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..

Linux-


-
2002

;
/.

, ,
(, MRTG
),
. , Unix-
Linux RSP 2000
.
, ,
.

1. LINUX
1.1.
1.2. Linux
1.3. Linux?
1.4. Linux-
1.5.
1.6.
1.6.1.
1.6.2.
1.6.3.
1.7. ? ( )
1.7.1. : /
1.7.2.
1.7.3. TCP/IP
1.7.4. DNS
1.7.5. TCP/IP
1.7.6.
1.7.7. IP TCP
1.8.
1.9. Linux
1.10.
;

8
8
8
7/
12
15
18
18
20
21
22
22
25
32
35
3S
40
41
42
43
46

2.
2.1. Red Hat Linux
,
2.2. Linux Mandrake
2.3. Linux Intel 810
2.4.
2.4.1. Windows 9x Linux
2.4.2. Windows 9x, Windows NT/2000 Linux
2.4.3. /oadlin
2.5.
2.6.
2.6./. :
2.6.2.
2.6.3. gnorpm, kpackage, apt
2.6.4. ,
2.7.

48
48
59
64
65
65
66
67
69
69
70
71
74
78
78

3.
3.1.
3.1.1.
3.2.
3.3.
3.4.
3.5.
3.6.
3.6.1.
3.6.2.
3.6.3. linuxconf
3.7.

80
80
81
8/
81
83
84
86
89
97
97
92

4. Linux
4.7. .
4.2.
4.2.7.
4.2.2.
4.3.
4.4. Linux

94
94
96
96
,
98
99
707

4.5.
4.6.
4.7.
4.8.
4.9.
4.10.
4.11.
4.12.
4.13.
4.14.
4.15.

4.16.
4.17.
4.18.
4.19.
4.20.


.
fdisk
Disk Drake
. /etc/fstab
()
LILO




4.15.1. SCSI
4.15.2. FDC
4.15.3.

cpio

RAID
Linux

5.
5.1. fork() ()
5.1.1.
5.2. /
5.3.
5.4.
5.5. . init
5.6.
5.7. ()
5.8.
5.8.1. Syslogd
5.8.2. ,
5.5.3.
5.8.4.
5.5.5. klogd
5.8.6.

102
102
107
109
109
113
115
119
124
725
125
126
126
126
128
129
131
132
135
137
137
139
740
744
746
749
753
753
754
755
755
757
758
758

'.

6. Linux
6.1.
6.2. X Windows
6.3.

159
759
759
760

7.
7.1.
.
7.2.
7.3.
'.
7.3.7.
7.3.2. - -
7.4. DSL-
7.4.1. DSL Linux Mandrake
7.4.2. DSL
7.5.
7.6.

161
767
764
765
768
777
772
773
774
/77
787

8.
8.1. inetd xinetd
8.7.7. inetd
8.1.2. tcpd
8.7.3. IPv6
8.7.4. xinetd
8.7.5. xinetd
8.7.6. xinetd
8./.7. /etc/xinetd
8.2. : ssh.n telnet
8.3.
8.4. DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)
8.5. . MRTG
8.6. (NFS)
S.6./. NFS
8.6.2. NFS

184
784
784
786
787
787
/89
79/
792
/95
202
203
208
2/7
277
2/8

8.7.
8.8.

8.9.

ht:/Dig
- Socks5
8.8.;.
8.8.2. SocksS
8.8.3. SocksS (licq)

8.9.?. LIDS?
8.9.2. LIDS
8.9.3.
8.9.4.
8.9.5. LIDS

219
220
220
223
223
225
225
226
228
23/
234

9. Server Message Block (SMB)


9.1. Samba
9.2.
9.3. SMB- Linux
:
9.4. Linux Windows-
9.5. Windows- , Linux
9.6. smb.conf
9.7. SWAT

236
236
238
247
243
244
246
247

10. DNS
10.1. DNS
70.2. DNS
70.3. DNS
70.4. DNS
70.5. nslookup

251
252
257
259
259
260

11. FTP
7 7 . 7 . FTP wu-ftpd
11.1.1. ftpaccess
77.7.2.
77.7.3. ftpusers
77.7.4. ftpgroups
77.7.5. ftpconversions
77.7.6. xferlog
77.2. ProFTP
77.2.7. /etc/proftpd.conf
77.2.2.
77.2.3. .ftpaccess
77.3. FTP-
77.4.
77.5. FTP

263
264
265
269
269
270
270
270
277
272
274
275
275
276
277

ftphosts

12. Apache
72.7. Apache
72.2.
72.2.7. httpd.conf
72.2.2. Apache netconf
72.3.
72.4. HTTP-
72.4.7.
72.4.2. IP-
72.5. SSL Apache
72.5. /. SSL
12.5.2. SSL Apache
72.5.3.
72.6. httpd.conf
72.7.

279
279
287
2S7
290
297
297
292
293
294
294
295
296
297
377

13.
73.7. sendmail
73.2. sendmail
73.3.
73.4.
73.5.

375
376
322
325
327
330

14.
74.7. IPChains
74.2. IPChains

333
333
334

14.3.
14.3.1. SYN
14.3.2.
74.3.3.
14.3.4. /-
14.3.5.
14.4.
14.5. IPTables

337
337
337
33S
338
339
339
345

15. - SQUID
15.1. SQUID?
15.2. SQUID
75.3. SQUID
75.4. SQUID
75.5. squid,conf
75.5.1.
15.5.2.
75.5.3.
75.5.4.
75.5.5.
75.5.6. ACL
75.5.7.
15.5.8.
75.6. .
75.7.
75.8.
75.9.

347
347
347
348
349
350
350
350
357
357
357
352
353
353
354
354
355
356

16. MySQL
76.1.
16.2.
76.3. Apache + PHP + MySQL
76.3.7. : RPM
76.3.2. :

35S
358
367
362
362
365

17. .
77.7.
17.1.1.
77.7.2.
77.7.3. IpChains
77.7.4. DNS
17.1.5. Squid
77.2. Dial-In
77.2.7.
77.2.2. mgetty
77.2.3.
77.2.4. IP Forwarding
77.2.5.
77.2.6. -
77.2.7. Windows-
77.2.8.
77.3.
77.3.7. callback?
77.3.2. . 1
77.3.3. . 2
77.3.4. . 1
77.3.5. . 2

367
367
367
368
368
369
377
372
372
373
375
376
376
377
377
378
378
378
379
387
383
385

18.
78.7.
78.7.7.
78.7.2. RAMDISK
78.7.3.
78.7.4.
78.2.
8.2.7. Processor type and features
78.2.2. Loadable module support
78.2.3. General setup
78.2.4. PnP support

386
386
387
387
388
388
389
390
393
393
395

18.2.5. Block devices


18.2.6. Networking options
/8.2.7. SCSI support
78.2.8. Network device support
/8.2.9. IrDA, USB support
18.2.10. Filesystems
18.2.11. Sound
/8.3.

395
396
397
397
397
397
397
397

19. . RPM-
19.1.
19.2.
/9.3.
19.4.
19.5. RPM-
/9.6. vi
/9.7. bash
19.7.1.
19.7.2. /
/9.7.3.
/9.7.4.
/9.7.5.
19.7.6.
/9.7.7.
/9.7.8.
/9.7.9.

399
399
407
412
419
428
432
434
435
436
436
438
44/
44/
447
447
449

20. . X Window
20.1.
20.2. XF86Config
20.3. X Window
20.4. Windows
20.5.
20.6. GNOME
20.7. X-

450
45/
455
459
46/
462
469
474

21. Linux
21.1.
2/.2.
2/.3. nVidia
2/.4. Windows- wine
2/.5. wine
2/.6.
2/.7.
2/. 7. /.
21.7.2.
2/.7.3.

4SO
480
482
483
487
4S8
492
494
494
496
50/

22.
22.1.
22.1.1. DrWeb Linux
22.1.2. AVP Linux
22.2.
23.
23./. SATAN
23.2.
23.3.

502
502
503
505
5/0
;

5)5
5/5
5/9
52/

24.

523

525

Linux

7.7.
, UNIX Linux-,
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, .

1.2. Linux
Linux , ,
Unix. 60- Multics,
General Electrics, AT&T Bell
Laboratories .
. Multics
, ,
.
8

Linux
1969 Unix,
,
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.
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.
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1972
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.

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,
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Unix, , .
1982 AT&T Unix System 3.
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, , TCP/IP,
. -
Unix BSD 4.2.
Unix . 80-
Unix System V BSD Unix.
AT&T Labs Unix System V
Unix System Labs. 1991 System V 4,
System V 3, BSD 4.2, Xenix.

Linux
, IBM Hewlett-Packard,
(Open Software Foundation, OSF). Unix.
OSF Unix.
1993 AT&T Unix
Novell. Unix Novell,
System V 4.
UnixWare.
. 90- : Motiff OpenLook.
, Common Desktop
Environment (CDE).
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Sun, AIX IBM, a AUX
Macintosh.
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.

1.4. Linux-
Linux .
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Linux,
$400 Windows 98 $60.
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, Linux-. Microsoft Windows NT
Server ( Windows 2000 Server), ,
. Windows NT(2000)

12

Linux

Server , , Microsoft .
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DOS: , , ,
Norton Commander. 90-
( 1993 ) : Microsoft
Windows Windows 3.1. Windows
3.1? -, , -,
, , , .
( ) Windows 3.1
.
Windows Windows for Workgroups.
1995 Windows 95, Microsoft . , .
Windows 3.1 32- . Microsoft Windows NT 4 Server.
( ) TCP/IP, , ,
, .
2000
Microsoft Windows 2000 Server.
Windows 2000 Windows NT 4 Server,
Active Directory, TCP/IP, (
).
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( 1979 ), Unix :
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13

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14

Linux
. , , ,
Red Hat Linux.
, , , Linux (SuSE
Linux), Dresdner Bank
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Samba. .

1.5.
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Linux Linux Mandrake Linux Red
Hat.
Linux.

Linux.
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.
SCSI RAID.
, , ,
Linux-.

15

Linux
Linux.
, ,
?
. , .
, TCP/IP, . ADSL, .
. inetd xinetd.
, , a xinetd
Linux-. ssh, DHCP,
NFS, , , ht:/Dig
. : SocksS, LIDS.
MRTG, .
Samba,
Windows-.
Linux- Windows, ,
Windows- Linux-.
DNS. -
. , DNS, ,
. DNS, ,
DNS-.
FTP . wu-ftpd ProFTPD, a
FTP-.
Web- Apache, , . : , , ,
SSL, .
POP SMTP,
SMTP-. : SMTP
, a POP . ,
.

16

Linux
, The
Bat!, Netscape Messenger, Outlook Express.
, .
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- SQUID, , .
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MySQL. , MySQL.
Apache+PHP+MySQL.
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17

Linux
( , , , ..), (Louncher'a). ,
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Windows-. , , Quake 2 3, Counter
Strike, Unreal Tournament, Diablo 2 .
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1.6.
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(. 1.1) ,
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18

Linux
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LUCENT CAJUN P115G. 24 10/100 ,
19

Linux

1 100FX.
230 .
48
10/100 Mbit LUCENT-CAJUN P334T.
8 , , . 334 -- $900.
100FX
$150...250 .
1.6.2.
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(. . 1.2).
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Web, FTP, SMTP/POP-.

(hub)


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300...480 /. ZyXEL,
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300...480 /
. DSL-,
1 /. , Radio Ethernet.

20

Linux
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23

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1.1

17


(dialup)

dhcp

NFS, FTPd (ProFTPD, wu-ftpd)


samba

8, 13
9

Squid

15

route(d)
sendmail
( postfix/qmail) imap

8, 14

(/),

13

8, 14

()
Microsoft

24

Linux, IPChains

Linux
. 1.1

(
)

12

modSSL

()
IP-

bind

10

Lpd, Samba, CUPS

6,9

Web-

apache

12

IPChains (IPTables
Linux)

MySQL/ PostgreSQL/ InterBase

IP-

IPChains

14

//

16

14

, , , .
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25

Linux
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( FTP-)

1-1

1
; 1-2

A3

2-2

2
2-

. 1.6.

26

Linux
. FTP-. FTP- . FTP- ftp.
HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) , HTML. HTTP Web. HTTP- .
POP (Post Office Protocol) -- .
.
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer
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SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)
. . .
(Point-to-Point Protocol) ,
, SLIP. .
RFC 1547 RFC 1661.
27

Linux
TCP/IP,
.
, . , ,
, . ()
, .
80-
(ISO International Organization for Standardization)
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:
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OSI.
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3. .

4. .
5. .
6. .
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28

Linux
. 1.7 ,
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.

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100Base-TX ( Ethernet).
(Data link Layer)


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(-), -.
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29

Linux
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(frames).
. :
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(Network Layer)

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30

Linux
(, 10Base-T 1024 ), .

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.
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(routing protocols) RIP OSPF.
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Address Resolution Protocol (ARP).
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IPX ( Novell).
(Transport Layer)


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:
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
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: TCP UDP ( TCP/IP),
SPX ( Novell).
31

Linux
(Session Layer)

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1. . .
2. .
3. .
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.
.
: SSL (Secure Socket Layer).
.
(Application Layer)

,
. .
: HTTP, FTP, TFTP, SMTP, POP, SMB, NFS.
OS/

OSI ,
. , ,
, , ,
. -, , . .
7.7.3. TCP/IP
,
TCP/IP-. , .
, . IP- IP- , .
32

Linux
IP- (TCP/IP-) , IP-. IP- 32- ,
, , :
1. 111.111.213.232
2. 127.0.0.1
3. 192.168.9.2
, , TCP/IP

, . IP-
IP-
(NIC, Network Information Center).
,
(LAN, Local Area Networks) (Wide Area Networks)
. (Arpanet),
, . (
) ,
IP- NIC.
IP-, .
, LAN WAN,
.
IP. ,
( ). , , .
, .
.

Ethernet, Token Ring, FDDI, ATM.
,
.

.
IP Sub-networking-HOWTO,
-.
,
. , ()
. IP-, ,
192.168.1.0...192.168.1.255.
. (192.168.1.0) ,
(broadcast) .
, (), ,
.
,
. ,
2 . 851

33

Linux
. ,
(), , ,
. (
), .
( ) , ,
.
,
IPv4-Forwarding. Linux, FreeBSD,
UNIX-, Windows NT/2000.
Windows 98, ,
.
UNIX-, Linux.

, () .
, , ARP-.
. ,
, .
- :
255.255.255.0
256 (0...255);
255.255.255.192
64 (192...255);
255.255.0.0
65536 (256*256).
IP- : , , , D .
. : 255.0.0.0.
16777216 .
1.0.0.0...126.0.0.0, ()
125.*.*.*
. 255.255.0.0.
65536 . 128.0.0.0...191.255.0.0.
136.12.*.*
. 256 (
254 , 0 255 ). 255.255.255.0. : 192.0.1.0...223.255.255.0. : 195.136.12.*
. . , 128.11.1.0
:
10000000 00001011 00000001 00000000
192.168.1.0:
11000000 10101000 00000001 00000000
10,
, , .
34

Linux
1110,
D, (multicast).
D,
, .
. . 1.2
, , , D .

10

110

1110
11110

1.2

1.0.0.0. ..126.0.0.0
128.0.0.0.. .191.255.0.0
192.0.1.0.. .223.255.255.0
224.0.0.0.. .239.255. 255.255
240.0.0.0.. .247.255.255.255


16777216(224)
65536 (216)
256 (28)
Multicast

,
. IP- (0.0.0.0),
, , .
255.255.255.255 .
, ,
. . , .
(255). , 192.168.2.255. ,
192.168.2.0.
IP- 127.0.0.1 . .
, , . .
loopback. IP- IP-,
127. 127.0.0.0
, : 127.0.0.1, 127.0.0.5, 127.77.0.6.
,
, IP,
. :
10.0.0.0 ( , 255.0.0.0).
172.16.0.0...172.31.0.0 (16 , 255.255.0.0).
192.168.0.0...192.168.255.0 (256 , 255.255.255.0).
,
IP-.
1.7.4. DNS
- ,
, Web-, IP-. ,
,

35

Linux
. , http://www.romb.net
http://62.244.59.193.
, . ,
romb, a www net
. , , , .
IP-
DNS (Domain Name System).
DNS, . , IP- , . ,
, , .
, Web- :
http://www.department.firma.isp.ru. , , .
() IP- DNS, . DNS ( user-dns), IP- .
DNS , DNS-
, ,
(. . 1.9).

ru
^--'"'
^~^~^
(
com
^^^
ru-dns). ru-dns
II
,
\_ googie
/*"\ isp
romb
isp ( ). II
\
isp ,

(IV
) firma,
department
,
department,
. 1.9.
IP- www.department.firma.isp.ru. , . , - ,
, , DNS user-dns, IP-.
DNS . , , , n- .
ru, isp , firma ,
department (. . 1.9).
InterNIC. () (. . 1.3).

36

9"
Q

Linux
ISO 3166

I4J

by
Iv
md
tr
iq
il

pl
es
fr
id
Q'
at
hu

1.3

It

kz

ir
tm
it
Qb
de
vn
va
CO

mx

,
us. ISO 3166. ftp:/ftp.ripe.net/
iso3166-countrycodes.
:
com
(, yahoo.com).
edu
(, mit.edu).
gov
(, nasa.gov).
org
(, linux.org).
net
(, ukr.net).
ISC (Internet Software Consortium)
2002 150
(. . 1.10). ISC.

Internet Domain Survey Host Count


160,000,000 y
140,000,000 -
120,000,000 100,000,000 80,000,000 60,000,000 - >
40,000,000 20,000,000 0

II

Souirt: Internet Software Conioithun (www.xc.oig)

. 1.10,

37

Linux
1.7.5. TCP/IP
: ,
TCP/IP,
, .
TCP/IP .
TCP/IP.
TCP/IP 60- 70- DARPA
(U.S. Department of Defense Advanced Research
Projects Agency). . 1.4.
TCP/IP

1.4

1970

NCP (Network Control Protocol) Arpanet

1972

Telnet (. RFC 318)

1973

FTP (RFC 454)

1974

TCP (Transmission Control Program)

1981

IP (RFC 791)

1982

TCP IP TCP/IP

1983

Arpanet TCP ( NCP)

1984

DNS

, -
RFC. RFC (Request for Comments) --
. .
RFC (Internet Society,
ISOC). ISOC
RFC. RFC :
(Required)
(Recommended)
(Elective)
(Limited use)
(Not recommended)



TCP/IP.

RFC .
.
.
.

RFC -.
TCP/IP , : , ,
(. . 1.11).
1

( , Application Layer)

() (Transport Layer)

( Internet, Internet Layer)

(Network Interface Layer)

. 1.11. TCP/IP

38

Linux



.



TCP UDP


TCP/IP.


, .

.
(frame) ,

Ethernet.
/~"
"V


(frame),
(packet), (datagram),
. 1.12.
(segment). TCP/IP
.
(. . 1.12).

() . - :
IP (Internet Protocol).... .
ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) ... -
( ) .
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) ... .
IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol)... , , .
RIP (Route Internet Protocol) OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) ...
.

.
( OSPF).
, .
39

Linux

()

. : TCP (Transmission Control Protocol)


UDP (User Datagram Protocol). TCP , . , .
,
.
UDP
(). UDP TCP.
. .

TCP/IP.
: DNS, Telnet,
WWW, Gopher, WAIS, SNMP, FTP, TFTP, SMTP, POP, IMAP.

TCP/IP OSI (. . 1.5).
TCP/IP OSI

OSI
7,6
5,4

'

2, 1

1.5

TCP/IP

WWW (HTTP), FTP, TFTP, SMTP, POP, telnet, WAIS, SNMP


TCP, UDP
IP, ICMP, RIP, OSPF, ARP

Ethernet, PPP, SLIP

1
2


TCP/IP . IP
TCP,
.
1.7.6.
, ,
, .
(. 1.5) ,
.
, .
, IP-
IP- , . IP-
, , .
,
. ,
IP- , , ,
.
40

Linux
.
, .
, TCP/IP, . , 80 WWW- (
Apache), a 53 .
demon ( daemon)
, - . , : , .
- -
DOS. , . ,
. , , .
, .
1.7.7. IP TCP
IP
TCP. IP , . ,
. 1.6, IP-
.
IP-

1.6

Source IP-address
(IP- )
Destination IP-address
(IP- )
Protocol ()
Checksum ( )
TTL (Time to Live,
)
Version
Header Length ( )
Type of Service
( )
Total Length ( )
Identification ()
Fragmentation Flags
( )
Fragmentation Offset
( )
Options and Padding
( )



TCP UDP


, .
. TTL


IP 4 6. IP
. 8 (4 )
20 (4 )

IP-.
, , . (8 )
IP- (16 )
. ( ),
(16 )
3 2

IP-. , 0x0 (13 )

41

Linux
TCP, IP, . TCP . 1.7.
TCP-

1.7

Source port ( )

TCP -

Destination Port ( )

TCP -

Sequence Number ( )

Acknowledgement Number ( )

Data Length ( )

TCP-

Reserved ()

Flags ()

Window ()
Checksum ( )

TCP

Urgent Pointer ( )

( Flags)

1.8.
()! . , .
, ,
. .
, pupkin 123! (
,
).
RAID-, , , . RAID
. ,
, ,
, SCSI-.
- (133)
SCSI, - , SCSI.
, ,
.
. . 7.
. 8 . ,
-- ,
42

Linux
-- xinetd inetd.
, .
.
, , , DHCP.
: - , ,

.
, .

, . .

1.9. Linux
Linux, -
-, , www.linuxcenter.ru. :
1. Red Hat Linux.
2. Linux Mandrake.
3. ALT Junior Linux.
4. ASP Linux.
5. Black Cat Linux.
6. Slackware.
7. Astaro Security Linux.
8. SuSE Linux.
S
Red Hat Linux Linux
Mandrake, .
Mandrake Red Hat, ,
. - ,
, SuSE Slackware,
, . , , ,
Red Hat, ,
- 100%-
Red Hat. , , ALT
Junior , .
, Red Hat Linux. ,
.
( ) Linux. He , ,
Red Hat.
43

Linux
, .
Red Hat - . ,
,
, . ,
Linux, , Red Hat. , , .
:
, .
, , ?
7.2(7.3)
8...
, . ,
,
. ext2 ext3.
.
Gnome 1.4 Nautilus,
, .
.
: .
, .

. , .
, USB Firewire.
: firewall , .
Linux Mandrake. Linux Mandrake
Intel Pentium, AMD Athlon
PowerPC. Linux
. Mandrake
,
,
, .
, , Red Hat.
,
( win-). .
44

Linux

1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.

, Linux Mandrake
, . , ,
.
:
, , , , -.
9.0 :
.
64 (!) .
.
( 1 ) .
1 ,
, .
, ReiserFS, XFS JFS.
: Firewire, USB, USB2, 1830 DRM,
133, .
(Control Center).

2.4.19.
:1. KDE 3.0.3 Office.
2. GNOME 2.0.1 Evolution 1.0.8 , WindowMaker 0.8, IceWM 1.2,
Enlightenment 0.16.5, BlackBox 0.62
3. StarOffice 6.0 KOffice 1.2.
MS Office.
4. Mozilla 1.1, Konqueror 3.02 Galeon 1.2.5.
5. GIMP 1.2.3.
6. GCC 3.2, Glibc 2.2.5.
7. Apache 1.3.26.
8. PHP 4.2.3.
9. MySQL 3.23.52 PostgreSQL 7.2.2
10. Sendmail Postfix.
ALT Junior Linux
.
, .
,
.
ALT Junior 1.0 2.4.5,
, - Matrox
G-, ATI Rage & ATI Radeon, Intel 810/815, 3DFX Voodoo 3/4/5.
nVidia.
ASPLimix 7.2 ,
, . 45

Linux
. , , :
1. ( ) ,
.
2. RAID.
3. RAID.
ASPLinux 7.2, ,
i386: 180386DX Pentium IV.
- nVidia ( Riva TNT2),
www.nvidia.com
.
, ,
pptpd, VPN
Windows, portslave,
pppd
RADIUS (callback).
:
- (Documentation CD).

Astaro Security Linux.
. ,
-- ,
:
,
https . SCSI (, SCSI- ) ISA, .

1.10.
,
, .
.
.

. ( )
. , - ,
.
46

Linux
(^ ,
. ,
Ethernet ( ), , , . .
(router) .

.
.
(routing) --
.
(bridge) .
, .
Ethernet, , .
.
,
- .
,
.
, .
(soket) (file handle).
. , ,
: IP- , (TCP UDP) ,
.
, .
(Gateway) . , , , ,
LAN WAN. ,
, , , , ,
.

47

2.1. Red Hat Linux


, , 6 (, , 8.x).
, ,
, 6.0 (Hedwig) (
) ,
. , Intel 486DX4,
Windows MS Office,
(. . 2.1).
. ,
( , ).
, 6.0 8.0
,
. , ,
, ,
, .
, 6
AGP. PCI, XFree86 ( ,
, ). 7.x, 8.x, .
.
Linux Red Hat
. . -, Red
Hat inetd, (
7) xinetd.
. , . 8. inetd
, .
, inetd xientd, xientd inetd.
-, : Linux . Linux Unix: Unix
.

48

, Linux
Microsoft, . Pentium
133 32 Linux
Internet-, -.
Windows 2000 Server, , , Celeron 300 256 . Red Hat 6
. 2.1, . 2.2
.
Red Hat 6

2.1

486DX
8

150

X Window ( Linux)
8...16 200...300
. , , X Window
, , , X Window . 20 .

2.2

Pentium 133

32

600

, , -. - Web- (
). , -,
. 15,
. , , .
- - , -, . ,
, , ,
( ) .
. ,
- , ,
- 33 /.
, ,
, , .
49

- , - .
. ,
, -
,
. 300 ,
, -, 10 . - . 15.
Linux-

. Linux , Linux.
: , ().
.
. .
* ,
.
.
Linux . 4.

, , .
. , Linux
ext2 (ext3), VFAT, ISO9660, UFS, XFS .
(swapping )
,
. ? . , :
,
( ). , -
, , . .
, 8 ,
16 .
6...7 ,
.
, . , (
), .
Linux Windows, . ,
50

,
.
Linux:
fdisk Linux.
fdisk . 4.7 .
.
, , Partition Magic.
: . :
Red Hat (Disk Druid)
. Linux,
- , . ,
, Windows-, Linux,
fips. dosutils Red Hat.
Windows,
, .

MS DOS Windows (win368 . swp).
Windows (format a: /s),
fips ( !),
fips.
, , ,
.
FAT FAT32,
Disk Druid Linux-.
Linux

Linux:
-.
(boot floppy).
.
.

.
BIOS CD-ROM,
. ,
, :
* dosutils images ( :).
rawrite MS DOS (
MS DOS, rawrite

1.
2.
3.
4.

51

- Windows. Windows
rawritewin):
: \dosutils\rawrite

Enter d i s k image source f i l e name:
:
:\images\xxxx.img


boot. img
bootnet. img

:
;
.

:
Enter destination drive:
:
Red Hat
. ,
CD-ROM .
FTP NFS.
, Red Hat
() (. . 2.1).
, - ,
, .

: CD-ROM
. Please enter.th?

the. nans' or

the director
-' Red; "Lit*.
Red Hat. FTP

,
,
Red H a t (
/pub/Red Hat).

. . 2.1. Red Hat FTP
.
: .
:. (Server) (Workstation)
,
(. . 2.2).
Server
Workstation.
(

52

Wiat.tape of nachine are you


installing? For maximum
flexibility, choose "Custom",
Workstation
Server

. 2.2.


(Workstation)

Linux,
64 , 16
/boot - -
,
.


600 ..

(Seryer)

, 64 , 256
, 512 /usr, 512
/home 256 /var.
1.6 .
Linux, . ,
Linux.
.
( ) . , ,
, ,
.
: ,
,
/ . ,
, , .
, ( ),
. ,
Linux root, .
. ,
: (/dev/hdal
/dev/hda2). ,
(, X Window ).
root, ,
. :
linux root=/dev/hdal
53

( )
(/dev/hdal) , /dev/hda2.
:
/ -
_/bin
_/dev
_/etc
_/home

_/mnt
_/var
_/root
/sbin

/tmp
.
. 4 (. 4.5), Linux.
, Red Hat
Disk Druid, . fdisk Disk Druid. . Disk Druid
( ).

Red Hit Linn ( 11 Red Hat Sofbiare
Windows-
- 64
Linux swap
hda6
3020
Linux native
.: IK

Linux. ,
hdbl
1222
Linux native

2048 , Linux 600 . ,
Ma
t 78M28/S)

600 I 621/ 64/!
1222M
64
.

536 ( Linux Native),
Fl-
F2-AJtllrS
2*. v i.W
. 2.. Disk Druid
64 ( Linux
54

Swap). /,
.
Windows- (, /mnt/disk_c)
Edit. ,
(. . 2.3).

2.3
,

8.. .16

64

32

32

64... 128
128

,
.
. 2.3.
.
,
(
Linux Swap), , .
, Windows-.
Add ()
, (. . 2.3).
Windows. ,
, ,
.
, . /mnt. , Windows- win
/mnt, Is /Hint/win.
/home /var
, - -
. /home
. (
) . ,
, , - :
,
.

(. . 2.4).
, . : .
55

Linux,
,
. , .
.
. 2.4.

.
, .


.

(
), . .
ISA NE2000, a PCI - NEY2KPCI (NE2000 PCI).
IRQ,
DMA, /. PCI !
.
, .

, . ? , , ,
, , .

, ,
Windows-. .

. ,
.
.
(. . 2.5). /dev/lpO Linux LPT1 DOS, /dev/lpl LPT2
56

.. ,

What device is your printer connected to
.
{note that /dev/lpO is equiv- alent to LPTl:)?
SMB. ' . : ' Printer Bevies:
,
(tuto-detected ports:
IP-/deu/lpO: Detected
(
/dev/lpl: Not Detected
/dev/lp2: Not Detected
Windows

,
1
), ,
,
:
:
I
,
. 2.5.

,
( , ).
(Fix stair-stepping of text).
,
:

:

^^^p55!!5_

li

, LF, Linux
, ( CR).
-,
, LF CR.
.


root. root () . root Linux Adminisrtator
Windows NT (2000/XP). , , .
6 .
.
- 123456, qwerty, password
.
.

(. . 2.6).
MD5 (Use Shadow Password Enable MD5 Password
). authconfig.


,

.
, ..
Windows,
(MBR)
Linux .
. 2.6.
LILO

LInuxLOader (LILO) Linux . , : MBR


Linux.
Windows 9x, MBR.


The boot manager Red Hat uses can boot other operating
systems as well, You need to tell me what partitions you
would like to be able to boot and what label you want to

use For each 6F themi' : v :/

' '
.

COS 16-bit >=32
Linux native
(label).
LILO
, . LILO
:
2.7. LILO
:

: :

LILO boot:

Linux, linux Enter,


Linux (default).
DOS /dev/hdbl dos.
Tab.
XFree86 (X Window)

X Window UNIX. (MIT) UNIX-. UNIX X Window.


58

, (David
Wexelblat) MIT X Window
i80386-Pentium IV .
XFree86, ,
, 86 (
Linux, FreeBSD ). XFree86 XFree86 Project,
Inc. X Window . 20 .

, .

. .
, Custom . , .
.
, , , .
, ,
Standard VGA 640x480 .
, Linux Red Hat 6 AGP.
, Red Hat
7.x (8.x) XFree86
. , AGP
, PCI.
! .

2.2. Linux Mandrake


Linux
Mandrake. . 2.4 . 128 10...20 ,
. Linux Mandrake 350 .
, 1 -.

2 , ,
.

Linux Mandrake

,
,

2.4


Pentium


Pentium 166

32

64

650

2048
VESA 2.0

VESA 2.0

59


.
, ' - -
, Red Hat.

Linux Mandrake
(. . 2.8) Red Hat. .
( Mandrake 9)
.
, . ,
: ,

. ,
.
, ,

(. . 2.5).
,

?

Mandrake 9
:
.

. 2.8. Linux Mandrake

2.5

+
. Mandrake 7.2
Linux

.
(. . 2.6).

2.6



(Workstation)
(Server)

http, ftp, mail ..

(Development)

60

--
SCSI. SCSI-, Yes
.
.
SCSI (Small Computer System Interface)
. ,
. SCSI , (),
, , , , SCSI.


,
Miscellaneous.

, ,
(. . 2.9).

:
, ( ),
, supermount
(
. 2.9. Miscellaneous

CDROM, Floppy), .
/tmp , numlock.
Linux Linux Mandrake DiskDrake. DiskDrake Partition
Magic (. . 2.10) , Red Hat
Disk Druid, .
Linux- Windows-
( ) Resize. , , 2 (2048 ) .
2 Mandrake
,
.
Create.
Linux native
(. . 2.7).

Linux h t n drake"

61


256 (
) ,

, ,
.
(Linux swap).
(Done)

.
, Linux Mandrake ( )
-. ( . 2.10. DiskDrake
)
, , Extension CD, Applications CD, 2nd Applications CD,
(. . 2.11). ,
(. 2.12). ,
, , .
( ), (Individual package selection).

,

2.7

64

,
1 28
64 128

128

64

256

32

32

. 2.11. -
. 2.12.

62



.
,
(. . 2.13).

( .),
.
,
() ().
, .
,
, , .
( , )
, .
.
. . . IP-,
, , DNS- . . , ...
Red Hat Linux.
( root) .
,
. root'oM
.
.
. LILO,
LILO Red Hat Linux.
.
. ,
High Frequency SVGA 1024x768 at 70 Hz. ,
Extended SVGA 800x600 at 60 Hz. ! . .
.
Linux.
, Linux ,
,
.
, !
63

2.3. Linux Intel 810


, Intel 810,
, , .
, Intel 810 /
.
. 1810 Windows 9x/ME/2000/XP, Linux ,
.
2 :
XFCom_i810-1.2-3.i-386.rpm - -
I810Gtt-0.2-4.src.rpm agpgart.o
Intel, URL:
http://support.intel.com/support/graphics/intel810/agreeRPM3.htm
http://support.intel.com/support/graphics/intel810/agreeRPM4.htm
.
roof.
1. gcc glibc ( ).
2. , /etc/lilo.conf,
append="mem=127M" label="linux".
Mem=127M , ,
128 .
3. .
4. : rpm -Uvh XFCom-i810-glibc2.1-1.0.0-rh60.i386.rpm.
5. agpgart.o: rpm rebuild I810Gtt-0.l-4.src.rpm.
6. :
, .
/usr/src/Mandrake/RPMS/i586/i810Gtt-0.1-4.1386.rpm (/usr/src/
redhat/RPMS/1386/1810Gtt-0 .1-4 .1386. rpm Red Hat).
7. : rpm -Uvh 810Gtt-0.l-4.i386.rpm.
8. : In -sf /usr/XHR6/bin/XFCom_i810 /etc/
Xll/X.
/ e t c / X l l / X F 8 6 C o n f ig (. 2.1).

JIumum 2.1. /etc/Xll/XF86Config


Section "Device"
I d e n t i f i e r "1810"
EndSection
Section "Screen"
D r i v e r "svga"
Device "1810"
Monitor ""
S u bsec t i on " D i s p l a y "
Depth 16
64


Modes " 6 4 0 x 4 8 0 " " 8 0 0 x 6 0 0 " " 1 0 2 4 x 7 6 8 " "1152x864"
"1280x1024" " 1 6 0 0 x 1 2 0 0 "
Viewport 0
EndSubsection
Subsection "Display"
Depth 24
Modes " 6 4 0 x 4 8 0 " "800x600" " 1 0 2 4 x 7 6 8 " "1152x864" "1280x1024"
Viewport
EndSubsection
EndSection

X.
Ctrl+Alt+Backspace. X ,
startx .
.
X Window : X,
X ( ), X.

2.4.

, , .. . , Linux Windows
. Linux
FAT/FAT32 Lin4Win, , ..
Linux .
Partition Magic v5 (
6, 7). Linux Mandrake 7.0 , Partition Magic

. fdisk
Linux, Linux.
:
1. Windows 9x Linux.
2. Windows NT, Windows 9x Linux.
2.4.1. Windows 9x Linux
,
Windows 9x, Linux. ,
Windows 9x MBR
(Master Boot Record) , Linux ,
. :
LINUX! Windows, Linux .
3 . 851

65

, Windows Linux :
1. Linux. , .
root
. ( reboot).
2. : loadlin
.
3. loadlin: Linux,
Windows, . Linux
.
(Windows
9 + Linux) LILO (Linux Loader). - , . Linux , LILO MBR.
Linux ( ,
Linux) MBR, LILO,
fdisk /mbr. fdisk
Windows.
2.4.2. Windows 9x, Windows NT/2000 Linux

NT Loader.
Windows 2000 NTFS, a Windows 9x FAT/FAT32.
! , Windows 95,
, Windows 2000. Windows 98 Windows
2000 .
Linux Windows 2000.
, Linux 1024 !
1024 - - Linux
, 1024,
. Linux ,
, Linux
1024 Linux .
:
Linux. LILO MBR Linux
. Windows
2000 Recover Command
mode. Administrator. fixboot fixmbr Windows 2000 .
'
.
fixboot fixmbr Windows 2000
(MBR). fixmbr
fdisk /mbr Windows .

66

Linux
root. / e t c / l i l o . c o n f , , j o e / e t c / l i l o . c o n f .
, , /dev/hda. , Linux, ,
/dev/hdbl.
,
.
Windows 2000 . Linux
/linux.Idr:
dd if=/dev/hdcl bs=512 count=l of=/bootsect.Inx
:
mcopy /bootsect.Inx a:
Linux reboot Windows 2000. linux.ldr :
read-only. boot.ini
:\linux.ldr="Linux"
, Linux
NT Loader.

Linux Microsoft Windows Windows 9x, NT, 2000.


Windows, Linux.
NT Loader, a LILO.
:
Linux Windows, Windows Windows 9 NT/2000 - - ,
, Windows 9x.
NT Loader.
NT Loader.
2.4.3. loadlin
,
Linux - DOS Windows 95.
Windows 98, loadlin MS DOS. , loadlin FAT32.
DOS (format a: / s ) autoexec.bat
loadlin. Linux -
Windows 98, Me Windows 2000/NT .
loadlin , Windows MBR (
LILO), Linux . loadlin
( . 2.8):
67


loadlin Hflporoot=KopHeBan_OC

loadlin @__

loadlin

2.8

, .
, ,
( ). -
Linux.
lilo ( lilo)

root= _

, root=/dev/hda3

, .
vga=normal

@__

, loadlin ( !)
, ,

:
c:\loadlin\loadlin.exe c:\loadlin\kernel\vmlinuz root=/dev/hda3
vga=normal

:\loadlin\loadlin.exe @param.1st
Param.1st:
c:\loadlin\kernel\vmlinuz root=/dev/hda3 ro vga=normal
.
Linux DOS.
config.sys (. 2.2).

2.2. config.sys
[MENU]
MENUITEM=DOS, Load DOS
MENUITEM=LINUX, Load Linux
MENUDEFAULT=DOS,5
[LINUX]
install=c:\loadlin\loadlin.exe c:\loadlin\kernel\vmlinuz root=/
dev/hda3 ro vga=normal
[DOS]
; , DOS,
; .. ,

; config.sys

68

2.5.
, , .

linuxconf. . 2.9 . 2.10
- Linux Mandrake Linux Red Hat.
- Linux Mandrake

2,9

(1)

Drakxconf

Drakboot

LILO

Drakgw

Draknet

Drakfloppy

Diskdrake
Adduserdrake

Keyboarddrake

Mousedrake

Printerdrake
Netconf

Modemconf

XFdrake

Xdrakres
Xconfigurator

X Window

Draksec
Drakxservices

- Linux Red Hat

2.10

control-panel

Modemtool

Printertool
Netconf

Xconfigurator

X Window

Authconfig

Setup

-, , linuxconf
setup drakexconf.

2.6.
Linux , .
:
69

- .
.
Windows : setup.exe, ( ),
.
, Microsoft:
, .
Linux : , RPM, , . .
2.6.1. :
,
, .
,
RPM (apt-get).
, . ,
, : , tar.gz
tar.bzl. , :
tar, gzip.
: , . , prg-2.00.tar.gz
. :
gunzip prg-2.00.tar.gz
tar xvf prg-2.00.tar
prg-2.00.tar,
.
tar , (
). v ,
. f . tar , f, ,
.
gz, a bz bz2,
():
bunzip prg-2.00.tar.bz
bunzip2 p r g - 2 . 0 0 . t a r . b z 2

, , tar (
).
tgz.
:
tar
70

xzf

prg-2.00.tgz

z
gzunzip. ,
tar gzip.
.
() , . <_->:
cd prg-2.00
README
:
. /configure
make
make install

. ,
. ,
, .
,
. ./configure. ./configure
Makefile,
( , ) make.
(make) .
, .
make install --
. /usr/bin, Makefile.
, .

2.6.2. RPM
Red Hat
Mandrake rpm. RPM (Red Hat Package
Manager) Red Hat. ,
Red Hat,
, .

,
,
.
,
/ .
71


InstallShield,
Windows, RPM (
.) , .
( ), ,
:
, , ,
, ,
, , .
RPM Linux (Red Hat,
Mandrake, ASP, Black Cat.) , .
, , , . . ,
. Linux
.
, sof tware-1. 0-1.1386. rpm :

software
1.
1
1386

,
,
Intel 386.
. , ,
, .
, , , .
. , . , ,
.
, , . . , Intel 386.
Intel, 80386DX (
). 80486, ,
80586 (Pentium), , . CISC ( 86)
:
1386
Intel 80368DX;
i586
Intel Pentium (MMX), AMD K5 ();
1686
Intel PPro, Celeron, , PHI, PIV.
:
rpm -1 <>.rpm
RPM , ,
.
72

(
), ,
, RPM . ,
-
.
, . ,
, ,
: .

