN.
R6.
R6
BS ASN-GW. intraASN BS ASN-GW.
,
MS . R6 R4
MAC BS
R8.
R7.
R7
AAA ASN
R6.
R8.
R8
,
.
,

,
. inter-BS
IEEE 802.16e D12 802.16g,

.
.
ASN-CSN ,
. ASN
CSN , CSN ASN.

. 14.5 WiMAX.
The network specifications for WiMAX-based systems are based on several basic
network architecture tenets, including those listed below.
Some general tenets have guided the development of Mobile WiMAX Network
Architecture and include the following: a) Provision of logical separation between such
procedures and IP addressing, routing and connectivity management procedures and
protocols to enable use of the access architecture primitives in standalone and interworking
deployment scenarios, b) Support for sharing of ASN(s) of a Network Access

Provider (NAP) among multiple NSPs, c) Support of a single NSP providing service over
multiple ASN(s) managed by one or more NAPs, d) Support for the discovery and
selection of accessible NSPs by an MS or SS, e) Support of NAPs that employ one or
more ASN topologies, f) Support of access to incumbent operator services through
internetworking functions as needed, g) Specification of open and well-defined reference
points between various groups of network functional entities (within an ASN, between
ASNs, between an ASN and a CSN, and between CSNs), and in particular between an
MS, ASN and CSN to enable multi-vendor interoperability, h) Support for evolution
paths between the various usage models subject to reasonable technical assumptions and
constraints, i) Enabling different vendor implementations based on different
combinations of functional entities on physical network entities, as long as these
implementations comply with the normative protocols and procedures across applicable
reference points, as defined in the network specifications and j) Support for the most trivial
scenario of a single operator deploying an ASN together with a limited set of CSN functions, so
that the operator can offer basic Internet access service without consideration for roaming or
interworking. The WIMAX architecture also allows both IP and Ethernet services, in a standard
mobile IP compliant network. The flexibility and interoperability supported by the WiMAX
network provides operators with a multi-vendor low cost implementation of a WiMAX network
even with a mixed deployment of distributed and centralized ASNs in the network. The
WiMAX network has the following major features:

14.6. WiMAX IP.

Support for Services and Applications: The end-to-end architecture includes the
support for: a) Voice, multimedia services and other mandated regulatory services such
as emergency services and lawful interception, b) Access to a variety of independent
Application Service Provider (ASP) networks in an agnostic manner, c) Mobile telephony
communications using VoIP, d) Support interfacing with various interworking and media
gateways permitting delivery of incumbent/legacy services translated over IP (for
example, SMS over IP, MMS, WAP) to WiMAX access networks and e) Support
delivery of IP Broadcast and Multicast services over WiMAX access networks.

Interworking and Roaming is another key strength of the End-to-End Network


Architecture with support for a number of deployment scenarios. In particular, there will
be support of a) Loosely-coupled interworking with existing wireless networks such as
3GPP and 3GPP2 or existing wireline networks such as DSL and MSO, with the
interworking interface(s) based on a standard IETF suite of protocols, b) Global roaming
across WiMAX operator networks, including support for credential reuse, consistent use
of AAA for accounting and billing, and consolidated/common billing and settlement, c)
A variety of user authentication credential formats such as username/password, digital
certificates, Subscriber Identify Module (SIM), Universal SIM (USIM), and Removable
User Identify Module (RUIM).
15


WiMAX

WiMAX ()
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.
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IEEE 802.16-2004 ""


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IEEE 802.16
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(LAN) IEEE 802.11 (Wi-Fi)
(WAN),
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WiMAX (. 15.1):

. 15.1. WiMAX.
IEEE 802.16
2 11. 10 -6.
() , IEEE 802.16, ,
,
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CANOPY

CANOPY

CANOPY

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IP
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. Ethernet, ,
802.11 Wi-Fi Ethernet.

WiMAX. ,
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-. (. 15.3).

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. 15.4. WiMAX -.
WiMAX Mesh- ,
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(.15.5).
mesh-.
Mesh 50.
( BS 50),
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. 15.5. WiMAX mesh.


- (MP-MP),
, PMP.

( ) .
, .
.
.
.
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15.6).

. 15.5. WiMAX MP-MP.

WiMAX
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(4G), WiMAX
(burst),
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(.. OFDM-),

(digital signal processing - DSP). ,
,
( ), OFDM-,
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2 - 3 , WiMAX 7
, DSP ,
.

17


WiMAX


WiMAX
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2000 . 200 ., 2005 .
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FCC 2008. ,
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AT&T. LTE,
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500-800
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. 17.1 ,
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3,5 ,
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. 17.2. 3,5
.
5 ( U-NII )
(. Unlicensed
National Information Infrastructure - U-NII)
: (5150 5350) (5470 5725),
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, ,
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Wi-Fi
WLAN. WiMAX,
Wi-Fi WiMAX, ,
.

MMDS 31 6
2500 2690
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,
, .
Sprint Nextel.

.

WiMAX
WiMAX
MMDS,
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, .
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.

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2008.
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1. . . . - , 5/2005,. 4-13.
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3. <
. , 15-17
2004 .
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MForum.ru
www.mforum.ru/
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Communications Electroniques et des Postes) " ". ,
19 .
2008- 15% .

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