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Chapter #34: Franklin D.

Roosevelt and the Shadow of War Chapter #34: IDENTIFICATIONS Nuremburg Trials The Nuremburg Trials were a series of trials held after WWII responsible for the prosecution of Nazis who had committed crimes against humanity.

Cordell Hull Cordell Hull was the Secretary of State to FDR during the development of WWII and endorsed the Good Neighbor Policy.

Winston Churchill Winston Churchill was the able Prime Minister of Britain during WWII who aided FDR in the creation of the Atlantic Charter.

Charles Lindbergh Charles Lindbergh was one of the first men to cross the Atlantic, yet he chose an isolationist stance when WWII was on the verge.

Good Neighbor Policy The Good Neighbor Policy was the foreign policy of FDR during the years before WWII and led to a more isolationist stance of the US. Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act The Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act was enacted to allow for negotiation of tariffs between the US and foreign countries, notably Latin America.

Rome-Berlin Axis The Rome-Berlin Axis was the coalition formed by Italy and Germany; it was labeled so because it commemorated the joining of two totalitarian regimes and created a new axis for the world.

Nye Committee The Nye Committee was a committee formed the US Senate that supported American neutrality throughout WWII.

Neutrality Acts The Neutrality Acts were a series of acts enacted by FDR in an attempt to keep the US out of WWII; if the President declared war on a foreign nation, specific restrictions would be applied.

Russo-German Nonaggression Pact The Russo-German Nonaggression Pact was one of the most surprising pacts formed during WWII; it ensured that Germany could fight in the beginning of the war by avoiding a two-front war.

"cash and carry" The cash and carry policy dictated that any trade with America by foreign countries would have to be paid in cash and be transported by the foreign nations vessels.

America First Committee The America First Committee was the largest anti-intervention group in America and heavily opposed American entry into WWII.

Lend-Lease Act The Lend-Lease Act was essentially a blank check for oppressed foreign nations and ensured that they would be backed by the US.

Atlantic Charter The Atlantic Charter was similar to Wilsons Fourteen Points and was formulated by the US and Britain. It was supported by the USSR soon after the German invasion. Chapter #34 Guided Reading Questions The London Conference Know: London Economic Conference 1. What were the results of Roosevelt's decision not to help stabilize currencies? Many things resulted from Roosevelts decision not to help the international plan to stabilize currencies. For one thing, other European countries came up empty handed at the meeting which had aimed to solve world economic depression. The world became even more economically depressed, and extreme nationalism became stronger as more and more countries began to develop a isolationist attitude. Freedom for (from?) the Filipinos and Recognition for the Russians Know: Tydings-McDuffie Act 2. What was the reason for America's decision to free the Philippines? Americas decision to free the Philippines was more a decision based on the fact that America needed to let go of the Philippines rather than the fact that it had promised their freedom. Organized labor began to rise and American sugar producers pleaded for the elimination of Philippine competition. The Great Depression forced those who had invested in the Philippines to give up their investments. Becoming a Good Neighbor Know: Good Neighbor Policy 3. Was the United States serious about the Good Neighbor policy? Explain. The United States seemed to be serious about the Good Neighbor policy, and their actions followed their ideals. Both Haiti and Cuba became freed of the American military, and even when Mexico seized America oil properties, Roosevelt found a way to avoid armed intervention and successfully settled the matter. The Good Neighbor Policy brought upon Americans a heightened sense of self-esteem. Secretary Hull's Reciprocal Trade Agreements Know: Cordell Hull, Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act 4. Were reciprocal trade agreements a good idea? Explain. Reciprocal trade agreements proved to be a genius idea and helped the recovery of international economies. Foreign trade increased substantially, and economic and political relations with Latin America became better. High protective tariff policy that had been active since the days of the Civil War and hurt international economies were reversed, and it became landmark legislation. Storm-Cellar Isolationism Know: Joseph Stalin, Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, Fascism