: h v.
, .
#. , :
rpm -ihv software-1.0-1.1386.rpm
,
FTP:
rpm -i f t p : / / s o m e h o s t . d o m a i n / p u b / p a c k a g e . r p m
:
rpm - <>
,
,
.
,
, . .
- , .

nodeps. . ,
postfix, sendmail. .
(Mail Transfer Agent) - -
(postfix sendmail). -
postfix . sendmail postfix ,
. :
rpm -e nodeps p o s t f i x
,
, ,
sendmail ( ).
: -i.
-U.
, , , ,
, .
73

, h.
:
rpm -Uhv <>
,
rpm -Uhv s o f t w a r e - 1 . 1 - 4 . 1 3 8 6 . r p m

#.
:
rpm -qa | less
, :
rpm -qa I grep _
:
rpm -qi
, :
rpm -ql
2.6.3. gnorpm, kpackage, apt
RPM
, , , .
,
. ( X Window)
-- , kpackage KDE, gnorpm
. gnorpm, . RPM
, . - gnorpm (. . 2.14).
gnorpm:
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. RPM.

- ^Communications
! Databases
E h 3 Development
- 3 Editors
"^Emulators
3 File tools
3 Graphical desWop
^Graphics

. 2,14. gnorpm
74

- .
CD-ROM CD,
(. . 2.15).

(^Communications
{^Databases
(^Development
03File tools
gjGames
Arcade
Boards

. 2.15.

,
,
, .
(. . 2.16).
chromium

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:
;
:

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::.:

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: ' ' ' ' .

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gnorpm
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. 2.18.


.
(. . 2.19).

RPM . 19.
KDE
, , kpackage
X'.
(. . 2.20).
gnorpm.
. 2.19.

(
rpm).
APT. APT
. APT
Debian Linux. Red Hat (, apt-get Alt Linux,
Red Hat Linux) .
apt-get. apt-get :
apt-get [] [] [ . . . ]
. 2.11.
. :'.'.''

| cttromtufri-Q>9,6-;l fndK ~;

apt

2.11

update

,
/etc/apt/sources.list. -
FTP-. :
/mnt/cdrom/RedHat/RPMS/
ftp://ftp.redhat.com/pub/

upgrade

. , /etc/apt/sources.list. ,
, , . update

76


. 2.11

distupgrade

upgrade. ,
.

install

( ) .
: . , ,
/rnnt/cdrorn/RedHat/RPMS/package-1.33.i386.rpm.
apt-get install package. ,
/mnt/cdrom/RedHat/RPMS /etc/apt/sources. list

remove

check

clean

. , .
apt-get clean.
/var/cache/apt/archives /var/cache/apt/archives/partial

B"@t|RPM
El- ^Amusements
! - 81 Games
38 Maelstrom
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I -'91 gnome-games
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886
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. 2.20. kpackage

. 2.10 .
.
apt-get install rpm -i,
: apt-get
. rpm
.
77

apt-get .
?, *.
, ,
POSIX. ,
*, ,
, , .
remove.
apt-get -f -d.
apt-get ,
-- ,
. : force-yes.
apt-get - . ,
, ,
.
2.6.4. ,
RPM , . src
. :
rprn rebuild software-2 . 00-1 . src. rpm
, software-2.00-l.src.rpm
. , , .
, ,
Linux.

2.7.
.
, Reset. , , . Linux, .
( ) ,
. - , ,
Reset, ,
. ( UNIX
Linux)
sync, .
shutdown.
78

: , .
, ,
shutdown .
,
. , 19:00 :
shutdown -h 19:00 The end of a working day

: The end of a working day.
:
shutdown -h now
-h ,
, a now , .
-h -.
:, +N, N
, , .
now , +0 .
halt reboot
. halt
, shutdown -h now, a
reboot shutdown -r now.
,
(sync) . , :
The system is halted
Ctrl+Alt+Del shutdown -r
now. , ,
/ e t c / i n i t t a b .

79

3.1.
Linux . , ,
(
). Windows,
,
, , ,
.
Linux : () , ( ,
...).
:
localhost login:
Password:
.
Login incorrect .
, . , .
Linux .
, .
.
Alt + F2
. X Window,
Ctrl + Alt + F2 (. . 3.1).
X Window

All + Fn
Ctrl + Alt + Fn
Alt + F7
Ctrl + Alt + Backspace

80


X Windows
X Window
X Window

3.1


,
, exit. logout.
3.1.1.
login Linux-.
login [] []. ,
. login ,
. 3.2. (root)
su.
login

3.2

. UNIX
Linux
, getty. getty ,

-h

login .

-f

3.2.
passwd.
. .
root, , ,
. ,
123 . ,
, , .
. , .
- , ( root) passwd
.

3.3.
Linux - :
root, ,
. ,
Linux
, .
root , .
,
, , .
, ,

81

su, .
.
adduser <_ , root.
passwd < _>.
. , (, ,

). passwd. (man passwd).
, .
.
- , ,
,
- .
, .

:
(username) -- ,
. , , , -
( ). ,
.
(User ID) (UID). UID,
. 0...65534
. 0 root.
, . , (1000...1100) , (2000...2100) .
. , , -
.
(Group ID) (GID).
,
(native group) . . 0 root.
(password) .
(full name)
() , , Ivan Ivanov.
82


: .. .
(home dir)
//<_> (, /home/den). .
(login shell,) ,
. - (
) .
: ash, bash, csh, fcsh, ksh.
/ e t c / p a s s w d :
username:password:UID:GID:full_name:home_dir:login_shell
/etc/passwd:
root:x:0:0:root:/root:/bin/bash
bin:x:1:1:bin:/bin:/sbin/nologin
daemon:x:2:2:daemon:/sbin:/sbin/nologin
den:x:500:500:den:/home/den:/bin/bash
evg:x:501:501::/home/evg:/bin/bash

,
/etc/passwd *, /etc/shadow,
. . /etc/passwd
.
/etc/shadow .
MD5.
.
DES 3DES,
. , (Shadow Passwords) MD5.
.

/home ,
.
/root. cd ~.
.
Linux , ,
~ ().

3.4.
.
, , ,
. , user ivanov petrov, sidorov sgroup. ivanov report users
83


. report sidorov Permission denied.
,
. .
. 4. /etc/group.
:
_::GID:_
. /etc/group 3.1.
3.1. /etc/group
root:*:0:

local:*:100:den,operator,ivan
guest:*:200:
dialup:*:250:victor,evg

root root.
100 .
den, operator, ivan. quest guest. dialup
victor evg.
, , bin,
mail sys. - .
. groupadd. , ,
/etc/group, , .

3.5.
userdel.
linuxconf. linuxconf ,
: , .
.
usermod.
: ( )
linuxconf. ,
, linuxconf ( userconf Linux Mandrake).
, User
Accounts ( userconf, ). User
Account Configurator Normal (. . 3.1)
User Accounts (. . 3.2), Add.

84

TOs package allows you to adu'deietei

:: Mormal:

I
You can edit, add;
'

Spe
den
ftp

games
gopher
htdig
Ip

Denis
FTP Usei
games
gopher
Ip

501
14
12
13
101
4

den
ftp

users
gopher
htdig
Ip

. 3.2.

. 3.1. User Account Configurator

. 3.3.

i must specif at leas! the tOBin name :


and the full name1":; .^.Sirisi^KfcP^
|Ba--.eirifo

j Dl

LOS

Fiilt name

gro-

Com

Use

85

3.6.
, UNIX. , . , , .
: .
UNIX,
Windows Microsoft Windows
2000, , .
quota (. ) . , ,
.
(inodes) (blocks).
, .
inodes blocks
, . , , , .
:
1. , .
2. (softlimit).
3. (hardlimit).
4. , .
,
, .
, .
( 7 )
.
. Linux 1024 .
, , .
quota support Filesystem , .
/ u s r / s r c / l i n u x make menuconfig, a
:
make dep; make bzlmage; make modules; make modules_install
, . (. . 3.4) (
/ e t c / l i l o . c o n f , -- . . 18).
. 18.
. 3.4 , .

86

. 4.11 LILO
CrootSdhsilabs uin_c3 lilo
. 18.
Wded linux
ed my_linux

ffd linux-nonfb_64M
fldded failsafe

ed windows
ed floppy
CrootSdhsilabs win_c]e |
Turning on
user and group
quotas for local
filesystems,
, .
.

, IfrS
-,
. .4. LILO

. /home ( ), /usr ( ) , , /var.
/etc/ f stab :
/dev/hdal
/
ext2
defaults

>

/dev/hda4
/dev/hda5
none

/home
/usr
/proc

ext2
ext2
proc

defaults,usrquota
d e f a u l t s , usrquota,grpquota
defaults

usrquota
, a grpquota . usrquota (grpquota)
=, ,
,
. quota.user quota.group
.
, , usrquota=
/quotas/user.quota. .

, . quotacheck.
, ,
.
, , :
# quotacheck -avug
. -
, fsck.
, , quotaon -avug .
87

root
[root@dhsilabs /root]** quotacheck -avug
Scanning /dev/hda5 1/1 done
Checked 6730 directories and 109842 files
,
Using quotafile /quota.user
Updating in-core user quotas
.
Jsing quotafile /quota.group
Updating in-core group quotas
quota,
Scanning /dev/hda8 C/mnt/ext2] done
Checked 7 directories and 11 files

Using quotafile /mnt/ext2/quota.user
Jpdating in-core user quotas
,
[rootSdhsilabs /root]* I

, repquota . 3.5. quotacheck-avug

.
quotacheck -avug ,
. 2 ,
.
, ,
(), repquota -ua (. . 3.6).

Croot@dhsilabs /root]** repquota -ua


Block limits
User
used
soft
hard
root
1682876
0
0
bin
348
0
0
daemon
8
0
0
0
0
276
IP
news
56
0
0
uucp
0
0
0
ftp
0
0
named
4
0
0
apache
24
0
0
xfs
12
0
0
htdig
6184
0
0
mysql
0
316
0
postfix
0
0
60
195
4428
0
0
den

107320
0
0
synthetic
808
0
0
1000
0
6240
0

1001

User
root

72

used
439980

den
4
trootSdhsilabs /root]**

used
113629

File limits
soft hard

4
3
9
2
1
2
1
4
4
21
53
32
570
1720
137
370
11

Block limits
soft
hard

used

0
0

0
0

File limits
soft hard

16
1

. .6. repquota -ua

88

0
0

0
0

grace

grace


3.6.1.
() edquota.

edquota - (. . 3.7),
-g. ,
$EDITOR, .
, hard soft.

Quotas for
/dev/hda5:
inodes
/deu/hdaS:
inodes

user den:
blocks in use: 107320, limits (soft = 0, hard = 0)
in use: 1720, limits (soft = |, hard = 0)
blocks in use: 4, limits (soft = 0, hard = 0)
in use: 1, limits (soft = 0, hard = 0)

Vtmp/EdP.aaGSNQc" 5U 237C

. .7. edquota -u den

# edquota -u den
:
quotacheck -u <filesystem>
quotaon -u <filesystem>
:
quotacheck -u /mnt/ext2
quotaon -u / m n t / e x t 2
q u o t a . u s e r
quota.group. () , .
, , . soft , , hard . ,
.
edquota -t:
# edquota -t
89


Time units may be: days, hours, minutes, or seconds
Grace period before enforcing soft limits for users:
/dev/hda4: block grace period: 50 minutes, file grace period: 50 minutes
, .
/ d e v / h d a 4 : blocks in use: 1024, limits ( s o f t = 1,
hard = 0) ,
. , Linux
1024 . 1 .
inodes in use: 94, limits ( s o f t = 0, hard = 0)
inode (, ,
(pipes)) .
,
. . :
# edquota -u </_()__>
, :
# edqouta -p <>
,
.
/. ,
user, ,
den. :
# edquota -p den user
quota :
quota [-guqv]
quota [-qv] -u <_>
quota [-qv] -g <_>
-v ,
, ,
, .
-q ,
.
-g ,
.
- ,
.
quota .
, user :
Disk quotas for user user (uid 1 0 0 2 } :
Filesystem blocks quota limit grace f i l e s quota limit grace
/dev/hdb3
1024*
1
0
none
94

90


user, , den.
,
:
Disk quotas for user root (uid 0 ) : none
.
, .
3.6.2.
-
, ?
edquota soft hard
0. .

3.6.3. linuxconf
linuxconf. linuxconf Filesystems -> Set quotas default
(. . 3.8).

WevfhdaS
-User default;;
Disk .space soil M::

giace period

f-tes soft (rift

H jsfliaee period .'\.


*:-. Qraupdeiau t

.- .8. linuxconf

, . (grace period),
. . User accounts -
User accounts , (. . 3.9).
91

You must spectfy at feast the login name


.1! :

Disk space hard foist

. 3.9.

Default, , .
No limit .
.
(NFS)
quota , .
rquotad, . usrquota grpquota
NFS-. quota - rpc.rquotad.

3.7.

(. 3.2).
/sbin : chmod 711 /sbin/nu.
3.2.
# !/bin/bash
# nu (New User) .
I

92


GROUP=100
#
SHELL=/bin/bash
#
HOME=/home
# ()
EXPIRE=30
#
DAYS=0
# 5
WARN=5

WHOAMI= /usr/bin/whoami
if [ $WHOAMI!="root" ]; then
echo "Access violation."
exit 1
fi
echo -n "Enter new name: "
read USERNAME
echo -n "Enter full name: "
read FULLNAME
adduser -c "5FULLNAME" -d $HOME/$USERNAME -e $EXPIRE
-g $GROUP -S $SHELL $USERNAME
passwd -n $DAYS -w $WARN $USERNAME
passwd $USERNAME

93

Linux

4.1. .

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

94

, DOS
DOS . Linux .
, Linux, . ,
, , . -- . , --
, .
Linux , ,
. .
Unix-
. Linux ext2 (ext3)
ufs.
Unix :
(boot block).
(superblock).
() (inode).
(data block).
(directory block).
(indirection block).
Unix.
.

.
, .
, .

Linux
()
, . (
inode) .
.
,

. 4.1.

. . ,
, .
ext2 (. . 4.1):
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. .
6. .
, ,
. ,
: .
() .
. , . .
, .
, Linux
:
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
.
/dev. , /dev/ttySO (1). , ,
() .
,
( (/dev), ). ,
, , .

95

Linux
, . ,
.
254 . , : / \ ? > < | " *
,
. Linux , file.txt, FILE.TXT File.txt , . Linux . , DOS
8+3: 8 3 .
( Windows) .
ext2:

4 .

2 .

255 .

1024 .

1 4096 .

4.2.
4.2.1.
,
, .
, ,
.

cat. :
$ cat f i l e . t x t
, , f i l e . t x t .
more less:
$ less f i l e . t x t
:
$ cat > f i l e . t x t
/,
. 5. () f i l e . txt. ,
, f i l e . txt.
Ctrl+D. , ,

96

Linux
. , ,
, .

Linux ,
:
$ []
:
$ f i l e . t x t f i l e 2 . t x t
$ f i l e . t x t / h o m e / u s e r / t e x t /
f i l e . t x t
f i l e 2 . t x t . . f i l e . t x t / h o m e / u s e r / t e x t / .
, ( . )
, ( ~ ) . ( . ' . ) . ( / ). . 4.1.

4.1

-d

.
,

-I

-1

( )

-
-S


( )

-11

-V

(verbose).

-X

, , ,

mv . :
$ mv f i l e . t x t f i l e 2 . t x t
f i l e . t x t f i l e 2 . t x t .
:
$ mv ~ / * . t x t /tmp

/tmp.
mv: -
, .
4 . 851

97

Linux

rm. : $ rm
ffle2.txt.
. .
, ( )
.
, rm ,
-f. -f ,
, , .
, .
, .
- , .
- , rmdir, .
-i .

locate .
, , ,
:
$ locate passwd

,
(), which,
().
$ which awk
,
, .
Linux:
Tab.
.
Tab . ,
. , PageUp PageDown.
4.2.2.

Is.
DOS dir,
Is . is ,
, man Is.
98

Linux

pwd .
.

DOS, mkdir,
rmdir. , .
.
/

cd .
Midnight Commander
Midnight Commander . , . Midnight Commander
Norton Commander,
(. . 4.2).

. 4.2. Midnight Commander

4.3.
, ,
. ,
.
Linux .
, . Linux
: () .

99

Linux

Linux . .
Is -i.
:
. , text. :
Is -i text
25617 text
text In:
In text words
, words text
, text:
Is -i words
25617 words
, .

.
In
.
words, text.
words, text, ,
. .
In -1. ,
, .
: "." - , ".." - .

, ,
. . , ,
. , , .
Is -s, :
Is -s text words

, Is -i, , text words


. ,
Is -I text words:
Is -1 text words
Irwxrwxrwx
1
den
-rw-rr
1
den

group
group

3 Dec
12 Dec

5 12:11
5 12:50

words -> text


words

Irwxrwxrwx 1.
,
text, words->text.

100

Linux
rwxrwxrwx.
. : , ,
,
, . ,
, ,
, .
,
.
$cwd ,
. :
echo $cwd
"

4.4. Linux
, Linux .
/dev.
.
/dev. +,
.
, . , N
, , ttyN /dev/ttyl .. /dev/ttyN,
. (
) . 4.2.
hdxN sdxN . , (E)IDE (ATA) IDE: Primary Master, Primary Slave, Secondary Master, Secondary Slave.

TtyN
mouse
audio
modem
ttySN
IpN
cuaN
hdxN

4.2


. /dev/modem /dev/ttySO
. /dev/ttySO COM4 DOS

sdxN
fdO
stN
nrtfN
mdN
ethN


. , ttySN
IDE
SCSI
, :, : /dev/fd1
SCSI
FDC
RAID

null

101

Linux
: , , ,
Primary Master, a /dev/hdd Secondary Slave.

DOS :

d. , /dev/hda
N
.
/dev/hdal.

4.5.
Linux , .
.
Linux. ,
, . . 4.3.
4.3

/
/bin
/home
/usr
/sbin
/var
/etc
/dev
/tmp
/mnt




,

, , , ,




. , , /mnt

4.6. .
,
,
(), . Linux
.
Linux extlfs,
extSfs Linux .
.
, Linux , . 4.4.
. 4.4 . Linux
, . . . 18.
, .
102

Linux


Minix Filesystem (minix)
Xia Filesystem (xia)
UMSDOS Filesystem (umsdos)
MSDOS Filesystem (msdos)
(*) VFAT Filesystem (vfat)
NT Filesystem (ntfs)
HPFS Filesystem (hpfs)
(*) ISO 9660
(*) /proc
Extended Filesystem (ext)
(*) Second Extended Filesystem (ext2)
Third Extended Filesystem (ext3)
Network Filesystem (nfs)

4.4




Linux MSDOS
msdos
Windows
Windows NT
High Performance FS. OS/2
, CDROM

Linux

!
msdos.
8+3 ( ).
vfat.
(), msdos.

,
, , , . 2.4.8 :
Ext3, ReiserFS, XFS.
, , / p r o c / f i l e s y s t e m s .
cat /proc/filesystems.
Ext3 (Third Extended Filesystem)
ext2, Ext3, Ext2. . ext2
ext3, .
ext2.
RaiserFS . .
XFS , Silicon Graphics (SGI) Irix.
:
,
. ,
32 .
JFS IBM AIX OS, OS/2, Linux.
703

Linux
40% .
32 . , .
.
,
. .
.
JFS , ,
,
, . XFS
. .
,
.
ReiserFS ,
. ext3
ReiserFS.
.
, ,
.
,
.
. , ,

. .
.
. , . ,
, .
ext2. A
:
mke2fs - <>
- ,
.
. nikelfs . 4.5.
, man mkeZfs.
, ,
fdisk. Linux
. .
dd. mount. .
, ext2 ext3. , / 704

Linux
mke2fs

4.5

- _

. 1024, 2048 4096 /.


, mke2fs
(. -)

-f _

-1 _

- _

.
. 5%

-V

ext3 ext2, . , ext2.


Red Hat 7.2 Mandrake 8.1
, , ,
ext3. ext3,
,
, .
,
. ext3 ext2. , ext3
, .
, ext3
ext2,
. ,
ext3, ext2. .
:
(metadata) -- ,
(,
).

. : , -. (,
)
mount. , . , / .
. . -
. - , .

105

Linux

. , ,
, . 18. ,
,
. 18, .
.
ext3 , , . . / u s r / s r c / l i n u x
make menuconfig. Filesystem ext3.
, ext3.
.
ext3 2.4.7 . Linux
Red Hat 7.2 2.4.7.


:
make
make
make
make
make

dep
bzlmage
modules
modules_install
install

, , ,
, . 18.
,
, .
. , ,
. .
. .
MBR. , ( , Microsoft!) ,
, .
, Linux ( ) .

tune2fs -i 0 - 0 -j

/dev/hdal


ext2, /dev/hdal, ' ext3.
, , . ,
ext3.
/etc/fstab, :
/dev/hdal / ext2 defaults,usrquota,grpquota 1 1
106

Linux
. ,
(/) /dev/hdal
extl. extl ext3
. .
extZ-: tune2fs
/etc/fstab.

4.7. fdisk
fdisk Linux
Linux. ,
. fdisk.

fdisk. fdisk :

fdisk <>
, , 683 .
, - , .
, fdisk, /dev/hda. ,
DOS.
I fdisk /dev/hda
Comamnd (m for h e l p ) :
m. :
Command action
a toggle a bootable flag
d delete a partition
1 list known partition types
m print this menu
n add a new partition
p print the partition table
q quit without saving changes
t change a partition's system id
u change display/entry units
v verify the partition table
w write table to disk and exit
x extra functionality (experts only)

p, n, q w.
:
Command (m for help): p
Disk /dev/hda: 16 heads, 38 sectors, 683 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 608 * 512 bytes
107

Linux
Device
Boot Begin Start End Blocks Id
System
/dev/hdal
*
1
1
203
61693
6
DOS 16-bit >=32M
, DOS- 60
(1 = 1024 ). 203-. 683 , ..
Linux 480 . ( ):
Command (m for h e l p ) :
n
Command action
e extended
p p r i m a r y partition (1-4)

( ).
:
1. 4 .
2. ,
, .
2 Linux (Linux Native) (Linux Swap):
Partition number ( 1 - 4 ) :
2
First cylinder ( 2 0 4 - 6 8 3 ) : 2 0 4
Last cylinder or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK ( 2 0 4 - 6 8 3 ) : +80M
-- 2. 204.
.
, .
+, ( + + ).

.
Command (m for h e l p ) : n
Command action
e extended
p primary p a r t i t i o n (1-4)

P
Partition number ( 1 - 4 ) :
3
F i r s t cylinder ( 4 7 4 - 6 8 3 ) : 4 7 4
Last cylinder or +size or + s i z e M or + s i z e K

(474-683):

+10M

fdisk Linux Native (81).


Linux Swap (82).
t, 1 .
:
Command (m for h e l p ) : p
D i s k / d e v / h d a : 16 heads, 38 sectors, 683 c y l i n d e r s
U n i t s = c y l i n d e r s of 6 0 8 * 512 bytes
Device
Boot Begin Start End
Blocks Id System
/dev/hdal
*
1
1
203
61693
6
DOS 16-bit >=32M
/dev/hda2
204
204
473
82080
81
Linux Native
/dev/hda3
474
474
507
10336
82
Linux Swap

108

Linux
508...683
.
w , :
Command (m for h e l p ) : w
, ,
. , q.
, , 1024. Linux ,
1024.
1023. , 1024, Linux .

4.8. Disk Drake


Disk Drake
- X Window.
Linux Mandrake, ,
. Partition Magic, . , . Red Hat Linux Disk Druid.
Disk Drake, , , .
, fdisk. , fdisk
, ,

, fdisk. , fdisk
, fdisk,
Disk Drake, Slackware...

4.9. . /etc/fstab
, ,
. () (CDROM, Floppy, Zip)
():
1. ( ),
. ,
(), .
2. , ,
.

109

Linux
3. (), .
.
4. (), .
mount, umount. ( )
:
mount -t fs_type device mount_point
fs_type mount ,
. 4.6.

4.6

ext2 ext3

Linux

Vfat
jso9660

Windows
CD-ROM

Nlfs

NT Filesystem

(device). , /dev/hdd. , , (mountjoint).


.
/mnt
. , : :
mount -t v f a t /dev/fdO / m n t / f l o p y y
, vfat.
CD-ROM :
mount -t iso9660 /dev/hdd /mnt/cdrom
CD-ROM IDE
(Secondary Slave).

umount. ,
umount /rant/floppy :. ,
, /etc/mtab.
mount , . 4.7.
mount

4.7

, /etc/fstab, ,
noauto

/etc/mtab. , /etc

-
-W


/ ( )

-t

110

Linux
, , mount -a -t vfat
VFAT. , , / e t c / f i l e s y s t e m s
/proc/f ilesystems.
,
, / e t c / f stab.
:
device mount_point f s_type options __ _
:

device , ;
mount_point ;
fs_type ;
options (. . 4.8);
__ (1), dump ().
(0), ;
_ , .

fsck, .
, .
,
, , .
. (1),
, .
(2), , . (0) ,
.
( Floppy, CD-ROM, ..).
/etc/fstab

exec

4.8

() ,

()

noauto

mount -,

auto

rw


/.

user

nouser
defaults

/ .

,

111

Linux
. , .
vfat: ,
extl .
.
noauto, - mount. mount -
, ,
. , , , - ,
.
. user
.
noauto .
/ e t c / f s t a b 4.1.
4.1. /etc/fstab
/dev/hdal
/dev/hda2
/dev/hda3
/dev/hda4
/dev/fdO
/dev/hdd
none

/
/den
/home
swap
/mt/floppy
/mt/cdrom
/proc

ext2
ext2
ext2
swap
vfat
iso9660
proc

defaults
defaults
defaults
defaults
noauto,
noauto,
defaults

1
0
0

1
2
2

,
/ , /dev/hdal
ext2 defaults, . ,
, ,
, .
,
/dev/hda2 /dev/hda3 ext2
/den /home
.
,
, .

(swap). , ,
,
.
772

Linux
(Floppy)
CD-ROM. / e t c / f s t a b
/,
(). /
.
, , , vfat ,
. ,,
??? ??????????. ( )

iocharset codepage. vfat :
codepage=866, iocharset=koi8-r

4.10. ()
Linux : , ( ) . 128...256 ,
, .

. , Linux ,
: .
fdisk ( 82) mkswap, . mkswap :
mkswap -
, 32
( - ):
mkswap - /dev/hda3 32768
,
, ,
.
/ s w a p / s w - f i l e ( 32 ) dd:
dd i f = / d e v / z e r o o f = / s w a p / s w - f i l e bs=lk count=32768
.
/dev/zero /swap/sw-file.
, (ANSII- 48),
NULL (ANSII- 0).
1 K6(bs=1k), 32768. ,
32 , NULL. , fdisk .

:
mkswap /swap/sw-file 32768
113

Linux
,
, :
mke2fs -m 0 / s w a p / s w - f i l e
:
mount -t ext2 / m n t / d i s k l / s w / s w - f i l e

-m ,
( 5%).
() , .
swapon - (
/etc/fstab), swapon <>
. swapon - . /etc/re.d/rc.sysinit , SysV RedHat, Mandrake, Debian ( RedHat Mandrake
,
) / e t c / r c / r c . s BSD- Linux- (Slackware).

swapon /dev/hda3,
swapon /swap/sw-ffle.
,
swapon -,
/ e t c / f s t a b . ,
/ s w a p / s w - f i l e , swapon /swap/sw-file swapon -.
.
, () , ,
free (. . 4.3). free
^^[{^^^^

Illllllj^

[rootSdhsilabs win_cJ^dd if=/dev/zero of=/swap bs=lk count=32768


|
32768+0
32766+0
[rootSdhsilabs win_c3** mkswap /swap 32768
Setting up su/apspace version 1, size = 33550336 bytes
Eroot@dhsilabs win_c3H swapon /swap
CrootBdhsilabs win_o]n Free
total
used
free
shared
buffers
cac :;i:
hed
Mem:
130660
123980
6680
0
44928
24 |
308
''I
-/+ buffers/cache:
54744
75916
Swap:
105016
0
105016
CrootBdhsilabs win_c] I

':
.

I
t^i'.-^'" ;:i:w:w!fFW^P^Pwpw?Pw^^^ ~^
. 4.3,

114

Linux
, . total
(Mem Swap ),
used , a free .
()
(Swap Total)
32 .

4.11. LILO
Linux LOader (LILO) , Linux
.
, , bootlin, bootact, bootstar,
LILO. LILO Linux loadlin, GRUB ( Linux Mandrake) NTLoader.
NTLoader loadlin ,
. LILO. LILO
:
1. .
2. liloconf.
3. / e t c / l i l o . c o n f .
liloconf / e t c / l i l o . c o n f ,
. LILO MBR (Master Boot Record). LILO
, Linux. , Linux:
1. , , NTLoader.
2. LBA.
LILO :
LILO

LILO b o o t :

,
. Linux linux. Tab. LILO
. .
:
LILO

, Shift,
:
LILO boot:
Tab. help,
LILO.
LILO / e t c / l i l o . c o n f ,
LILO. Linux

115

Linux
, mem=1024M
1024 . e e B l i l o . c o n f -
Linux. LILO
(Windows, FreeBSD,..) ( Linux). 4.2
/ e t c / l i l o . c o n f .
4,2. /etc/lilo.conf
#0 : Linux Mandrake
tLILO v e r s i o n : 21.5

#
# (MBR /dev/hda)
boot=/dev/hda
I . ,
# /boot/map
map=/boot/map
# .
# /boot/boot.b
install=/boot/boot.b
# compact .
#
# VGA: normal -- 80x25, ext -- 80x50
vga=normal
# . ,
#
default=linux
#
keytable=/boot/ru4.kit
# LBA32.
#
# (LBA)
132
# - .
# , prompt ,
# timeout
prompt
# 5 ( delay)
timeout=50
# ,
me ssage=/boot/message
#
menu-scheme=wb:bw:wb:bw
# ( )
# password=54321
776

Linux
# ,
# ( )
# restricted
# . 16
image=/boot/vmlinuz
#
label=linux
# ( )
root=/dev/hda5
#
append=" mem=64M"
#
vga=788
read-only
#
#
# vga, password, restricted ,
# .
# ..
image=/boot/vmlinuz
# image Linux-
label=linux-nonfb
root=/dev/hda5
append=" mem=64M"
read-only
image=/boot/vmlinuz
label=failsafe
root=/dev/hda5
append=" mem=64M f a i l s a f e "
read-only
other=/dev/hdal
t other -
label=windows # Linux- root
table=/dev/hda # ,
other=/dev/fdO
label=floppy
unsafe
# boot-
# .
# table unsafe .
!
, ( ),
.
LILO
:
<1=
.
(11=_ ... .
/ e t c / d i s k t a b
.
ignore-table
.

I
117

Linux
nowarn
81=

.
. . break Shift .

: <port>[,bps [parity [bits] ] ]


port = 0. .3
/dev/ttySO /dev/ttyS3. 4 .
bps:
. 2400. : , 150, 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600.
parity:
, , ,
.
bits:
7 8. 8,
.
: 0,24008.
append, ramdisk, read-only, read-write, root, vga
. ,
.
LILO , . 4.9. .
LILO

-V

4.9

LILO

- _

,
/etc/lilo.conf

- _


( enroot - )

-
-1

LILO

-R

Linux

Linux

:
1. chroot, , .
2. LILO DOS fdisk /mbr.
-q LILO .
LILO, :
linux
*
windows
, -q.
LILO GRUB. Linux Mandrake
,
118

Linux
Linux LILO. GRUB
: ext2, ext3, ReiserFS, vfat . GRUB
, .
:
Xboot
. Xboot
.
( ).

4 (4 ).
Symon
. ,
. ( LILO), a
OS/2.
BootStar... . DOS
Windows. , Partition Magic. , ,
.
vpart
, LVM OS/2 (LVM
OS/2 4.5).
xosl (Extended Operating System Loader ) .... ,
(Geurt Vos), GPL. xosl http://home.wanadoo.nl/geurt/
download.html.
gag (GRAPHICAL BOOT MANAGER) .... , GPL.
http://www.rastersoft.com/programas/gag/downeng.html.

4.12.
Linux .
, . .
: , .
, ,
. , .
,
.
. ,
, .
, 119

Linux
, .
,
root.
:
mkdir dirl
script:
#!/bin/sh
echo "Hello"
:
chmod 500 d i r l / s c r i p t
:
dirl Is -I dirl
:
chmod 600 d i r l
Is -1 dirl

:
Permission denied
- (
):
cat d i r l / s c r i p t
:
Permission denied
: , .
, . , ,
, ,
.
, .
, , .
.
.
,
Is 1:
Is -1 f i l e . t x t
-rw-r 1 den group -300 Feb 10 1 2 : 0 0 f i l e . t x t
-rw-r
f i l e . txt.
den, group.
. - , a d .
rw- . - - , w - - , - -
. : , , . - ,
-. .
720

Linux
, . ()
,
().
chmod.
: .
, .
chmod
:
chmod <|>
chmod . 4.10.
( )

4.10

sticky-

. , rwx, a rws. sticky-


.
,
.
chmod ,
, . chgrp, chown.
, ,
, , ,
. .

chmod:
chmod <|>

, . ,
8 (. . 4.11).
, ,
, .
121

Linux
, , , , 760:
7
;
6
;

.
,
, . .

4.11

000

1
2

001

010

011

100

101

110

111

:
, , . ,
. , 1 . , ,
, 777 (111 111 111)
, .
644, , .
, .
SETUID (4), SETGID (2), sticky- (1).
mkdir? 0777 , umask. , umask,
022. , 0777 - 0022 = 0755.
, Is 1:
mkdir new
Is -1
drwxr-xr-x 2 den den 4 0 9 6 14 1 4 : 3 0 new/
rwx (111) , r-x (101) . , = 755.
umask .
umask 000
, . , mkdir () ,
.
122

Linux
SUID SGID

Linux
SUID (Set User ID root) SGID (Set Group ID
root). , (pppd, smbmount,
SVGA-) root.
, , -, SUID
- /usr/sbin/pppd. :
chmod u+s / u s r / s b i n / p p p d
pppd root,
. . pppd
, ,
-. ( , )
root.
smbmount
SUID.
, : ,
,
. ,
, SUID ( SGID) .
: superfonnat,
. ,
, -- ,
root. SUID, . . , root,
. ,
, , (
). : supermount root
. root!
root ,
. ,
root. , .

, , SUID SGID.
,
( pppd) SUID SGID, , .
SUID .
123

Linux

SUID SGID:
1. , ,
, , .
SUID
, , , su.
2. - ,
sudo ( su). , , .
3. , root,
. ,
.
FTP- Linux. , ,
- .
4. ,
SUID- . , ,
nosuid / e t c / f stab.

4.13.
Linux :
1. .
2. .
Linux fsck. .
fsck ,
, .
fsck
Linux , etc/fstab.
fsck , . 4.12.
fsck

4. /2

, /etc/fstab.

-
( ext2)
-.
-
, . ,

-. ,
-R

-. .
-1 _ <_> .
, ,
, ,
-S
( )
-

124

Linux


defrag, (Paul H. Hargrove,
hargrove@sccm.Stanford.edu).
ext2, minix, xia.

4.14.
. SCSI, -
. IDE .
. : .
: ,
.
AUTODETECT
. Linux
IDE. ,
Windows,
, , , ,
Linux .
Linux fdisk Linux
, Windows.
t FAT32.
, FAT32 , 80
640 .

4.15.
Linux, UNIX,
.
. ,
. , :
1. , .
2. .
SCSI.
125

Linux
.
: , SCSI,
, FDC. . SCSI. SCSI.
SCSI.
, FDC, . ,
,
SCSI.
.
4.15.1. SCSI
Linux SCSI.
SCSI.
LUN (Logical Unit Number), SCSI,
.

, SCSI Tape Support.
SCSI SCSI Low-Level drivers. , Probe all LUNs on each device.
/dev/stO.
4.15.2. FDC

QIC-02 tape support Ftape (QIC-80/Trawan) support. ,
, , . Character devices.
/dev/nrtf 0.
4.15.3.
int.
mt-st, .
Red Hat Mandrake Linux. mt
/ d e v / n f t a p e , /dev/
nrftO. SCSI,
/ d e v / s t O .
.
.
.
:
mt-st -f / d e v / n f t a p e retension

DOS, . , , 126

Linux
. Conner Backup Basics, Norton
Backup, QlCstream. :
mt-st -f / d e v / n f t a p e erase
. ,
,
:
tar c f z /dev/nftape /home/den
tar, ,
, ( Archive).
z tar .
cf.
:
tar x z f /dev/nftape
,
xf.
:
tar df /dev/nftape
, tar,
mt-st
. tar mt-st. , tar ,
:
mt-st -f / d e v / n f t a p e f s f 2
bsf fsf.
mt-st ,
. 4.13.
mt-st

4.13

eof

asf n

fsf

bsf n

fsr n

bsr

seek n

eom

n
.

rewind

offline

retension

erase

127

Linux

4.16.

1.
2.
3.
4.

, , ,
, .
, :
()?
?
?
?

()?

,
/home.
. -
, ...
,
/etc. ,
.
, , ,
Linux. , ,
.
, , ,
.
?

. ?
1. .
2. , , .
3.
.
4. ,
, ,
.
, FDC,
4 /, 1 4 .
.
, FDC 1
:
2 , 6 .
SCSI
.
128

Linux
?

, ,
.
( ) ,
: ,
? ,
, .
?

. (
,
). : 1, 2,
., ., ., . , . 4.14.

4.14

1
.

.
.

4.17. cpio
,
cpio.
cpio .
. , cpio .
cpio ,
. . 4.15, . 4.16.
4.15

cpio

-
:
cpio -[] _ [_]

, .

-i
:
cpio -^] [] _

, , cpio
.
,
. , .

-
: cpio -[]

5 *. 851

129

Linux
4.16

'

-0

,
. - -

5120 . 512

-0

ASCII

-d

-i. ,
, , .
,

-F

:
bin
;

Unix SysV Release 4, (CRC);


hpodc
Hewlett-Packard;
newc
Unix SysV Release 4, ,
65536;
ode
POSIX.1;
tar
tar;
ustar
POSIX.1 tar

-I

.
-i -

-I

-L

, ,
. - -

GID ( )

-S

. -i

-S

. -i

-t

. , ,

-
-V

-V

cpio.
- cpio. cpio
, .
,
-. tar. :
cpio - - tar - a r c . tar
, ,
:
/opt/ctrl/ctrl.
/opt/ctrl/ctrl.html
130

Linux
arc. tar.
. ,
arc.tar.
, .
/. , :
Is | cpio - - tar - current_dir. tar
:
cpio -i -H tar < current_dir.tar
cpio
.

4.18.
hdparni.
Quantum Fireball ATA66 3,75 / 14 /, IBM
100 ( ) 30,1 /!
hdparni .
, root:
t hdparm -t /dev/hda
Timing buffered disk reads: 64 MB in 17.08 seconds = 3.75 MB/sec
, : ,
. , , :
# hdparm /dev/hda

/dev/hda:
multcount = 0 ( o f f )
I/O support = 0 ( d e f a u l t 16-bit)
unmaskirq = 0 ( o f f )
using_dma = 0 ( o f f )
keepsettings = 0 ( o f f )
nowerr = 0 ( o f f )
readonly = 0 ( o f f )
readahead = 8 (on) '
, .
.
# hdparm - dlm2c3ul /dev/hda
, . -,
DMA, ,
( ). ,
ul , xmms
.
131

Linux
hdparm .
14 /. ,
.
66 UDMA33 UDMA66 .
66 , 68.
IDE :
# hdparm -k I / d e v / h d a

IDE ,
.
.
hdparm / e t c / r c . d / r c . l o c a l .
,
, . , , / e t c / s y s c o n f i g
/harddisks, .
, :
. ,
apmd. . IDE,
, HDPARM_AT_SUSPEND
HDPARM_AT_RESUME /etc/sysconf ig/apmd.
, / e t c / s y s c o n f i g , , Red Hat Red Hat Linux, Mandrake
Linux, SuSE Linux, ASP Linux, Back Cat Linux, ABI Linux .
hdparm
, , , .
-. ,
52? CDROM
. :
# hdparm - 2 /dev/hdd

, 300 /.

4.19. RAID
,
. Linux ext2 ext3
, .

, RAID. RAID (Redundant Array of
Independent Disk Redundant Array of Expensive Disk) . -

132

Linux
. RAID, (. . 4.17).
0,1 5.
, , 5+1.
RAID

RAID
0

1
2
3
4

4.17

. , .
, .
,
. .



, RAID 2,
,
,

.
. min_size*(n-1),
min_size , a n .

RAID -
RAID.
,
RAID,
.
Linux RAID.
, .
, , SCSI IDE, , .