5. What were the reasons for American isolationism? American isolationism resulted from the emergence of dictators internationally, such as Stalin, Mussolini, and Hitler. Americans were bothered by the memories and mistakes of WWI. They feared more the fact that one of these totalitarian ideals were infiltrate the country than the fact that they would be invaded by countries led by these totalitarian dictators. Congress Legislates Neutrality Know: Gerald Nye, Neutrality Acts 6. How did the Neutrality Acts attempt to keep the U.S. out of war? Congress was forced by popular pressure to pass multiple Neutrality Acts in 1935-1937. They stated that when the President declared foreign war, specific restrictions would automatically come into play. However, these acts only contributed to the rise of totalitarian nations as America would take no action against neither the oppressed nor the oppressors. America Dooms Loyalist Spain Know: Francisco Franco, Spanish Civil War 7. How did the Spanish Civil War contribute to WWII? The US refused to aid the Loyalists in the Spanish Civil War, while the revolutionaries were supported by multiple totalitarian countries, including Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union. America was so determined to stay out of war that they watched as a fellow democracy was crushed by the very forces that they opposed. While it tried to build up a large army in case of war, they were actually allowing their military to decrease in size. Appeasing Japan and Germany Know: Quarantine Speech, Panay, Rhineland, Sudentenland, Munich Conference, Appeasement 8. What actions were taken by fascist governments that showed that they were a threat? An all-out invasion of China by Japan awakened Roosevelt from his isolationist stance. Roosevelt delivered the Quarantine Speech in which he declared that economic embargoes would be employed to quarantine aggressor countries. Meanwhile, Hitler had taken the Nazis and Germany on a bloodthirsty conquest across Europe as he continued to decimate democratic countries. However, Britain and France could only manage to appease Germany for the time being. Hitler's Belligerency and U.S. Neutrality Know: Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact, Cash and Carry 9. How did the United States respond to the start of WWII in Europe? Roosevelt was quick to issue neutrality proclamations at the start of WWII in Europe, hoping that the democratic countries would pull out a victory but unaware of the fact that they could not without trade with America. A cash and carry policy was instituted, but it hurt more countries than it helped. However, the unemployment problem in America suddenly became no more due to demand for war goods from foreign countries. The Fall of France Know: Phony War, Blitzkrieg, Winston Churchill 10. What further steps did the United States take after the fall of France? The United States came to realize that after the fall of France, if Britain were to fall to the Germans, that the European work force and the British navy might become slaves to the German war machine. Americans suddenly became alert to the cause. Roosevelt immediately passed a conscription law, along with a mandate to increase the production of the navy and air force. Makers of America: Refugees from the Holocaust Know: Anti-Semitism, Albert Einstein, American Jewish Committee, Father Coughlin, American Jewish Congress 11. Why did America not make more room for European Jews in the 1930's? Restrictive American immigration laws that had been enacted in 1924 were not adjusted to those who seeked asylum during the Nazis anti-Jew rage. Unemployment rates during the Great Depression added to this mindset. Finally, allowing large amounts of German Jews to immigrate to America might lead to a larger influx of Jews from other European countries. Bolstering Britain with the Destroyer Deal (1940) Know: Battle of Britain, Royal Air Force, Fortress America, America First, Charles Lindbergh, Destroyer Deal 12. Describe the conflict between interventionists and isolationists in America in 1940. Isolationists believed that the US should avoid intervention should the Germans invade America after destroying Britain. They approved the transfer of American naval ships to Britain but criticized Roosevelts methods of the transfer. However, interventionists made it clear that they were willing to aid the British in all ways possible without having to join the war itself.