RAID.
, RAID.
RAID (Software RAID).
.
RAID .
RAID,
:
md driver 0 . 9 0 . 0 MAX_MD_DEVS=256, MAX_REAL=12
r a i d S : m e a s u r i n g checksumming speed
raidS: MMX detected, t r y i n g high-speed MMX c h e c k s u m routines
plljnmx :
9 8 0 . 6 9 4 MB/sec
p5_mmx :
9 9 9 . 7 4 4 MB/sec
Sregs :
7 5 3 . 2 3 7 MB/sec
32regs :
4 4 4 . 2 4 6 MB/sec
733

Linux
u s i n g f a s t e s t f u n c t i o n : p5_mmx ( 9 9 9 . 7 4 4 MB/sec)
md.c: sizeof(mdp_super_t) = 4096
Partition check:
hda: hdal hda2 < hda5 hda6 hda7 hda8 >
autodetecting RAID arrays
autorun . . .
. . . autorun DONE.
, RAID
:
dmesg I less
dmesg
.
RAID Block device
(make menuconfig). RAID n support,
RAID. raidtools,
raidhotadd, raidhotremove, mkraid .
RAID 1
Linux raid autodetect. ,
, , . , ,
, .
/ e t c / r a i d t a b (. 4.3).
4.3. /etc/raidtab ( 1)
# RAID
raiddev /dev/mdO
#
raid-level 1
chunk-size 8
persistent-superblock 1
#
nr-raid-disk 2
# , ,

#
nr-spare-disk
# RAID
device /dev/hdbl
raid-disk 0
# RAID
device /dev/hdcl
raid-disk 1
/ d e v / m d O ,
:
mkraid /dev/mdO
134

Linux
, (man mkraid).
, , /proc/mdstat
:
Personalities: [raidl]
read_ahead 1024 sectors
m d O : active raidl h d c l [ l ] h d b l [ 0 ]
, RAID 5. , 4.4.
4.4. /etc/raidtab ( 5)
raiddev /dev/mdO
raid-level 5
nr-raid-disk 3
nr-spare-disk 0
persistent-superblock 1
parity-algorithm left-symmetric
chunk-size 64
device /dev/hdbl
raid-disk 0
device /dev/hdcl
raid-disk 1
device /dev/hddl
raid-disk 2

, ,
.
raidhotremove.
, .
.
.
,
, raidhotadd.
raidhotremove raidhotadd
(/dev/mdO) , .

4.20. Linux
, Linux,
. ,
- , .
kfloppy, KDE
. fdformat superformat. (fdformat)

135

Linux
Linux- (extZfs).
:
f d f o r m a t [-n] device

- .
device - / d e v / f d O

( : ) / d e v / f d l

(:).

superformat.
Linux-, DOS.
mformat mtools
msdos. superformat . 4.18.
superformat :
superformat
superformat

-2
-

-d
--dd
-D
-f

-
-hd
-1

--no2m
-s n
-tn
-V

-V

4.18

2mf
mbadblocks
. /dev/fdO
(Double Density)
DOS mformat (: :)

( 2)
(High Density)
2
2
.
, 512-
. 40 80

. 1 , 2, 3, 6 9
.

, (. . 4.19).
.
.

5.25"
5.25"
5.25"
3.5"
3.5"
3.5"

360
1.2
1.2
720
1.44
1.44

4.19


360
360
1.2
720
720
1.44

:
s u p e r f o r m a t -d / d e v / f d O

-t

81

41
81

10
10

81

18

81
81

10
10

81

21

-s

,
409.088
816.640
1.476.096(1.45 )
816.640
816.640
1.723.904 (1.7)

21

, 20.
136

5.1. forkf) ()
Linux ( UNIX) ,
. , ,
(shell), , / b i n / b a s h .
Linux .
Linux (
) .
, ..

. - ( ) . .

.
, (, ).
SMP (Symmetric Multiprocessor Architectures)
Linux (threads).
. , --
, ,
.
.
( ) .

.
- (, ) , .
,
, . ,

137


, .
. , () .
,
,
PATH.
.
(shell) , , ,
(entry point). - entry point main.
.
, .. -
main. fork() , () . ,
.
: fork(). fork()
,
. , fork() .
. fork()
0 PID (Process ID
) . PID .
, ,
exec. exec , , , . fork()

( main).
:
if ( f o r k ( ) = = 0 ) w a i t < 0 ) ;
else execl("ls", "Is", 0 ) ; /* */
,
fork():
1. .
2. PID.
3. , fork()
, -.
4. (
).
5. PID
0 -.
138


5.1.1.

fork(). - wait.

, ().
, , , . nice.

- . , . , , , .
:
1. (, - exit
(. )).
2. .
3. , , .
signal:
f u n c = signal (snum, f u n c t i o n ) ;
: snum
;
function
, .
,
. function .
, snum
exit. , , .
kill
. kill ,
() :
kill(pid, snum);
: pid
;
snum
, (. . 5.1).
Pid . pid , snum
, ( ). , . setpgrp. pid -1,
, , .
. 5. (, ) singnal.h.
139


5.1

01

SIGHUP

(hangup)

02

SIGINT

(interrupt)

03

SIGQUIT

(quit)

04

SIGILL

(illegal instruction). He

05

SIGTRAP

(trace trap). He

06

SIGIOT
SIGABRT

. /

07

SIGBUS

08

SIGFPE


(floating-point exception)

09

SIGKILL

(kill). He

10

11

SIGUSR1
SIGSEGV

12

SIGUSR2

13

SIGPIPE

, .

14

SIGALRM

15

SIGTERM

16

SIGSTKFLT

17

SIGCHLD

( SIGCLD)

(segmentation violation)

18

SIGCONT

STOP. He

19

SIGSTOP

20

SIGTSTP

21

SIGTTIN

(tty)

22

SIGTTOU

(tty)

23

SIGURG

24

SIGXCPU

25
26

SIGXFSZ
SIGVTALRM

27

SIGPROF

28

SIGWINCH

29

SIGIO

30

SIGPWR

31

SIGSYS

:
exit ( s t a t u s )
status , - -.
exit ,
, , main (
) return 0 exit(O).

5.2. /
/, Linux .
()
740


.
, . , , (stdin stdout).
/
. . / UNIX : stdin ( 0),
stdout ( 1) stderr ( 2).
> ()
. :
$ cat > n e w f i l e . t x t
cat
n e w f i l e . t x t , .
, .
Ctrl + D cat.
< ()
. , cat < f i l e . t x t
f i l e . t x t , .

(append) . ,
>, cat newfile.txt
, .
-
, 2> _ 2 _.

, ,
. 2>&1
Bourne
( 1 2 ).
>&
_ ( C-Shell).
C-Shell >! _. ,
.
|
. , ps -ax | grep httpd.
|&. .

5.3.
ps

ps
. ,
(man ps).
(. . 5.2).
141


ps

-
-

-t _
- _
- _
-X

5.2

,
( )

,
,
,
,

, ps - :
PID TTY
1007 t t y l
1036 tty2
1424 ttyl
1447 pts/0
2 3 0 9 tty2

TIME CMD
0 0 : 0 0 : 0 0 bash
0 0 : 0 0 : 0 0 bash
0 0 : 0 0 : 0 2 me
0 0 : 0 0 : 0 2 mpg!23
0 0 : 0 0 : 0 0 ps

:
# ps -ax | grep httpd
S 0:01 httpd -DHAVE_PHP4 -DHAVE_PROXY -DHAVE_ACCESS -DHAVE_A
698 7
1261 7 S 0:00 httpd -DHAVE_PHP4 -DHAVE_PROXY -DHAVE_ACCESS -DHAVE_A
1262 7 S 0:00 httpd -DHAVE_PHP4 -DHAVE_PROXY -DHAVE_ACCESS -DHAVE_A
1263 9 S 0:00 httpd -DHAVE_PHP4 -DHAVE_PROXY -DHAVE_ACCESS -DHAVE_A
1264 9 S 0:00 httpd -DHAVE_PHP4 -DHAVE_PROXY -DHAVE_ACCESS -DHAVE_A
1268 7 S 0:00 httpd -DHAVE_PHP4 -DHAVE_PROXY -DHAVE_ACCESS -DHAVE_A
S 0:00 httpd -DHAVE_PHP4 -DHAVE_PROXY -DHAVE_ACCESS -DHAVE_A
1269 >
7
S 0:00 httpd -DHAVE_PHP4 -DHAVE_PROXY -DHAVE_ACCESS -DHAVE_A
1270
1271 9 S 0:00 httpd -DHAVE_PHP4 -DHAVE_PROXY -DHAVE_ACCESS -DHAVE_A
1272 7 S 0:00 httpd -DHAVE_PHP4 -DHAVE_PROXY -DHAVE_ACCESS -DHAVE_A
1273 7 S 0:00 httpd -DHAVE_PHP4 -DHAVE_PROXY -DHAVE_ACCESS -DHAVE_A
1280 9 S 0:00 httpd -DHAVE_PHP4 -DHAVEJPROXY -DHAVE ACCESS -DHAVE A

/ ps grep, , httpd.
(ps -ax | grep httpd) -- - ps
/ - -.
top

.
, (.
man top). .

142


# top

7:49pm up 5 min, 2 users, load average: 0.03, 0.20, 0.11


56 processes: 55 sleeping, 1 running, 0 zombie, 0 stopped
CPU states: 7.6% user, 9.8% system, 0.0% nice, 82.5% idle
Mem 130660K av, 94652K used, 36008K free, OK shrd, 5220K buff
Swap:72256K av, OK used,
72256K free
60704K cached
PID USER PRI N1 SIZE RSS SHARE STAT %CPU %MEM TIME COMMAND
7 root 14
R
0 892 892 680
2 .8
0.6 0:00 top
1 root 0
0 468 468 404
S
0 .0
0.3 0:06 init
2 root 0
0 0
0
SW
0
0 .0
0.0 0:00
kflushd'
3 root 0
0 0
0
0
sw
0 ,0
0;0
0:00
kupdate
4 root 0
0 0
0
0
sw
0 .0
0.0 0:00
kswapd
free, df.
w.
top gtop (. . 5.1).
nice
:
nice [- ] []
nice , 1..19 (
10). ,
, 10.
19, 19.

; :

PIS j toMHMHB j Bp. 1 - Cooo-.j


lilt root
0
2(40
2(40 S
94 root
0
1040
1040 e
lOOt root
12 10401
10400 S
490 root
0
2400
2400
1 root
0
4(0
4(0 S
1191 root
2
919(
919t S
7(9( 6
1147 root
1
7(9(
120( root

4904
4904 R
1204 root
2
(12
(912 S
07( xf*
0
21(2
91(2
1009 IP
0
49(2
49(2 S
9 root
2
0
0 SI
1100 root
1
09(4
09(4 S
11(7 root
0
11(0
10(0 S
90( root
0
9(12
9(12 S
1121 root
0
(C40
((40 S
114( root
2
(704
(704 S
1002 root
0
420
420 S
709 root
0
233(
233( S
j 1009 root
0
(700
(700 S
9,9(S

11: ,

art*d
12.93* /*bia/T*loaitorB
10.01* ttto/Xll/X
7.37 onpvd
(.33* iait
9.34* kdeiait: kicker :
2 . 20* kdeiait : koa*ole
2 . 13* top
!.( k*aapbot
l.St* xf
l.(0* *
1.37* kvpdate
1.34* kdeiait: kdexkto
0 . B(* ^u*r/bia/no
0.03* kdx
0 . T(* kdeiait : kxkb :
.1 0.73* kdeiait: kria
. 3 0.72* parallel : /der^lp
.7 0 . (3* httpd
.1 1. (!-:!

': '..;.:'
l;fl(

pload4~r:

. 5.1. gtop

143


nohup

:
nohup []

nohup
. SIGHUP SIGQUIT.
kill

:
kill [- ] PID

PID

,
ps.
kill .
(PID)
. ,
. SIGTERM.
yobs, fg, bg

jobs , , fg (
foreground), a bg .
<> &

5.4.
Linux (UNIX) . , .
. / e t c / i n i t . d
. .
crontab.
- .
( /var/spool/cron/),
crontab . /etc/passwd.
, .
, crontab.
,
crontab ,
MAILTO crontab.
crontab

crontab
. , , . ,
:
crontab -u user f i l e . c r o n
144


-,
, .
. ,
,
/var/spool/cron. allow, . crontab
, . 5.3.
.
crond /etc/cron.allow
/var/spool/cron. allow /etc/cron. deny /var/spool/cron. deny.
/etc/cron.allow ,
/etc/cron. deny .
crontab

5.3

-1

, SEDITOR,

:
_
.
(0...59), (0...23), (1...31),
- - (1...12), (0...6,
). , . ,
, /etc
, , :
7 * * 1-6 tar c f z /backup /etc

/etc/crontab (. 5.1).
5.1. /etc/crontab
#
SHELL=/bin/bash
#
PATH=/sbin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/usr/bin
#
# root
MAILTO=root
#
=/
# run-parts
Ql * * * * root run-parts /etc/cron.hourly
02 4 * * * root run-parts /etc/cron.daily
22 4 * * 0 root run-parts /etc/cron.weekly
42 4 1 * * root run-parts /etc/cron.monthly
745


run-part ,
.
aid
atd. .
at batch.
:
at
, . Ctrl+D.
. , 13:00 :
at 1pm
, atq.
, .

. atrm.

5.5. . init
Linux , .
init (
),
root. :
# init n
, /etc/inittab,
(inittab). :
init q
, /etc/inittab
init q.

s init:
init s
. 5.4.

0
1

146

5.4


() . root

. . X Window


/ e t c / i n i t t a b ,
.
init . 0...6, , .
/etc/inittab :
id:_::
Id ()

( ).
_
,
.

, .

, .
_
- . , 1235 ,
1, 2, 3 5. ,
(ondemand), , .
,
. 5.5
, /etc/inittab
5.5

, init

wait
respawn

once

boot

. _

bootwait

, boot, init

off

ondemand

, ,
(, , )

initdefault

. ,
init

sysinit

, ,
boot bootwait

powerwait

, . ,
,
. init

powerfail
powerokwait
ctrlaltdel

, powerwait, init
, init ,


Ctrl+Alt+Del

/ e t c / i n i t t a b
(. 5.2).
147


5.2. /etc/inittab
id 5:initdefault:
si :sysinit:/etc/re.d/rc.sysinit
10 0:wait:/etc/re.d/rc 0
11' 1:wait:/etc/re.d/rc 1
12 2:wait:/etc/re.d/rc 2
13 3:wait:/etc/re.d/rc 3
14 4rwait:/etc/re.d/rc 4
15 5:wait:/etc/re.d/rc 5
16 6:wait:/etc/re.d/rc 6

# Things to run in every runlevel.


ud::once:/sbin/update
# Trap CTRL-ALT-DELETE
c a : : c t r l a l t d e l : / s b i n / s h u t d o w n -t3 -r now
pf::powerfail:/sbin/shutdown -f -h +2 "Power Failure; System Shutting Down"
pr:12345:powerokwait:/sbin/shutdown -c "Power Restored; Shutdown Cancelled"
1: 2 3 4 5 : r e s p a w n : / s b i n / m i n g e t t y
2:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty
3 : 2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty
4:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty
5:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty
6:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty

ttyl
tty2
tty3
tty4
tty5
tty6

# Run xdm in runlevel 5


# xdm is now a separate service
x : 5 : r e s p a w n : / e t c / X l l / p r e f d m -nodaemon

. . . -,
. -,
, :
. : 3, 5.
, 5
, , X Window
.
,
(sysinit).
/ e t c / r e . d / r c . sysinit.
148

.
, 5
/ e t c / r e . d / r c 5. init
/ e t c / r e . d / r c .
/sbin/update .
Ctrl+Alt+Del
ctrlaltdel. shutdown (now) (-) .
() (-t3).

powerfail powerokwait. powerfail shutdown (-h). -f ,
fsck.
(+2). Power Failure; System Shutting Down.
, shutdown
(-). Power Restored; Shutdown Cancelled.
respawn X Window.
: 5:
init 5
5 , , , . X Window, Ctrl+Alt+Backspace
X Window.
X Window .

5.6.
Red Hat- , BSD- (Slackware),
SysV, .
.
, .
. Unix (. . 1) BSD- Sys ^-. ( ) BSD,
, . Unix System V, AT&T. BSD
SysV .

, / e t c / r e . d / i n i t . d . ,
- . , ftpd
FTP.
149


/ e t c / r e . d
. rcN.d, N
.
5 .
X
Window. / e t c / r d . d / r c 5 .d
, /etc/rc.d/init.d.
-
/ e t c / r c . d / i n i t . d start.
, stop.
- , /etc/rc.d/init.d.
, , rcN.d
.
, , drakconf Linux Mandrake (. . 5.2) setup Red Hat Linux.
,
(. 5.3).

! .

^ '

,;,

"

. /;

__ ._,., -...

. . . -

--.;/

'-

. . . - . -

internet
Connection
Sharing

"

'

'

Bool-

VjjjU

Uve update

. 5.2. DrakConf

5.3.
#!/bin/bash

t
#
. /etc/init.d/functions
#
750

.
. X

. . Network
and internet
confguration

Q)

#'

-0

DrakFont

Profile

Manager

|
|
|
(
1

Linuxeonf

' ' "-fe


i-2
A

Linux-Mandrake

Menu editor

RpmDrake

User end

ft
DraKBoot

manager

'
MouseDrake


case "$1" in
start)

#
echo "Starting my_daemon..."
daemon my_daemon
touch /var/lock/subsys/my_daemon
stop)
#
killproc my_daemon
rm -f /var/lock/subsys/my_daemon
rm -f /var/run/my_daemon.pid
ri
status)
#
t/
restart|reload)_
# ,

#
echo "Usage: my_daemon { s t a r t | s t o p | s t a t u s | r e s t a r t | r e l o a d } "
exit 1
esac
exit 0

,
: . , , POST (Power On Self Test).
, MBR (Master Boot Record)
. (Boot Sequence). SETUP.
, :
FLOPPY, HDD-0, CDROM
( ,
/dev/fdO). ,
(HDD-0, /dev/hda).
, ,
.
, ,

. ,
CDROM.

151


, . ,
( ). LILO
Linux.
, , . , init. ,
5.
, sysinit
/etc/inittab. , boot bootwait (. . 5.5).
sysinit
/etc/re.d/re.sysinit:
si::sysinit:/etc/rc.d/rc.sysinit

(sysinit)
:
1. (hostname).
2. .
3. .
4. .
5. fsck. , ,
,
1.
fsck /, . exit
. fsck ,
/.
6. .
7. .
8. .
9. .
10. ( !) . .
/ e t c / r e . d / r c . s y s i n i t / e t c / r e . d / r c . . - - 5,
:
/etc/re.d/rc 5

,
/etc/initab :
15:5rwait:/etc/re.d/rc 5

752


5.
:
, , , , !
/ e t c / r e . d / r c 5 . d / .

/ e t c / r e . d / r c . local. ,
.
X Window (xdm).

5.7. ()
Unix- (),

. Linux / v a r / l o g .
:
secure
auth.log
boot.log
dmesg
messages
syslog
/var/log ()
, , /var/log/kernel ,
/var/log/httpd HTTP-. ,
/var/log .
. 5.6.

(. 5.8), .

auth.log
user.log
secure
messages

5.6



,
, FTP ,

5.8.
syslogd, .
, sysklogd ( , ,
Red Hat- ), -


.
, syslogd . ,
syslogd. , :
syslogd: Already running.
, , :
ps -ax I grep syslogd
, sysklogd
: syslogd klogd. syslogd
, a klogd .
5.8.1. Syslogd
syslogd (system logging-deamon) , .
syslogd / v a r / l o g / s y s l o g .
: , , , .
:
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan
Jan

27 17:09:35 dhsilabs' modprobe: modprobe: Can't locate module sound-service-1-0


27 17:09:35 dhsilabs modprobe: modprobe: Can't locate module sound-slot-1
27 17:12:28 dhsilabs kernel: VFS: Disk change detected on device idel(22,64)
27 17:12:31 dhsilabs kernel: ISO 9660 Extensions: Microsoft Joliet Level 1
27 17:12:31 dhsilabs kernel: ISOFS: changing to secondary root
27 17:12:32 dhsilabs kernel: VFS: Disk change detected on device fd(2,0)
27 17:12:32 dhsilabs kernel: endjrequest: I/O error, dev 02:00 (floppy), sector 0
, , 27-
2002 17:12 fd,
( kernel).
() , / (I/O error, dev 02:00 (floppy), sector 0).
syslogd .
/ e t c / r e , d / i n i t . d / s y s l o g . , :
/etc/rc.d/init.d/syslog start, /etc/rc.d/init.d/syslog stop.
, :
Is -s /etc/re.d/rc5.d/@S30syslog / e t c / r c . d / i n i t . d / s y s l o g .

( X Window). Linux Mandrake,
drakxservices. Linux Red Hat -
setup. syslogd
, . 5.7.
. 5.7 .
, man syslogd.

154


syslogd

5.7

, syslogd

-d

. fork(2)

-f

-h

, .
,

-n

, syslogd init

Unix /dev/log
. syslogd 1.3

-V

syslogd

5.8.2.
syslogd : SYGTERM, SIGINT,
SIGQUIT, SIGHUP, SIGUSR1, SIGCHLD.
. 5.8.

5.8

SIGTERM

SIGINT, SIGQUIT

, (debugging),
,

SIGUSR1

SIGHUP

5.8.3.
/ e t c / s y s l o g . c o n f .

-/
(. 5.4).
5.4.
# . /var/log/auth.log
auth,authpriv.* /var/log/auth.log
# "-" ,
# .
*.*;auth,authpriv.none -/var/log/syslog
#
user.* -/var/log/user.log
# ( mail ()). info .
# (private) ()
*.info;mail.none;authpriv.none -/var/log/messages
# .
#

/55


# , , FTP ,
# .
authpriv.* /var/log/secure
#
# ,
mail . = d e b u g ; m a i l . = i n f o ; m a i l . = n o t i c e - / v a r / l o g / m a i l / i n f o
#
mail.=warn -/var/log/mail/warnings
#
mail.err -/var/log/mail/errors
# cron. , ,
#
cron.=debug;cron.=info;cron.=notice -/var/log/cron/info
cron.=warn -/var/log/cron/warnings
cron.err -/var/log/cron/errors
#
kern.=debug;kern.=info;kern.=notice -/var/log/kernel/inf
kern.=warn -/var/log/kernel/warnings
kern.err -/var/log/kernel/errors
#
Ipr.=debug;lpr.=info;Ipr.=notice -/var/log/lpr/info
lpr.=warn -/var/log/lpr/warnings
Ipr.err -/var/log/lpr/errors
#
news.=debug;news.=inf;news.=notice
news.=warn -/var/log/news/warnings
news.err -/var/log/news/errors

-/var/log/news/info

#
daemon.=debug;daemon.=info;daemon.=notice
daemon.=warn -/var/log/daemons/warnings
daemon.err -/var/log/daemons/errors

-/var/log/daemons/inf

f
*.emerg *
# ( err )
#
uucp,news.crit -/var/log/spooler
#
local?.* -/var/log/boot.log

156


, :
, , .
: debug, info, notice, warn, err.
. warn -- ,
err . .
.
, *,
. ,
/var/log/daemons, :
daemon.* / v a r / l o g / d a e m o n s .
emerg ( ) . ,
(FIFO), | -.
5.8.4.
, . - - syslogd,
, .
UDP. , TCP, .
, ,
/etc/services:
syslocj 514/udp
.
, ,
@hostname, hostname , . ,
hostname
:
*.err @hostname
:
* . * @hostname
/etc/hosts, syslogd
DNS .

. , ,
, -1 _. , .
(:). ,
-s .
- -,
(. . 5.7).

157

5.8.5. klogd
klogd
Linux (klogd kernel-logging deamon).
, . 5.9.
klogd

5.9

-d
-f

syslogd

-i
-1

-n


. ,
init

-0

,
. /

-s

klogd

-k

-V

dmesg.
:
dmesg | less
. - ring- .
- , .
klogd ,
. (kernel panic),
.
: SIGHUP, SIGKILL, SIGINT, SIGTERM,
SIGTSTP, SIGUSR1; SIGUSR2, SIGCONT. SIGTSTP SIGCONT
.
SIGUSR1 SIGUSR2 -i -I .
,
. GIGUSR1
( ) : # kill -USR1 PID.
5.8.6.
debug Linux . (
) prinfk(). ,
, klogd
. , (, ).
, ,
console_loglevel. ,
DEBUG (7). k e r n e l . h .

158

Linux

6.1.

: keyboarddrake Linux Mandrake
setup Linux Red Hat. / e t c / i n p u t r c (. 6.1),
:
6.1. inputruc
# SBits supports.
set m e t a - f l a g on
set convert-meta o f f
set input-meta on
set output-meta on

Midnight Commander Options/Display bits .


.

6.2. X Windows
, , . , ( Desktop Environment),
Gnome, ,
,
.

X Window .
root, XFree86 / e t c / x l l / X F 8 6 C o n f i g
FontPath " u n i x / : - l "

FontPath " / u s r / X I 1 R 6 / l i b / f o n t s / C y r i l l i c / "

, XFree86-cyrillic-fonts
.
rpm -qi XFree86-cyrillic-fonts. , .
759

Linux
-.
Ctrl+Alt+Backspace. -
, , startx.
,
-Wt font. font ,
.
xfontsel. KOI8-U
http://dkws.narod.ru.
Linux Mandrake TrueType- Windows, Linux. DrakConf. TTF- , .

6.3.
:
1. DrakConf. , (. . 6.1). Red Hat Linux DrakConf
printtool.
2. (, , Netware, SMB).
. (
) .
,
, .
- , Postscript-
ghostscript 018-.
- Canon BJ-300, Foomatic * Iq850 [en]
ftp://ftp.kapella.gpi.ru/pub
- Canon BJ-330. Foomalic + bj200 (en)
/cyriffic/psfonts.
- Canon BJ-5, Foomalic * bflOe (en)
- Canon BJC-1000. Foomalic * bj200 (en)
:
- Canon BJC-1000. Foomalic + (en)
- Canon BJC-1000, Foomatic + stp-4.0 (GIMP-PrW) (
1. gs-typel_koi8_fonts.tar 614783 bytes
- Canon BJC-2000, Foomatic + bjcBOO (en)
- Canon BJC-2000, Foomatic * stp-4.0 (GIMP-Print) (
2. gs-typeljcoi8_afm.tar 29062 bytes
- Canon BJC-210. Foomalic * b|200 (en)
- Canon BJC-210. Foomatic * bjcBOO (en)
- Canon BJC-2100, Foomatic * bjc600 (en)
Fontmap (Ik). - Canon BJC-2100, Foomalic * bjc610a0.upp (en)
- Canon BJC-2100, Foomatic + stp-4.0 (GIMP-Piint) (
- Canon BJC-21OSP, Foomalic * bj200 (en)
- Canon BJC-240. Foomatic t bj200 (en)
- Canon BJC-240, Foomalic + bjcGOO (en)
u

Canon BJC-250, Foomalic |600 (en)


- Canon BJC-250. Foomatic * bic610a0.upp (en)
- Canon BJC-3000, Foomalic t bjc600 (en)
- Canon BJC-3000. Foomalic + bjcBOOOal .upp (en)

. 6.1.
160

*fonts.tar /us r
/share/fonts/default/ghostscript,
Fontmap
/usr/share/ghostscript/5.10.

7.1. .
, ,
. DrakConf (. . 7.1).
, ,
.
(. . 7.2) ISA
(Detect ISA devices).
( netconf
). Network configurator
Basic host information ,
Adaptor 1 (. . 7.3) (Enabled).

,."-"^^:~"

'"

X. >

Internet

" Ntwprt<

Connexion

and Interne!

. Sharing

configuration

" : DrakFont

'"' DrafcBoot

. . -.-.

':

- . ..

Profile..

" - ' '' . /-

'

Dnuxtatif

BODt-cepBrtcoa
Uveupdate
.,....:

mm

'

.. . ' " -Menuaditor '


JJnux-Mandraka

ML-

User and

group

. 7.1. DrakConf

6 . 851

161

Options

Tools



(IP-, , 10
Port, Irq). NetDevice
ethO
( Ethernet), Kernel
Module ,
(, ne2k-pci NE2000
PCI).

1 Harddrake List

ii-Genumelntel Celeron (Menboelno)


N pROIZBOUITElI: Genuiaelntel

\ * CPU

ODELX: Celeron (Mendocino)

g^^j^"1^1"^^1^

3588 1 30660 Kb
El & Floppy Drives

Unknown 1.44MB 3.5"


<v Disks
Unknown QUANTUM FIREBALLICtl 0 1 0
$S CD-ROMs
Unknown CD-540E
Tapes
!;
*& Network Device Cards
Modem
Videocards
nVidia Corporation TNT2DVanta [NV6]
TV Cards
-i
Soundcards
VIATechnologies, Inc. VT82C686 fApollo Supt
| : r-t Printer
<$ Scanner
a Mouse
? Other Devices
:& IDE Interfaces
VIATechnologies. Inc. VT82C586 IDE [Apollo]
<0 SCSI Interfaces
J
* USB Interfaces
* Joystick
.;_ ISDNAdspters
WebCams
' V Bridge
VIATechnologies. Inc. VT82C691 [Apollo PRO
VIATechnologies. Inc. VT82C598 (Apollo MVP
VIATechnologies, Inc. VT82C686 [Apollo Sup*
VIATechnologies, Inc. VT82C686 [Apollo Supi

Frequency : 434 MHz


FP0: DA
: DA

BogoHIPS: 8 6 5 . 0 8
Known Bugs: (none)

; f-j . . . . . . .

.^

jf

...:;::_..:

!

PCI (, ne2kpci), Port IRQ !

NE2000 NE2000-PCI.

:.:...:;..:::;::..::....:.:.::.:::.:.:..:.::..:....::::.::..::..:::.: T:.:_

. 7.2. HardDrake

(. 7.4)
DNS. DNS, IP- .
.
, ,
DNS , IP- /etc/hosts.

* *
,, once
8<x*i;:
/etc/hosts fetan
:
IP_Addr _
.j192.1Eai 1
...
: IP_Addr
IP-;
1 255 255.255.0
|
1
hostname

.
jr2kt
j
- :'
.
C~ " .... .
1

(gateway)
(Routing and gateways).
. 7.3.
.,:.,.:.:..:.:.,.,.;.:. .-:.':.

j*1

:.:|ethO

;l

162

. .

: ^f-

' '


.
Name service
Cfeni tasks
access
(Host name search path): hosts, dns.
.. | Host name and IP. network devices
,

Name si
'(DMS]
, DNS.
Routing and gateways
Multiple IPs for one host.
DNS Host name search path
/ e t c / h o s t s . c o n f
/ e t c / r e s o l v . c o n f .
Network information System jNiS)
DrakConf ( IPX interface setup
X,
Linux),
.
:
insmod rt!8139.o ( Realtek 8139)
insmod ne2k-pci.o ( NE2000 PCI)
. 7.4.
/etc/conf .modules.
ifconfig ,
a route .
ifconfig ethO 192.168.1.1 up .
:
/sbin/ifconfig ethO ${IPADDR} broadcast ${BROADCAST} netmask ${NETMASK}
:
/ s b i n / r o u t e add -net ${NETWORK} netmask ${NETMASK} ethO
:
/ s b i n / r o u t e add d e f a u l t gw $ { G A T E W A Y } netmask 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 metric 1
xinetd ( inetd) .
:
ping 1 2 7 . 0 . 0 . 1
127.0.0.1 , .. ,
,
.
.
, network.
:
This package allows you to configure a
TCPtfP network from scratch using ethemet
and modern (or o's
tion) : ::

[root@dhsilabs / e t c ] # route
Kernel IP r o u t i n g table
163


Destination Gateway
192.168.1.1 0 . 0 . 0 . 0
127.0.0.1
0.0.0.0

Genmask Flags
255.255.255.0
255.0.0.0

Metric
U
U

Ref
0
0

Use
0
0

Iface
12
ethO
1
lo

IP-
ethO (ping 192.168.1.1, ping dhsilabs ping localhost). , , - .
:
1. .
2. .
3. ...

7.2.

,
. , , ,
Red Hat Linux 6 , /dev
/modem /dev/ttySn, .
, /dev/ttySO 1 DOS.
, , , .
/dev/modem .
minicom. . .
minicom -s (. . 7.5). ,
.

-Cconfiguratioru-

Modem and dialing


Screen and keyboard
Save setup as dfl
Save setup as,.
Exit
Exit from Minicom

. 7.5. minicom
164

-. ATZ,
1 , ,
, ,
.
modemtool RedHat, Linux
Mandrake DrakConf.
, Linux
Windows (win-). ,
USB, Linux .
USB USB-.
(, Lucent) Linux-.
Lucent Linux .
-, . ,
.

7.3.
, Linux . Linux
, Windows, Linux
, , .
Linux , Windows.
kppp,
.
, .
, .
kppp (. . 7.6) ,
, .
, kppp :
1. .
2. Romb
: ;
.
;
|^
3. -.
:

. ,
|Sf .

:
1. ,
kppp, . 7.6. kppp
165

. ,
56700, 9600 .
2. (. . 7.7).
( ATDT).

ATDP (. 7.8).

3. ''::
/usr/sbin
/pppd, . ::
kppp
: su - kppp.

,

kppp.
;;:

.: ;!

. 7.7.

{
" ':. . \ .

' ' ' .


" : ' .- : .".. . . 1 | .

' M3W -._:; j-. i

-:{/100):
j| i

ATZ

: (/100):

'::

i:

:V

: : -' : .: : .:

":i;::

ATDP
:

| |

:::: .:',:: : : ~

I I

CONNECT

I I

BUSY
; ''::- - : : . : |

;:!:::': :.^: :-.:,;


:;
:

1 I

NO CARRIER

1 |

1 :; : !: ; NO DIALTONE

:.: :

::

::

! 1

++ + ATH

OK

1 I

| . : ; , .:

ATA

: .. : :

;:

::: |:: :
: .-:; ::,: . :-: , : : ; ; ::; "...

I i

CONNECT

1 I

:.: :::

| :i

OK

| . (/SD):

1 :-:

J""

I|MILI

^MiL3
1

::"";'

"

. 7.8.

166

:
:

RING

+++

'. :^5-:

".".".^. .V.A..""^"V.".V."VV

V.V.'.V'.V'.".'.'."

'.".".'.'."" "/ ' """'""

. OK
"'"."" ''"

11
I
"'"-"

;:.:

]
T.|.K.;.;.;


(Point to Point Protocol),
SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol), SLIP
.
- (Point-to-Point Protocol).
.
,
. :
IPCP (IP Control Protocol) , IP-
.
HDLC (High level Data Link Control) , .
LCP (Link Control Protocol) -- ,
, .
NCP (Network Control Protocol) ,
, .
Linux - pppd, /etc/ppp/options. .
, ,

.
, .
, :
1. . , .
.
2. PAP (Password Authentication Protocol) .
( ).
,
.
, . - , , .
3. CHAP (Challenge Handsnake Authentication Protocol)
/.
. :
* ;
MD5 .
, ;

, .
167

7.3.1.
,
.
. , - -
Windows, ? . ,
,
. ,
,
(. . 7.1).

7.1



POP ()

IP-
IP- DNS

083
dialup
name
Password
0.0.0.0
194.183.166.3
194.183.166.3
frk.kr.ua ( host.kr.ua)
proxy.frk.kr.ua:8080

, .
-,
, .
.
. ,
. . 17
.
-, : PassWord.
, .
, IP- ( ),
0.0.0.0 . IP- DNS,
DNS.
. IP- IP DNS, .

-. ,
-, - .
, . ,
RPM, pppd .
:
# mount /mnt/cdrom
# rpm -ih /mnt/cdrom/Mandrake/RPMS/ppp*

168

, .
. : dmesg | grep .
.
ftp://ftp.linuxcare.com.au/pub/ppp/ .
:
t ./configure
I make
# make i n s t a l l

,
.
, , :
# hostname n a m e . f r k . k r . u a

/etc/hosts . conf (
):
order hosts,
multi on

bind

, -- / e t c / h o s t s ,
DNS ( ).
IP-.
/etc/hosts:
127.0.0.1
0.0.0.0

l o c a l h o s t . l o c a l d o m a i n localhost
n a m e . f r k . k r . u a name

, DNS
. /etc/resolv.conf
domain f r k . k r . u a
nameserver 194.183.166.3

(
nameserver). .
,
:
1. .
2. .
3. -.
- ,
:
pppd
/usr/sbin/ppp-on
/usr/sbin/ppp-off
/etc/ppp/ppp-on-dialer
/etc/ppp/options

169

-on -,
ppp-off -- . -
( 7.1).
7.1. -
#!/bin/sh
PHONE=083
ACCOUNT=mylogin
PASSWORD=mypassword
LOCAL_IP=0.0. .

# ,
#
# 0.0.0.0

REMOTE_IP=0.0.0.0
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
export PHONE ACCOUNT PASSWORD
DIALER=/etc/ppp/pp-on-dialer #
exec / u s r / s b i n / p p p d debug lock modem c r t s c t s / d e v / t t y S 2 3 8 4 0 0 \
asyncmap 2 0 A O O O O escape FF kdebug 0 $LOCAL_IP:$REMOTE_IP \
n o i p d e f a u l t n e t m a s k $NETMASK d e f a u l t r o u t e connect $DIALER

,
COM3, /dev/ttys2,
- - 38400 /. : ppp-on-dialer
(. 7.2).

7.2. ppp-on-dialer
#!/bin/sh
exec chat -v \
TIMEOUT 3 \
ABORT ' \ n B U S Y \ r ' \
ABORT A N S W E R \ r ' \
ABORT ' \ n R I N G I N G \ r \ n \ r \ n R I N G I N G \ r ' \
w
\rAT \

-+++\-' \
TIMEOUT 30 \
OK ATDP$PHONE \
CONNECT w \
name:name:
$ACCOUNT \
password:
$PASSWORD

:
, OK ATDSPHONE. !
/etc/ppp/options (. 7.3).

770


7.3. /etc/ppp/options
# ,
# domain
#
lock
domain frk.kr.ua
# pppd
#
-detach
#
modem
#
crtscts
#
defaultroute
asyncmap
# 552
mtu 552

# 552
mru 552

:
-
:
ping 1 9 4 . 1 8 4 . 1 6 6 . 3
ppp-off.
7.3.2. PAP- -
-
. , ,
, ,
, -, ,
.
(LCP), .
CHAP,
/etc/ppp/options:
_
I
+
-chap
# CHAP
#+chap

#-
171


/ e t c / p p p / p a p - s e c r e t s / e t c / p p p / c h a p - s e c r e t s .
/etc/ppp/pap-secrets :
# Secrets f o r a u t h e n t i c a t i o n u s i n g PAP
# client
server secret
acceptable local
user
*
Password

IP addresses

,
IP-.
CHAP , ,
. /etc/ppp/chap-secrets
server. .
.
- DrakConf
Linux Mandrake (. . 7.9).

?^

Configure a normal modem connection


Configure an ISDN connection
Configure a DSL (or ADSL) connection

^11^
Disable Internet Connection
Configure local network
Disable networking

. 7.9.
DrakConf

7.4. DSL-
.
(DSL -- Digital Subscriber Line).

(ADSL). (SDSL),
(RADSL), (Very high-speed DSL, VDSL).
ADSL-
. .
ADSL-
: ,
, . .
,
. - 1.5 6 /, - -- 16 /
1 /. .
, 772

, .

.
.
7.4.1. DSL Linux Mandrake

, Linux Mandrake. ,
(. 7.4.2) , .
, , dhcpcd, pppoe-linuxconf,
rp-pppoe. ,
root. ,
/mnt/cdrom/Mandrake/RPMS:
cd /mnt/cdrom/Mandrake/RPMS
rpm
rpm
rpm
rpm

-i
-i
-i
-i

:
ppp-2.4.0-3mdk.1586.rpm
dhcpcd-1.3.19pll-lmdk.1586.rpm
pppoe-linuxconf-1.2_1.21.1-lmdk.1586.rpm
rp-pppoe-1.7-3mdk.1586.rpm

.
.


DrakConf Network and
Internet configuration (. . 7.10).
Configure an ISpN connection
Configure a DSL { ADSL) connection
Configure DSL
Configure a cable connection
Configure local network
(or ADSL) connection .
Disable networking

, , , . 7.10.
.
.
(use ). , , ,
don't use . - .
(. . 7.11) DSL.
the Interne connection ? Co


>epfta(!p.r!
dns 1

Accountiogjn:(usetnanie] V

OK

. 7.11.

173


.
Point to Point Protocol Over Ethernet , -
Ethernet. , ADSL-, .

adsl,
.
7.4.2. DSL
, dhcpcd, rp-pppoe , , linuxconf. Red Hat- ,
, Linux Mandrake.
(, Slackware) .
, ADSL-,
. Point to Point Protocol Over Ethernet
, - Ethernet.
2.2.9 pppd 2.3.10 . pppd ,
:
pppd: unknown option pty.
QuickStart .
, .
QuickStart
, , ./go
go , .
.


root, root, .
, root,
su, .
, ,
:
1.
tar x z v f

rp-pppoe-nnn.tar.gz

2.
./configure
3.
make
4.
make install
174

.
, , Ethernet-,
.
:
ifconfig ethO
, N = 0.
(
):
ethO Link encap:Ethernet HWAddr X X : X X : X X : X X : X X : X X
::::: . ,
.
netconf.
!
IP-.
( ).

/etc/ppp/pap-secrets,
- , /etc/ppp/chapsecrets CHAP. ,
:
_

!-

, : 'pupkin' * '123456' * ,
pupkin 123456. , /etc/ppp/options !
, , ,
.
lock.
/etc/ppp/pppoe.conf. :
ETH=ethl ethl , ADSL-.
USER=bxxxxnxnx@sympatico.ca ID-.
. . ,
. ,
/ e t c / r e s o l v . c o n f , :
nameserver first_DNS
nameserver second_DNS
first_DNS IP- DNS ,
second_DNS .
domain <_^>
search <_>.
175



Firewall. :
1. , ,
.
2. / e t c / r e . d / i n i t . d / f i r e w a l l .
3. chkconfig firewall on
4. firewall: sh /etc/rc.d/init.d/firewall start
Red Hat- .
, , Red Hat-
ADSL-
( / e t c / r e . d / i n i t .d/adsl).
, , chkconfig add adsl. ,
Slackware, / e t c / r e . d / r c . local
/usr/sbin/adsl-start.
. .
ADSL- ,
.
MTU (Maximum Transmit Unit) , . MTU .