FDR Shatters the Two-Term Tradition (1940) Know: Wendell Wilke 13. Interpret the results of the 1940 election. The 1940 election was, more or less, decided regardless of who the Democratic candidate was. Because of the sudden explosion of WWII, it was necessary for the American people that a leader with experience with an event of equal magnitude remain in power. In addition, the Democratic candidate Willkie had never had any experience, even in a public office. Congress Passes the Landmark Lend-Lease Law Know: Lend-Lease 14. What was so controversial about Lend-Lease? The Lend-Lease Bill promised limitless supplies to the oppressed countries so that the US could indirectly aid the war effort but stay out of the war itself. It was opposed by isolationists, obviously because it was considered a blank check. While the US was not participating in the war, the factories and industries at home adapted as if it was already engaged in battle. Hitler's Assault on the Soviet Union Spawns the Atlantic Charter Know: Atlantic Charter 15. What was the reaction in America to the Nazi attack on the Soviet Union? In response to the Nazi attack on the Soviet Union, the US immediately provided aid to the Soviet Union in hopes that the two countries would cancel each other out from the war. The Atlantic Charter was signed between the US and Britain, and was later endorsed the USSR itself. It signified the end of American neutrality/ U.S. Destroyers and Hitler's U-Boats Clash 16. How did America's implementation of the Lend-Lease policy bring us closer to war? Lend-lease shipments to countries such as Britain would mandate the protection of US warships as British ships were bound to be sunk by German submarines. Although Hitler only allowed submarines to defend themselves, there were many incidents with American ships that were controversial. America's Transformation from Bystander to Belligerent 17. Was United States entry into WWII sudden or gradual? Explain. The United States entry into WWII was gradual. It took a staunch isolationist stance at first, and slowly became molded into intervention due to multiple incidents. Through the lend-lease policy, obvious evil of the totalitarian regimes, and attack on Pearl Harbor, the US was slowly drawn into the war amongst other events. Chapter #35: America in World War II Chapter #35: IDENTIFICATIONS A. Philip Randolph A. Philip Randolph was an African-American civil rights movement leader who threatened to march on Washington. He convinced Roosevelt to ban discrimination in the WWII defense industries.

George S. Patton George S. Patton was a US general famous for his conduct of the Allied forces in the European theater.

Albert Einstein Albert Einstein was a Jew in Germany who was forced to immigrate to America due to Hitlers Final Solution. He was crucial to the development of the atomic bomb.

Office of Price Administration The Office of Price Administration was established to control money and rent after the beginning of WWII.

Fair Employment Practice Commission The Fair Employment Practice Commission required that companies not discriminate when hiring people in industries during WWII. D-Day D-Day marked the day of the Allied invasion on the bay of Normandy. It was the true turning point of the war for the Allies.

V-E Day V-E Day was the day in which the war in Europe was finally over. However, this did not mark the day for which WWII itself was over, since Japan did not surrender until later on.

Manhattan Project The Manhattan Project was what the US government labeled the project in which a certain group was commissioned to develop the first nuclear weapon.

Braceros Braceros were Mexican agricultural workers who were brought to the US by an agreement with Mexico in 1942.

Chapter #35: Guided Reading Questions The Allies Trade Space for Time Know: Germany First 1. "America's task was far more complex and back-breaking [in World War II] than in World War I." Explain. The US needed to mobilize troops to areas that were as far from each other such as Britain and Burma, as well as feed, clothe, and arm those troops. If that was not enough of a task, the US also needed to provide great amounts of food and munitions for its allies who were spread out across the globe. The Germany First strategy that the US took dictated that they would be facing a country that had the potential to control all of Europe at one point. The Shock of War Know: Axis Powers, Internment Camps, Korematsu v. U.S. 2. How did the war affect liberal ideals and goals at home? WWII led to the persecution of some ethnic groups, such as Japanese Americans. They were put unfairly into internment camps for the possibility of sabotage. At the time, the Supreme Court case of Korematsu v U.S. dictated that this interment was completely constitutional. However, other ethnic groups such as German Americans melted into American society. Many programs that were part of the New Deal were repealed by the now conservative Congress. Building the War Machine Know: War Production Board, War Labor Board 3. What effects did the war have on manufacturing, agriculture and labor? The war had massive effects on the industries of manufacturing, agriculture, and labor. Manufacturing and agriculture benefitted the most, while labor faced some troubles. The rate and necessity for manufacturing shot up, as items nonessential to the war stopped production and weaponry became the biggest focus. Agricultural machinery and new fertilizers made up for a lack of farmers. Labor unions began to become angry with the governments increasing involvement in the economy and threatened to stop working, but this did not pose a threat to the efficiency of the US. Makers of America: The Japanese Know: Matthew Perry, Meiji Government, Picture Brides, Gentleman's Agreement, Issei, Nissei 4. In what way can it be said that the reason's for Japanese immigrants' success also caused them trouble?

Because Japanese immigrants tended to have more money and a better education than other immigrants, they found success easier to achieve. Therefore, European immigrants and American workers pushed for immigration limitations. This eventually led to the Gentlemens Agreement in which the Japanese government voluntarily agreed to limit emigration. Manpower and Womanpower Know: WAACS, WAVES, SPARS, GI, Braceros, Rosie the Riveter 5. What opportunities were opened to women as a result of the war? Women were given the opportunity to serve in noncombat units such as the WAACS, WAVES, and SPARS. More dramatic was the amount of women to take on jobs in the manufacturing industry. This foreshadowed the change in the roles of women in the times after the war. The opportunities that women were given during the war would lead to a revolution in womens status. Wartime Migrations Know: A. Philip Randolph, Fair Employment Practices Commission, Double V, CORE, Code Talkers, Zoot Suit Riots 6. What effect did the war have on the nation's minorities? WWII had a mixed effect on the US minorities. African Americans moved north and west to find jobs in factories, making racial issues nationwide instead of in a small region. However, the war in general had a beneficial effect on the efforts of African American to eliminating racism. An enormous amount of Native American also began to immigrate to the US. They played an especially important role as Code Talkers in the war. Holding the Homefront 7. What economic effects resulted from American participation in the war? American participation in the war ultimately led to an explosion in national debt that the president could find no way to get rid of. While profits rose and the depression seemed to be swept away by the war, the expenses were unbelievable. Revenue at the time could only account for two-fifths of the wartime bill, and the rest had to borrowed leaving the national debt to skyrocket. The Rising Sun in the Pacific Know: Douglas MacArthur, Bataan Death March 8. Describe Japanese victories in the Pacific in the months following Pearl Harbor. Japanese militarists realized that they would have quick victory or slow defeat. After attacking Pearl Harbor, Japanese troops attacked the American outposts at Guam, Wake, and the Philippines, the British-Chinese port of Hong Kong, and British Malaya. They succeeded in taking the Philippines, but not without a fight from Douglas MacArthur and his troops. Japan's High Tide at Midway Know: Battle of the Coral Sea, Midway, Chester Nimitz 9. Why was Midway an important battle? The Battle of Midway represented a turning point in the war for the US. It was finally able to stop the Japanese navy by destroying four Japanese carriers that were very important. The American victory at Midway combined with the victory at the Battle of Coral Sea allowed for a general end to the Japanese juggernaut that had been wreaking havoc in the Pacific. American Leapfrogging Toward Tokyo Know: Guadalcanal, Island Hopping, Guam 10. What strategy did the United States use to defeat the Japanese? The US Navy was able to defeat the Japanese by leapfrogging the islands that were Japanese-held. The island-hopping strategy dictated that the navy should bypass some of the islands that were better defended than others and setting up airfields on captured nearby islands. This led to a slow decline in the strength and number of Japanese outposts in islands in the Pacific. The Allied Halting of Hitler Know: Wolf Packs, Enigma, Erwin Rommel, Bernard Montgomery, El Alamein, Battle of Stalingrad 11. "The war against Hitler looked much better at the end of 1942 than it had in the beginning." Explain. At the end of 1942, the British and American air force had combined to commence bombing on German cities. The British general Montgomery was able to drive the German forces led by Erwin Rommel back to Tunisia. Finally, the Soviet Union was able to stop the German offensive at Stalingrad and pushed German forces back amidst a cold winter. By the end of 1942, almost two-thirds of the land captured by German forces had been recaptured by the Soviets.