, .
MTU . , , , .
, ,
. MTU=1460.
Firewall,
MTU 1452. MTU=1452
- 1412. - ,
.
,
Linux , :
ifconfig ethO ratu 1452

176


.
Windows, ,
. :
:
[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\Class\NetTrans\xxxx]
ID
: MaxMTU
: REG_SZ
Windows
: http://support .microsoft, com/support/kb/articles/q!20/6/42. asp

Message too
long, , MTU,
1452 1412.
ADSL-
:
adsl-start
adsl;
adsl-stop
adsl.
ADSL- , .
Perl.

7.5.
, dial-up,
(leased) . , ?
() :
. . , (
).
,
()
. (dedicated)
(leased) .
, .
. 7.3. , . .
: dmesg | grep .
, . /dev/ttySO,
/dev/ttySl. /etc/ppp/options . /dev/ttySO /dev/ttySl
/ e t c / p p p / o p t i o n s . t t S O / e t c / p p p
177


/ o p t i o n . t t y S l . / e t c / p p p / o p t i o n s . t t y S O ,
7.4.
7.4,

/etc/ppp/options.ttySO

#
/dev/ttySO
#
57600
noauth
mru 1500

# :
192.168.99.1:192.168.99.2
#
netmask 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 0
bsdcomp
chap-interval 15
debug
crtscts
mtu 552
mru 552

-detach
.
: 192.168.99.1:192.168.99.2. ( , )
192.168.99.0 (netmask 255.255.255.0). (. man route).
, / e t c / o p t i o n s . t t y S O defaultroute.
, .
.
, (. . 7.2).

7.2

noauth

He , .
auth

crtscts

(., RTS/CTS),

xonxoff

(., XON/XOFF),

mru n

MRU [Maximum Receive Unit] n .


pppd n .
MRU 128. MRU 1500.
296 (40 TCP/IP + 256 )

mtu n

MTU [Maximum Transmition Unit) n .


MRU, pppd
, n

178


. 7.2

chap-interval

pppd __

debug

( -d). , pppd
.
syslog. /etc/syslog.conf. pppd extra-, ,
112 daemon

-detach

( pppd ,
)

mru mtu 542 552 .


, , . ,
, . 7.3.

connect

disconnect

asyncmap
local

7.3


, pppd
async- - 32-bit hex;
- , escape-,
pppd . 0x00000001 - '\01', 0x80000000 - '\x1f

modem

lock

, pppd

passive

passive LCP. pppd


; , pppd
LCP- ( , )

silent

-all

pppd LCP- ,
LCP- ( passive pppd)
LCP IPCP (
)

-am

asyncmap

-ip

IP- ( options,
)

-mru

MRU (Max Receive Unit)

-pc

+pap

-pap

-
+chap
domain _
name _

( )

user

,
. name

login

idle n

n ,

speed

( )

179


, inittab. / e t c / i n i t t a b :
7:2345:respawn:/usr/sbin/pppd file /etc/ppp/options. > /var/log/pppSO.log
8:2345:respawn:/usr/sbin/pppd file /etc/ppp/options.1 > /var/log/pppSl.log
7 8 , 1...6 ttyl-tty6. 2345 - - . inittab
, 7.5:
.
8 Linux init (PID= 1),
/etc/inittab
/etc/re.d/rc.sysinit. ,
( ), ( ). inittab. (. 7.5)
.
init N, N .
, , 5.5.

7.5. inittab
id:3:initdefault:
# System initialization.
si::sysinit:/etc/re.d/re.sysinit
10:0:wait:/etc/re.d/rc 0
11:1:wait:/etc/re.d/rc 1
12:2:wait:/etc/re.d/rc 2
13:3:wait:/etc/re.d/rc 3
14:4:wait:/etc/re.d/rc 4
15:5:wait:/etc/re.d/rc 5
16:6:wait:/etc/re.d/rc 6
t Things to run in every runlevel.
ud::once:/sbin/update
# Trap CTRL-ALT-DELETE
c a : : c t r l a l t d e l : / s b i n / s h u t d o w n -t3 -r now
p f : :powerfail:/sbin/shutdown -f -h +2 "Power Failure; System Shutting Down"
pr:12345:powerokwait:/sbin/shutdown -c "Power Restored; Shutdown Cancelled"

# Run gettys in standard runlevels


1:2345 r e s p a w n : / s b i n / m i n g e t t y t t y l
2 : 2 3 4 5 r e s p a w n : / s b i n / m i n g e t t y tty2
3 : 2 3 4 5 r e s p a w n : / s b i n / m i n g e t t y tty3
4:2345 respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty4
5 : 2 3 4 5 r e s p a w n : / s b i n / m i n g e t t y tty5
6 : 2 3 4 5 r e s p a w n : / s b i n / m i n g e t t y tty6
7:2345:respawn:/usr/sbin/pppd file /etc/ppp/options.0 > /var/log/pppSO.log
8:2345:respawn:/usr/sbin/pppd file /etc/ppp/options.1 > /var/log/pppSl.log
# Run xdm in runlevel 5
# xdm is now a separate service
x : 5 : r e s p a w n : / e t c / X l l / p r e f d m -nodaemon
He !
. - AT&L1.
.
780

7.6.
, . , .
, , ,
. ,
( , ) .
. ,
,
!!!
-, , . ,
, , , . :
( )
, . Reset
( ) -
- . , (SETUP) , , . , -
Reset .
, .

(, Chaintech CT 6ATA2).
, . ,
Reset, . ( )
.
,
,
. , ,
.
.
, ,
, . ,
,
, ( ) , , . ,
,
. :
().
. :
1. (backup).
2. -.
3. .
181

, ,
. ,
, , .
- .
, - .
300 (VA),
1200...2000 (VA). - Back-UPS PRO
1400 VA (670 W) .
.
, , ,
.
, ,
: Pentium 166/200 ( PPRO
200) 128MB /4-6 HDD. ,

, . ,
,

-.
, , , , .
, , , .
.
.
, .
1999-2000
Intel 440BX. . -, (FSB)
133 ,
Intel Pentium III. -, , Intel 440BX, 1 .
. 64-
PCI 66 ( /100). .
Intel i820
1840. FSB 133 , /66,
1 2 . : RDRAM. , Rambus DRAM, , .
SDRAM .
ServerWorks ServerSet III
(IV). ,

182


/, Intel 840. ServerSet
III 16GB , FSB 133 .
Registered RAM.
Pentium III .
64- PCI. ServerSet III IOAPIC (I/O Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controller).
ServerSet IV Intel Pentium
IV, DDR SDRAM (200 ), 64 .
ServerSet III
SuperMicro (www.supermicro.com), (www.tyan.com),
. ,
, , .
. ,
,
Intel. ,
Intel,
.
: , . .
, . ,
, .
SCSI, 10000 rpm (rotates per minute). /
100(133) 7200 rpm .
,
. ,
RAID.
RAID, Linux RAID . 4.
,
.
IBM, WD, Quantum.
Quantum.
-- , ,
( ),
. .
. ,
Realtek,
. , .
.
,
ZyXEL. ZyXEL
, .
183

8.1. inetd xinetd


-
inetd xinetd, xinetd IPv6.
, inetd(xinetd) ? , TCP-,

. , , inetd(xinetd)
. ,
, ftp, ,
, 21- (
Connection refused).
,
: TCP- tcpd
( Linux ), - (httpd, ftpd)
( standalone),
, , , .
8.1.1. inetd
inetd.
RedHat 7, xinetd
( . 8.1.4...8.1.7). inetd
/ e t c / i n e t d . conf /etc/services. , , , , . /etc/services :
_ / _
184


8.1. /etc/services
-2
.pop-2
pop-3
p.op-3

109/tcp
109/udp
110/tcp
110/udp

postoffice

# POP v e r s i o n 2
# POP v e r s i o n 3

postoffice .
(
8.1 TCP UDP) /
(. 8.2).
8.2. ftp (RedHat)
ftp-data
ftp

20/tcp
21/tcp

ftp ftp 21/tcp.


# , , , ,
sendrnail (port 25)?
Aetc/inetd.conf.
:

,
/etc/services.

,
.
: stream ()
TCP, dgram () UDP raw IP.
.
.
wait nowait. wait, inetd
,

. .
, ,
. nowait :

.
stream nowait,
dgram wait.

185


., ,
( ).

(
), .


.
(. 8.3) /etc/inetd.conf.
8.3. /etc/inetd.conf
f t p stream
:

top

nowait

root/usr/sbin/tcpd

in.ftpd

ftp
stream
tcp

;
stream ( );
( tcp,
FTP
);
nowait
;
root
FTP root;
/usr/sbin/tcpd.. , ;
in.ftpd
, , tcpd (
).
, ftp (ProFTP):

f t p stream

tcp

nowait

root/usr/sbin/in.proftpd

in.proftpd

ProFTP. in.proftpd
proftpd. ,
, proftpd inetd, standalone.

8.1.2. tcpd
inetd
-. ,
. , inetd
, -.
tcpd ( TCP-Wrappers). ,
tcpd,
.
tcpd .
.

186


h o s t s . a l l o w , , a hosts.deny .
:..
, ALL. ALL:ALL

(. 8.4).
8.4. /etc/hosts.allow
http:ALL
ftp:ALL

ALL:server.dhsilabs.com

8.4 http ftp ,


server. dhsilabs . com.
8.1.3. IPv6
, ,
IPv6. 32- IPv4
IP-. IP (IPv6, IPng IP next generation) 16- , . 6
128- ( 4
, 4- ). IPv6 :
3A3F:BC21:F133:56C4:A103:DB11:1000:400F

16- , . ,
, .
IPv6 RFC 1883, IPv4 RFC 791.
8.1.4. xinetd
xinetd inetd. ,
, , inetd tcpd. xinetd,
inetd, IPv6.
IPv6, xinetd - . xinetd Red Hat 7-
.
, .

xinetd RPM-, xinetd http://www.svnack.net/xinetd
.
, , ./configure,
(
root). configure , . 8.1.
187


configure

--with-libwrap
--with-loadavg
--wilh-inet6

8.1

tcp wrappers.
libwrap. xinetd /etc/hosts. allow /etc/hosts. deny
,
xinetd maxjoad. ,

IPv6

!
IPv6 IPvA- IPvG-
( ) IPv6.
, IPv6.
IPv6,
http://www.kernel.org. , IPv6 IPv4
. .

: make, make install.


xinetd /etc/xinetd.conf inetd. inetd
, itox:
itox < /etc/inetd.conf > /etc/xinetd.conf
itox ,
inetd / e t c / i n e t d . c o n f , a xinetd
/ e t c / x i n e t d . c o n f . ,
xinetd. conf.
RPM- , xinetd ( inetd) .
, xinetd (inetd)
drakxservices
Linux Mandrake setup Linux Red Hat (. . 8.1).

. 8.1.

188


8.1.5. xinetd
xinetd. conf :
service < service_name>
<> <_> <> <> . . .
<> <_> <> <> . ..
<> <_> <> <> . . .
Service_name -- (login, shell, telnet, ftp, .).
: =, +=, -=.
= ().
:
=
;
+=
;
.
, .
inetd. . 8.2.
xinetd

Id

Flags

8.2

, .

:
RPC
RPC (Remote Procedure Call).
UNLISTED /etc/rpc rpc- /etc/services
.
INTERNAL xinetd ( echo, time, daytime, chargen,
discard).
RPC- xinetd, inetd inetd xinetd .
/etc/inetd.conf RPC-, ,
/etc/xinetd.conf
:
NODELAY
tcp- TCP_NODELAY.
TCP-!
DISABLE
.
KEEPALIVE SO_KEEPALIVE. TCP-!
REUSE
SO_REUSEADDR .
INTERCEPT , ,
.
NORETRY .
IDONLY
- .
identification-

disabled

2 , yes . yes,

socket_type

. :
stream
stream, ,
TCP
dgram
dgram, ,
UDP
raw
raw , IP
seqpacket seqpacket ,

189


. 8.2

protocol
wait

user
server
server_args

log_on_failure

log_on_
success

rpc_number
rpc_version
env

passe nv
port
redirect
interface
bind

, (top, udp, ..)


: yes ,
wait nowait inetd (. ). yes
dgram, stream
, .
/etc/passwd.
root

,
, (),
- :
HOST
.
USERID
,
( RFC 1413).
ATTEMPT .
RECORD ,

, ()
. :
PID
.
HOST
- .
USERID
,
( RFC 1413)
EXIT
, .
DURATION - -
RPC
RPC
. : name=value.
,
xinetd,

. /etc/services,

tcp- .
host:port

, . : 1=1-
interface
,

banner
banner_succe
,
ss
banner_fail
,
. .
cps
, .
,
maxjoad
instances
nice

. ,
. float
, (
). , UNLIMITED

.
RPC (Remote Procedure Call) . . RPC
.

190


.
:
1. socket_type
2. user
3. server
4. wait
protocol RFC-,
, /etc/services. rpc_version
RPC-. rpc_nuinber RFC, /etc/rpc. port
He-RPC-, /etc/services. :
1. only_from
2. no_access
3. log_on_success
4. log_on_failure
5. passenv
6. env ( -=)

.
default,
. . :
1. logjype
2. log_on_success
3. log_on_failure
4. only_from
5. no_access
6. passenv
7. instances
8. disabled
9. enabled
8.1.6. xinetd
, - .
, 8.1.7
/etc/xinetd.conf. . , . 8.3.
. 8.3 ,
. xinetd. inetd, xinetd
(. . 8.4).

191


8.3

xinetd

,
/etc/xinetd.conf

-f
-pidfile !_
-stayalive

ID-
, ( )

-loop

-d

(debug mode)
IP-,
SO REUSEADDR

-reuse
-limit

8.4

SIGUSR1

SIGQUIT

xinetd

SIGTERM

xinetd

8.1.7. /etc/xinetd
, , (. 8.5). (). ,
: , . ,
, , .
8.5.

/etc/xinetd:

#
defaults
# ,
.
instances
= 25
#
log_type
= FILE /var/log/servicelog
log_on_success
= HOST PID
log_on_failure
= HOST RECORD
only_from
= 111.11.111.0 111.111.112.0
only_from
= localhost 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 1 . 0 / 3 2
disabled
= tftp
service login
flags
socket_type
protocol
wait
user
server
log_type
192

= REUSE
= stream
= tcp
= no
= root
= /usr/etc/in.rlogind
SYSLOG Iocal4 info


# telnet
# ( 127.. 0.0.1)
service telnet
flags
socket_type
wait
user
server
bind
log on failure

= REUSE
= stream
= no
= root
= /usr/etc/in.telnetd
= 127.0.0.1
+= USERID

# telnet
service telnet

flags
disabled
socket_type
wait
user
server
bind
redirect
log_on_failure

= REUSE
= yes
= stream
= no
= root
= /usr/etc/in.telnetd
= 192.231.139.175
= 128.138.202.20 23
+= USERID

}
service ftp
socket_type
= stream
wait
=
user
= root
server
= /usr/etc/in.ftpd
= -1
server_args
instances
= 4
log_on_success
+= DURATION USERID
log on failure
+= USERID
t
access_times
= 2:00-8:59 12:00-23:59
f
nice
= 10
service name
socket_type
wait
user
server
#
#
#
#

=
=
=
=

dgram
yes
root
/usr/etc/in.tnamed

TFTP (Trivial FTP).



, ,
.

7 . 851

93


service tftp
socket_type
wait
user
server
server_args

=
=
=
=
=

dgram
yes
root
/usr/etc/in.tftpd
-s /tftpboot

# SMTP- Qmail.
# xientd
service smtp
socket_type
protocol
wait
user
id
server
server_args
log_on_success
log_on_failure
#
#
#
#
#
#

= stream
= tcp
= no
= qmaild
= smtp
= /var/qmail/bin/tcp-env
= /var/qmail/bin/qmail-smtpd
-= DURATION USERID PID HOST EXIT
-= USERID HOST ATTEMPT RECORD .

finger,
. , ,
root host.com,
: finger root@host.com
finger.

service finger
{
socket_type
disabled
wait
user
server
}
service echo

stream
yes
no
nobody
/usr/etc/in.fingerd

type
id
socket_type
protocol
user
wait

INTERNAL
echo-stream
stream
tcp
root
no

service echo
type
id
socket_type
protocol

194

=
=
=
=

INTERNAL
echo-dgram
dgram
udp


user
wait

}
service rstatd
<
type
disabled
flags
rpc_version
socket_type
protocol
server
wait
user
}

= root
= yes

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

RFC
no
INTERCEPT
2-4
dgram
udp
/usr/etc/rpc.rstatd
yes
root

>

, ,
.
111.111.111.0, 111.111.112.0 192.168.1.0. , 192.168.1.0/32. sendmail
qmail. qmail standalone,
25- ,
smtp xinetd. : finger, telnet.

8.2. : ssh telnet


Telnet
, Telnet TCP/IP. Digital Equipment Corporation VT 100, Digital
Equipment Corporation VT 52, TTY. Telnet
RFC 854, -.
, Telnet, telnet, .
.
Telnet telnet-. -.
telnet, telnet (. . 8.2).
Telnet
.
, , ,
- .
SSH (Secure Shell) ,
. telnet stelnet.
SSH , .

195


Telnet - ()

. 8.2. Telnet- Windows

ssh
,
(session hijacking)
(DNS spotting).
Secure Shell :
BlowFish 64- . .
DES (Data Encryption Standard) .
, '. DES .
IDEA (International Data Encryption Algorithm)
. 128- , BlowFish DES.
RSA (Rivest-Shamir-Adelman algorithm) --.
.
, . , IDEA RSA.
, BlowFish,
, DES.
ssh ,
,
. ssh http://
www.cs.hut.fi/ssh/. ssh UNIX ,
Windows- ( Windows) .
ssh , .
telnet , telnet-, . ,
, .
ssh , ,
DES 3DES.

796


sshd, Linux/UNIX, ssh, Linux,
Windows. ssh,
/ u s r / s r c / .
, :
cd /usr/src/
tar xzf ssh-2.4..tar.gz
cd ssh-2.4.0
./configure
make
make install
ssh , sshd
, . .
sshd 22 (. 8.6). , ssh
xinetd/inetd httpd- standalone.
8.6. /etc/services
ssh
ssh

22/tcp
22/udp

# SSH Remote Login Protocol


# SSH Remote Login Protocol

sshd .
.
ssh.

Linux/UNIX ( Windows- ssh) :
$ ssh hostname.domain
ssh . , , .
, , . Ctrl+D.
,
-1 ssh:
ssh -I user h o s t n a m e . r u
ssh,
(. . 8.3).
Windows- , .
, blowfish.
, 3DES.
ssh telnet.
, . ssh
. 8.5.

797

j" - - (Jen@lQca8*ost** -

[root@localhost root] ssh -1 den localhost


den@localhost's password:
Last login: Thu Jul 4 09:40:34 2002
Cdenlocalhost den]* |

. 8..
ssh

-
-
- blowfish|3des
-

-f
-i _
-1 ^
-

-q
-X

-X
-1
-2
-4
-6

8.5




SSH. blowfish, 3des
, .
SSH. blowfish, twofish, arcfour, cast,
des 3des
ssh .
1 1 . , ssh -f host xterm
( RSA/DSA)


, ssh
( 22)
. .
1 1
1 1
SSH
SSH
IP- IPv4
IP- IPv6

ssh ssh_conf sshd_conf.


, ,
/etc/ssh. sshd_conf :
allowedadress 10.1.1.1 1 0 . 1 . 2 . 1 10.1.3.1
, ssh
10.1.1.1, 10.1.2.1, 10.1.3.1. .
stelnet telnet,
, telnet.
198


sshd -- - ssh. sshd
, SSH.
sshd SSH SSH 1, SSH 2.
SSH 1

RSA- ( 1024 ), . . , , RSA-


( 768 ).
.

.
, , .
256-
, .
,
.
, .rhosts-, RSA .
.rhosts- .
SSH 2

2 : DSA, . ,
. - (Diffie-Hellman key agreement).
: 128- AES,
Blowfish, 3DES, CAST128, Arcfour, 192- AES 256- AES.
sshd . 8.6.
sshd

-d
-
-f _

-h _

8.6

( 768).
, SSH 1
(DEBUG).
.

, sshd
,
.
/etc/ssh/sshd_config
, , ,
. 600 .
, .
0
( ).
/etc/ssh/ssh_host_key. , sshd root. ,
sshd , . , ()
, ()

99


. 8.6

-i

, sshd xinetd (inetd).


sshd xinetd (inetd),
, sshd (10 ) ,

-k

, .
3600 (1 ). ,
SSH 1

, sshd .
22

-q
-t

. .
,

.

-D

-4

IP- IPv4

-6

IP- IPv6

/ e t c / s s h / s s h d _ c o n f ig , 8.7
8.7 /etc/ssh/sshd_config
#
#
f
#

$OpenBSD: sshd_config,v 1.38 2001/04/15 21:41:29 deraadt Exp $


This sshd was compiled with PATH=/usr/bin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/sbin
This is the sshd server system-wide configuration file. See sshd(8)
for more information.

Port 22
iProtocol 2,1
#ListenAddress 0.0.0.0
#ListenAddress ::
HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_key
HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key
HostKey /etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key
ServerKeyBits 768
LoginGraceTime 600
KeyRegenerationlnterval 3600
PermitRootLogin yes
#
# Don't read ~/.rhosts and -/.shosts files
IgnoreRhosts yes
# Uncomment if you don't trust ~/.ssh/known_hosts for
RhostsRSAAuthentication
#IgnoreUserKnownHosts yes
StrictModes yes
XllForwarding yes
XllDisplayOffset 10

200


PrintMotd yes
#PrintLastLog no
KeepAlive yes
# Logging
SyslogFacility AUTHPRIV
LogLevel INFO
tobsoletes QuietMode and FascistLogging
RhostsAuthentication no
#
# For this to work you will also need host keys in /etc/ssh/
ssh_known_hosts
RhostsRSAAuthentication no
I similar for protocol version 2
HostbasedAuthentication no
i
RSAAuthentication yes
# To disable tunneled clear text passwords, change to no here!
PasswordAuthentication yes
PermitEmptyPasswords no
# Uncomment to disable s/key passwords
#ChallengeResponseAuthentication no
# Uncomment to enable keyboard-interactive authentication
# Warning: enabling this may bypass the setting of 'PasswordAuthentication'
#PAMAuthenticationViaKbdInt yes
# To change Kerberos options
#KerberosAuthentication no
#KerberosOrLocalPasswd yes
#AFSTokenPassing no
#KerberosTicketCleanup no
# Kerberos TGT Passing does only work with the AFS kaserver
fKerberosTgtPassing yes
#CheckMail yes
#UseLogin no
iMaxStartups 10:30:60
#Banner /etc/issue.net
tReverseMappingCheck yes
Subsystem sftp/usr/libexec/openssh/sftp-server

,
.
201


Port ,
( -.):
Port 22
Protocol. SSH:
Protocol 2,1
, SSH 2,
SSH 1.
, , Protocol 1.
ListenAddress ,
.
. :
/etc/ssh/ssh_host_key
/etc/ssh/ssh_host_rsa_key
/etc/ssh/ssh_host_dsa_key
ServerKeyBits SSH . 768-
(768 ).
LoginGraceTime -g:
, . 600 . , .
KeyRegenerationlnterval -k.
, .
3600 (1 ).
PermitRootLogin , root
ssh. :
PermitRootLogin yes
, PasswordAuthentication PermitEmptyPasswords. ( yes) , ( yes) .
:
PasswordAuthentication yes
PermitEmptyPasswords no

,
man sshd.

8.3.

route IpChains. , . 14.
202


.
IPChains . , . , ,
, ,
.

, ethO ethl:
i f c o n f i g ethO 192.168.1.1 up
i f c o n f i g ethO 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 2 . 1 up
192.168.1.0
192.168.2.0. , ,
192.168.1.*,
:
route add net 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 1 . 0 192.168.1.1 netmask 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 0
192.168.2.* ethl:
route add net 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 2 . 0 192.168.2.1 netmask 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 0 0
. - . .. 192.168.1.1 192.168.2.1
, 0.
IP-,
, 192.168.1.11, , :
route add default 192.168.1.11 1
, . = 1. ,
.
, ,
. , 192.169.1.0 192.168.2.0.
IpChains:
ipchains -P forward DENY
ipchains -A f o r w a r d -s 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 1 . 0 / 2 4 -d 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 2 . 0 / 2 4 -j ACCEPT
ipchains -A forward -s 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 2 . 0 / 2 4 -d 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 1 . 0 / 2 4 -j
ACCEPT
, , . 14.

8.4. DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol)


DHCP? DHCP ,
IP- . , DHCP .
TCP/IP. DHCP IP-
. ,
, DHCP,

203


,
, .
DHCP.
, , , , .
, dhcp IP echo "I" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_dynaddr. DHCP Linux
(dhcpd) (dhcpcd).
IP- ,
. , ,
.
dhcpd / e t c / d h c p . c o n f .
DHCP- IP- / e t c / d h c p . c o n f . dhcpd
dhcpd.leases,
/var/dhcpd.
,
(. 8.8). ,
/etc/dhcp.conf ,
dhcpd . /etc/rc.d/init.d/dhcpd stop ,
/etc/rc.d/init.d/dhcpd start .
8,8. /etc/dhcpd.conf
I , ,
# .
subnet 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 1 . 0 netmask 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 0 {
#
option routers 192.168.1.1;
# 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 0
option subnet-mask 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 0 ;
# NIS,
option nis-domain "domain.ua";
option domain-name "domain.ua";
f DNS-,
option domain-name-servers 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 1 . 1 ;
#
# 192.168.1.50-192.168.1.250
range 192.168.1.10 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 1 . 2 5 4 ;
# , 21600 (6 )
#
default-lease-time 21600;
# 28800 (8 )
max-lease-time 28800;

204


. -. ,
- - IP-. host:
host myhost {
hardware ethernet x x : x x : x x : x x : x x : x x ;
fixed-address 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 1 . 9 ;
}

subnet, IP-. ,
::::: IP- 192.168.1.9.
:
subnet 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 1 . 0 netmask 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 0 {
#

host myhost {
hardware ethernet 00 : 40 :C7 : 34 : 90 : IE;
fixed-address 192.168.1.9;

, 00:40:7:34:90:1
IP- 192.168.1.9. , IP-
myhost 192.168.1.9 192.168.1.0 subnet 192.168.1.0, - !
*
*
-
TCPNetView.

http://www.enet.ru/~gorlach/netview/. , : Windows. , , ,
-. Linux, -.
Trafshow, -. Trafshow, TCPNetView (. . 8.4).
TCPNetView Untitled .1
I

'[

. 8.4.
TCPNetView

205


, , WINS,
Samba.
subnet :
option n e t b i o s - n a m e - s e r v e r s 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 1 . 1 ;
option netbios-dd-server 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 1 . 1 ;
option netbios-node-type 8;

.
WINS (Windows Internet Name Service) () NetBIOS IP-. WINS
NetBIOS, Microsoft .
Samba SMB (Server Message Block),
NetBIOS. Samba
, Linux,
Microsoft.

. , :
#
option broadcast-address 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 2 . 2 5 5 ;
# IP-Forwarding
option i p - f o r w a r d i n g on;
t :
server-identifier server.domain. ua;

, , man dhcpd.conf. Windows IP- TCP/IP (. 8.5).


Linux netconf
DHCP (. . 8.6).
are allowed to control the parameters
which art specific to tils host andrelated
toils main connection to tos local fP network

'' " j : !: ;

NetBIOS

DNS | | WINS
!
.
JP, g
.

Enabietf .
Contlgmotie if

Pfimaryname * domain

" JP-aflpec <

Manual

[* Dhcp

| ^ Botrtp

Aliases (opt) " '

tP- :

IP caress
NetmasMopD .

r~

,.J

''

Net device
Kernel module
port (opt)

Irq (opO

. 8.5. Windows-

206

.;
Accept

Cancel

Help

. 8.6. Linux-

DHCP RFC 1533, 1534, 1541, 1542,


RFC 1532. 8.9.
8.9. /etc/dhcpd.conf ( )
I 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 1 . 0 , 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 0
subnet 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 1 . 0 netmask 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 0 {
#
option routers 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 1 . 1 ;
# 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 0
option subnet-mask 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 0 ;
# NIS,
option nis-domain "domain.ua";
option domain-name "domain.ua";
#
option broadcast-address 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 2 . 2 5 5 ;
# ' IP-Forwarding
option i p - f o r w a r d i n g on;
# s e r v e r - i d e n t i f i e r :
server-identifier server. domain.ua;
# DNS-,
option domain-name-servers 192.168.1.1;
f
t 192.168.1.50-192.168.1.250
range 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 1 . 1 0 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 1 . 2 5 4 ;
# , 21600
#
default-lease-time 21600; '
t 28800
max-lease-time 28800;
option netbios-name-servers 192.168.1.1;
option netbios-dd-server 192.168.1.1;
option netbios-node-type 8;

(6 )

(8 )

# (dhcpSO, dhcpSl, dhcp52)


#
host dhcpSO {
hardware ethernet 00 : 40 :C7 :34 : 90 : IE;
# , IP-
# 192.168.1.50-250.
fixed-address 192.168.1.50;
}
host dhcpSl {
hardware ethernet 00: 40 :C7 : 34 : 90 : IF;
fixed-address 192.168.1.51;

207


host dhcp52 {
hardware ethernet 00:40:C7:34:90:2A;
fixed-address 192.168.1.52;

8.5. . MRTG
. ,
,
, .

ifconfig. , :
cat
/proc/net/dev

, CrootSdhsilabs /root]* cat /proc/net/deu
Inter-l
Receive
I Transmit

. 8.7. face Ipackets errs drop fifo framelpackets errs drop fifo colls carrier
lo: 428021
0
0
0
0 428021
0
0
0
0
0

ethO; 4788257 648 648 319 650 1423836


0
0
0 4623
5
CrootSdhsilabs /root] I
Linux
,



, . 8.7. cat/proc/net/dev
.
/proc/net/dev .
.
stat:
#!/bin/sh
/bin/grep "$1" /proc/net/dev | /bin/awk -F ":" { print $2 }'
/ b i n / a w k M print " I n :
" $1 " \ n O u t : " $9 ; } '

| \

\ .
.
.
/ u s r / b i n :
. / s t a t / u s r / b i n
chmod 755 / b i n / s t a t

:
/ b i n / s t a t ethO
ethO
.
, .
ethO IP- .
208


, , ,
.
"Hello, world!".
.
IpChains. ,
, . 14,
. , --
. ,
, , , ipchains . 14.
,
. ,
IP: accounting . .
IpChains. , IpChains:
ipchains -A output -d A A A . . . -j ACCEPT
,
. :
ipchains -L -v
Chain input (policy ACCEPT: 4195746 packets, 1765818402 b y t e s ) :
Chain f o r w a r d ( p o l i c y ACCEPT: 1 4 2 9 9 9 packets, 2 9 9 4 1 5 1 6 b y t e s ) :
Chain output (policy ACCEPT: 4 1 8 2 5 9 7 packets, 1309541595 b y t e s ) :
pkts bytes target prot opt
tosa tosx ifname source destination
4
308 ACCEPT all
OxFF 0x00 any
anywhere AAA.AAA.AAA.AAA

, . ,
mark, outsize ports, .
, ... 308 4
.
ICMP. ,
- (ifname=any), ,
(source=anywhere) (prot=all).
, .
input.
,
, , , ,
.
, Cisco. , Cisco tacacs+.
.

dialin-. ftp.vsu.ru/pub/hardware/cisco
/tacacs/tac+ia-0.96pre9.3.tar.gz
209


useripacct. .
trafshow, -. (
). , ,
(. . 8.8).
, trafshow, IP-
, -. -.
,

,
here is the tcp or udp packets contained data? It is exactly uhat I uant! Noui!

.
,
, , ,
(winet) TCP pkts: 0
UUP pkts: 0
KEatas; 0
Page 1 of 1

. 8.8. trafshow
.
SNMP.
MRTG (http://www.switch.ch/misc/leinen/snmp/perl/). MRTG :
,
HTML .
MRTG (The Multi Router Traffic Grapher)
, , .
MRTG PNG, .
:
http://www.stat.ee.ethz.ch/mrtg/
mrtg ,
SNMP. ,
SNMP.
8.9.

MRTG

. 8.9.

210

SNMP
Router


, Internet
SNMP-. MRTG ,
MRTG. MRTG MRTG, .

HTTP. , MRTG Web-.
:
1. gd (http://www.boutell.com/gd/);
2. libpng (http://www.libpng.org/pub/png/);
3. zlib (http://www.info-zip.org/pub/infozip/zlib/).
MRTG :
http://ee-staff.ethz.ch/~oetiker/webtools/mrtg/pub
RedHat 7 ,
MRTG, , .
, rpm. mrtg :
rprn' -ih mrtg*
,
, .
MRTG :
1. cfgmaker
.
2. indexmaker ... index. html
, , . .
3. mrtg
mrtg.

cfgmaker, .
:
c f g m a k e r global ' W o r k D i r : / v a r / w w w / h t m l / m r t g '
global ' O p t i o n s [ _ ] : b i t s , g r o w r i g h t ' \
output / v a r / w w w / h t m l / m r t g / m r t g . c f g
\
community^router

, . , ,
: .
, . , .
WorkDir . html- . / v a r / w w w / h t m l / ,
, Web, URL
: http://host/mrtg/

211


WorkDir HtmlDir ImageDir.
html- .
, WorkDir
HtmlDir ImageDir ,
WorkDir, mrtg , HtmlDir ImageDir .
Options . bits , ,
8. , growright,
. .
output cfgmaker
, .
.
WorkDir Options mrtg,
global output cfgmaker.

community@router SNMP-. SNMP-. public. SNMP-.


IP-, , public@192.168.1.1.
community@router ,
.
mrtg.cfg:
WorkDir: /var/www/html/mrtg
Options[_]: b i t s , g r o w r i g h t
T a r g e t [ r l ] : community@router
(rl) .
, :
T a r g e t [ r l ] : 1:communitySrouter
T a r g e t [ r 2 ] : 2:community@router
M a x B y t e s [ r l ] : 1250000
MaxBytes[r2]: 2500000
T i t l e [ r l ] : T r a f f i c Analysis for f i r s t interface
P a g e T o p f r l ] : <Hl>Stats f o r o u r i n t e r f a c e #1</H1>
T i t l e [ r 2 ] : T r a f f i c A n a l y s i s f o r second i n t e r f a c e
PageTop[r2] : <Hl>Stats for our interface #2</Hl>

MaxBytes . , MaxBytes, .
Title ,
, PageTop ,
.
1 2
SNMP-. ( IP-)
272


SNMP- SNMP.
161:
communitygrouter:161
,
:
1. .
2. .
3. .
4. .
, :
Target[]: Vusr/bin/program'
Refresh Interval.
, MRTG. 300 .
perminute perhour
. noinfo
. :
O p t i o n s [ _ ] : bits, perminute, noinfo
, , , MRTG
, http://
localhost/mrtg/. . ,
SNMP-, Linux-, . ,
- , - .
MRTG snmpd.
:
,
. snmpd
,
mrtg, ,
SNMP.
,
. : ,
, :
1
2
3
4
1 ().
2 ().
213


3 , .
4 .
? ! ,
.
:
.
: , a MRTG .
, .
Linux . ,
, /proc/net/dev. :
cat /proc/net/dev
(. 8.7).
, , ,
, .
/proc/net/dev , .
. , . uptime.
l:51pm up 2:10, 4 users, load average: 0 . 0 2 , 0 . 0 4 , 0 . 0 0
uptime, , ,
,
. ,
2 10 . 2 10 ,
.
,
uptime uptime .
, ,
. , ,
.
count (. 8.10)
/ u s r / b i n ( !).
8.10. count
I!/bin/bash
/bin/grep "$1" /proc/net/dev | /bin/awk -F ":" '{ print $2 }' |
/bin/awk M print $1 "\n" $9 }'

UPTIME=Vusr/bin/uptime | /bin/awk -F " " '{ print $3 }'


echo $UPTIME
echo $1

:
count
, count ethO.

214


, :
2738410
1235960
2:57,
ethO

:
,
($1). awk
, .
uptime.
uptime .
, : ethO
(), .
(. . 8.10).
MRTG .
mrtg
,

. 8.10. (2)
8.11.

8.11.

/var/WHW/html/mrtg/mrtg.cfg

WorkDir: /var/www/html/mrtg/ipc
Options[_]: bits,growright
Target[ethO]: Vusr/bin/count ethO'
T i t l e [ e t h O ] : Local Ethernet
MaxBytes[ethO]: 99999999
PageToptethO]: Status of /dev/ethO
T a r g e t [ p p p O ] : V u s r / b i n / c o u n t
T i t l e [ p p p O ] : Leased line
MaxBytes[pppO]: 99999999
PageTop[pppO]: Status of /dev/pppO

8.11 , ,
. , ,
count, (ethO ).
/var/www/html/mrtg/ipc.
/ v a r / w w w / h t m l / m r t g / ,
mrtg.
MaxBytes, Title PageTop .
mrtg .
mrtg :
mrtg / v a r / w w w / h t m l / m r t g / m r t g . c f g
215


/ v a r / w w w / h t m l / m r t g / i p c . - .
mrtg ,
.
, ,
mrtg crond.
/etc/crontab ( ):
5 , 1 0 , 1 5 , 2 0 , 2 5 , 3 0 , 3 5 , 4 0 , 4 5 , 5 0 , 5 5 , 5 9 * * * * root / u s r / b i n / m r t g /
var/www/html/mrtg/mrtg.cfg

0 - 5 9 / 5 * * * * root / u s r / b i n / m r t g / v a r / w w w / h t m l / m r t g / m r t g . c f g

crond:
/ e t c / i n i t . d / c r o n d restart
mrtg ( crond).
RunAsDaemon yes.
mrtg.
, mrtg.
http://localhost/mrtg/ipc/eth0.html.
.

: ..
j
mrtg,

] htlp:localhosl.localdomaWmrtg/ipcft1 .hlml
mrtg.
::

Statistics for pppO


The statistics were last updated Thursday, 4 July 2002 at 15:35,
at which time 'pppO' had been up for 3:53,.
'Daily' Graph (5 Minute Average)

S . k

fc -

10.0 k

8
10 12
14
16 ^
18 ^
20 22 0

8 10 12 14

Max h 39.3 kWs (0.0%) Average b 5752.0 b/s (0.0%) Current !:i 15.1 kbft (0.0%)
Max Oui:39.3kWs(0.0%) Average Ou!:5976.0b/s(0.0%) Current OutilS.l kWs(0.0%)

'Weekly' Graph (30 Minute Average)

' I
I

24.0 k
18.0 k
12.0 k
6.0 k
0.0 k
.<

216

. 8.11.
pppO

8.6. (NFS)

. ,
, , , .

. - Microsoft. , NFS,
NFS-. ,
,
NFS-.
,
NFS, NFS.
NFS ,
netfs nfslock, nfsd mountd.

/ e t c / i n i t . d / r c . d .
, NFS. , n f s - u t i l s - 0 .2 . l-2mdk. 1586. rpm , n f s u t i l s - 0 . 2 . l - 2 m d k . i 5 8 6 . r p m .
8.6.1. NFS
, NFS,
n f s - u t i l s - 0 .2. l-2mdk. 1586.rpm.
NFS
/etc/exports. ,
(.
8.12). /home,
/pub .
8.12.

/etc/exports

/pub ( r o , i n s e c u r e , a l l _ s q u a s h )
/home/den d e n h o m e . d o m a i n . c o m ( r w )
/mnt/cdrom (ro)
/mnt/cdrom compll.domain.com(noaccess)

. /pub
.
/home/den
denhome.domain.com. /mnt/cdrom , compll.doniain.com.
, . 8.7.
277


8.7

, /etc/exports

, ,
( < 1024).

secure
insecure

secure

rw

"

noaccess

link_absolute

link relative

squash_uidssquash_gids

all_squash

no_all_squash

all_squash.

root_squash

root (uid=0)
. , root
( root) .

no_root_squash

root_squash root
( root)

anonuid=UID
anonguid=GID

8.6.2. NFS
, NFS.
- . ,
NFS- NFS,
nfs-utils-0.2.1-2mdk.i586.rpm.
, NFS-. ,
. mount:
mount -t nfs -o timeo=30 nfsserver.domain.com:/home/den

/home/den/remote/

, t nfs.
timeo , 3 . nfsserver.domain.com
/home/den.
/home/den/remote/.
, . 8.8.
DNS NFS, , DNS NFS.
NFS.
10, DNS.
, , : ,
.
218


mount

8.8

, NFS
,
, NFS
, .

bg
fQ

soft

, , NFS ( ),
/.
, - . ,

hard

, ,
NFS, ,
. ,

tcp

TCP, UDP

rsize=1024

, .
1024

wsize=1024
noexec

rsize,


,
/etc/fstab. ,
:
nfsserver.domain.com:/home/den
/home/den/remote/ nfs bg,hard,rw 1 0

8.7. ht:/Dig
Dig
Web- . Dig ,
, , Rambler, Yandex Google, .

.
Dig . (boolean method)
(fuzzy searching method).
: ,
.
HTML-
. HTML , . .
( ).
htdig.conf Dig
/etc/htdig. database_dir
279


ht:/Dig. ,
, .
start_url URL- . Dig
, .
.
Iimit_urls_to ,
. URL-, start_url.
excludejirls , .
/cgi-bin/, .
bad_extensions .
HTML (max_head_length),
(max_doc_size) (search_algoritm),
allow_virtual_hosts .
Dig : htdig, htmerge, htfuzzy,
htnotify htsearch. htsearch, htdig,
htmerge, htfuzzy . htdig ,
Web- .
htmerge , htdig,
. htfuzzy
, .
Web-, htsearch . htsearch
: , (config), (method) (sort).
GET POST.
rundig.

8.8. - SocksS
8.8.1.
SocksS -. SocksS socks5
. ,
. runsocks,
socksS .
- SocksS
, Socks- ( ICQ) . $20


: ICQ ,
- firewall.
:
IP-, SocksS- .
. 14,
. ,
- SQUID.
5190.
ICQ-:
acl SSL_ports port 5190
, SQUID, - SocksS
. -, ICQ
?
, - (SocksS SQUID)
,
.
socksS ICQ licq,
ssh, . socksS :
http://www.socks.nec.com. socksS
. , :
man socksS.conf
man libsocksS.conf
socksS.
-
(http://www.socks.nec.com/cgi-bin/download.pl) vl.O
release 11. socks5-vl. O r l l .
socksStools - -
. :
./configure
make
make install
/etc socksS. conf,
.
. (. 8.13), , .
8.13. /etc/socks5.conf
set SOCKS5_NOREVERSEMAP
set SOCKS5JSIOSERVICENAME
set SOCKS5_NOIDENT
221


set SOCKS5_MAXCHILD 128
set SOCKS5_TIMEOUT 10
auth - u
permit u interface 192.168.0. -.ethO

,
. ,
.
.
SOCKS5_NOIDENT ident-.

. , ,
- (10 ).
auth permit. , /.
auth :
auth _ _ _

(, ).
permit:
permit _ _ _
_ [_]

.
permit, -,
:
permit u cpubt 192.168. - - [100,1000] user
user ( , ). user Connect,
Ping, Udp, Bind Traceroute (cpubt) 192.168.*.*.
( -) ( -) 100.. 1000.
interface ( 8.13) 192.168.0.* ( ) ethO. permit
deny .
/etc/socks5 .passwd . :
petrov 123456
ivanov paswd
! . :
# / u s r / l o c a l / b i n / s o c k s 5 -f -s
( ).
222


,
:
11410: SocksS starting at Mon Mar 4 19:13:55 2002 in normal mode

:
# k i l l a l l socksS
8.8.2. SocksS
socksS dante-socks, http://www.inet.no/dante/. sockd.conf (. 8.14).
8.14. /etc/sockd.conf
internal: 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 0 . 1 port = 1080
e x t e r n a l : 111.111.111.111
client pass {
f r o m : 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 0 . 0 / 1 6 to: 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 / 0
}
pass
(
from: 0.0.0.0/0 to : . 192 . 168 . 0 . 0/16
command: bindreply udpreply
log: connect error
internal (, IP-), a external IP (111.111.111.111.111).
client pass ( 192.168.0.0),
pass ,
.
(0.0.0.0).
.
8.8.3. SocksS (licq)
, , Socks-.
ICQ
Windows, licq ICQ- Linux.
ICQ
ICQ, Services
(. 8.12). Preferences Connections
Server. - - SocksS
(. . 8.13).
. 8.12. icq

223


Owner Preferences For: dhsilabs
U Contact List

() Connections

^J Miscellaneous

.
General

^5 Status Mode
etephony/Data/Games
glgg

Server

^"Events
(^ Shortcut Bar

1 Port:

^ Security & Privacy

Firewall

User

Fieset
:

i Not using Firewall


1 ff Using Firewall

[)<3GteetingCd "'..:

- -
-;
;
~ ;:.--;
-~;
-; i
:AutoConfieutii;: ', \ :

[5190

Proxy Settings
:

</ ICSJEmaJ Import* :::


ggphoneBook

; > ': - Setvei! ~


__ -;' -| , rlCOServa

i i Host |login.icq.com

i- Not using proxy

~-r-:

- - > - - , ]|Socks5

i ,
-

-- ; ;:

j|

| '

g^ Email Preferences
Q5j Picture
:

f3 Invite Old Friends ;V ;

; " Keep connection alive

glCQphone
SMS Messages
Add

[ juiijt"

IJj Web Information |

Restore ICQ Defaults |

Cancel ||

Apply

| |

ji

. S. 13. icq

Firewall -:
, , (socksS), (. . 8.14).
Apply ICQ Windows .
licq . -, runsocks, - ( ), licq, socksS. , licq configure
enable-socksS:
. / c o n f i g u r e enable-socksS

|5-

:
|1^1
||1,

i:lisSif*M!:;jdhsilabs

&

. S. 14. -

224


:
make; make i n s t a l l

/etc/libsocks5. conf :
socksS - - 192 . 1 6 8 . 0 . l : p o r t
192.168.0.1 socksS-, port ,
( 1080).

8.9.
8.9.1. LIDS?
LIDS (Linux Intrusion Detection System) . ,
.
LIDS
Xie Huagang Philippe Biondi http://www.Iids.org.
LIDS, .

. 0.8.x ,
0.9.x.
,
, LIDS
LIDS.
LIDS root , , , .
root, , :

Linux. ,
, (
Microsoft) - , root.
LIDS ,
.
-, LIDS . , .
.
, ,
.
Hacker-HOWTO, CD.

-, , ,
/etc/passwd, LIDS, root.
. , , LIDS,
, Is- 1.
LIDS, /etc/passwd,
login, su passwd,
8 . 851

225


, .
-, ,
, .
LIDS ,
-. LIDS .
.

LIDS , .
8.9.2, LIDS
LIDS 2.2.13 .
LIDS http://www.lids.org/download.
, LIDS
,
, , .
, LIDS .
LIDS :
, LIDS, . LIDS firewall, .
( ),
. LIDS ,
( ) . , ,
LIDS , .
: LIDS
, ,
, ,
Linux RESET, LIDS .
, LIDS, .
, (,
rpm-). ,
. LIDS,
,
Linux. LIDS:
tar x f z L I D S - x . x . x - k . k . k . t a r . g z
LIDS ,
k. /usr/src :
patch -pi / u s r / s r c / L I D S - x . x . x / L I D S - x . x . x - k . k . k . p a t c h

226


LIDS (LJDS
/usr/src). LIDS, LIDS.
/usr/src/LlDS-x.x.x/lidsadm-x.x.x :
make
make install
make install , lidsadm. l . gz ( LIDS
0.9.8), :
gzip lidsadm.1
make install.
. menuconfig ( make
menuconfig). :
1. Prompt for development and/or incomplete code/drivers (Code maturity level
options).
2. Sysctl support (General Setup).
3. Linux Intrusion Detection System support (EXPERIMENTAL) (General Setup).
LIDS LIDS
(. 8.9).
8.9

LIDS

Maximum protected
objects to manage
Maximum ACL subjects
to manage
Maximum ACL objects
to manage
Maximum protected
proceeds
Hang up console when
raising security alert
Security alert when
excepting unprotected
programs before sealing
LIDS

. 1024.

.
,
(1024)

. 1024.
, ,
,

.
.

.
Do not execute unprotected
, , ,
programs before sealing
, .
LIDS

LIDS
Try not to flood logs
.
LIDS,
LIDS LIDS. .
Allow switching LIDS
, , Allow remote users to switch LIDS
protections
protections, LIDS
. ! ( Allow any program
to switch LIDS protections)

227


. 8.9

Port Scanner Detector


in kernel

, .
,

Send security alerts


through network

,
.
, SMTP.

LIDS debug (
LIDS)

. ,
LIDS

, / u s r / s r c / l i n u x
:
make
make
make
make
make

clean
dep
install
modules
modules_install

.
:

make clean dep install modules modules_install


( clean, dep ...) .
- , , modules , a modulesjnstall .

LIDS.
, , ! LIDS, ,
, . LIDS , , , .
8.9.3.
LIDS /etc /lids. : lids.cap, l i d s . n e t ,
lids.pw, lids.conf.
(cap
capabilities ). , ,
.
(lids. net) . (lids.pw)
. LIDS RipeMD-160.
lidsadm.
. lidsadm.

228


-
. . 8.10 . , lids.cap,
:
[ + /-]:
+, . . , .
, , lidsadm.
, . ,
. l i d s . 8.15.
8.15. lids.cap
+0:CAP_CHOWN
+1:CAP_DAC_OVERRIDE
+ 2:CAP_DAC_READ_SEARCH
+3:CAP_FOWNER
+4:CAP_FSETID
+5:CAP_KILL
+6:CAP_SETGID
+7:CAP_SETUID
+8:CAP_SETPCAP
-9:CAP_LINUX_IMMUTABLE
-10:CAP_NET_BIND_SERVICE
+11:CAP_NET_BROADCAST
-12:CAP_NET_ADMIN
-13:CAP_NET_RAW
+14:CAP_IPC_LOCK
+15:AP_IPCJDWNER
-16:CAP_SYS_MODULE
-17:CAP_SYS_RAWIO
-18:CAP_SYS_CHROOT
+19:CAP_SYS_PTRACE
+20:CAP_SYS_PACCT
-21:CAP_SYS_ADMIN
+22:CAP_SYS_BOOT
+23:CAP_SYS_NICE
+24:CAP_SYS_RESOURCE
+25:CAP_SYS_TIME
+2 6:CAP_SYS_TTY_CONFIG
+27:CAP_HIDDEN
+28:CAP INIT KILL

229


8.10

CAP_CHOWN

CAP_DAC_OVERRIDE
CAP DAC READ SEARCH
CAP_FOWNER
CAP_FSETID
CAPJOLL
CAP_SETGID
CAP_SETUID
CAP SETPCAP
CAP_LINUX_IMMUTABLE
CAP NET BIND SERVICE
CAP NET BROADCAST
CAP_NET_ADMIN
CAP NET RAW

CAP_IPC_LOCK
CAP_IPC_LOCK
CAP_SYS_MODULE
CAP_SYS_RAWIO
CAP_SYS_CHROOT
CAP_SYS_PTRACE
CAP_SYS_PACCT
CAP_SYS_ADMIN
CAP_SYS_BOOT
CAP_SYS_NICE
CAP_SYS_RESOURCE
CAP SYS TIME
CAP SYS TTY CONFIG
CAP_HIDDEN
CAP_INIT_KILL

230

( , )
. , ,

, root,
. ,
0600, root ( )
, ( : )
,
,
SUID SGID ,
root
root ()

, .
root.
: httpd, sendmail, safejnysql, safejinger, postfix, ftpd
, .
root

.
, SJMMUTABLE ( chattr -i) S_APPEND (chattr -a)
, 1024

:
, , firewall
..
- (Raw Unix Socket)
root

root

() .

, , /dev/mem, /dev/hd*,
/dev/sd*. , /
.

ptracef).

: . ,



, , , .




init.
,


lidsadm -I.
, , .11,
, , , .
. , ,
lids.net (. 8.16).
8.16. lids.net
MAIL_SWITCH=1
MAIL_RELAY=127.0.0.1:25
MAIL_SOURCE=localhost
MAIL_FROM=LIDS@domain.ru
MAIL_TO=admin@adminhome.ru
MAIL_SUBJECT=The intrusion is revealed
(1) (0) . MAIL_RELAY IP- SMTP
SMTP. MAIL_SOURCE , , . MAIL_FROM ,
MAIL_TO . MAIL_SUBJECT .

, e-mail-, . .
SMS ,
, LIDS?
LIDS
LIDS. (,
), :
lidsadm -P
8.9.4.
LIDS - ,
, .
lids.conf
lidsadm.
, :
lidsadm -L
:
lidsadm -
. ,
,
LIDS mode,
(inodes)
LIDS. :
lidsadm -Z
231


:
1. .
2. .
3. ().
(, ),
LIDS
. ,
, , ..
,
.
LIDS. () :
READ
.
WRITE
.....
DENY
.
APPEND
.
IGNORE
.
:
lidsadm - - -s -j
,
.

rootkit. , rootkit
rootkit'oB http://www.softerra.ru/review/security
/16999/pagel.html.
rootkit , .
:
lidsadm - - /bin -j READ
lidsadm -A -o /sbin -j READ
lidsadm -A -o /etc -j READ
lidsadm -A -o / u s r / b i n -j READ
lidsadm -A -o / u s r / s b i n -j READ
lidsadm -A -o /lib -j READ
lidsadm -A -o /boot -j READ
, ,
:
,
.
,
. ,
. , mount 232


/etc/mtab . , WRITE :
lidsadm - - /etc -s / b i n / m o u n t -j WRITE
lidsadm -A -s -o / e t c /bin/umount -j WRITE
lidsadm
lidsadm
lidsadm
lidsadm
lidsadm

-A
-A
-A
-A
-A

-s
-s
-s
-s
-s

-o
-o
-o
-o
-o

/ l i b / m o d u l e s / 2 . 2 . 1 7 - 2 1 m d k /sbin/depmod -j WRITE
/ e t c / m t a b / s b i n / f s c k . e x t 2 -j WRITE
/etc / e t c / r e . d / r c . l o c a l -j WRITE
/etc/HOSTNAME / e t c / r e . d / r c . s y s i n i t -j WRITE
/etc/mtab / e t c / r e . d / r c . s y s i n i t -j WRITE

,
,
.
, /etc/passwd /etc/shadow,
,
. :
lidsadm -A -o /etc/shadow -j DENY
lidsadm -A -o /etc/shadow -s / b i n / l o g i n -j READ
lidsadm -A /etc/shadow -s / b i n / s u -o -j READ
lidsadm -A -o /etc/shadow -s / u s r / s b i n / i n . f t p d -j READ
LIDS , (
root) .
, , , . .
, ( root). , . ,
LIDS.
.
/ v a r / l o g , READ ,
. , ,
, ,
. logrotate
/var/log.
, . ,
- .
:
INHERIT
.
NOJNHERIT
.
:
lidsadm -A -s -t - -j

()
233



-t.
LIDS . - , Linux,
security=0. LIDS
:
LILO boot: linux security=0
8.9.5. LIDS

, LIDS, , -
CAP_SYS_MODULE.
LIDS
lidsadm. lidsadm
. lidsadm , .
e-mail
LIDS. lidsadm :
lidsadm -S +/-
, . 8.11.
LIDS

-LIDS

+LIDS
+RELOAD CONF
LIDS_GLOBAL

8.11

LIDS .
, LIDS.
( ) LIDS
, ,
LIDS. LIDS
LIDS
LIDS
LIDS

LIDS.
. LIDS,
:
lidsadm -S -LIDS
vi / e t c / l i d s / l i d s . c a p

lidsadm -S - +RELOAD_CONF
lidsadm -S - +LTDS
. LIDS .
, , lids.cap. LIDS .
234


LIDS
.
. , CAP_SYS_MODULE, ,
. ,
, .
lidsadm -S - -CAP_SYS_MODULE
insmod module.
lidsadm -S - +CAP SYS MODULE

235

Server Message Block


(SMB)
9.1. Samba
Samba,
SMB (Server Message Block),
NetBIOS. Samba , Linux,
Microsoft.
http://www.samba.org,
.
Samba :
1. Linux Windows.
2. Microsoft.
3. Microsoft,
.
, samba, sambacommon samba-client:
# rpm -ih /mnt/cdrom/Mandrake/RPMS/samba*
, ( Mandrake,
), .
samba smbd nmbd.
8MB, NetBIOS.
.
smbd nmbd ,
. , (, ,
,
).
/etc/inetd.conf .
.
Samba ,
.
236

Server Message Block (SMB)


netconf (. . 9.1), :
Samba
( Red Hat Mandrake),
, .
, This menu allows to configure the Ba SMS life-
netconf ,
:: Defaults,
Server Tasks,
Vshte::,|::
Default setup to printers j
Samba (. . 9.1).
netconf
Samba
. 9.1. Samba
(. . 9.2)

(. . 9.3).
:

You are allowed to enter configurations


for one disk share

|Base config

|
|
v

Not managed

* Acct & passwords

' v A c c t . only

SMB account management

J Synchronise Linux from SMB passwords


Server description

Work group

Netbios name (opt)

Samba Server %v

(WORKGROUP

SERVER

Netbios aliases (opt)

Accept

Cancel

Help

. 9.2.

237

Server Message Block (SMB)

are allowed to enter tenfigurations

SHARAI!!!

share

. 9..

9.2.
Samba
/etc/smb.conf. . INI- Windows, , w i n . i n i . / e t c / s m b . c o n f
,
.
=3. [global], 9.1.
9.1. global
[global]
workgroup = WORK
comment = Linux Server
guest account = guest
security = share
printing = bsd
printcap name = /etc/printcap
load printers = yes
client code page = 866
238

Server Message Block (SMB)


character set = koi8-r
encrypt passwords = Yes
log file = /var/log/samba/log.%m
max log size = 50
socket options = TCP_NODELAY SO_RCVBUF=8192 SO_SNDBUF=8192
dns proxy = no
wins support = yes
domain master = yes
interfaces = 192.168.1.1/24 192.168.2.1/24

workgroup NT.
comment NT Description Windows NT
Description ( ) Windows 9x. guest
account . guest
, . , , .
security :
share

.
user
, Windows.
.
server
NT.
printing printcap name .
BSD, ,
, .
.
client code page character set
Windows.
Windows NT, Service Pack 3,
. Samba .
encrypt password yes. Samba
,
Windows. ,
Windows, , Samba.
, Windows
, . Windows NT:
[NT HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\Current ControlSet\Services\Rdr\Parameters]

EnablePlainTextPassword DWORD , 1. Windows 9x ,


[HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\VxD\Parameters].
Windows 2000
[HKK_lJOa^L_CHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\LaniranWorkStation\Parameters] .
239

Server Message Block (8MB)


log file max log size
() .
socket option. , ,
s m b . c o n f .
,
Samba ,
. , 9.1.
,
. [homes]. 9.2.
9.2. [homes]
[homes]
comment = Home
browseable = yes
writable = yes
browseable=yes (. 9.2) Microsoft. writable =yes (
read only=no).
(. 9.3).
[public].
9.3. [public]
[public]
comment = Public Directory
path = /home/samba
read only = no
, .
(. 9.4). , smb.conf (#), (;).
9.4.
; NETLOGON
[netlogon]
comment = Samba Netlogon Service
path = /var/netlogon
; He yes
case sensitive = no
guest ok = yes
locking = no
writable = yes
browseable = yes
;
[Profiles]
240

Server Message Block (SMB)


path = /usr/local/samba/proflies
browseable = no
printable = no
guest ok = yes
; , admin
; admin Samba
[admin]
comment = admin's directory
path = /home/admin
valid users = admin root
read only = no

9.3. SMS- Linux


, Windows . , Microsoft,
Windows. A
, Linux
. ,
. .
Microsoft smbclient.
, share
nt_wsl. , user 123456.
smbclient :
$ smbclient / / n t _ w s l / s h a r e -U user%123456
,
.
, , ,
, ftp (. . 9.1).
smbclient

9.1

Dir

cd []

(,
, ). ,
, smbclient

get [] [. ]


. ,

put [] [, ]

()
, . ,
,

rm []
rmdir []

()

md []
mkdir []

()

mput []

()

del []

help

exit quit

smbclient

241

Server Message Block (SMB)


smbclient . smbmount,
.
.
, customers nt,
user. /mnt/customers,
(UID) 500, (GID) 100:
smbmount //nt//customers" -U user -c 'mount /mnt/customers -u 500 -g 100'
:
smbmount / / n t / c u s t o m e r s / /mnt/customers -U user
.
smbmount root. ,
,
Setuid root, .
smbmount
. smbmount ,
. .

[rootSdhsilabs /root] smbclient -L nt_wsl


Server
time is Ued flpr 7 12:28:10 2002
3
assword:
Domains[WORK: OS=[Uindows NT 4.03 Server=[NT]
Server=[ZIMMERMflN] User=[] Uorkgroup=[UORKGROUP] Domain=[]
Sharename

Tape

Comment

flDMIN*
public
C*
IPC*
Canon-80

Disk
Disk
Disk
IPC
Printer

Remote fldmin
Public
DeFault share
Remote IPC
Canon BJC-80

This machine has a browse list:


Server

Comment

SERVER
[rootSdhsilabs /root]

Samba 2.0.7

. . . . ...

. 9.4.

-L

(. . 9.4).
Browse list (. . 9.4) SMB-
. I smbclient
DNS. , domain.ru, nt_wsl :
$ smbclient -L -I nt w s l . d o m a i n . r u

242

Server Message Block (SMB)

9.4. Linux Windows-


. [global] load printers
/etc/printcap (. 9.1). BSD. [printers] smb.conf (. 9.5).
,
.
9.5. [printers]
[printers]
comment = All Printers
securi ty=server
path = / v a r / s p o o l / l p d / l p
browseable = no
printable = yes
public = yes
writable = no
create mode = 0700
, (browseable, writable,
comment), , [homes]. path
, ( ). public yes - , .
- public=no.

. public
guest ok. writable ,
()
.
, - . , 9.6.
9.6.
[admprn]
valid user = root admin administator
path = /home/admin
printer = canon
public = no
writeable = no
printable = yes
Windows- ,
Linux- Linux-, ,

243

Server Message Block (SMB)

.ibH.I.MIIaii-.nflli-JlulirulH!,-!.-

"UfC'.'!'"

afxfaSsl:

m am
;j//smb-^nux/canon

7:

i!.feia
:

. 9.5.

Windows. Windows 98 :
1.
-> -> .
2. .
3. : .
4.

(. . 9.5).
5. .

9.5. Windows- ,
Linux
, /etc/printcap.
9.7.
9.7. printcap
# /etc/printcap
#
# //nt_wsl/hp5m via smbprint
#
lp:\
#
:cm=HP 5MP Postscript hp5m on nt_wsl:\
# ,
:lp=/dev/lpO:\
# ( )
:sd=/var/spool/lpd/lp:\
#
:af=/var/spool/lpd/lp/acct: \
# .
# , ,
:#0:\
#
:if=/usr/bin/smbprint:

244

Server Message Block (SMB)


9.7 ( )
printcap, , , :
cm
;
1
, ;
sd
;
af
;

. , ;
if
.
, , .
. 9.7 /dev/lpO.
Samba smbprint.
,
SMB. , ,
9.8.
Samba.
9.8. smbprint
# ! / b i n / s h -x
# () Andrew Tridgell
# ,
# /etc/printcap
# smbclient
# , Windows.
#
# smb:lp=/dev/null:sd=/usr/spool/smb:sh:if=/usr/local/samba/smbprint
#
# unix-, "smb",
# .
# /usr/spool/smb
# , .
I (Michael Hamilton)
# ,
# /usr/var/spool/lpd/PRINTNAME/.config
f
# , , /etc/printcap
# (af=...):
#
#cdcolour:\
#
:cm=CD IBM Colorjet on 6th:\
#
:sd=/var/spool/lpd/cdcolour: \
#
:af=/var/spool/Ipd/cdcolour/acct:\
I
:if=/usr/local/etc/smbprint:\
#
:mx=0:\
#
:lp=/dev/null:

245

Server Message Block (SMB)

#
t /usr/var/spool/lpd/PRINTNAME/ . conf ig
#
server=PC_SERVER
f
service=PR_SHARENAME
#password="pas sword"
f
#,
#
server=PAULS_PC
#
service=CJET_371
#
password=""
#
# , /dev/null
f
logf ile=/tmp/smb-print . log
# logfile=/dev/null
spool_dir=/var/ spool /Ipd/lp
conf ig_f ile=$spool_dir/ . conf ig
eval x cat $conf ig_file '
echo "server $server, service $service" $logfile
echo translate
echo "print -"
cat
) | / u s r / b i n / s m b c l i e n t " \ \ \ \ $ s e r v e r \ \ $ s e r v i c e " $password -U $user
-N -P $ l o g f i l e
. , ,
Samba
.

9.6. smb. conf


9.9 / e t c / s m b . c o n f .
.
9.9. smb.conf
[global]
workgroup = WORK
comment = Linux Server
guest account = guest
security = share
printing = bsd
printcap name = /etc/printcap
load printers = yes
client code page = 866
character set = koi8-r
encrypt passwords = Yes
246

Server Message Block (SMB)


log file = /var/log/samba/log.%m
max log size = 50
# ,
f '
# socket options = TCP_NODELAY SO_RCVBUF=8192 SO_SNDBUF=8192
# dns proxy = no
t wins support = yes
# domain master = yes
# interfaces = 192.168.1.1/24 192.168.2.1/24
[admin]
comment = admin's directory
path = /home/admin
valid users = admin root
read only = no
[homes]
comment = Home
browseable = yes
writable = no
[public]
comment = Public Directory
path = /home/samba
read only = no
[printers]
comment = All Printers
path = /var/spool/lpd/lp
browseable = no
printable = yes
writable = no
create mode = 0700
guest ok = yes

9.7. SWAT
SWAT (Samba Web-based Administrative Tool)
Samba Web-. , , netconf linuxconf, SWAT Samba. ,
, . Samba
.
, SWAT
, , .
SWAT samba-swat. -
Linux. :
rpm -ihv samba-swat-2.2.la-4.1386.rpm
,
/etc/services :
swat 901/tcp
247

Server Message Block (SMB)


SWAT TCP
901. , .
/ e t c / i n e t d . c o n f
/ e t c / x i n e t d . c o n f .
inetd, /etc/inetd.conf
( ):
swatstream tcp n o w a i t . 4 0 0
r o o t / u s r / s b i n / s w a t swat
xinetd / e t c / x i n e t d . c o n f
swat ( 9.11):
9.11. /etc/xinetd.conf/swat
# default: off
I description: SWAT is the Samba Web Admin Tool. Use swat \
tt to configure your Samba server. To use SWAT, \
# connect to port 901 with your favorite web browser,
service swat
{

disable = no
port
= 901
socket_type = stream
wait
= no
only_from = 1 2 7 . 0 . 0 . 1
user
= root_
server = / u s r / s b i n / s w a t
log_on_failure += USERID

Samba
, only_from= 127.0.0.1
SWAT.
. :
/ e t c / i n i t . d / x i n e t d restart
:
killall -HUP xinetd
inetd :
k i l l a l l -HUP inetd
! SWAT Samba SWAT.
URL:
http://host:901

|-(>

,
(. . 9.6).
:
SWAT 127.0.0.1
: [ root
:

248

- 9-6-

Server Message Block (8MB)


*i 1 -,-.,,,
'$.,;

HOME

CLOBALS

SHARES

I Welcome to SWAT!

i
I

fcss?j^>xi

PRINTERS

STATUS ;

VIEW

; ""-".'!'

Documentation

'

PASSWORD
": :.::

* Daemons
""
E2i.i~ Hie SMB daemon
. . - * wininnd deninrm
* Configuration Files
^r- *he m."

italiontiie -

aWu Utilities
iEXSiSil"- send coniroi i
- managing SMS passwords

badaemotis
'-." ::-' ' ";:

. 9.7. Samba
Web Administration
Tool

.
(. . 9.7).
. 9.7 , SWAT
: .
Globals
(. 9.8). ,

; GtOBALS i SHARES

PRINTERS

STATUS

VIEW

PASSWORD

i Global Variables

''

: hki&

workgroup - :

JMYGROUP

: !|} . netbios name


i

server swing

1 Security jQptuji; s

\ t&&::' update encryptecf -j No^__("s"_batoi* j


i.jjgja. " guest account

"'.[nobody

|,jrfgj.:-;::-bustBijJ]ow;;' .

i i-isjp

hosts deny

; Loqqinq Ootions

'.

. 9.8.

Samba

249

Server Message Block (8MB)

f-

':**&
ghp:127.0.0.1:901 Mut

HOME

' 6LOSALS i SHARES

: PRINTERS

STATUS I

VIEW

PASSWORD

r 31;;!:

Rue. 9.9. Status

Help. ,
Set Default.
Shares , Printers
. Samba
Status (. . 9.9). ,
SMB NMB.
Samba, .
Passwords ,
Samba.

250

10
DNS

,
IP- , DNS.
. DNS, Linux.
DNS , .
DNS .
. (root).
: named, ,
. 10.1.
- .
. : com,
gov, net, org .
,
http://www.yahoo.com. IP-. , www.yahoo.com IP, () IP-.
DNS. DNS , . , DNS
DNS, .
: ,
com, , , DNS yahoo.com.
DNS yahoo.com IP- www 64.58.76.222
, ( , Linux, IP-).

251

DNS
.
, www.yahoo.com, DNS
:
64.58.76.222
64.58.76.228
64.58.76.223
64.58.76.176
64.58.76.224
64.58.76.177
64.58.76.227
664.58.76.179

www.yahoo.com (
) www.yahoo.akadns.net

10.1. DNS
, DNS 10...15,
30 (
), DNS . DNS
, . , , :
ps -ax I grep named
DNS , ( kill
ndc), ,
bind. , named,
bind. BIND (Berkley Internet Nameserver Deamon)
DNS-, Linux.
network. ,
, ?

. /etc/named, conf,
(. 10.1).
10.1. named.conf
logging {
category cname (null; };

};
options {
directory "/var/named";

};
zone "." {
type hint;
file "named.ca";

};
zone "dhsilabs.com" {
type master;

252

DNS
file "dhsilabs.com";
notify no;
};
zone "0.0.127.in-addr.arpa" {
type master;
file "named.local";
};
zone "1.168.192.in-addr.arpa" {
type master;
file "192.168.1";
notify yes;

};
/var/named.
. dhsilabs.com,
named.local, 192.168.1, named.ca (. 10.1, 10.3, 10.4). () dhsilabs.com.
10.1.
logging.
options. directory
-- /var/named. directory
options (, forwarders,
forward .), (. . 10.2).
directory.
, . () dhsilabs.com. /var/named/dhsilabs.com.
. IP-.
/var/named/192.168.1.
" . " " . . 127 . in-addr. arpa" . : .
named, local ,
IP- , , , 127.0.0.1 localhost.
named.ca -- ,
DNS-. DNS.
IP- ,
. ,
IP- ( ), DNS-
. ,
DNS, IP-
named.ca. named.ca , (
, , ). .
253

DNS
dhsilabs . com
IP- (. 10.2).

10.2. dhsilabs.*
@

IN

SOA
93011120
10800
3600
3600000
86400)

den

IN
IN
IN
IN

NS
A
MX
A

IN
IN
IN
ns
IN
WWW
IN
IN
IN
mail
evg
IN
IN
localhost

ftp

HINFO

MX
MX
CNAME
CNAME
CNAME
CNAME
A
MX
IN

den.dhsilabs.com. hostmaster.dhsilabs.com. (
;
; 3
;
; 1000
; TTL 24
den.dhsilabs.com.
192.168.1.1
150 den.dhsilabs.com.
192.168.1.1
INTEL CELERON (LINUX)
100 den
150 evg.dhsilabs.com.
den.dhsilabs.com.
den.dhsilabs.com.
den.dhsilabs.com.
den.dhsilabs.com.
192.168.1.2
100 den.dhsilabs.com.
A
127.0.0.1

.
. 10.1.
DNS

10.1

(name server)
IP-,
, IP-

NS

A
PTR

MX
CNAME

, .
MX . ,

, ,
http://www.dhsilabs.com, den.dhsilabs.com

HINFO

. .
,

TXT


@
IN
SOA
den.dhsilabs.com. hostmaster.dhsilabs.com. (
, (
dhsilabs.com).
10.3. named.local
@

254

IN

SOA d h s i l a b s . c o m . root, d h s i l a b s . c o m . (
199609203
/

DNS
28800
; 8
7200
; 2
604800
; 168 (1 )
86400)
;TTL 24
NS dhsilabs.com.
PTR localhost.

192.168.1 10.4.
10.4.
@ IN SOA den.dhsilabs.com. hostmaster.dhsilabs.com. (
93011120
;
10800
; 3
3600
;
3600000
; 1000
86400 )
; TTL - 24
@ IN NS den.dhsilabs.com
1 IN PTR den.dhsilabs.com
2.1.168.192
IN PTR evg.dhsilabs.com
PTR IP- .
IP, :
1 IN PTR den.dhsilabs.com
1.168.192.
IP- !
cachinnameserver, .
, DNS, :
# nslookup I tee ns
nslookup
> set q=ns ( set type=ns)
> .

DNS,
ns. ns named.ca
awk (. 10.5).
V.

10.5. reformat
#!/bin/awk
awk x BEGIN {
/root/ { print ". IN NS " $4"." }
/internet/ { print $1"." " 999999 IN A " $5 }
END '
reformat <source ffle> <output file>, :
reformat ns named.ca
namedca /var/named .

255

DNS
, .
dig, :
dig @ e . r o o t - s e r v e r s . n e t . n s > r o o t . h i n t s . n e w
named, ca
named.ca.new. , ,
.
named, ca :
NS
G.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
6D
IN
6D
IN
NS
J.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
6D
IN
NS
.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
6D
IN
NS
L.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
6D
6D
6D
6D
6D
6D
6D
6D
6D
;; ADDITIONAL SECTION:
G.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
J.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
L.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
M.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
A.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
H.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
D.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
E.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
I.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
F.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.

IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN

5w6dl6h
5w6dl6h
5w6dl6h
5w6dl6h
5w6dl6h
5w6dl6h
5w6dl6h
5w6dl6h
5w6dl6h
5w6dl6h
5w6dl6h
5w6dl6h
5w6dl6h

NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
NS
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN

A
A
A
A
A
A
A
A'
A
A
A
A
A

M.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
A.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
H.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
D.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
E.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
I.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.
F.ROOT-SERVERS.NET.

192.112.36.4
198.41.0.10
193.0.14.129
198.32.64.12
202.12.27.33

198.41.0.4
128.63.2.53
128.9.0.107
192.33.4.12
128.8.10.90
192.203.230.10
192.36.148.17
192.5.5.241

DNS
(intranet), ,
! . , named, conf.
.
/ e t c / r e s o l v . conf : search , 127.0.0.1.
:
search subdomain.domain.com domain.com
nameserver 1 2 7 . 0 . 0 . 1
, DNS
nameserver. ,
.
256

DNS

, . ,
http://host, host.subdomain.domain.com, , , host.domain.com. ,
. :
/ e t c / h o s t s , conf. : order hosts,bind.
, DNS,
hosts.

10.2. DNS
,- , , , . forwarders,
named.conf ( options). : ,
-
.
14400? , ,
, 56
V.90, 14. ,
, DNS ,
,
. :
.
-
DNS-, ,
. DNS- DNS- . DNS .
(DNS- ) .
, .
, ,
named.conf ( options):
forward f i r s t ;
forwarders {
192.168.99.1;
192.168.99.2;
};

,
192.168.99.1 192.168.99.2 DNS- . forwarders IP-, DNS-, DNS- , . IP-
.
9 *. 851

257

DNS
forward :
DNS- ;
first DNS- , forwarders DNS .
forward forwarders.
, , named.conf
, 10.6:
only

10.6. named.conf DNS


options {
directory "/var/named";
forward first;
forwarders {
192.168.99.1;
192.168.99.2;
};

// ,
// f i r e w a l l
// query-source port 53;
};

zone "." {
type hint;
f i l e "named.ca";
};

zone " 0 . 0 . 1 2 7 . i n - a d d r . a r p a " {


type slave;
f i l e " named.local ";
};

,
dhsilabs.com.
, ,
.
, DNS - . , ,
, a named
, .
1, nslookup, ,
, DNS.
.
. ,
-on, . 7, ndc
start (. ), ppp-off
DNS ndc stop.
258

DNS
-on
ppp-off, DNS .
named.ca. DNS ,
-on .
ppp-off named, ca
.
() :
Jan 5 16:10:11 den named[10147]: No root nameserver for class IN
, NFS,
,
named nfsd mountd.

10.3. DNS
- ,
DNS -- (primary master)
(secondary slave)?
DNS.
.
DNS. , , .
, - , ,
,
. , DNS, .

, , domain.com.
named, conf :
zone "domain.com" {
type slave;
f i l e "domain.com";
masters { 192.168.1.1; 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 1 . 2 ; };
};
IP- DNS master . ,
, slave.

10.4. DNS
DNS ndc.
start, stop, reload, restart.
start , a stop . reload
, ,
restart DNS.
259

DNS

10.5. nslookup
nslookup DNS
Linux ( UNIX), Windows NT.
.
.
.
: IP- (. 10.1),
.. hint
, master (),
slave ().

, .
,
. , nslookup:
# nslookup
Default Server: myserver.domain.com
Address: 127.0.0.1
>

, ,
set q=<type> ( set type=<type>).
. 10.2.

10.2

soa


IP-
!6-

ns
ptr

DNS

wks

hinfo

IP-

mx

txt

cname

any

. ,
www.server.com. ,
any:
>set q=any
>server.com
Server: myserver.domain.com
Address: 1 2 7 . 0 . 0 . 1
Non-authoritative answer:
server.com nameserver = compl.server.com
server.com nameserver = comp2.server.com
260

DNS
server.com nameserver = comp3.server.com
Authoritative answers can be found from:
server.com nameserver = compl.server.com
server.com nameserver = comp2.server.com
server.com nameserver = comp3.server.com
compl.server.com internet address = 323.111.200.1
comp2.server.com internet address = 323.111.200.2
comp3.server.com internet address = 323.555.200.3

.
>server compl.server.com
Default Server: compl.server.com
Address: 323.111.200.1
>server.com.
Server: compl.server.com
Address: 323.111.200.1
server.com internet address = 123.111.200.2
server.com nameserver = compl.server.com
server.com nameserver = comp2.server.com
server.com nameserver = comp3.server.com
server.com
origin = comp2.server.com
mail addr = root.server.com
serial = 19
refresh = 10800 (3 hours)
retry = 7200 (2 hours)
expire = 86400 (1 day)
minimum ttl = 3600 (1 hour)
server.com preference = 10, mail exchanger =mail.server.com
compl.server.com internet address = 323.111.200.1
comp2.server.com internet address = 323.111.200.1
comp3.server.com internet address = 323.111.200.3
mail.server.com internet address = 323.111.200.17

:
Is server.com.
[comp2.server.com]
server.com. 323.111.200.2
server.com. server = compl.server.com
server.com. server = comp2.server.com
server.com. server = comp3.server.com
mail 323.111.200.17
gold 323.111.200.22
www.ie 323.111.200.11

261

DNS
jersild 323.111.200.25
compl 323.111.200.1
323.111.200.3
parasitS 323.111.200.20
www.press 323.111.200.30
compl 323.111.200.1
www 323.111.200.2
,
HINFO? , ,
. , ,
?
.
HINFO , .

:
1. IP- .
2. : DNS firewall
, ,
Is server.com.
( ) , , , allowtransfer. 10.1.1.1
10.1.2.1. , 10.1.1.1 10.1.2.1 nslookup Is .
allow-transfer
{

10.1.1.1;
10.1.2.1;

262

FTP

11

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)


. FTP-
, , - . FTP-
ftp://ftp.redhat.com. Linux Red Hat, , .
FTP FTP-.
FTP-
ftp (. . 19.3). , FTP-,
, , . .
:
, , , , . ,
( put) -- ,
( get) .
() , . , , , .
anonymous, - - .
11.3.
19.3 FTP.
. , FTP-,
, (. . 11.1).
FTP- , FTP , 220: ProFTPD 1.2.0 Server. , Name
( den). -

263

FTP

CrootSdhsilabs /root]* ftp localhost


Connected to localhost.localdomain.
220 ProFTPD 1.2.0 Server (ProFTPD Default Installation) Cdhsilabs.com]
Name (localhost:root>: den
331 Password required for den.
Password:
230 User den logged in.
Remote system type is UNIX.
Using binary mode to transfer files.
ftp> Is /pubi

'-.

-.

'

. 11.1. FTP-

, ,
. ,
, 230.
, UNIX
(binary) .
, ,
, RPM, .

/1.1. FTP wu-ftpd


FTP wu-ftpd .

Linux. wu-ftpd.
, wu-fptd
inetd .
standalone , , FTP-
.
- .
FTP ,
inetd.conf (. 11.1)
11.1. inetd.conf
ftp

stream

top

nowait

root/usr/sbin/tcpd

i n . f t p d -1 -a

11.1 , FTP- ,
tcpd, .
, inetd xinetd,
(. 11.2).
264

FTP
11.2. xinetd.conf
service f t p
.,
socket_type
wait
user
server
server_args
instances
log_on_success
log_on_fallure
access_times
nice = 10

= stream
= no

= root
= /usr/etc/in.ftpd
= -1
= 4

+= DURATION USERID
+= USERID
= 2:00-8:59 12:00-23:59

1 FTP FTP s.yslog.


, ftp , . 11.1.
wu-ftpd

-d
-I
-L

-1
-
-
-
-i
-

11.1

syslog
FTP- syslog
syslog , FTP
( 15 ).
, FTP-

FTP ( 2 )
ftpaccess
ftpaccess.

xferlog , FTP
xferlog ,

wu-ftp : ftpaccess,
ftphosts, ftpusers, ftpgroups, ftpconversions.
.
11.1.1. ftpaccess
ftpaccess.
, /etc.
/ e t c / f t p a c c e s s 11.3.
11.3. ftpaccess
class
all real,guest,anonymous
email rootdlocalhost
loginfails 3

readme README* login


readme README* cwd=*
265

FTP
message /welcome.msg
message .message
compress
tar
chmod
delete
overwrite
rename

yes
yes
no
no
no
no

login
cwd=*
all
all
.guest,anonymous
guest,anonymous
guest,anonymous
guest,anonymous

log t r a n s f e r s anonymous,real inbound,outbound


shutdown /etc/shutmsg
passwd-check r f c 8 2 2 warn
f tpaccess FTP-, .
, , .
class ,
FTP. 11.3 all,
: (real), (guest), (anonymous).
, , /etc/passwd.
email .
loginfails . ,
. 5.
message ,
. , ,
,
.
chmod delete , FTP. overwrite delete . (. 11.3) guest anonymous
. wu-ftpd . 11.2.
wu-ftpd

11.2

autogroup _
_ [...]

alias

FTP-.
( )

anonymous-root
[_]

,
. FTP-
. ,
,

266

FTP
. 11.2

email _


. ()


. ,
,
.
raw (
), . in, out,
total ( , ,
),
. anonymous ( ), guest ( ) real ( ). ,
. _ ,
. * (. 1 1.3).
:
IP-. IP-. ,
IP-: _. IP- .
IP-aflpec/cidr. IP- CIDR.
Inameserved.
, DNS-.
/_. ,
IP- ( )
cdpath ,

(
compress)

.
_.
() .
:
IP-. IP-.
IP-: _. IP- .
IP-aflpec/cidr. IP- CIDR.
Inameserved.
, DNS-.
/_. ,
IP- ( )

file-limit [raw] in | out| total


_
[_]


. _
. bit-limit

guestgroup
[ ....]