A Second Front from North Africa to Rome Know: Soft Underbelly of Europe, Dwight D. Eisenhower, Casablanca, Sicily 12. Describe the purpose and outcome of the Invasion of North Africa. Because of the massive casualties that the Soviet Union had taken, they wished that the Allies would open up a second front to which the German troops would be drawn. While the British preferred to invade from the soft underbelly of Europe (Mediterranean), the US wanted to invade through France. A compromise led to an invasion of North Africa in which what remained of the German-Italian surrendered. D-Day: June 6, 1944 Know: Teheran, D-Day, Normandy, George Patton 13. Why could June 6, 1944 be considered THE turning point of the war? June 6, 1944 could be considered the turning point of the war because it was the single largest naval invasion in recorded history and eventually led to the fall of the first German city. American and French joint armies successfully crushed German forces and slowly advanced towards the German capital while recapturing France. FDR: The Fourth-Termite of 1944 Know: Thomas Dewey, Henry Wallace, Harry S Truman 14. Why was the choice of a vice-presidential candidate important and difficult for the democrats in 1944? While it was evident that Roosevelt should be chosen as the Democratic candidate once again for the presidency as the war was slowly coming to an end, the choice of a vice-presidential candidate was important because he would eventually become Roosevelts successor after the war ended and Roosevelt died of old age. Roosevelt Defeats Dewey Know: Fala 15. What factors led to Roosevelt's victory over Dewey? Roosevelt was able to win in spite of Deweys offensive tactics and bitter attacks. The war was going well for the US, and it seemed unwise to remove a president who had been especially good at managing foreign policy. The Republican candidate for Vice President had serious doubts surrounding him, and the party itself still had a sense of isolationism about it. The Last Days of Hitler Know: Battle of the Bulge, "Nuts," Elbe River, Holocaust, V-E Day 16. Describe the last six months of war in Europe. In the last six months of war in Europe, it seemed as if Hitler and his once powerful German empire were coming down upon themselves. American and Soviet troops continually pushed back Germans, and led to the eventual German surrender. However, V-E Day did not come without the death of both Hitler and the beloved Roosevelt. Japan Dies Hard Know: Iwo Jima, Okinawa, Kamikazes 17. Explain the meaning of the title of this section. Although the unconditional surrender of Germany had brought war in Europe to an end, Japan refused to go down without a fight. They made a final attempt to bring down General MacArthur, and when this failed, they resorted to suicide bombing the US navy in an effort to cause as much damage as possible. These suicide bombers became known as kamikaze fighters. The Atomic Bombs Know: Potsdam, Hiroshima, Nagasaki, Hirohito 18. What was the military impact of the atomic bomb? The military impact of the atomic bomb was enormous. When the US used the atomic bomb to bomb Hiroshima and Nagasaki, it allowed the US to avoid a conflict in Japan that would have otherwise caused a large amount of casualties and more trouble for the US. In addition, it made clear to the world that other countries would have to begin advancing their technology, or they would be military incompetent in comparison to the US.

The Allies Triumphant Know: George Marshall 19. "This complex conflict was the best fought war in America's history." Explain. WWII could be argued as the best fought war in American history. Although we faced insurmountable national debt after the war and there were casualties unlike any other war, WWII was successful in bringing the US out of the Great Depression and allowed the country to advance in many aspects technologically and industrially. Varying Viewpoints: The Atomic Bombs: Were They Justified? 20. What questions concerning WWII have historians attempted to answer? One of the largest questions concerning WWII has been whether the US should have dropped the atomic bombs of Japan. Many historians question the morality of this action, since there has been speculation that Truman avoided all other alternatives and that the decision was purely racist.