, ,
FTP

limit _
_

, , . . .
, FTP-
,
_

loginfails

, .
5

banner

bit-limit [raw] in | out | total


__ [_]

class _
_
_

cdpath
compress yes | no _
defaultserver private

deny _
_

267

FTP
. 11.2

,
.
anonymous, guest, real (. class)

. anonymous,
log transfers _ guest, real (. class). _
_
, : inbound (
), outbound (). ,
(. 1 1 .3)
_
message _
.
LOGIN () \/0= ( ).

cwd=* (. 1 1.3)
.
noretrieve [15=_]
class, _


.
readme
, message
tar
,
tar yes | no _
tar
FTP-
virtual
log commands _

, wu-ftp , . , .
. 11.3.

chmod yes | no
_
delete yes |
_
overwrite yes | no
_
rename yes | no
_

password-check rfc822|
trivial | none enforce] warn

upload yes | no
_

268

11.3

chmod
.
anonymous, guest, real (. class)
delete
.
anonymous, guest, real (. class)

.
anonymous, guest, real (. class)

.
anonymous, guest, real (. class)
.
:
;
trivial '@';
rfs822 ,
RFC822 (
).
,
, . warm ,
FTP-.
enforce,

. anonymous,
guest, real (. class)

FTP
11.1.2. ftphosts
ftphosts
. , admin admm.domain.ru .
. , : . ftphosts :
allow | deny user hosts [ h o s t . . . ]
allow , hosts, .
deny, , ,
. 11.4 ftphosts.
11.4. ftphosts
allow admin 192.168.1.1
deny user 192.168.1.2 192.168.1.3

admin
IP- 192.168.1.1. - ,
. user 192.168.1.2 192.168.1.3,
.
11.1.3. ftpusers
ftpusers ,
ftp.
.
Login Incorrect, . root, bin, news, uucp. , ,
#, . 11.5.
11.5. ftpusers
root
bin
.
daemon
a dm
IP
sync
shutdown
halt
mail
news
uucp
operator
games
nobody
269

FTP
11.1.4. ftpgroups
ftpgroups ,
FTP . ,
ftpgroups yes.
, man ftpgroups.
11.1.5. ftpconversions
ftpconversions , FTP.
ftpconversions 11.6.
. 6. ftpconversions
:.Z:
:
:/bin/compress -d -
%s:T_REG|T_ASCII:OJJNCOMPRESS:UNCOMPRESS
: : . Z : / b i n / c o m p r e s s . - c %s:T_REG:0_COMPRESS:COMPRESS
. gz: : : / b i n / g z i p -cd %s:T_REG|T_ASCII:0_UNCOMPRESSrGUNZIP
: : . g z : / b i n / g z i p -9 -c %s:T_REG:0_COMPRESS:GZIP
: : . t a r : / b i n / t a r -c -f - %s:T_REG|T_DIR:OJTAR:TAR
: : . t a r . Z : / b i n / t a r -c -Z -f
%s:T_REG|T_DIR:0_COMPRESS|0_TAR:TAR+COMPRESS
: :. t a r . g z : / b i n / t a r -c -z -f %s:T_REG|T_DIR:0_COMPRESS|0_TAR:TAR+GZIP

.
.
, , . , gzip gz.
gz,
ftpconversions gz.
, UNIX,
Linux .

11.1.6. xferlog
x f e r l o g FTP, , . i FTP
, (. . 11.1).
.
, ,
. , ,
.

11.7, xferlog.

270

FTP
11.7. xferlog
Wed Jan 9 11:49:35 2002 1 localhost.localdomain
den/vmware.html a
o r den ftp 0 *
Wed Jan 9 1 1 : 5 0 : 0 8 2 0 0 2 1 l o c a l h o s t . l o c a l d o m a i n
w.out a
o r den f t p 0 *
Wed Jan 9 11:50:15 2002 1 localhost.localdomain
w.out a
i r den ftp 0 * cWed Jan 9 11:52:08 2 0 0 2 1 l o c a l h o s t . l o c a l d o m a i n
ftphosts.html b
i r den f t p 0 *

1490 /home/
281 / h o m e / d e n /
281 /home/den/
888 / h o m e / d e n /

. ,
den localhost.localdomain.
/home/den/vmware.html , 9
2002 11:49. .
1490 .
ASCII (),
(_). vmware.html ,
(). den
() (). , ftp.
. den
f t p h o s t s . h t m l . -- (i).
-- ().
w . o u t () .
.
, /etc/passwd. g
, .
, ,
i .
, x f e r l o g FTP wu-ftpd ProFTPD.

11.2. ProFTP
, , , , wu-ftpd
ProFTPD. ,
wu-ftpd, .
proftpd. wu-ftpd,
ProFTPD . standalone.
ProFTPD , . 11.4.

271

FTP
ProFTPD

-h
-

-d _
- _
-0| 1
-I
-V

11.4


.
standalone (. )
(1-5)

/etc/proftpd.conf
(0) (1) .
( )
,
ProFTPD

11.2.1. /etc/proftpd.conf
ProFTPD . /etc/proftpd.conf, - Web- Apache ( ).
11.8
ProFTPD.
11.8. /etc/proftpd.conf
#
#
ServerName "My ProFTPD server"
ServerType standalone
DefaultServer on
#
Port 21
Umase 022
Maxlnstances 30
# ,
User nobody
Group nobody
# . Directory
<Directory /*>
# , AllowOverwrite
AllowOverwrite on
</Directory>
: , , . HTML. , , (. 11.8). .
, ,
. , <Directory /*>,
</Direcory> (. 11.8). 272

FTP
, ( ).
<Directory> - . ( 11.8) .
. 11.5
ProFTPD.
ProFTPD

11.5

AccessGrantMsg
Allow from all | host | network
[,host | network!, ]]
AllowAII

,
. %
,
Limit.
( ). allow from all
Directory, Anonymous, Limit

AllowForeignAddress on | off

,
. off.
VirtualHost, Anonymous, <Global>

AllowGroup _

. Limit

AllowUser

.
Limit

AnonRequirePassword on

off

.
, .

< Anonymous directory>

, directory

,

AuthGroupFile

group.
/etc/group

AuthUserFile

passwd

Bind lp-

IP-

DefaultRoot

Deny from all | host | network

. Limit

DenyAII

,
Limit

DenyUser

<Directory>

VirtualHost, Anonymous ,

DisplayFirstChdir
_

,
. VirtualHost,
Directory, Anonymous

DisplayLogin _

<Global>

,
,

<Limit command>

FTP-, , LOGIN,
WRITE, READ, STOR

MaxClients number |
none

.
, .
Anonymous, Global

MaxLoginAttempts
Order allow, deny | deny, allow

. 3.
VirtualHost, Global
Allow Deny Limit

PersistentPassword on | off

on /etc/passwd
/etc/group, , enroot

RequireValidShell on | off


(shells), /etc/shells

273

FTP
. 11.5

ServerAdmin email
ServerType
Timeoutldle
Umask
User
UserAlias

<VirtualHost address>

email
standalone ( ) inetd.

, inetd

,
. 60 (1 )
. , (. 4)
, ProFTP

11.2.2.
Limit.
.
. 11.9.
11.9. Limit
<Directory incoming>
<Limit WRITE>
AllOwAll
</Limit>
<Limit READ>
DenyAll
</Limit>
</Directory>
Directory incoming,
Limit . WRITE Limit
AllowAll . READ Limit .
. WRITE READ Limit
STOR LOGIN (. . 11.6).
Limit Allow, AllowAll, AllowGroup,
AllowUser, Deny, DenyAll, DenyUser (. . 11.5). ,
11.10 , den. den
, IP 111.111.111.111. 192.168.2.0
Limit,

LOGIN
WRITE
READ
STOR

274

11.6

FTP
11.10. Limit
<Limit LOGIN>
DenyAll
AllowUser den
Deny from 111.111.111.111
Deny from 192.168.2.
</Limit>

11.2.3. .ftpaccess

.ftpaccess, .
, p r o f t p d . c o n f , .ftpaccess
p r o f t p d . c o n f .

11.3. -
FTP- wu-ftpd,
anonftp. ProFTPD.
anonoftp .
, FTP-
ProFTPD. ProFTPD
Anonymous. Anonymous
, .
Anonymous , . ProFTPD
enroot,
. , , ProFTPD
/etc.
, anonymous,
. ,
AnonRequirePassword (. 11.5).
Anonymous, (. 11.11.)
11.11. Anonymous
<Anonymous / v a r / f t p >
User f t p
Group ftp
UserAlias anonymous ftp
RequireValidShell o f f
<Directory *>
<Limit WRITE>
DenyAll
</Limit>
<Limit STOR>
275

FTP
AllowAll
</Limit>
</Directory>
</Anonymous>
User Group . ftp. ftp anonymous. .
RequireValidShell . ProFTPD
/ e t c / s h e l l s .
/etc/shells, . RequireValidShell off .
<Directory *> .
, .
Anonymous MaxClients,
.
. FTP
, .
, , 33 /,
, , 5 3. ,
, .
, , ,
(10...15).
.

11.4.
wu-ftpd ProFTPD
ftpshut, ftpwho, ftpcount. , ProFTPD
.
ftpshut . ftpwho , .
ftpcount .
ftpwho.
(. 11.12).
11.12. ftpwho
# ftpwho -v
Master proftpd process 759:
1113 2m55s proftpd: ftp localhost.localdomain: anonymous/
den@den.com: IDLE
(host: localhost.localdomain [127.0.0.1])
(cwd: /)

1150 Om20s
276

proftpd: den -- localhost.localdomain: IDLE

FTP
(host: localhost.localdomain [ 1 2 7 . 0 . 0 . 1 ] )
(cwd: /home/den)
Service class
2 users
ftpcount
(. 11.13).
11.13. ftpcount
Master proftpd process 759:
Service class
2 users

77.5. FTP

FTP-. FTP- .
, ? , ,
, .
Linux IP-,
. IP-,
. FTP- IP-.
FTP- , , ,
FTP, ,
, .
FTP- proftpd.
FTP- Web-, . VirtualHost. ,
FTP-, proftpd.conf
VirtualHost, IP- (. 11.14).
11.14. VirtualHost
<VirtualHost 192.168.1.5>
ServerName " V i r t u a l FTP Server"
</VirtualHost>
VirtualHost , ,
Anonymous, .
(. 11.15).
11.15. VirtualHost
<VirtualHost ftp.library.com>
ServerName "Online l i b r a r y "
MaxClients 15
MaxLoginAttempts
1
DeferWelcome
on
<Limit LOGIN>
Allow
from
192.168.1

277

FTP
Denyfromall
</Limit>
<Limit WRITE>
A l l o w U s e r libadmin
DenyAll
</Limit>
<Anonymous
/var/ftp/library/books>
User
library
Group
library
AnonRequirePassword on
</Anonymous>
<Anonymous / v a r / f t p / l i b r a r y >
User
ftp
Group
ftp
UserAlias
anonymous
ftp
</Anonymous>
</VirtualHost>

11.15
ftp.library.com. VirtualHost ,
DNS. IP-
, ProFTPD. 11.15 library ftp.
library . , . 192.168.1.0. libadmin.
FTP- X Window
gFTP, . gFTP ,
(. . 11.2).

nepsA^: I

' ai#t j::- ; ::: ; . |

-;--; :;-;:, ; ,,..-;:. "..;:.-:. . | "-1:1;-1:- . '!::?:..':--::-: :;;;: " --.:- '':'. '.'- | - --' ::-': '''- ' -' ... : ::-:- - - : ^^1; ; ,.,..-'
7 0
30
rent,.
- jden
jj :
|"*
': :': . .':;;-J | j

? ...,,

. ..; -.: j/Fiome/den

'.'.*:. (;.-

^:^^^^
' (3ynns::,',:-;:^: .

i
:
:

1 3
;i ?

s ^
i &

; :

- -

M^^M^te ?'

losMound
openoffice
winnt
linuxdg
linuxlog
Hmjx.nvrani
quota.user

4,096
4,098
4.096
S38
12,340
8,496
16.128

root

root
root
root
den
den
root
root
root
root
root
root
root root

/j ;

JnrMl.f1

:/\;-i::.:-i |

^^^--

.:... - : ' - ; } 3 Desktop


i;|f !. ^ UNUXCAD.2K1
|
|
||
|
1 ' j - (S3 axhome
|
l :: ,:j copy
fii '...':-: ,i Si dlrl
|
| -- -j; hdd
^
Jsil new
.-. ; (^ nsmail
1

4.096
4,096
4,096
4,096
4.096
4,096
4,096
4,096
4,096

den
den
den
den
den
den
den
den
den

-:;s|;
den
.;
den
;J
en
:;
en
:; :
en
j
en
;; ^;:
en |
:
en
. ^;:i|;
en
: !|;

-. - - -:-...

^! ^

ft.-:;:,.:,:,;-.. .,,:..,.;;:::;:.,,.,::;:::.;

227 Enwrinp Passive Mode <i 2 .0.0.1 ,4.1 3).


USTD
50 Cpenina ASCII mode date corineclicrfi for file list
!26 Quotas off

. 11.2. FTP- gFTP


278

:"

,-.:; -::;:.-;.--.;.

.:. :,-.":..,., :' ':".' .-':-,'.:.,.,-. . , . : : - . . ; ' : ' - .-::;/ | :.-..V'. .'--.---.-::::,:.:;::: .-.-.::. * :

Apache

12

WWW- Apache. Apache


Apache Project. ,
Apache Web- NCSA,
. Apache , 1994
NCSA, . NCSA --
patches (). 1995 Apache,
1.3 NCSA. Apache
NCSA. Apache A PatCHy. Apache . Apache - Apache Group.
Apache Linux Unix,
Windows, OS/2.
, Apache, Linux
Web-: Red Hat Secure Server, Apache-SSL, Netscape Enterprise
Server .

12.1. Apache
Apache apache
apache-docs. , . .
apache-common, . Apache
, :
rpm -ih apache*

279

Apache

standalone, . . Apache
:
/etc/re.d/init.d/httpd start
/ e t c / r e . d / i n i t . d / h t t p d stop

/ e t c / h t t p d
/ c o n f / h t t p d . c o n f . ServerName.
, ( Apache DNS), , (, www.host.domain),
, , server.firma.ru. DNS- . .
(. . 12.1):
netscape h t t p : / / l o c a l h o s t


:
netscape h t t p : / / s e r v e r . f i r m a . r u

,
, Apache
.
File

Edit

View .

ornfn animator1

j-

!; -- :..:". Fo v/ar-d -Reload

.-'I:;.-. . &*

..*-,

Home" - Seaich Metscsp

,,*-

Print

Security

a
:

"Shop
What's R

:$" eeokmarks $. Location; jjbttp : //locslhost/


low Pages './,. Download
the Apache W
.s on this
been included with this distribution.
if

f'.-'-f

m is operational. You may no

Calendar .^Channels

'. "

add content to this directory and repla e this page, The Apache '

; As the whole Linux-Mandrake discibuflon, this Apache web server is compiled with Processor-Specific Optimizations to
; take advantage of the power of the new processor generation, giving it 5-30 W more performance than any other Linux Web
id information on Mandrake Linux, please visit the web site of Ljti

sgi
This version of Apseht includes high-performance patches from the "Accelerating Apache project" >t SihC'jf. G-jii/bj^s (Up to JOOft more performance under the
SPECweb96 benchmark!), matny optimizations, Extended Application Pro gramming Interface (EAPIj, Shared memory module, hooks for SSL module, Hotwired XSSI
module, and several patches/cosmetic improvements. It is also fully modular, and many modules art. available in pre-compiled format. Also included are special
patches to enable FrontPage 2000 support, however you need to install the optional package to enable it.
Documentation for some iiMAard Apache modules and othtr siirhll modules is included.

: |->-,:Mi.<>!; < I

;' ...

j , ..\ ' i

What is the Advanced Extranet Server?


The Apache Web Server serves as thefoundanon for the Advanced Emar

er project This fully modular, highly in

Advanced Scripting, CGI and Dynamic content


Database integration
Content management and publishing tools
Advanced User Authentication
Strong Cryptography for the international market

. 12.1. Apache

280

d and scalable solution offers die

Apache
, , . ,
, , , .

ServerName DNS.

72.2.

Apache : h t t p d . c o n f ,
s r m . c o n f , - a c c e s s . c o n f .
/ e t c / h t t p d / c o n f .
. , .
httpd.conf .
. s r m . c o n f , .
access . conf .
1.3, ,
s r m . c o n f a c c e s s , c o n f ,
h t t p d . c o n f . Apache 1.3.14-2,
Linux Mandrake 7.2.
: apache-mime. types, v h o s t s /
v h o s t s . c o n f , v h o s t s / V i r t u a 1 Home Pages . c o n f , v h o s t s /
DynamicVHosts . conf. apache-mime . types
MIME, Apache. v h o s t s . c o n f ,
VirtualHomePages .conf, DynamicVHosts .conf Web-, .
.
MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions)
. ,
, , , .
MIME ,
(, text/plain txt).

12.2.1. httpd.conf
, , . Apache :
1. . ,,
Web-. ServerName, ServerType, Port,
User Group, ServerAdmin, ServerRoot, PidFile, DocumentRoot, UserDir.
2. : ErrorLog, TransferLog, HostnameLookups.
3. : AllowOverride, Options, Limit.
4. : StartServers, MaxSpareServers,
MinSpareServers, CacheNegotiatedDocs.
5. : Timeout, KeepAlive,
KeepAliveTimeout.
281

Apache
. :
Directorylndex, Fancylndexing AddlconByType.
7. . HTTP-
ErrorDocument.
, , 404 ( ).
8. : Redirect, Alias ScriptAlias.
9. : AddLanguage
LanguagePriority.
10. MIME-.
MIME- DefaultType,
AddEncoding, AddType, AddHandler Action.
11. : VirtualHost, Listen, BindAddress.

ServerName ServerAdmin.
.
, httpd.conf.
ServerName , Apache. ,
,
.
DNS .
ServerType , . standalone. Web-, .
Apache ,
. StartServers, MinSpareServers, MaxSpareServers.
StartServers, MaxSpareServers, MinSpareServers. ,
. StartServers ,
.
.
, , .
. .

, -. ,
. MaxSpareServers
. ,
. ,
MinSpareServers, .
,
.
6.

282

Apache
Port , ,
. 80.
Apache ,
1024, . ,
, 1024. 8080 8000.
HostnameLookups on | off. Apache . (on),
-. (off),
IP- .
,
DNS.
User Group. User Group
, .
, .
,
UID. nobody.

. Web-
, .
,
. root!
ServerAdmin , Web- Web-. - , , .
webmaster@Your_Host.com. webmaster,
, . () webmaster
/etc/aliases.
(. ). /etc/aliases :
:

newaliases. , .
ServerRoot Apache.
/etc/httpd.
BindAddress.
, IP- . * ( ), IP-
.
ErrorLog TransferLog
Apache. /etc/httpd
/logs, / v a r / l o g / h t t p d
283

Apache
. errorlog , , CGI-.
transferlog .
HostNameLookups, IP- .
PidFile - - ,
.
().
. , Apache .
CacheNegotiatedDocs -,
SQUID, , , . /1.0, Apache Pragma:
no-cache -,
( /1.1 Pragma Cache-Control).
, -
. , - . CGI, , , Pragma
( Cache-Control) -,
.
Timeout ,
.
Timeout ,
. ,
.
KeepAIive , ,
.
KeepAliveTimeOut
.
MaxClients. ,
. MaxClients ( 150) , .
MaxRequestsPerChild. , MaxRequestsPerChild, ,
.
Listen Apache IP- ()
.
DocumentRoot , .
UserDir
, . , 284

Apache
.
, UserDir DISABLED. .
Directorylndex , , .
. index.html index.php index.htm index.shtml index.cgi Default.htm
default.htm index.php3. ,
http://localhost,
Directorylndex .
Fancylndexing. , ,
, Directorylndex.
, .
Fancylndexing, . Fancylndexing ,
.
AddlconByType . , Fancylndexing. AddlconByType :
AddlconByType ( T E X T , URL) mime-type
TEXT ,
, ,
. URL ,
mime-type , .
MIME- apache-mime.types.
MIME-, ,
(. 12.1),
Addlcon AddlconByType.
12.1. httpd.conf
AddlconByType ( V X D , / i c o n s / m o v i e . g i f ) v i d e o / *
Addlcon / i c o n s / b i n a r y . g i f .bin .exe

video
/ i c o n s / m o v i e . g i f . *.
*. / i c o n s / b i n a r y . g i f . Defaultlcon.
DefaultType.
MIME-, MIME-, DefaultType.
AddEncoding.
. ,
MIME-.
MIME- AddEncoding.
AddLanguage. .
.
285

Apache
AddLanguage .
, .
. , index. html. ru, index. html. en.
LanguagePriority. , LanguagePriority
. , LanguagePriority :
L a n g u a g e P r i o r i t y en ru

http://www.server.com//.
,
, .
, ,
. (. )
. , , ,
, . ,
,
AddLanguage.
Redirect. Redirect,
. ,
/users/den /den.
URL- http://www.host.com/users/den,
http://www.host.com/den/. :
Redirect / u s e r s / d e n /den
:
Redirect /users/den/ www.den.domain.com

, URL.
Alias Alias
, , DocumentRoot
, .
/icons.
ScriptAlias Alias, CGI-.
AddType -,
apache-mime, types.
AddHandler Action. AddHandler MIME- - . Action
- . ,
-
. , , (. 12.2).

286

Apache
12.2. AddHandler Action
AddHandler text/dhtml dhtml
Action text/dhtml /cgi-bin/dhtml-parse
ErrorDocument , URL- .
.
ProFTPD, .
Directory (. 12.3).
12.3. Directory
<Directory />
Options Indexes Includes FollowSymLinks
AllowOverride None
</Directory>
Directory
.htaccess, ,
.
Directory .
AllowOverride, Options, Limit. . AllowOverride , . 12.1.
AllowOverride

12.1

None

Apache .htaccess.
,

All

.htaccess
.

Options

Options

Limit

Limit

AuthConfig

AuthName, AuthType, AuthUserFile AuthGroupFile

Filelnfo

.htaccess AddType AddEncoding

Options ,
. h t t p d . c o n f ,
. h t a c c e s s . Options . 12.2.
Limit . Limit .
, , GET POST.
Limit Directory, Location
.htacccess.

287

Apache
Options

12.2

None
All

He -

FollowSym Links
SymLinkslfOwnerMatch
ExecCGI
Indexes
Includes
IncludesNoExec

.

,
, ,
CGI-
,
index.html
.
,
,

.
CGI (Common Gateway Interface)
: Get Post.
. :
<form a c t i o n = s c r i p t . c g i method=GET>
Apache Limit
.

Limit : allow (),


deny (), order (), require (). allow deny
allow deny ProFTPD.
allow from, IP, , . all
. , , , (. 12.4).
12.4.
order deny,
deny from
allow from

allow, deny
allow
all
ru

,
(. 12.5). , ,
192.168.1.0
12.5. 192.168.1.0
order deny, allow
deny from all
allow from 192.168.1.
order allow deny.
allow, deny deny, allow, order
mutual-failure. , allow.
288

Apache
require .
:
, , AuthUserFile
AuthGroupFile. valid-user, ,
AuthUserFile, . Limit, require, AuthUserFile 12.6.
12.6. require
<Directory *>
AuthUserFile /var/secure/.htpasswd
AuthName Security
AuthType Basic
<Limit GET>
order deny,allow
deny form all
allow from mydomain.ru
require valid-user
</Limit>
</Directory>

12.6
.htpasswd, htpasswd. Limit mydomain.ru.
valid-user users
grpoups.
. users 12.7.
12.7. users
<Directory / u s e r s >
AuthType Basic
AuthUserFile /var/users/.htpasswd
AuthName UsersDir
<Limit GET POST>
require users denis igor evg
</Limit>
</Directory>

Location
URL-, ,
. ,
, *.html , .html. URL- .
Location 12.8.
10 .851

289

Apache
12.8. Location
<Location URL>

</Location>
12.2.2. Apache netconf
Web- Apache , netconf ( linuxconf). netconf
Server Tasks, Apache Webserver (. . 12.2).
netconf
\\

. . Defaults
|

- - - - -
j,
Apache (. . 12.3),
I ' ' '
:' '
.. - -- - "
'
\\
,
- - . '-'- '
' " &
;" : ..
; . , '
"j:
;"-'
-' .-""- - : ' : " ' . - - ;" Files specs. .. -.'.-' " ' '''' -'
-\\
, i
" . "
"'
- - : . " " " I
, I
' ' -'
" " "": ;:" ":". : Woaate | " ' " ''" "
|i
|
: ','. --V "-' "'^-*;, ' 'V ";-:
.i
mod_ssl (. . 12.4),
|
. ." . " " - . ' : -. '
:> "'-.'....

j

i
.
Dismiss
|
'Hfclp
j :
.
1

: :

:-:: ::

. 12.2. Apache
netconf

Yau tan eortfiguta modAsst.options in your Apache Server:

Session
SSLMutex

Accent

. 12.3. Apache

290

Cancel:

el

. 12.4. mod_ssl

Apache

12.3.
UserDir .
. public_html.
, .
, . , http://www.chat.ru/~mypage?
, ,
. ,
, UserDir .
, ,
. , www.server.com, denis,
URL- : http://www.server.com/~denis/.
,
. /home/den,
/home/den/public_html/index.html.

12.4. HTTP-
Apache
. Web-. , Web-
, Web-.
, Web- Web- , ,
develop.mycompany.com.
Apache :
,
, .
.
,
VirtuaJHost.
Listen BindAddress.
.
VirtualHost ,
ServerType, BindAddress, Listen, NameVirtualHost, ServerRoot, TypesConfig,
PidFile, MinRequestPerChild, MaxSpareServers, MinSpareServers, HTTP- (, ServerType),
- -
.
ServerName, DocumentRoot, ServerAdmin ErrorLog.
291

Apache
Apache
h t t p d . c o n f , v h o s t s . c o n f . IP-.
12.4.1.
IP-: , .
,
. HTTP/1.1. .
VirtualHost
NameVirtualHost. IP-,
VirtualHost. VirtualHost
ServerName.
. ,
DNS ,
? VirtualHost
IP-, NameVirtualHost.
VirtualHost ,
.
12.9.
12.9. www 121- lib
ServerName d e n . d h s i l a b s . c o m
<NameVirtulaHost 192.168.1.1>
<VirtualHost 192.168.1.1>
ServerName w w w . d h s i l a b s . c o m
ServerAdmin w e b m a s t e r @ d e n . d h s i l a b s . c o m
DocumentRoot / v a r / h t t p d / w w w / h t m l
ErrorLog / v a r / h t t p s / w w w / l o g s / e r r o r . l o g
TransferLog logs/access.log
</VirtualHost>
<VirtualHost 192.168.1.1>
ServerName l i b . d h s i l a b s . c o m
ServerAdmin w e b m a s t e r S d e n . d h s i l a b s . c o m
DocumentRoot / v a r / h t t p d / l i b / h t m l
ErrorLog / v a r / h t t p s / l i b / l o g s / e r r o r . l o g
TransferLog logs/access.log
</VirtualHost>

IP-,
,
. ,
12.9: www .
IP- ,
.
292

Apache
Apache
, :
ServerAlias w w w . d h s i l a b s . c o m w w w 2 . d h s i l a b s . c o m
, IP-, ,
. ,
, default:* , :
< V i t r u a l H o s t _default_:*>
,
www.dhsilabs.com lib.dhsilabs.com DNS.
12.4.2. IP-
VirtualHost , IP-, ,
. DNS
. IP- .
,
.
12.10. IP-
<VitrualHost 192.168.1.2>
ServerName w w w . d h s i l a b s . c o m
ServerAdmin webmaster@den.dhsilabs.com
DocumentRoot /var/httpd/www/html
ErrorLog / v a r / h t t p s / w w w / l o g s / e r r o r . l o g
</VirtualHost>
<VirtualHost lib.dhsilabs.com>
ServerName l i b . d h s i l a b s . c o m
ServerAdmin webmaster@den.dhsilabs.com
DocumentRoot /var/httpd/lib/html
ErrorLog / v a r / h t t p s / l i b / l o g s / e r r o r . l o g
</VirtualHost>
(. 12.10) IP-.
IP-, , IP-.
ExecCGI, CGI- . Web-
( 12.11).
12.11. Web-
# httpd.conf
<Directory /home/httpd/mail>
order d e n y , a l l o w
deny from all
allow from localhost
293

Apache
allow from 192.168
allow from 123.123.123.123
Options ExecCGI
</Directory>
# vhosts.conf
<VirtualHost 123.123 .123.123>
ServerAdmin webmaster@den.dhsilabs.com
DocumentRoot /home/httpd/mail
ServerPath /mail
ServerName wwwmail.dhsilabs.com
ErrorLog logs/error_log
TransferLog logs/access_log
ErrorDocument 403 http://www.dhsilabs.com/messages/
error403.html
</VirtualHost>
# Error 403 ,

#

12.5. SSL Apache


12.5.1. SSL
SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) , Netscape .
, . SSL

. SSL
Netscape http://home.netscape.com/info/security-doc.html
S-HTTP -. ,
. , ,
.
mod_ssl Apache SSL, .
Web- mod_ssl .
, SSL
( ).
, OpenSSL
(http://www.openssl.org),
. openssl, OpenSSL>, OpenSSL .
OpenSSL (
su , ):
1. OpenSSL :
tar zxvf o p e n s s l - x . . z . t a r . g z ( x . y . z ).
294

Apache
2. openssl-x.y.z :
./config.
3. ( ), :
make
.
,
.

4. make install Idconfig.


Idconfig , / e t c / I d , so. conf
OpenSSL ( /usr/local/ssl/lib).
12.5.2. SSL Apache
mod_ssl Apache. , mod_ssl,
Apache. mod_ssl
- .
Apache. , Apache
1.3.14 mod_ssl-2.7.1-1.3.14.tar.gz. 2.7.1 mod_ssl.
:
tar zxvf m o d _ s s l - x . . z - 2 . . . t a r . g z
:
./configure with-apache=../apache_l .3.14 with-ssl=../openssi-0.9.5
OpenSSL O.9.5.
Apache, :
cd ../apache-1.3.14
make
make certificate
make install
Apache ,
prefix ( /usr/local/apache).
Apache. :
usr/local/apache/bin/apachectl startssl
startssl SSL. Apache
, https .
,
https. Apache
443.
/etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf :
Listen 443
NameVirtualHost x . x . x . x : 4 4 3
.
443 HTTPS.
Apache .

295

Apache
,
https, / e t c / h t t p d / c o n f / h t t p d . c o n f . ,
, 12.12:
12.12. https-cepeep
<VirtualHost x.x.x.x:443>
# SSL
SSLEngine on
SSLLogLevel warn
SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
SSLCertificateFile /usr/local/apache/conf/ssl.crt/server.crt
SSLCertificateKeyFile /usr/local/apache/conf/ssl.key/server.key
SSLLog /usr/local/apache/logs/ssl_engine_log
#

ServerName w w w . d h s i l a b s . c o m
ServerAdmin webrnaster@den . dhsilabs . com
DocumentRoot / v a r / h t t p d / w w w / h t m l .
ErrorLog / v a r / h t t p s / w w w / l o g s / e r r o r . l o g
</VirtualHost>

. httpd. Apache
.
, s s l . key
:
s e r v e r . k e y s e r v e r . k e y . o r g
openssl rsa -in s e r v e r . k e y . o r g -out s e r v e r . k e y
chmod 400 server.key
!
. https://host.domain
.
Apache SSL,
bin/apachectl start startold, a startssl start.
, .usr/local/bin, openssl:
In -s / u s r / l o c a l / s s l / b i n / o p e n s s l openssl
12.5.3.
Web- ()
. , .

(, ) https,
.
, .
:
openssl genrsa -des3 -out s e r v e r . k e y 1024
296

Apache
server, key.
:
openssl req -new -key s e r v e r . k e y -out s e r v e r . c s r
.
, . ,
, :
Y o u now have to send this C e r t i f i c a t e Signing Request (CSR)
to a C e r t i f y i n g A u t h o r i t y ( C A ) for signing
, .
,
, , :
openssl genrsa -des3 -out c a . k e y 1024
openssl req -new -x509 -days 365 -key c a . k e y -out c a . c r t
.
,
. www.thawte.com.
solutions.rbc.ru.
ThawTe .
ThawTe , , .
solutions.rbc.ru ThawTe.
, s i g n . s h
mod_ssl :
./sign.sh server.csr
:
Now you have two f i l e s : s e r v e r . k e y and s e r v e r . c r t .
These now can be used as f o l l o w i n g
, .
server.key server.crt . make
.crt-.
Apache, SSL. SSL :
openssl s_client -connect l o c a l h o s t : 4 4 3 -state -debug

72.6. httpd.conf

Apache (. 12.13). ,
.

297

Apache
12.13. httpd.conf
##
## httpd.conf HTTP Apache

tt
ServerName www.dhsilabs.com
ResourceConfig /dev/null
AccessConfig /dev/null
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#


(Dynamic Shared Object DSO)
DSO README.DSO,
Apache.
Apache,
.
:
LoadModule foo_module libexec/mod_foo.so

"/var/www/manual/mod"

tLoadModule mmap_static_module modules/mod_mmap_static.so


LoadModule env_module
modules/mod_env.so
### The first module activates buffered logs.
# .
# , 4
# . access_log
tLoadModule config_buffered_log_module modules/mod_log_config_buffered.so
LoadModule config_log_module modules/mod_log_config.so
LoadModule agent_log_module
modules/mod_log_agent.so
LoadModule referer_log_module modules/mod_log_referer.so
#LoadModule mime_magic_module modules/mod_mime_magic.so
LoadModule mime_module
modules/mod_mime.so
LoadModule negotiation_module modules/mod_negotiation.so
LoadModule status_module
modules/mod_status.so
LoadModule info_module
modules/mod_inf.so
# mod_include mod_include_xssi,
# ! mod_include ,
# xxsi .
LoadModule includes_module
modules/mod_include.so
#LoadModule includes_module
modules/mod_include_xssi.so
LoadModule autoindex_module
LoadModule dir_module
LoadModule cgi_module

298

modules/mod_autoindex.so
modules/mod_dir.so
modules/mod_cgi.so

Apache
LoadModule asis_module
LoadModule imap_module
LoadModule action_module
tLoadModule speling_module
LoadModule userdir_module
LoadModule proxy_module
LoadModule alias module

modules/mod_asis.so
modules/mod_imap.so
modules/mod_actions.so
modules/mod_speling.so
modules/mod_userdir.so
modules/libproxy.so
modules/mod alias.so

# mod_jserv mod_rewrite,
<IfDefine HAVE_JSERV>
LoadModule jserv__module
modules/mod_jserv.so
</IfDefine>
LoadModule rewrite_module
LoadModule access_module
LoadModule auth_module
LoadModule anon_auth_module
tLoadModule dbm_auth_module
#LoadModule db_auth_raodule
LoadModule digest_module
#LoadModule cern_meta_module
LoadModule expires_module
LoadModule headers_module
LoadModule usertrack_module
tLoadModule example_module
#LoadModule unique_id_module
LoadModule setenvif module

modules/mod_rewrite.so
modules/mod_access.so
modules/mod_auth.so
modules/mod_auth_anon.so
modules/mod_auth_dbm.so
modules/mod__auth_db. so
modules/mod_digest.so
modules/mod_cern_meta.so
modules/mod_expires.so
modules/mod_headers.so
modules/mod_usertrack.so
modules/mod_example.so
modules/mod_unique_id.so
modules/mod setenvif.so

#
# ( ),
# .
ClearModuleList
fAddModule mod_mmap_static.
# AddModule mod_php.c
# AddModule mod_php3.c
#AddModule mod_php4.
#AddModule mod_perl.c
# LoadModule php_module modules/mod_php.so
# LoadModule php3_module modules/mod_php4.so
tLoadModule php4_module modules/mod_php4.so
AddModule mod_env.c
AddModule mod_log_config.
#AddModule mod_log_config_buffered.
AddModule mod_log_agent.
AddModule mod_log_referer.
#AddModule mod_mime_magic.
AddModule mod_mime.
AddModule mod_negotiation.
AddModule mod_status.
AddModule mod_info.c
AddModule mod include.

299

Apache
tAddModule mod_include_xssi.
AddModule mod_autoindex.
AddModule mod_dir.c'
AddModule mod_cgi.
AddModule mod_asis.c
AddModule mod_imap.c
AddModule mod_actions.
tAddModule mod_speling.
AddModule mod_userdir.
AddModule mod_proxy.c
AddModule mod_alias.c
t mod_jserv mod_rewrite.
<IfDefine HAVE_JSERV>
AddModule mod_jserv.c
</IfDefine>
AddModule mod_rewrite.
AddModule mod_access.
AddModule mod_auth.c
AddModule mod_auth_anon.
#AddModule raod_auth_dbm.
tAddModule mod_auth_db.
AddModule mod_digest.c
tAddModule mod_cern_meta.
AddModule mod_expires.
AddModule mod_headers.
AddModule mod_usertrack.
tAddModule mod_example.
tAddModule mod_unique_id.
AddModule mod_so.c
AddModule mod setenvif.c
t
t
t
t
#
t

Name Space and Server Settings



,
HTTP-.
,
srm.conf. httpd.conf.

t DocumentRoot
t .
DocumentRoot

/var/www/html

t UserDir
t ,

t ,
t .
UserDir public_html

300

Apache
I Directorylndex ,
I , .
Directorylndex index.html index.php index.htm index.shtml index.cgi
Default.htm default.htm index.php3
# Fancylndexing # .
Fancylndexing on
# Addlcon* ,
#
AddlconByEncoding (CMP,/icons/compressed.gif) x-compress x-gzip
AddlconByType
AddlconByType
AddlconByType
AddlconByType

(TXT,/icons/text.gif) text/*
(IMG,/icons/image2.gif) image/*
(SND,/icons/sound2.gif) audio/*
(VID,/icons/movie.gif) video/*

Addlcon
Addlcon
Addlcon
Addlcon
Addlcon
Addlcon
Addlcon
Addlcon
Addlcon
Addlcon
Addlcon
Addlcon
Addlcon
Addlcon
Addlcon
Addlcon

/icons/binary.gif .bin .exe


/icons/binhex.gif .hqx
/icons/tar.gif .tar
/icons/world2.gif .wrl .wrl.gz .vrml .vrm .iv
/icons/compressed.gif .Z . z .tgz .gz .zip
/icons/a.gif .ps .ai .eps
/icons/layout.gif .html .shtml .htm .pdf
/icons/text.gif .txt
/icons/c.gif .c
/icons/p.gif .pi .py
/icons/f.gif .for
/icons/dvi.gif .dvi
/icons/uuencoded.gif .uu
/icons/script.gif .conf . sh .shar .csh .ksh .tcl
/icons/tex.gif .tex
/icons/bomb.gif core

Addlcon
Addlcon
Addlcon
Addlcon

/icons/back.gif ..
/icons/hand.right.gif README

/icons/folder.gif 01
/icons/blank.gif 1

I Defaultlcon .
Defaultlcon /icons/unknown.gif
# AddDescription
# : AddDescription "" filename
# ReadmeName README
# : ReadmeName name

30?

Apache
ReadmeName README
HeaderName HEADER
I Indexlgnore ,
#
# : Indexlgnore namel name2...
Indexlgnore . ??* *~ *# HEADER* README* RCS
# AccessFileName ,
#
AccessFileName .htaccess
# TypesConfig mime.types
TypesConfig /et/httpd/conf/apache-mime.types
# DefaultType MIME- , # ,
DefaultType text/plain
# AddEncoding
I " "
AddEncoding x-compress Z
AddEncoding x-gzip gz
# AddLanguage
AddLanguage
AddLanguage
AddLanguage
AddLanguage
AddLanguage
AddLanguage

en
fr
de
da
el
it

.en
.fr
.de
.da
.el
.it

f LanguagePriority
LanguagePriority en fr de
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

Redirect URL
url url,
,
,
DocumentRoot. , ,
/etc,
.
URL - ,
://., ,

302

Apache
# http://www.linux.ru. , ,
I /images,
tt DocumentRoot,
# . : Redirect _1 url
I
I
#
t
#

Alias
, ,
DocumentRoot, , ,
:
Alias _ _

Alias /icons/ /var/www/icons/


I ScriptAlias CGI
# : ScriptAlias _ _
ScriptAlias /cgi-bin/ /var/www/cgi-bin/
ScriptAlias /protected-cgi-bin/ /var/www/protected-cgi-bin/

t AddType MIME,
# apache-mime.types.
# : AddType type/subtype extl
# ( Apache)
i AddType :
AddType application/x-httpd-php4 .php3 .phtml .php ,php4
tt AddType application/x-httpd-php3-source .phps
tt PHP/FI (PHP2):
tt AddType application/x-httpd-php .phtml
# ScriptAlias /_php/ /usr/bin/php
# Action application/x-httpd-php /usr/bin/php
# Action application/x-httpd-php3 /usr/bin/php
I Action application/x-httpd-php4 .
# AddHandler
# MIME - .
# : AddHandler action-name extl
# CGI :
AddHandler cgi-script .cgi
# HTML
AddType text/html .shtml
AddHandler server-parsed .shtml
# ,
# Apache "--" (send-as-is)
#AddHandler send-as-is asis

303

Apache
# :
AddHandler imap-file map
# , :
*
#AddHandler type-map var
# Action -
# . ,
# - .
I : Action media/type /cgi-script/location
# : Action handler-name /cgi-script/location
#
#
#
#

MetaDir ,
Apache meta.
HTTP,
.

#MetaDir .web
# MetaSuffix ,
# meta-.
#MetaSuffix .meta
# .
# :
# 1)
# ErrorDocument 500 "The server made a boo boo.
# n.b. the (") marks it as text, it does not get output
#
# 2)
# ErrorDocument 404 /missing.html
# to redirect to local url /missing.html
# ErrorDocument 404 /cgi-bin/missing_handler .pi
# n.b. can redirect to a script or a document using server-side-includes.
#
# 3)
# ErrorDocument 402 http://some.other_server.com/subscription_info.html
f
<Location /manual>
ErrorDocument 404 "The document you requested has not been
installed on your system. Please install the apache-manual
package.
</Location>
f mod_mime_magic
# .
# MimeMagicFile /etc/httpd/conf/magic
# Netscape 2.x
# Internet Explorer 4.2

304

Apache
BrowserMatch "Mozilla/2" nokeepalive
BrowserMatch "MSIE 4\.0b2;" nokeepalive downgrade-1.0 forceresponse-1.0
# /1.1 ,
I HTTP/1.1
BrowserMatch "RealPlayer 4\.0" force-response-1.
BrowserMatch "Java/l\.0" force-response-1.0
BrowserMatch "JDK/1\,0" force-response-1.0
#

# ,
# .
I access,conf.
#
#
#
#
#
#

, Apache ,
.
,
.

.

# ,
# .
<Directory />
Options Indexes Includes FollowSymLinks
AllowOverride None
</Directory>
<Directory /home>
I "Includes", "FollowSymLinks",
i "ExecCGI", "MultiViews" "Indexes"
Options Indexes Includes FollowSymLinks
AllowOverride All
#
order allow,deny
allow from all
</Directory>
# /var/www/cgi-bin /var/www/protected-cgi-bin
I ScriptAliased

305

Apache
<Directory /var/www/cgi-bin>
AllowOverride All
Options ExecCGI
</Directory>
<Directory /var/www/protected-cgi-bin>
order deny,allow
deny from all
allow from localhost
fallow from .your_domain.com
AllowOverride None
Options ExecCGI
</Directory>
#
<Location /server-status>
SetHandler server-status
order deny,allow
deny from all
allow from localhost, 127.0.0.1
#
# allow from .your_domain.com
</Location>
# .
Alias /doc /usr/share/doc
<Directory /usr/share/doo
order deny,allow
deny from all
allow from localhost, 127.0.0.1
# allow from .your_domain . com
Options Indexes FollowSymLinks
</Directory>
#

# : inetd standalone.
ServerType standalone
# inetd, "ServerAdmin"
#
#
#
#
#
#

Port - standalone-.
Apache
, 1024,
.
,
, 1024.

306

Apache
t
# 8080 8000.
Port 80
t
#
t
#
#
i

Apache .
,
-. ,
IP- .
,
DNS.

HostnameLookups off
#
I
#
#
I
#
#
#

User Group
.
,
. ,
- UID.
nobody apache.

.

User apache
Group apache
# ServerAdmin
# Web-.
# .
ServerAdmin root@localhost
# ServerRoot
# Apache.
# /etc/httpd.
ServerRoot /etc/httpd
#
#
I
#

,
IP-.
.
BindAddress *

# 80
Listen 80
#
#
#
#

ErrorLog TransferLog
Apache.
/etc/httpd/logs,
/var/log/httpd .

307

Apache
ErrorLog logs/error_log
#
#
#
#

LogLevel: .
(warn)
. ,
error

LogLevel warn
# , ,
# . .
LogFormat "%h %1 %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b \"%{Referer}i\" \"%{UserAgent}i\"" combined
LogFormat "%h %1 %u %t \"%r\" %>s %b" common
LogFormat "%(Referer}i -> %U" referer
LogFormat "%{User-agent}i" agent
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#



CustomLog logs/access_log common
referer
CustomLog logs/referer_log referer

()
CustomLog logs/agent_log agent
,

CustomLog logs/access_log combined


# PidFile ,
# .
PidFile /var/run/httpd.pid
# ScoreBoardFile:
# .
ScoreBoardFile /etc/httpd/httpd.Scoreboard
# LockFile ,
# .
# USE_FCNTL_SERIALIZED_ACCEPT
# USE_FLOCK_SERIALIZED_ACCEPT.
f .
#
LockFile /etc/ittpd/httpd.lock
I ServerName
# , ,

308

Apache
# "www"
.
# , , DNS
# .
ServerName new.host.name
# UseCanonicalName Apache 1.3.
# .
UseCanonicalName on
# -, SQUID,
# , ,
# .
CacheNegotiatedDocs
#
#
#
I

Timeout ,

. Timeout
, .

Timeout 300
I KeepAlive ,
I ,
I .
KeepAlive off
# MaxKeepAliveRequests: ,
# .
tt .
# .
MaxKeepAliveRequests 100
I KeepAliveTimeout
# .

KeepAliveTimeout 15
#
MinSpareServers 8
MaxSpareServers 20
t
StartServers 10

309

Apache
# .
# , ,
# .
MaxClients 150
# ,
# MaxRequestsPerChild, ,
# .
MaxRequestsPerChild 500
# -
# ProxyRequests On
# , :
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

CacheRoot /var/cache/httpd
CacheSize 5
CacheGcInterval 4
CacheMaxExpire 24
CacheLastModifiedFactor 0.1
CacheDefaultExpire 1
NoCache a_domain.com another_domain.edu joes.garage_sale.com

############################!######!
# SGI
#
##f ########!#######! ##############
#
#
# ,
# mod_mmap_static .
<IfModule mod_mmap_static.c>
QSC on
</IfModule>
# ,
# mod_log_config_buffered
# .
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

, :
mmapfile /var/www/html/file_to_map_in_memory
, ,

http://localhost/manual/mis/perf-mja.html.
IP-
flpVroMy .
SingleListen On

370

Apache
#tt###tt############################

# #
#################f##########t#####
#

# perl
t : ,
# .
<IfDefine PERLPROXIED>
ProxyPass
'/perl/ http://127...1:8200/
ProxyPassReverse /perl/ h t t p : / / 1 2 7 . 0 . 0 . 1 : 8 2 0 0 /
</IfDefine>
# ,
# .
Include conf/vhosts/Vhosts.conf

t
#
#
#
#
t


, :
LoadModule vhost_alias_module
modules/mod_vhost_alias. so
AddModule mod_vhost_alias.c
Include conf/vhosts/DynamicVhosts.conf
Include conf/vhosts/VirtualHomePages.conf

# PHP
Include conf/addon-modules/php.conf

12.7.
, ,
.
Unix- -8. . ,
- KOIS-. , ,
, . . , Microsoft
-866 (
ALT) DOS. DOS
,
, : KOIS-r -866,
: ,
. Microsoft Windows-1251 (ANSI)
Windows. ,
: ,
DOS,
Windows, . , Apache
.
311

Apache
Microsoft, Apple Sun,
Apple ISO8859-5. IBM
, .
,
: ...
: .
Unix KOI8, Windows
- .
, KOI8 Windows1251 . Apple . ,
.
: .
KOI8 Windows-1251,
( Windows,
, ).
Apache,
, .
Russian Apache.
Apache-RUS. ( Russian Apache) : ftp://apache.Iexa.ru/pub/apache-ras/.
Apache, Apache-Rus.

1.3.3/PL27.3, .
, :
tar x v z f a p a c h e _ l . 3 . 3 r u s P L 2 7 . 3 . t a r . g z
apache_l. 3 . 3rusPL27 . 3
configure:
# cd apache_l.3.3rusPL27.3
t ./configure

, , -prefix=path
. :
# make
# make install

,
. Russian Apache Apache, . ,
.
.
, , , .
372

Apache
. :
CharsetSourceEnc koi8-r
CharsetByExtension windows-1251 .txt
httpd. conf. ,
, .txt,
koi8-r. windows-1251.
Location
.htaccess.
CharsetDecl, CharsetAlias,
CharsetRecodeTable CharsetWideRecodeTable.
<IfModule mod_charset.c> </IfModule> .
( ), CharsetDecl ,
CharsetAlias , :
CharsetDecl windows-1251 ru
CharsetAlias windows-1251 w i n x-cp!251 cp!251 cp-1251
(ru) conf / s r m . c o n f
AddLanguage LanguagePriority.
, ,
. , ,
Windows Windows1251, .
,
. :
, :
http://www.server.ru/koi/file.html
http://www.server.ru/win/file.html
, :
http://koi.www.server.ru/file.html
http://win.www.server.ru/file.html
, :
http://www.server.ru:8000/file.html
http://www.server.ru:8001/file.html
.
(, )
VirtualHost , :
Alias /koi /www/docs
:
# cd / w w w / d o c s
# In -s . koi

, .
,

313

Apache
. ,
.

,
DNS.
httpd.conf:
# , IP-
<VirtualHost 111.111.111.1>
ServerName www.server.ru
ServerAlias *.www.server.ru
#
</VirtualHost

, CharsetAlias, , koi
win.
DNS , - DNS ,
. () Port
httpd. conf :
Listen 80
Listen 8000
Listen 8001
Listen 8002
Listen 8003
CharsetByPort koi8-r 8000
CharsetByPort windows-1251 8001
CharsetByPort ibm866 8002
CharsetByPort iso-8859-5 8003
. ,
, . , :
(. . 14),
, .
()
CharsetSelectionOrder:
CharsetSelectionOrder Dirprefix Useragent Portnumber Hostname UriHostname .
CharsetSelectionOrder Hostname UriHostname Useragent Portnumber Dirprefix
.
CharsetSelectionOrder Portnumber Useragent Hostname UriHostname Dirprefix .
,
Russian Apache.
314

13

.
SMTP POP, .
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) TCP/IP
(.. ). SMTP 25 (.
/etc/services).
POP (Post Office Protocol) .
110 ( ).
(Mail Transfer Agent)
sendmail, postfix qmail. ,
. Sendmail
,
Unix.
. ( 1998 ) sendmail qmail,
. , sendmail
, , - ,
sendmail. sendmail
,
. , postfix , - . qmail
,
. qmail.
, , SMTP. . sendmail imap.
PostFix,
sendmail. , postfix , .
315

73.7. sendmail
, RedHat, . sendmaiI-8.11.0
imap-4.7c2. sendmail
http://www.sendmail.org.
, sendmail, DNS. DNS . 10.
,
TWs'paekage allowsyou to configure

Sendmaii,the maiUteliretysystem : !
DNS .
DNS-

/etc
/resolv.conf, . ,
sendmail
DNS,
.
,
sendmail,
netconf (. . 13.1).
- Window, - . netconf
RedHat Linux, Mandrake,
ASPLinux , KSI
Linux. , Puc. 13.1. netconf

root. netconf, /etc/sendmail.cf .
sendmail.
Mail delivery system, Basic sendmail configuration.
Present your system as . Accept email for your_domain.com (. . 13.2).
,
.
, . -
. :
not_exists@A.com
not_exists@B.com. : ;

316

Base Info

present your systems

il|mailer. dhsilabs.com

!ii Accept email far to

Mail gateway

Mail gateway protocol

jsmtp

. 13.2. sendmail

hostcom, ( Accept email for domain.com).


.com not_exists@A.com ,
not_exists@B.com . ,
. , not_exists@A.com not_exists@B.com. . , , ,
, 100 1 !
domainl.com host.com domain2.com .
, ,
sendmail. smtp (Mail gateway protocol).
, sendmail . sendmail
netconf.
, sendmail
. sendmail
/ e t c / h o s t s . a l l o w /etc/hosts .deny.
, ,
. : , ,

317

. , ,
, /etc/hosts. allow :
492.168.1.
, 192.168.1.0
255.255.255.0. hosts. allow hosts. deny
, man hosts.allow.
. imap , .. , . inetd xinetd, ,
, :
telnet <___> 25
:
T r y i n g 192.168.1.1 . . .
Connected to 192.168.1.1
Escape character is ]'
220 de.dhsilabs.com ESMTP Sendmail 8.11.0/8.8.7 Sun, 17 Jun
2001 10:54:22 +300

, sendmail , . :
mail f r o m : m e @ m y . h o s t . c o m
220
2 . 1 . 0 m e @ m y . h o s t . c o m . . . . Sender Ok
rcpt to: d e n @ d e n . d h s i l a b s . c o m
2 2 0 2 . 1 . 5 d e n @ d e n . d h s i l a b s . c o m . . . . Recipient Ok

data, , . Sendmail , ( ).
den@den.dhsilabs.com , .
. den.dhsilabs.com
.
.
den@den.dhsilabs.com dhsilabs.com .
.

, my.host.com ,
sendmail , Sender Ok. , sendmail
Wait for DNS.
- , kmail,
.
kmail: > SMTP, 25, , den.dhsilabs.com.
:

den

, .

den.dhsilabs.com

318


,
data. .
DNS IP-.
.
, , .
sendmail
, .

sendmail.
.
, ,
"
. 23 .
sendmail
.

sendmail / e t c
/sendmail. cf. /etc/mail. , ,
,
. , , .
- sendmail.

4. mc-. .sendmail, . . : mc- 2459 , sendmail. cf 46302
. , ,
, 46 . sendmail, ,
mc-. , mc-, 4 sendmail:
m4 my_config.mc > /etc/sendmail.cf
- sendmail.cf. .
, 4 sendmail
(sendmail.cf), / u s r / s h a r e / s e n d m a i l - c f / c f .
sendmail
/usr/lib/sendmail.
, sendmail.me.
-, , redhat.mc, Red Hat .
319

/usr/share/sendmail-cf/cf/redhat.me
13.1.
13.1. redhat.mc
divert(-1)
dnl This is the sendmail macro config file. If you make changes to this file,
dnl you need the sendmail-cf rpm installed and then have to generate a
dnl new /etc/sendmail.cf by running the following command:
dnl
dnl
m4 /etc/mail/sendmail.me > /etc/sendmail.cf
dnl
include)'../m4/cf.m4')
VERSIONID('linux setup for Red Hat Linux')dnl
OSTYPE ( 'linux')
define( 'confDEF_USER_ID',"8:12")dnl
undefine('UUCP_RELAY')dnl
undefine('BITNET_RELAY')dnl
define('confAUTO_REBUILD')dnl
define('confTO_CONNECT' , 4 m ' ) dnl
define('confTRY_NULL_MX_LIST',true)dnl
define('confDONT_PROBE_INTERFACES',true)dnl
define('PROCMAIL_MAILER_PATH', V u s r / b i n / p r o c m a i l ' ) d n l
define('ALIAS_FILE', Veto/aliases')dnl
dnl d e f i n e ( 'STATUS_FILE', V e t c / m a i l / s t a t i s t i c s ' ) d n l
define('UUCP_MAILER_MAX', ' 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 ' ) d n l
define('confUSERDB_SPEC', V e t c / m a i l / u s e r d b . d b ' ) d n l
define('confPRIVACY_FLAGS', 'authwarnings,novrfy,noexpn,restrictqrun')dnl
define('confAUTH_OPTIONS', ' A ' ) d n l
dnl TRUST_AUTH_MECH('DIGEST-MD5 CRAM-MD5 LOGIN P L A I N ' ) d n l
dnl define('confAUTH_MECHANISMS', 'DIGEST-MD5 CRAM-MD5 LOGIN PLAIN')dnl
dnl define confTO_QUEUEWARN', ' 4 h ' ) d n l
dnl define('confTO_QUEUERETURN', '5d')dnl
dnl define('confQUEUE_LA', '12')dnl
dnl define('confREFUSE_LA', '18')dnl
dnl FEATURE(delay_checks)dnl
FEATURE('no_default_msa', ' d n l ' ) d n l
FEATURE('smrsh', Vusr/sbin/smrsh')dnl
FEATURE('mailertable', 'hash -o /etc/mail/mailertablu.db')dnl
FEATURE('virtusertable', 'hash -o /etc/mail/virtusertable.db')dnl
FEATURE(redirect)dnl
FEATURE(always_add_domain)dnl
FEATURE(use_cw_file)dnl
FEATURE(use_ct_file)dnl
FEATURE(local_procmail, ", 'procmail -t -Y -a $h -d $u')dnl
FEATURE('access_db','hash -o /etc/mail/access.db')dnl
FEATURE('blacklist_recipients')dnl
EXPOSED_USER('root')dnl
dnl This changes sendmail to only listen on the loopback device 127.0.0.1
dnl and not on any other network devices. Comment this out if you want
dnl to accept email over the network.
320


DAEMON_OPTIONS('Port=smtp,Addr=127.0.0.1, Name=MTA')
dnl NOTE: binding both IPv4 and IPv6 daemon to the same port requires
dnl
a kernel patch
dnl DAEMON_OPTIONS(xport=smtp,Addr=::1, Name=MTA-v6, Family=inet6')
dnl We strongly recommend to comment this one out if you want to protect
dnl yourself from spam. However, the laptop and users on computers that do
dnl not have 24x7 DNS do need this.
FEATURE(^accept_unresolvable_domains')dnl
dnl FEATURE('relay_based_on_MX')dnl
MAILER(smtp)dnl

MAILER(procmail)dnl
Cwlocalhost.localdomain

FEATURE
sendmail. , mailertable
.
sendmail, -.
, ,
.
masquerade_envelope mc-. redhat.mc
hide_hosts .me hide_hosts .me :
MASQUERADE_AS(my-domain.ru)dnl
FEATURE(masquerade_envelope)dnl
:
m4 / u s r / s h a r e / s e n d m a i l - c f / c f / h i d e _ h o s t s . m e > / e t c / s e n d m a i l . m e

! .
. 13.1.
sendmail

access_db

13.1

. , .
.
. 23

accept_unresolvable_domains ,
bestmxjsjocal

, -
DNS

blacklist_recipients

. .
access_db

dnsbi

, dnsbl DNS
Black List. rbl (Resolve Black List)

domaintable
genericstable

local_procmail

, procmail

mailertable

masquerade_entire_domain

() .
MASQUERADE AS
( MASQUERADE_DOMAIN), ,
MASQUERADE_AS(f1 17.ru)dnl

11

3<ut. 851

321

masquerade_envelope
redirect
relay_based_on_MX
relay_hosts_only
relay_mail_from
smrsh
use_cf_file
use_cw_file
virtusertable

13.1

. received from

.
please try <address>
( )
() ,
- DNS
, access_db
, RELAY
access db
sendmail
sendmail sendmail. cf

sendmail sendmail. cw

/etc/mail/sendmail. cw
. , mail.dhsilabs.ru.
den@mail.dhsilabs.ru,
den. -
den@dhsilabs.ru, ,
dhsilabs ?
sendmail.cw :
dhsilabs.ru
, user@dhsilabs.ru,
mail.dhsilabs.ru.
, sendmail.cf sendmail. :
/etc/init.d/sendmail stop
sendmail :
/etc/init.d/sendmail start

, sendmail. cf 4, /etc/init.d/sendmail restart sendmail.

13.2. sendmail
Sendmail 8.10/8.11 SMTP AUTH,
RFC 2554. SASL.
,
,
.
Cyrus SASL,
ftp://ftp.andrew.cmu.edu/pub/cyrus-mail/.
1.5.14.
322


sendmail, .
sendmail : http://
www.sendmail.org. Cyrus SASL
:
t tar -xzf cyrus-sasl-1.5.24.tar.qz
tt cd cyrus-sasl-1.5.24/
t ./configure prefix=/usr
# make
I make i n s t a l l

, root.
, , ,
,
/ u s r / l i b / u s r / i n c l u d e . ,
/ u s r / l i b / s a s l / S e n d m a i l . c o n f . , .
:
pwcheck_method: sasldb
sendmail, SASL. ,
. :
saslpasswd sasldblistusers. /sbin. root.
# saslpasswd -a sendmail newuser
password:<type passwdord for newuser>
,
. :
sasldblistusers
.
- :
u s e r : newuser realm: d h s i l a b s . c o m mech: CRAM-MD5
user: newuser realm: dhsilabs.com mech: DIGEST-MD5
user: newuser realm: dhsilabs.com mech: PLAIN
, newuser
: CRAM-MD5, DIGEST-MD5, PLAIN.
CRAM-MD5,
PLAIN.
, sendmail SASL:
sendmail -dO.1 -bv root I grep SASL
SASL
sendmail.
sendmail. , sendmail, , tar:
tar -xzf senmail-x.xx.xx.tar.gz
cd sendmail-x.xx.xx/
323


s e n d m a i l - x . x x . x / d e v t o o l s / S i t e
/ s i t e . c o n f i g . m 4 , :
A P P E N D D E F ( ' c o n f E N V D E F ' , '-DSASL')
APPENDDEF('conf_sendmail_LIBS', '-Isasl')
APPENDDEF('confLIBDIRS', ' - L / u s r / l i b / ' )
APPENDDEF( x confINCDIRS', ' - I / u s r / i n c l u d e / ' )
, :
cat > sendmail-x.xx.x/devtools/Site/site.config.m4
Build:
./Build
. / B u i l d install
, sendmail
SMTP AUTH. :
sendmail -dO.1 -bv root | grep SASL
sendmail.
sendmail.me :
TRUST_AUTH_MECH('GSSAPI DIGEST-MD5 CRAM-MD5 P L A I N ' ) d n l
define( x confAUTH_MECHANISMS', 'GSSAPI DIGEST-MD5 CRAM-MD5 PLAIN')dnl
define('confDEF_AUTH_INFO', Vetc/mail/auth/auth-info')dnl
F E A T U R E ( ' n o _ d e f a u l t _ m s a ' ) d n l turn o f f default entry for MSA
DAEMONJDPTIONS('Port=25, Name^MSA, M=E')dnl
PLAIN, ,
, ,
PLAIN, SMTP .
4:
4 senmail.mc > sendmail.cf
s e n d m a i l . cf ,
/etc/mail:
./sendmail.cf /etc/mail/sendmail.cf
! sendmail ,
. telnet 25 :
telnet l o c a l h o s t 25
Trying 1 2 7 . 0 . 0 . 1 . . .

Connected to localhost
Escape character is ]'.
220 local.sendmail.ORG ESMTP Sendmail 8.10.0/8.10.0; Thu, 9 Sep
1999 10:48:44 -0700 (PDT)
ehlo localhost
250-local.sendmail.ORG Hello localhost [127.0.0.1], pleased to
meet you
250-ENHANCEDSTATUSCODES
250-DSN
250-AUTH DIGEST-MD5 CRAM-MD5 PLAIN
250 HELP
quit

324



. / e t c / m a i l / s e n d m a i l . c f
:
t##tt###########tf ######
I Format of headers I
#########################
:
$.$?{auth_type}(auth_type is ${auth_type}, user
${auth_author}$.)
, sendmail. cf
. ,
:
(auth_type is CRAM-MD5, user den)

.

13.3.
sendmail . ,
.
Outlook Express. TheBat!
, :
1. TheBat!, 1.38.
2. Outlook Express, 5.00.
3. Netscape Messenger, 4.76.
, . , ,
Outlook .
.
TheBat!
Account-
New... ,
, (SMTP server) ( server).
.
passwd! Finish .
Account -> Properties.
, ,
. 13.3.
325

^| General
-A Transport
^ Mail management
^ Options
| - Fifes & directories
j

Templates

-4 Sound
-JP Network
-Jj Memo
f- Without changes

as (Juoted-pwiiabie

as,8ase64

<?M'

. 73.3. ( TheBat!)

. 13.3. ,
den.dhsilabs.com.
. (, )
Mail management. . ,
,
den.dhsilabs.com.
Outlook Express.
.
. .
, .
Netscape Messenger :
Edit -> Preferences. ,
Netscape Communicator. Preferences
(. 13.4) (Mail servers)
. POP ,
Edit.

. , .
, . -.
TheBat!

More
(. . 13.3). Advanced SMTP Options.
326

Category:
Appearance
!
Fonts
Colors
Navigator
El Mail & Newsgroups
|
Identity
. Savers
Newsgroup Servers !
Addressing
Window Settings
Copies and Folders
1
Formatting
\
Return Receipts
;
Disk Space
Roaming Access
Composer
i-- Offline
liB Advanced

Specify seivers lor mail

Matt Ssrveis
g MasSefveis
den;*s!!abs,com .............. .

To set serve* properties (such as checking tot new


1
messages automatical, select a serve*and then |.: ^Uj.Dcfs^;
DUgoing Mat! Serve-

.0Ugog mat (SMTPj setves: jden.dhsilabs.com


OUgng saver uses : (default

f^ Heyei--

. '. tfPossftrfe

Local directory:

. 13.4. Netscape Messenger

Perform SMTP authenication (RFC 2554). POP


SMTP, , Use POP server login.
, .
Outlook Express

.
,
.
Netscape Messenger

SMTP Mail servers (. . 13.4),


. , Netscape Messenger
( 4.76) PLAIN.

13.4.
POP- , POP- .
, , , kinail Outlook, POP-, , , , , , .
327

POP-
Linux fetchmail, procmail.
. :
1. mail@firma.ru -
. , ,
, .
2. . :
, , : . 19:00.
. . 3 .
- - d e p l @ f i r m a . r u , - - d e p 2 @ f i r m a . r u ,
dep3@f irma . r u . mail,
. m a i l @ f i r m a . r u . ,
LinuxRSP adm@firma.ru.
mail
.procmailrc , 13.2 :
13.2. .procmailrc
:0

* "Subject:.*depl
! depl
:0
* "Subject:.*dep2
! dep2
:0
*

"Sybject:.*dep3

dep3

:0
*

"Sybject:.*LinuxRSP

adm

, .
( Subject) ,
.
.
.procmailrc, root, :
chown m a i l . m a i l .procmailrc
chmod 600 .procmailrc

328


From ,
, :
:0
* "From:.* Subscribe.Ru

! adm

, -
Subscribe.Ru,
adm .
.
Linux,
man procmail.

($HOME/mail) .forward.
root,
.procmailrc. . :
|IFS=' && exec / u s r / b i n / p r o c m a i l USER= <rnail>
procmail '/usr/bin.
,
. forward.
. fetchmailrc. , fetchmail.
:
set postmaster "mail"
poll provider.ru proto no dns
user "mail" pass "my_password" to m a i l here
options f e t c h a l l

( mail.
provider.ru) ,
. mail
my_password. fetchall
provider.ru.
fetchmail ,
crontab. :
fetchmail -d 12000
fetchmail 20
. crontab -e :
0 , 2 0 , 4 0 * .* * * /usr/bin/fetchmail
. , . . , .
, -
. .
- ,
, .
329

. .procmailrc
:
0:
* "Subject.*Price
I (formail -r ; cat $HOME/pricelist.zip)
| sendmail -t

, . :

Q:

I (formail -r; cat $HOME/inf.txt)


I sendmail -t

, , . i n f o . t x t
.
. fetchmail , a procmail .
fetchmail procmail
. procmail ,
,
.

13.5.
Linux . . ,
, , MySQL
.
Web-
, MySQL
. ,
MailList.Ru,
Perl.

.
. , Linux
mail. Unix-.
, : , .
marina oleg, igor, dmitry, olya, president, director, secretar.
. , ,
, . ,
330


Linux. ,
.
.mailrc
:
alias market marina oleg
alias proizv igor dmitry olya
alias adm director secretar

,
:
mail proizv
mail , .
Ctrl+D mail .
, .
, mail
. ,
. , mail - . ,
, . ,
, bash.
smaller (. 13.3).

13.3. smailer
#!/bin/bash
DT='date'
echo $DT log
f o r user in 'cat u s e r s '
do
echo "Sending message to $user"
mail $user -s Subscribe < msg 2 log
done

, , .
. 19,
,
.
,
/bin/bash. , date. , ,
~.
log. .
( for)
users, ,
mail. mail users.
-s, msg.
33?


log. mail, 2 /.
users.
13.4.
13.4 users
den
u
synthetic
evg

, , msg. :
. /smaller

:
Sending
Sending
Sending
Sending

message to den
message to u
message to synthetic
message to evg

evg ,
:
4 1 0 : 4 3 : 2 8 EEST 2 0 0 2
e v g . . . User u n k n o w n / r o o t / d e a d . l e t t e r . . .
Saved message in / r o o t / d e a d . l e t t e r

,
log. ,
.
mail .
:
mail

, :
No mail for user

user .
, , , . d <> d <>. , q.
mail
,
- , pop.mail.ru,
. kniail.
KDE.
, ,
SMTP (sendmail),
HTML, ,
Outlook .

332

14

14.1. IPChains
. , , ,
.
: .
, , , ,
.
, .
. 1 .
TCP, UDP,
.
, ,
.
(firewall, ) (),
. IPChains
. , , ,
. Linux.
IPChains , , , .
- .
.
IPChains
. IPChains ,
, , IP-, .
,
.
IPChains .
, . 18.
IP:firewalling IP:firewall packet.
333

IP: masquerading IP: always defragment. ,


. IP-Forwarding (
) :
echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
IP- (,
DHCP . . 8), :
echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_dynaddr

74.2. IPChains
IPChains . , ,
.
: input, forward, output.
firewall- .
, input ( ).
: ?
. ,
: ?
, .
, ,
. .
, forward.
forward, .
,
.
, , . ,
1 ( ), ,
1.
, , (forward).
, .
,
output.
. : - , -.
, .
, , , . - , syslog
.
ipchains .
,
(. . 14.1).

334


ipchains

14

-N

-X
-

-L

-F

-Z

-I

-R
-D

, -

IPChains
8. ,
IPChains. :
ipchains -P forward DENY
ipchains -A forward -s 192.168.1.0/24 -d 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 2 . 0 / 2 4 -j ACCEPT
ipchains -A forward -s 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 2 . 0 / 2 4 -d 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 1 . 0 / 2 4 -j ACCEPT

forward,
.
192.168.1.0 192.168.2.0. -s
(source), -d (destination). -j
. , , ACCEPT. , DENY.
:
1. IP-, , 192.168.1.1.
2. , , www.host.ru.
3. IP-, , 192.168.1.0/24.
4. , , 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0.
,
. 14.2.
!.
, . , -s! localhost ,
localhost.
14.2

-d
-i
-

(IP- URL-)
(IP- URL-)

335

-. ,
TCP - TCP. TCP UDP. :
IP-addr/ports_range.

ports_range. , , 0:1023.
, 1023. ,
0. , ,
65535, .
-i. , -i pppO.
,
, -i ppp+. , () () .
, ,
if con fig.
. , telnet . :
ipchains -A prov -p tcp destination-port 23 -j REJECT
prov , .
:
ipchains -N prov
ipchains -A input -i pppO -j prov
, .
, ,
Windows . ,
SMB . 8MB
, , :
ipchains -A prov -p tcp destination-port 137 -j REJECT
ipchains -A prov -p udp destination-port 137 -j REJECT
ipchains -A prov -p tcp destination-port 138 -j REJECT
ipchains -A prov -p udp destination-port 138 -j REJECT
ipchains -A prov -p tcp destination-port 139 -j REJECT
ipchains -A prov -p udp destination-port 139 -j REJECT
. , , Netscape
911.111.111.111. , , -, , IPChains.
ipchains -A output -d 911.111.111.111 -j REJECT
IP-,
- .
, (
IPChains ), ipchains-save
ipchains-restore. , :
# ipchains-save > / e t c / i p c h a i n s . r u l e s
336


14.1 , .
14.1.
#! / b i n / s h
# .,
# , .
[ -f /etc/ipchains.rules ] || exit 0
case "51" in
start)
echo -n " :"
/sbin/ipchains-restore < /etc/ipchains.rules || exit 1
echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
echo " . " ; ;
stop)
echo -n " :"
echo 0 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
/sbin/ipchains -X
/sbin/ipchains -F
/sbin/ipchains -P input ACCEPT
/sbin/ipchains -P output ACCEPT
/sbin/ipchains -P forward ACCEPT
echo " . " ; ;
*)
echo ": / e t c / i n i t . d / p a c k e t f l i t e r { s t a r t | s t o p } "
exit 1 ; ;
esac
exit 0
.

14.3.
.
14.3.1. SYN
SYN .
,
.
,
, , ,
.
SYN -. ,
TCP 192.168.1.34 :
- TCP -s 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 1 . 3 4 -
14.3.2.
,
. ,

337

, . ,
, .
,
.
.
IP: always defragment.
.
, .
.
-f.
TCP UDP, ICMP SYN.
,
server.domain.com:
# ipchains -A output -f -d 192.168.1.1 -j DENY

14.3.3.
: Limax
. , ICMP, TCP - .

14.3.4. 1-
IP- IP- .
, IP- ,
.

(Source Address Verification) IPChains:
ipchains -A prov -s 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 1 . 1 / 1 6 -1 -j DENY
ipchains -A prov -s 1 2 7 . 0 . 0 . 1 / 8 -1 -j DENY
2.0.x, ,
. -1 .
/var/log/messages. 2.1.x , 127.*, - .
, 14.2.
14.2. 1-
# : Source Address Verification
# .
if [ -e /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/all/rp_filter ] ; then
338


echo -n " ... "
f o r f in / p r o c / s y s / n e t / i p v 4 / c o n f / * / r p _ f l i t e r ; do
echo 1 > $f
done
echo "."
else
echo .
echo " CONTROL-D shell . ."
echo
#,
/ s b i n / s u l o g i n $CONSOLE
fi


.
14.3.5.
,
. . Linux , .

IP: always defragment. , .
,
. ,
.
1

<

14.4.
.
DNS-HOWTO.
, , .
, , .
. , , ,
.
, , . , .
IP- 1.1.1.1,
192.168.1.0. IP- 192.168.1.5
http://www.romb.net. IP- 62.244.59.193. . IP- 192.168.1.1.

, 1.1.1.1. ,

339


1.1.1.1 www.romb.net 62.244.59.193.
www.romb.net 1.1.1.1 62.244.59.193.
192.168.1.5 62.244.59.193.
, .
, 192,168.2.0
. IP- 111.1.1.1, DNS [192.168.2.99J
POP/SMTP [192.168.2.98]

ethO IP-
WWW [192.168.2.97]
192.168.2.1,
ethl - 192.168.1.1.
(. . 14.1).
:
, 192.168.2.0 192.168.1.0.
14.1.
,
,
.
, , ping, traceroute. Windows NT
ping tracer! .
, WWW
, Internet. SMTP
,
Internet. . DNS
.
, :
1. WWW.
2. FTP.
3. DNS.
4. SMTP.
:
1. WWW .
2. FTP .
3. SMTP , ,
.
4. DNS , DNS .
5. .
6. WWW .
7. FTP .

340


ping, traceroute, ssh. !
ICQ. ,
Netscape Internet Explorer.
, , ,
IP- .
IP- ( 14.2). (
bash):
for f in /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/*/rp_fliter; do echo 1 > $f; done
, ,
(loopback):
# ipchains -A input -i ! lo -j DENY
# ipchains -A output -i ! lo -j DENY
# ipchains -A forward -j DENY
, IP- ,
, . , .
ip_masq_ftp
FTP. FTP- .
.
, forward.
, ,
netl-net2 192.168.1.0
192.168.2.0.
:
ipchains -N netl-net2
' IT'
ipchains -N netl-inet
ipchains -N net2-netl
ipchains -N net2-inet
ipchains -N inet-net2
ipchians -N inet-netl
ICMP-:
ipchains -N icmp
forward , , , ,
. ,
IP-. :
ipchains -A forward -s 192. 168. 1.0/24 -i ethO -j netl-net2
ipchains -A forward -s 192. 168. 1.0/24 -i pppo -j netl-inet
ipchains -A forward -s 192. 168. 2.0/24 -i pppo -j net2-inet
ipchains -A forward -s 192. 168. 2.0/24 -i ethl -j net2-netl
ipchains -A forward -i ethO -j inet-net2
ipchains -A forward -i ethl -j int-netl
ipchains -A forward
DENY -1
34?

ipchains
ipchains
ipchains
ipchains

ICMP-:
-A icmp -p icmp icmp-type destination-unreachable -j ACCEPT
-A icmp -p icmp icmp-type source-quench
-j ACCEPT
-A icmp -p. icmp icmp-type time-exceeded
-j ACCEPT
-A icmp -p icmp icmp-type parameter-problem -j ACCEPT

ICMP- ,
. netl-net2.
, WWW,
FTP, ssh. SMTP, POPS, DNS,
traceroute ping (
). :
ipchains -A netl-net2 -p tcp -d 192.84.219.128 smtp
-j ACCEPT
ipchains -A netl-net2 -p tcp -d 1 9 2 . 8 4 . 2 1 9 . 1 2 8 pop-3
-j ACCEPT
ipchains -A netl-net2 -p udp -d 192.84.219.129 domain -j ACCEPT
ipchains -A netl-net2 -p tcp -d 1 9 2 . 8 4 . 2 1 9 . 1 2 9 domain -j ACCEPT
ipchains -A netl-net2 -p tcp -d 192.84.218.130 w w w
-j-j ACCEPT
ipchains -A netl-net2 -p tcp -d 1 9 2 . 8 4 . 2 1 8 . 1 3 0 rsync -j ACCEPT
ipchains -A netl-net2 -p icmp -j icmp
ipchains -A netl-net2 -j DENY -1
rsync Web. inet-net2. 192.168.2.0
SMTP, DNS Web, .
(), .
. (DNS-) ,
. Web . rsync . :
ipchains -A inet-net2 -p tcp -d 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 2 . 9 8 smtp
-j ACCEPT
ipchains -A inet-net2 -p udp -d 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 2 . 9 9 domain -j ACCEPT
ipchains -A inet-net2 -p tcp -d 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 2 . 9 9 domain -j ACCEPT
ipchains -A inet-net2 -p tcp -d 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 2 . 9 7 W W W
-j ACCEPT
ipchains -A inet-net2 -p icmp -j icmp
ipchains -A inet-net2 -j DENY
netl-inet.
WWW, FTP ,
traceroute . ,
, Web-. masq
FTP. .
ssh
, ping.
ipchains -A netl-inet -p tcp
dport
www
-j MASQ
ipchains -A netl-inet -p tcp
dport
ssh
-j MASQ
ipchains -A netl-inet -p udp
-dport
3 3 4 3 4 : 3 3 5 0 0 -j MASQ
ipchains -A netl-inet -p tcp
dport
ftp
-j MASQ
342


ipchains -A netl-inet -p
ipchains -A netl-inet -j

icmp
icmp-type
REJECT -1

ping

-j

MASQ

net2-netl. Web, SMTP, DNS, POPS.


, masq
FTP- .
:
i -y -s 192. 84 .219 .128 smtp
ipchains -A net2-netl - tcp
-j ACCEPT
ipchains -A net2-netl - udp
S 192. 84 .219 .129 domain
-j ACCEPT
i -y -s 192. 84 .219.129 domain -j ACCEPT
ipchains -A net2-netl - tcp
ipchains -A net2-netl - tcp i -y -s 192. 84 .218 .130 WWW
-j ACCEPT
i -y -s 192. 84 .218 .130 rsync
ipchains -A net2-netl - tcp
-j ACCEPT
ipchains -A net2-netl - icmp
-j icmp
ipchains -A net2-inet -j DENY -1
ipchains
ipchains
ipchains
ipchains
ipchains
ipchains

net2-inet :
net2-inet -p tcp
-s 192. 84,.219.128 smtp
net2-inet -p udp
-s 192.84.219.129 domain -j
net2-inet -p tcp
-s 192.84.219.129 domain -j

-A
-A
-A
-A
-A
-A

net2-inet -p tcp
net2-inet -p icmp
net2-inet -j DENY

-y-s 192.84.218.130 www


-j icmp

-j

ACCEPT
ACCEPT
ACCEPT
ACCEPT

_T

,
,
. DNS
, , .
WWW
. rsync .
inet-netl.
.
ipchains -A inet-netl -j

REJECT

,
input . input
:
ipchains -N inet-if
ipchains -N net2-if
i p c h a i n s -N n e t l - i f

,
. :
ipchains -A input
ipchains -A input
ipchains -A input

-d
-d
-d

192.84.219.1
192.84.219.250
192.168.1.250

-j
-j
-j

inet-if
net2-if
netl-if

inet-if :
ipchaiain-A inet-if -i
!
ipchains -A inet-if -p TCP

PPpO
-dport

-j DENY -1
6 1 0 0 0 : 6 5 0 9 6 -j ACCEPT

343


ipchains
ipchains
ipchains
ipchains

-A
-A
-A
-A

inet-if
inet-if
inet-if
inet-if

-p UDP -dport
-p I CMP icmp-type
-j icmp
-j DENY

61000:65096 -j ACCEPT
pong
-j ACCEPT

, traceroute , ,
ICMP- .
net2-if :
ethO -j DENY
ipchains -A net2-if -i
ipchains -A net2-if -p TCP
! -y -s 192.168.2.99 53 -j ACCEPT
ipchains -A net2-if -p UDP
-s 192.168.2.99 53 -j ACCEPT
ipchains -A net2-if -P ICMP -icmp-type pong -j ACCEPT
ipchains -A net2-if -j icmp
ipchains -A net2-if -j DENY -1
,
inet-if, ethO.
netl-if :
ipchains -A netl-if -i ! ethl -j DENY
ipchains -A netl-if -p ICMP icmp-type ping -j ACCEPT
ipchains -A netl-if -p ICMP -icmp-type pong -j ACCEPT
ipchains -A netl-if -j icmp
ipchains -A netl-if -j DENY -1
WWW, SMTP, POP3. ping, tracer oute, ssh.
:
ipchains -D input I
ipchains -D f o r w a r d 1
ipchains -D output 1
ICQ. , SQUID , ,
( - SQUID ). SQUID
5190. ICQ.
acl SSL_ports port 443 563 5190
socks. , , ICQ, , , , .
socks dame-socks. /etc/socks . conf :
i n t e r n a l : 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 1 . 1 port = 1080
e x t e r n a l : 111.1.1.1
, socks:
client pass {
f r o m : 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 0 . 0 / 1 6 to: 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 / 0

344


, :
pass {

from: O.O.O.O/O to: 192.168.0.0/16


command: bindreply udpreply
log: connect error

14.5. IPTables
IPChains Linux 2.4.
( 2.4) IPChains
IPTables. . , , ipchains iptables.
, IPTables.
. 14.3. ,
. 18.

14.3

CONFIG_PACKET
CONFIG_NETFILTER
CONFIG_IP_NF_CONNTRACK

CONFIG_IP_NF_FTP

CONFIG_IP_NF_IPTABLES
CONFIG_IP_NF_MATCH_LIMIT
CONFIG_IP_NF_MATCH_MAC

,
.
tcpdump
,

.
NAT IP-.

FTP-. ,
FTP-. -
FTP- IP_NF_CONNTRACK
FTP-,
CONFIG IP NF FTP
IPTables .
IPTables
.
/
, - ( IP-)

, IPTables,
MATCH, , CONFIG_IP_NF_MATCH_MARK.
.
, , j.
IPChains, IPTables.
IPTables.
, IPChains, ACCEPT DENY. IPTables DENY
DROP. MASQ (. . 14.4) MASQUERADE.
345

(tables) (chains),
, .
, - ,
- 11:12:13:14:15:16.
iptables -A INPUT mac-source 11:12:13:14:15:16.
,
-j. , ,
- 11:12:13:14:15:16,
!
, , - 11:12:13:14:15:16, , 10
. : iptables -A INPUT - limit limit
10/minute. (second),
(minute) (hour).
IPTables ( )
, , :
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m multiport -source-port 22,53,80,110
. 15
. ,
destination-port.
, , port:
iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m multiport -port 22,53,80,110
.
, , . ,
UID 500 .
:
iptables -A OUTPUT -m owner uid-owner 500
, ,
, UID ,
, TCP.

:
iptables -A OUTPUT -m owner gid-owner 0
iptables -A OUTPUT -m owner -pid-owner 78
IPTables IPChains,
: IPChains,
. 14.1...14.4.

346

15
- SQUID

15.1. SQUID?
SQUID , HTTP/FTP- . -
(squid) IP-
(Masquerading ),
(), .
,
. -
, - ,
. -
, ,
. '.
SQUID , -. . SQUID, .
- Squid , : squid, dnsserver
DNS-. squid,
dnsserver, DNS.
DNS.

15.2. SQUID
SQUID RPM. RPM- SQUID
rpm -ih squid-2.3.STABLE2-3mdk.i586.rpm.
347

- SQUID
squid 2.3.
. ftp://ftp.squid.org.
, :
cd / u s r / s r c /
gunzip s q u i d - 2 . 3 . S T A B L E 2 - 3 - s r c . t a r . g z
tar xvf s q u i d - 2 . 3 . S T A B L E 2 - 3 - s r c . t a r . g z
cd squid
:
./configure prefix=/usr/local/squid
make all
make i n s t a l l
SQUID , prefix /usr/local/squid.
prefix , . 15.1.
configure

15.1

--enable-icmp

HTTP- ICMP

--enable-snmp

SNMP-

--enable-delay-pools

--disable-wccp

Web Cache Coordination Protocol

--enable-kill-parent-hack

shutdown

--enable-splaytree

ACL

/5.3. SQUID
SQUID squid.conf,
/ e t c / s q u i d ( / u s r / l o c a l / s q u i d /
etc ). ,
, joe/usr/local/squid/etc/squid.conf. :
1. :
cache_peer p r o x y . i s p . r u
proxy .isp.ru (neighbour, peer).
2. , squid, :
cache_mem 65536
cache_dir / u s r / l o c a l / s q u i d / c a c h e 1024 16 256
: 65536 , ;
1024 - , .
. ,
, .
3. , -:
acl allowed_hosts src 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 1 . 0 / 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 0
348

- SQUID
acl localhost src 127.0.0.1/255.255.255.255

4. SSL-:
acl SSL_ports port 4 4 3 563

5. CONNECT , acl SSLjports:


http_access deny CONNECT !SSL_ports
, , :
http_access allow localhost
http_access a l l o w allowed_hosts
http_access allow SSL_ports http_access deny all

6. , squid ( den, admin, developer):


ident_lookup on
acl allowed_users user den admin developer
http_access allow allowed_users
http_access deny all

maxium_object_size maxium_object
.
URL, games :
acl GaMS url_regex games
http_access deny GaMS
http_access a l l o w all

15.4. SQUID
, SQUID,
:
/ u s r / l o c a l / s q u i d / b i n / s q u i d -z
-z () ,
. .
SQUID . 15.2.
SQUID
15.2

-
-d
-f
-h
-k reconfigure
-k shutdown
-k kill
-u

-s
-V

-D
-N
-Y

HTTP-
( stderr)


HUP
-

1-
syslog
SQUID
DNS-
( )

349

- SQUID

75.5. squid, con f


squid.conf
-. -.
15.5.1.
(. . 15.1): http_port 3128

. 15.1. -

(peer) , icp_port
icp_port 3130

ICP TCP.

enable-htcp
htcp_port 4827.
,

,
.
2.3 :
tcp_incoming_address 0 . 0 . 0 . 0


:
tcp_outgoing_address 0 . 0 . 0 . 0

, ICP:
udp_outgoing_address 0 . 0 . 0 . 0 (, ICP)
, 1' ):
udp_incoming_address 0 . 0 . 0 . 0
, -
(firewall), passive_ftp :
passive_ftp on | o f f
15.5.2.
:
cache_peer hostname type proxy-port icp-port options

: hostname
;
type
: parent , sibling ;
proxy-port
-;
icp-port
ICP;
options
.
,
.
Parent
parent; , ,
350

- SQUID
.. . squid
TCP^DENIED parent, .
Sibling ,
sibling; , ,
.
15.5.3.
cache_swap_high

( ) .
cache_swap_low 90
.
maximum_object_size 4 0 9 6 KB
.
minimum_object_size KB
.
15.5.4.
SQUID . - ,
.
cache_access_log / u s r / l o c a l / s q u i d / l o g s / a c c e s s . l o g
SQUID.
/usr/local/squid/logs/access.log.
cache_log / u s r / l o c a l / s q u i d / l o g s / c a c h e . l o g
. / u s r / l o c a l
/squid/logs/cache.log.
cache_store_log /usr/local/squid/logs/store.log
.
/usr/local/squid/logs/store.log.
15.5.5.
ftp_user email-

email ftp-.
dns_nameservers IP-
DNS-, /etc/resolv.conf; .
cache_dns_program / u s r / l o c a l / s q u i d / b i n / d n s s e r v e r
IP-
( DNS).
351

- SQUID
authenticate_program none

, .
ACL proxy_auth.
authenticate_jprogram / u s r / l o c a l / s q u i d / b i n / n c s a _ a u t h / u s r / l o c a l /
squid/etc/passwd

.
../auth_modules/NCSA.
15.5.6. ACL

ACL (Access Control Lists) .



.
(ACL). :
acl SSL_ports port 4-43 563
, SSL_ports port. 443 563.
( add)
:
acl add SSL_ports port 999
del:
acl del SSL_ports 999
( rename):
acl ren SSL_ports Allowed_ports
flush:
acl f l u s h
ACL ,
$. ,
. ,
:
acl $SSL_ports port 4 4 3 563
, SQUID,
, .
, ACL . :
acl
: ;
.
:
acl _

.
, ACL,
. 15.3.

352

- SQUID
ACL

15.3

Src ip-address/netmask
Src addr1-addr2/netmask
Dst ip-address/netmask

IP-

URL

Time [day-abbrevs] [h1:m1-h2:m2]


Port
Port port1-port2

, SMTWHFA

Proto
Method
Browser [-i] regexp


HTTP FTP
GET POST
User-Agent

[-i] .

15.5.7.
http_access allow|deny aclname
HTTP.
icp_access a l l o w ! d e n y aclname
ICP.
miss_access a l l o w [ d e n y aclname
MISS .
cache_peer_access cache-host a l l o w ] d e n y aclname
cache_peer_domain.
proxy_auth_realm Squid proxy-caching web server
,
/ .
15.5.8.
cachejmgr email
,
, squid .
cache_effective_user nobody
SQUID root UID
cache_effective_user.
cache_effective_group
nogroup
SQUID root GID
cache_effective_group.
visible_hostname _
.
hostname_aliases
.

12 . 851

353

- SQUID

15.6. .
?
. , SQUID
. /usr/local
/etc/squid/squid.conf:
acl good_url
url_regex
"/usr/local/etc/squid/acl/
good_url"
acl bad_urlpath urlpath_regex "/usr/local/etc/squid/acl/
bad_urlpath"
acl bad_url
url_regex
"/usr/local/etc/squid/acl/
bad_url"
http_access deny bad_urlpath !good_url
http_access deny bad_url
!good_url

, :
good_url,
bad__url_path bad_url. bad_url
URL, : Ahttp://.*doubleclick
/4

h t t p : / / . * - a d . f lycast . c o m / s e r v e r / i m g /
http: / / 1 0 0 0 . stars . r u / c g i - b i n / 1 0 0 0 . cgi
A
http://1000.stars.ru/cgi-bin/1000.cgi
A
http://12.16.1.10/~web_ani/
/4

bad_url_path , :
88x31.*gif
88x31.*GIF
100x80.*gif
100x80.*GIF
100x100.*gif
100x100.*GIF
120x60.*gif
120x60.*GIF
179x69.*gif
193x72.*gif
468x60.*gif

.
good_url, bad_url_path bad_url
http://dkws.narod.ru

15.7.
, - ,
,
. , , , , , . , , . -
SQUID .
354

- SQUID
, ,
, :
delay_pools 2
. :
1. .
2. 255 .
3.
.
squid.conf :
delay_class 1 1 # 1
delay_class 2 2 # 2
, :
acl home src
acl workers src
delay_access 1 allow home
delay_access 1 deny all
delay_access 2 a l l o w w o r k e r s
delay_access 2 deny all
:
delay_parameters I 1 4 4 0 0 / 1 4 4 0 0
delay_parameters 2 3 3 6 0 0 / 3 3 6 0 0 16800/33600
, 1 , 14400 .
(/). .
2, ,
.
3, :
delay_parameters 3 1 2 8 0 0 0 / 1 2 8 0 0 0 6 4 0 0 0 / 1 2 8 0 0 0 1 2 8 0 0 / 6 4 0 0 0
.
,

.

15.8.
SQUID
:
sqmgrlog
http://www.ineparnet.com.br/orso/index.html
mrtg
http://www.switch.ch/misc/leinen/snmp/perl/
iptraf
http://dkws.narod.ra^inux/soft/iptraf-2.4.0.tar.gz
bandmin
http://www.bandmin.org
webalizer ( Apache) .... http://www.mrunix.net/webalizer/

355

- SQUID
,
. MRTG . 8.5.

15.9.
, -, , . ,
, ,
.
Internet Explorer 5
-
-> > .

,
-
(. . 15.2).

wsr

,^^^*

II

. 15.2. Internet Explorer

You may configure a proxy and port number for each of the internet
protocols that Netscape supports.
;

FTP Proxy;
Gopher Proxy;
HTTP Proxy:

Security Pro)^:
WAtS Proxy;
You:max provide a list of domains that Netscape should access directly/
rather than via the proxy:
No Proxy for:
; SOCKS Host

OK

356

. 15.3.

Netscape
Communicator

- SQUID
Netscape Communicator
Edit - Preferences - Advanced -> Proxies -> Manual Proxy
Configuration -> View (. . 15.3).
Konqueror
> > (. . 15.4).
!" proxy
HTTP:

proxy.company.ru

FTP :

He proxy ;

. 15.4. Konqueror

357

16

MySQL

16.1.
,
MySQL. MySQL
. - MySQL:
, MySQL,
- .
MySQL
, ,
InterBase Server, IBM DB/2, Oracle. MySQL
-. ,
, InterBase Server
Oracle, , MySQL.
, .
, MySQL.
MySQL 3.20, :
MySQL_GPL-3.20.32a-18mdk.
MySQL_GPL-client-3.20.32a-18mdk.
MySQL_GPL-shared-libs-3.20.32a-18mdk.
MySQL_GPL-bench-3.20.32a-18mdk.
MySQL_GPL-resolveip-3.20.32a-18mdk.
rpm -ih MySQL*
. ,
MySQL-client, -
.
mysql. ,
, , , :
mysql_install_db
, .
root. 358

MySQL
root . ,
, .
mysql :
1. db;
2. host;
3. user.
user. , . ()
root.
:
safe_mysqld &
.
, :
m y s q l : ready for connections
, ,
. :
mysql -u root mysql
MySQL.
root, .
mysql.
:
UPDATE user SET P a s s w o r d = P A S S W O R D ( x n e w _ p a s s w o r d ' ) WHERE
user='root';
, SQL-, Password
user root. , MySQL
. SQL:
FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

mysqladmin reload. :
mysqladmin -p reload
- ,
root. mysql , quit.
/ e t c / r e . d / i n i t . d / m y s q l :
chmod + / e t c / r e . d / i n i t . d / m y s q l
:
/ e t c / r e . d / i n i t . d / m y s q l restart
, .
/ v a r / l i b / m y s q l / m y s q l
mysql mysql_install_db.
.
mysql -u root mysql, :
ERROR: Access denied for user: *root@localhost' (Using password: NO)
359

MySQL
mysql u root -p. - .
, MySQL
. /etc/re.d/rc3 . d/ /etc/re.d/init.d/my'sql:
In -s S14mysql / e t c / r e . d / i n i t . d / m y s q l
S14 mysql.
network (S10) portmap (S11).
.
mysqld /var/log/mysql. log.
, ,
. ,
. :
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO a d m i n g l o c a l h o s t IDENTIFIED BY
'password' WITH GRANT OPTION;
admin,
. localhost,
password.
*.* ,
. ,
. , admin
,
. :
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO admin@"%" IDENTIFIED BY '
password' WITH GRANT OPTION;
,
. ,
:
GRANT CREATE,DROP,SELECT,INSERT,UPDATE,DELETE,INDEX ON user.* TO
user@% IDENTIFIED BY 'user_password';

user. user
.
. 16.1.
GRANT , user mysql.
user :
Host User P a s s w o r d Select_priv Insert_priv Update_priv
Delete_priv Create_priv Drop_priv Reload_priv Shutdown_priv
Process_priv File_priv
Host, User, Password - - , , ,
, , .
360

MySQL
MySQL

16.1

SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE

:
, , ,

INDEX

REFERENCES

CREATE, DROP

GRANT, ALTER

RELOAD, SHUTDOWN, PROCESS

,
()

.
- , Y. N.
, admin,
. SQL:
INSERT INTO user (Host, User, Password, Selectjpriv, Insert_priv,Update_priv, Deletejpriv,
Createjpriv,Drop_priv,Reloadjpriv,Shutdownjpriv, Process_priv, File_priv) VALUES
('localhost' /admin',password(Mtd561sl2'),'Y',','Y','Y', 'Y',' Y ' , ' Y ' , ' Y ' , ' Y ' , ' Y ' ) ;

.
MySQL ! admin, localhost.
, ,
. admin
. 4td561sl2.
:
INSERT

INTO

user(Host,User,Password,Select_priv,Insert_priv,Update jpriv,Delete_priv)
VALUES % ' , ' u s e r ' , p a s s w o r d ( 1 2 3 4 5 6 ' ) , ' Y ' , ' Y ' , ' Y ' , ' Y ' ) ;

76.2.

mysqlshow. :
mysqlshow -p mysql
, mysql.
Database: mysql
I Tables I
+
+
I db
I
I host
I
user

367

MySQL

mysqlshow , . 16.2.
mysqlshow

16.2

--1=_

--1=_

MySQL

--socket=coKeT

--=

mysql.
.
, mysqlshow. mysql
-s. . , . . .

16.3. Apache + PHP + MySQL


, Web-, . --
, , , RPM.
Apache, MySQL PHP
. , .
, .
16.3.1. : RPM
Red Hat 7.2
Mandrake 8.1 ( ):
.
Red Hat 7.2 Apache 1.3.20-16,
gd php 4.0.6,
Apache.
Apache + PHP (. test .php ).
Apache, (
, RPM):
rpm -Uh apache*
. Apache . 12 . : ServerName .
362

MySQL

, .
:
lynx h t t p : / / l o c a l h o s t
lynx Apache.
:
/etc/init.d/httpd stop
gd - -
:
rpm -qa I grep gd
gd , , , (
1.8.4):
rpm -Uhv g d - 1 . 8 . 4 - 4 . 1 3 8 6 . r p m
php, :
rpm -Uh php*
Apache, :
rpm -Uh mod_php*
. httpd.conf . . php :
AddType application/x-httpd-php4 .php
: Apache . test. php :
<?
phpinfo ( ) ;
?>

DocumentRoot Apache.
/ v a r / w w w / h t m l .
:
http://localhost/test.php
,
Apache , , gd (. . 16.1).
phpinfoQ : , , Web-.
Web-.
. phpinfo() , . p h p . i n i /etc.
, , m y s q l . s o (
MySQL):
extension=mysql.so
363

MySQL

......

sy^...,.

:.

...
1*19*3 EC

mad Dale

Aug 27 206'

Configure Command

-'- wirt- cof

--wlh-fsL- -enable- . -

--wthout-
--wifh-psp
Server API

Apsche -.

Hrluai Directory Support

dtsauied' '

Configuration me (phpjui) Path rttc/php-im


ZEHO_DBUO : . "
mreaa Safety

disabled 1
.

*?.?w..:...

. /6. t. phpinfo()

MySQL p h p . i n i
MySQL :
mysql.default_port =
mysql.default_socket =
mysql.default_host =localhost
mysql.default_user =
mysql.default_password =

, .
root ( ) !
MySQL.
, , Red Hat 7.2,
MySQL 3.23. ,
3.20. 3.23,
mod_auth_mysql.
Apache MySQL. , MySQL :
rpm -Uh mysql*
. MySQL
. MySQL (/etc/re.d /)
364

MySQL
, MySQL
Apache. : Apache
MySQL,
. MySQL Apache,
.
root MySQL:
mysql -u root -e "update user set
p a s s w o r d = p a s s w o r d ( > n e w _ p a s s w o r d ' ) where u s e r = ' r o o t ' " mysql
:
mysqladmin reload
Apache + PHP + MySQL.
mysql_test.php
/var/www/html.
<?

// root passwd
if(!mysql_connect("localhost","root","password"))
{

echo "He \";


echo mysql_error();
exit;
}

echo "!"
?>

,
!, , .
16.3.2. :
, ,
. -,
Apache, MySQL ,
Linux. -,
, , , , RPM MySQL. php:
mysql_connect() .
.
Apache, MySQL . , .
/src. , MySQL.
MySQL
(
koi8-r):
./configure with-charset=koi8_ru
make
make i n s t a l l
365

MySQL

Apache, :
./configure
make
make i n s t a l l
configure
configure help.
. :
./configure with-mysql with-apache=../apache_l.3.20 with-mod_charset
make
make i n s t a l l
MySQL Web- Apache. ,
Apache
-with-apache.
, Apache,
:
./configure activate-module=src/modules/php4/libphp4.a
Iibphp4.a.
, php . configure , :
make
make install
Apache
libphp. ( make install) :
httpd -1
Iibphp4.c,
mod_charset.c .
/etc/php.ini
root MySQL ( root root MySQL!). . 16.3.1.

. , MySQL Apache.

366

17
.

,
, .

, . , Linux.

17.1.
, :
1. .
2. IP-
.
3. IP-.
4. .
Linux
:
1. .
2. .
3. IpChains.
4. DNS.
5. Squid.
ethO, , ethl . ethO IP- 111.111.111.111, a ethl 192.168.1.1
17.1.1.
, .
:
N e t w o r k i n g support (CONFIG_NET) []
T C P / I P n e t w o r k i n g (CONFIG_INET) [ ]
IP f o r w a r d i n g / g a t e w a y i n g (CONFIG_IP_FORWARD)

[y]

367

.
IP m u l t i c a s t i n g (CONFIG_IP_MULTICAST) []
IP f i r e w a l l i n g (CONFIG_IP_FIREWALL) []
IP a c c o u n t i n g (CONFIG_IP_ACCT) [y]

Advanced Router,
.
.
17.1.2.
IP-forwarding. :
# echo "1" > / p r o c / n e t / i p _ f o r w a r d

netconf.
, , . 8.
17.1.3. IpChains
IPChains. , :
ipchains -N prov
ipchains -A input -i ethO -j prov
ip-spoofing:
ipchains -A prov -s 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 1 . 1 / 1 6 -1 -j DENY
ipchains -A prov -s 1 2 7 . 0 . 0 . 1 / 8 -1 -j DENY
Telnet :
ipchains -A prov -p tcp -destination-port 23 -j REJECT

, samba ,
137-139:
i p c h a i n s -A prov -p tcp d e s t i n a t i o n - p o r t 137 -j REJECT
ipchains -A prov -p udp - d e s t i n a t i o n - p o r t 137 -j REJECT

To 138 129.
samba Samba-HOWTO.
:
ipchains -N t r a f i n
i p c h a i n s -I input -i ethO -s ! 1 2 3 . 1 2 3 . 1 2 3 . 0 / 2 4
trafin
i p c h a i n s -A t r a f i n -d 1 2 3 . 1 2 3 . 1 2 3 . 1 2 3

-p

all

-j

, (
IpChains ), ipchains-save
ipchains-restore. , :
# ipchains-save > /etc/ipchains.rules

, , 17.1.
17.1.
#! / b i n / s h
# .
# , .

368

.
#'. /bin/sh
I .
# , .
[ -f /etc/ipchains . rules ] | | exit
case "$1" in
start)
echo -n " :"
/sbin/ipchains-restore < /etc/ipchains . rules | | exit 1
echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
echo " . " ; ;
stop)
echo -n " :"
echo 0 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward
/sbin/ipchains -X
/sbin/ipchains -F
/sbin/ipchains -P input ACCEPT
/sbin/ipchains -P output ACCEPT
/sbin/ipchains -P forward ACCEPT
echo "." ;;
*)
echo ": / e t c / i n i t .d/packetf ilter { start | stop} "
exit 1 ; ;
esac
exit 0

.
17.1.4. DNS
, (Domain Name
System) IP-
. DNS , .
, , :
# ps -ax

grep named

, ( ndc),
, bind.
network.
.
/etc/named. conf
(. 17.2).
17.2. named.conf
logging {

category cname {null; } ;


};
options {
directory "/var/named";
369

.
zone "." {
type h i n t ;
f i l e "named.ca";
zone " d h s i l a b s . c o m " {
type m a s t e r ;
f i l e "dhsilabs.com";
n o t i f y no;
zone " 0 . 0 . 1 2 7 . i n - a d d r . a r p a " {
type m a s t e r ;
f i l e "named.local";
zone " 1 . 1 6 8 . 1 9 2 . i n - a d d r . a r p a " {
type master;
f i l e "192.168.1";
n o t i f y yes;
/var/named.
d h s i l a b s . c o m , n a m e d . l o c a l , 192.168.1, named.ca (.
17.3, 17.4, 17.5). ()
d h s i l a b s . c o m (. 17.3). named. -- DNS.
.
17.3. dhsilabs.com ( IP-)
@

den

ns
www
ftp
mail
evg

IN

IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN

localhost IN
: NS
A..
370

SOA d e n . d h s i l a b s com. h o s t m a s t e r . d h s i l a b s . c o m . (
93011120

3
10800
3600

3600000
1000
TTL 24
86400
)
NS del
den.dhsilabs.com.
A
19:
192.168.1.1
MX 150 d e n . d h s i l a b s . c o m .
A
19:
192.168.1.1
INTEL CELERON (LINUX)
HINFO
MX 100 den
MX 150 evg.dhsilabs.com.
CNAME d e n . d h s i l a b s . c o m .
CNAME d e n . d h s i l a b s . c o m .
CNAME d e n . d h s i l a b s . c o m .
CNAME d e n . d h s i l a b s . c o m .
A
19:
192.168.1.2
MX 100 d e n . d h s i l a b s . c o m .
A
12'
1
27.0.0.1

name server;

IP-a

.
MX

<>. ,
;
HINFO
(
);

;
CNAME
, ..
http://www.dhsilabs.com,
den.dhsilabs.com. :
@ IN SOA d e n . d h s i l a b s . c o m . hostmaster.dhsilabs.com.
( , (..
dhsilabs.com)).
17.4. named.local
@

IN

SOA
199609203
28800
7200
604800
86400)
NS
PTR

dhsilabs.com. root.dhsilabs.com. (
;
; 8
; 2
; 168 (7 )
; TTL -- 24
dhsilabs.com.
localhost.

17.5. 192.168.1
@

IN

SOA
den.dhsilabs.com. hostmaster.dhsilabs.com. (
93011120
;
10800
; 3
3600
;
3600000
; 1000
86400 )
; TTL -- 24
@
IN NS
den.dhsilabs.com
1
IN PTR
den.dhsilabs.com
2 . 1 . 1 6 8 . 1 9 2 IN PTR e v g . d h s i l a b s . c o m

PTR IP- .
IP:
1 . IN PTR d e n . d h s i l a b s . c o m
1.168.192. : IP !
17.1.5. Squid

squid. .
/ e t c / s q u i d / s q u i d , conf. :
cach_peer p r o x y . y o u r _ i s p . c o m
, -:
cache mem
371

.
,
, -,
.
, ( ):
cache_dir /usr/local/squid 2048 16 256
, -:
acl allowed_hosts src 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 1 . 0 / 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 0
acl localhost src 1 2 7 . 0 . 0 . 1 / 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 2 5 5
,
squid ( den, admin, developer):
ident_lookup on
acl allowed_users user den admin developer
http_access a l l o w a l l o w e d _ u s e r s
http_access deny all

maxium_object_size maxium_object
.
: /etc/services / e t c / i n e t d . c o n f --
. , -, .

77.2. Dial-In
17.2.1.
, ,
Linux. , ,
. 2.3.x (
) mgetty- 1.1.x. mgetty
-DAUTO_PPP. , .
ppp-2.4.0-3mdk.i586.rpm mgetty-1.1.22-2mdk.i586.rpm,
Linux Mandrake 7.2. RedHat/Mandrake,
mgetty :
# mount -t i s o 9 6 6 0 /dev/hdd / m n t y / c d r o m
#cd /mnt/cdrom/Mandrake/RPMS
#rpm -Uvh mgetty*
#rpm -Uvh ppp*

:
1. CDROM /dev/hdd ( Secondary Slave).
2. Linux Mandrake. Red Hat
/mnt/cdrom/RedHat/RPMS.
3. He supermount. supermount ,
.
4. mgetty .

! , .
372

.
17.2.2. mgetty
mgetty
:
/etc/mgetty+sendfax:
dialin.config
login.config
mgetty.config
/etc/ppp:
auth-up
auth-down
,
chap-secrets
ip-up
ip-down
options
pap-secrets
, , .
, . ,
.
/ e t c / m g e t t y + s e n d f a x / d i a l i n . c o n f i g
. / e t c / m g e t t y + s e n d f a x / l o g i n . c o n f i g
:
/ A u t o P P P / - a_ppp /etc/ppp/ppplogin
, . ,
(log-),
:
/AutoPPP//etc/ppp/ppplogin
/etc/ppp/ppplogin (. 17.6).
17.6. /etc/ppp/ppplogin
mesg n
tty -echo
/ u s r / s b i n / p p p d s i l e n t auth -chap +pap login
-chap refuse-chap,
+ require-pap. , /etc/ppp/ppplogin
:
# chmod +x /etc/ppp/ppplogin
- /etc/passwd (. ). /etc/mgetty+sendfax
/mgetty.config , 17.7.
17.7. mgetty.config
# For US Robotics Sportster 28.8 with speaker off
port ttySO
speed 28800
data-only
debug 3
373

.
init-chat "" ATZ OK AT&F1MOE1QOSO=0 OK
answer-chat "" ATA CONNECT \c \r
# For Practical Peripheral 1 4 . 4 w i t h f a x disabled and prolonged
# carrier w a i t time ( 9 0 sec)
port ttySl
speed 1 4 4 0 0
data-only
debug 3
i n i t - c h a t "" ATZ OK AT&F1MOE1QOSO=OS7=90+FCLASS=0 OK
a n s w e r - c h a t "" ATA CONNECT \c \r
# For USRobotics V . E v e r y t h i n g
port ttyS2
speed 5 7 6 0 0
data-only
debug 3
init-chat "" AT OK ATS7=50SO=1+S62=3+S64=2S39=10 OK
ZyXEL U336E :
init-chat "" ATZ OK AT&F1MOE1QOSO=OS OK
answer-chat "" ATA CONNECT \c \r

: US Robotics Sportster
28.8, Practical Peripheral 14.4, USRobotics V.Everything. ZyXEL U336E
:
init-chat "" ATZ OK AT&F1MOE1QOSO=OS OK
answer-chat "" ATA CONNECT \c \r
.
.
/etc/inittab, 17.8.
17.8. inittab
# Run gettys in standard r u n l e v e l s
1:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty ttyl
2 : 2 3 4 5 : r e s p a w n : / s b i n / m i n g e t t y tty2
3 : 2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty3
4:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty4
5 : 2 3 4 5 : r e s p a w n : / s b i n / m i n g e t t y tty5
6 : 2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty6
#
S O : 2 3 4 5 : r e s p a w n : / s b i n / m g e t t y -x 3 ttySO
S I : 2 3 4 5 : r e s p a w n : / s b i n / m g e t t y -x 3 ttySl
32:2345:respawn:/sbin/mgetty /dev/ttyS2

SO, SI, S2 -- .
.
. SO...S2 .
mgetty ( ):
# init q
374

.
, /var/log/mesages .
TR,
mgetty .
17.2.3.
/ e t c /
options . ttySx, (. 17.9).
17.9. options
lock
login
auth
netmask 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 2 5 5 . 0
modem
crtscts
refuse-chap
require-pap
mtu 576
mru 576

proxyarp
myhost:ppp01
ms-dns C C C . C C C . C C C . C C C
/etc/ppp/options.
myhost .
! .
, , igor, denis .
, ..
options . ttySO, options . ttySl ! .
ms-dns DNS Microsoft.
IP- DNS .
proxyarp, IP-
broadcast . pppd
, ethernet.
: refuse-chap -chap,
require-pap +.
/etc/ppp/pap-secrets (. 17.10).
17.10. /etc/ppp/pap-secrets
* Secrets for authentication using PAP
* client
server secret IP addresses
*
*
""
192.168.0.11
*
*
""
192.168.0.12
*
*
""
192.168.0.13
, .
375

.
/etc/passed ( /etc/shadow).
/etc/hosts (. 17.11).
17.11. /etc/hosts
192.168.0.11 pppOl ppp01.mydomain.com
192.168.0.12 02 ppp02.mydomain.com
192.168.0.13 ppp03.mydomain.com
mydomain.com .
DNS.
/ u s r / s b i n / p p p d :
# chmod u+s / u s r / s b i n / p p p d
17.2.4. IP Forwarding
IP / e t c / s y s c o n f i g
/network : FORWARD_IPV4=yes.
IP_FORWARD.
IP Forwarding :
# echo "1" > / p r o c / n e t / i p _ f o r w a r d
IP Forwarding .
netconf,
IP Forwarding, ,
.
!
17.2.5.
, . / e t c / o p t i o n s / e t c / o p t i o n s . ttySx , myhost:pp01 :
Server_IP:Client_IP
,
192.168.0.1:192.168.0.11
/etc/ppp/pap-secrets
( 17.12).
17.12. /etc/ppp/pap-secrets
#
userl . ""
*
user2 . ""
*
#

: userl
- , ;
. - ;
- / e t c / p a s s w d (/etc/shadow);
*
- IP.

376

.
. ,
,
POP .
!
/etc/ppp/pap-secrets
MD5 ( DES), /etc/shadow (/etc/passwd).
/etc/hosts .
, , .
17.2.6. - ...
/var/log/messages.
. :
modprobe: c a n ' t locate module c h a r - m a j o r - 2 4
/etc/conf .modules :
alias ppp-compress-21 bsd_comp
alias ppp-compress-24 ppp_deflate
alias ppp-compress-26 ppp_deflate
17.2.7. Windows-
, .
IP- DNS ,
. (. . 17.1):
: .
: .
* : TCP/IP.

..
;

1|- '" .I**?'.''''''

<;.-!;.,:-!:.;:;

V;,''-r I :!1*|..(-|
^ :
;
~ :>ijn>i.-t i:i;i'B.jj:ji,75,mr!i

>s-'.] ,
|

'.'.'-.

>': ,

'

'

''

L11 :;.;:,-J
--.--1
I - . '-' . ; . < . - .
.?_1Z~ JZIZri

:
:

" TCP/IP
'

|5

: :

!. . -i. '.''. i.,...l|."f.:Ul.!:..:. ' .

?="':

I...'....

i;

...'

..iWlCSHI

'

t(4K

"

. 17.1.
377

.
17.2.8.
,
, ,
DNS, NET3-HOWTO.
http://dkws.narod.ru,
-.

17.3.
17.3.1. callback?
. : ,
, , -- 1 ,
. ,
. , 1 2,5...3,3
, : Utel. 1...2 .
callback (callback ).
: :
1.
.
callback. , ,

.
.
2. 5...20 callback
, .
callback .
, ,
. ,
, 6 . ,
- callback
.
( ), .
callback :
.
, ( ). ,
,
. ,
. ,
( 25...30 ) 378

.
. . ,
,
, , , .
, ,
- .
( callback) , ,
, , . callback
, callback
, . , callback .
callback.
:
, -
. , . :
,
, , .
17.3.2. . 1
. ,
,
. , - , , , , . , ,
,
, .
, mgetty pppd
. , mgetty . 17.2.
mgetty
pap-. ,
. mgetty RPM, . -
DAUTO_PPP ,
RPM, . mgetty http://alpha.greenie.net/mgetty/.
policy.h-Dist policy.h.
,
.
.
-.
Makefile :
CFLAGS=-02 -Wall -pipe
379

.
:
CFLAGS=-02 -Wall -pipe -DOFIDO -DOAUTO_PPP
, . : SBINDIR=/sbin, BINDIR=/bin
, mgetty:
make all
make i n s t a l l
callback ,
mgetty. callback / u s r / s b i n ,
callback, config /etc/mgetty+sendfax.
/ e t c / m g e t t y + s e n d f a x / l o g i n . c o n f . ( , ) :
/ A u t o P P P / - a_ppp /etc/ppp/ppplogin
:
/AutoPPP/
- _ / u s r / s b i n / p p p d noauth -chap +pap -detach
mgetty pppd.
m g e t t y . c o n f i g ,
(. 17.13).
17.13. mgetty.config
port t t y S O
#
# ( )
dataonly
#
init-chat "" AT OK #
#
force-init-chat "" AT OK
/etc/ppp/options.ttySO (. 17.14). ttySO.
17.14. /etc/ppp/options.ttySO
#
38400
#
crtscts
# ttySO
lock
#
modem
# IP-
192.168.1.1:192.168.1.207
# IP- DNS. Windows-
ms-dns 192.168.1.1
380

.
# LCP-
Icp-echo-interval 20
# LCP-
lcp-echo-fallure 6
#
mtu 576
mru 576

LCP- LCP ,
pppd .
120 (20*6) , .
mgetty, /etc/lnlttab:
S O : 3 5 : r e s p a w n : / s b i n / m g e t t y -D -n 1 /dev/ttySO 38400
, SO ,
. 3,5 . -D
mgetty ,
- 1 mgetty .
() mgetty.
init q. killall -I init.
DTR.
, / v a r / l o g / m e s s a g e s -
.
, .
, (please).
- l o g i n . c o n f i g :
please - - / u s r / s b i n / c a l l b a c k -s 3 8 4 0 0

. , ,
, .
callback cbuser (callback user).
mgetty.
, , .
, Windows-.
17.3.3. . 2
, , . -,
Windows-. -, , callback, .
. ,
, , , .
:
381

.
pppd, pppd,
pppd.
pppd,
callback. : http://www.pbko.sk/~bobovsky/archiv/pppdcbcpS-callback/ine-contrib/ppp-2.x.n.CBCP.patch.
pppd. .
pppd , ,
pppd. pppd
ftp://ftp.linuxcare.com.au/pub/ppp/
pppd ( ) :
patch -pi < - 2 . 3 . 1 0 . . p a t c h
pppd (
). :
/etc/ppp/callback-users
/etc/ppp/callback-client
/etc/ppp/callback-server
,
. Linux callback. .
pppd
:
./configure
make
make i n s t a l l
pppd mgetty. ,
mgetty -DAUTO_PPP ( -).
/etc/mgetty+sendfax/login, conf. :
/AutoPPP/ _ /usr/sbin/pppd auth -chap +pap login callback-server
callback-users
(. 17.15).
17.15. /etc/ppp/callback-users
# User list for callback
# Username option
# option no callback
# option * or empty user definied
# option other admin definied: this number
# in username * and ? wildcars valid, callback uses the best fit
# Examples:
# zotyo 67435 # user zotyo admin definied, number 67453
# gates -- # gates not called back may *
cbuser *
user 320779
382

.
cbuser. * . user , 320779.
callback -.
chniod callback-server callbackclient .
callback-server (. 17.16).
17.16. /etc/ppp/callback-users
#!/bin/sh
# Script callback-server
# Script parameters: delay time in seconds, callback number
DELAY="$1"
NUMBER="$2"
/usr/sbin/chat -v -t 2 "" ATHO
sleep $DELAY
/usr/sbin/chat -v "" AT OK ATS39=5DT$NUMBER CONNECT
, , sleep SDELAY sleep, , sleep 25. : (- DT). , DP (ATDP).
, .
17.3.4. . 1
.
, , .

TCP/IP (. . 17.2).
, , ,
(
17.17).
::^|;
*?||

~(*4-

17.17. callback

a tilfffl;

. 17.2.

proc main
delay 1
#
A
transmit "please M"
#
#
waitfor "phone"
#

transmit "123456 "


#
waitfor "RING"

383

.
#
w a i n f o r "CONNECT"
endproc

||C:\PfogramFiles\Accessories\Callbacl4scp
callback.scp.
Windows NT \WINNT\SYSTEM32\RAS.

(. . 17.3).

.

. ,
AT&C1SO=1 (. . 17.4).
. 17.3. cal/back.scp
&1 CD - -
. SO ,
(1 ). Motorola Premier 33.6 :
AT&F&COSO=1QOV1&D3\V4

callback - / m n t / c d r o m / d o c / c a l l b a c k .
Windows NT
. :
- ->

; ' '
- (Start ->
ffife
Programs - Accessories - Remote
!
"!!
access). (More).
| .;;

"it
(Users preferences)
::^<;|
JEj-<^

(Callback). ,
::;j|SJATlc1sCfc1j
. ,
, ,
. 17.4.
.

384

.
17.3.5. . 2
,
Windows-. , , Windows . ,
(. . 17.2).

Linux-. Linux-
pppd, . , ,
. pppd
/ e t c / p p p / c a l l b a c k - c l i e n t (. 17.18).
17. IS. /etc/ppp/callback-client
#!/bin/sh
# Script callback-client
# Script parameters: delay time in seconds
DELAY="$1"
#
/usr/sbin/chat -v -t 2 "" \d+++\d\c OK ATHO OK
# $DELAY ,
#
# delay 25 delay 30
sleep $DELAY
# callback
/usr/sbin/chat -v "" ATZ OK "" RING ATA CONNECT
ppp-on pppd, :
/ u s r / s b i n / p p p d auth -chap +pap login callback

13 . 851

385

18

,
.
2.2.17,
(2.3.x , 2.4.x).

18.1.
Linux
. (
).
BootPrompt-HOWTO. LILO,
Linux (, bootlin, bootact).
, LILO,
:
linux _.
: linux , / e t c / l i l o . c o n f .
append,
LILO / e t c / l i l o / c o n f .
:
[=1][,2]...[,]

. , .
:
//
root=/dev/hdal e t h e r = 9 , 0 x 3 0 0 , O x d O O O O , O x d 4 0 0 0 , e t h O
//
root=/dev/hdal ether=9, 0x300, O x d O O O O , Oxd4000, ethO
386


18.1.1.
, ,
:
root=y

. , root=/dev/hdal.
:
1. /dev/hdaN . . /dev/hddN IDE-;
2. /dev/sdaN . . /dev/sdeN SCSI-;
3. /dev/xdaN . . /dev/xdbN XT- ;
4. /dav/fdN . N=0 , N=1 ;
5. /dev/nf s , , NFS.


. ,

rw
/
.
fsck. fsck
.
18.1.2. RAMDISK
Linux ,

. :
.
, . RAM-.
RAM-.
ramdisk_start=<cMetueHMe>

RAM-.
RAM, ,
BIOS .
RAM-,
.
LILO.
, (
boot, root),
= 0.
387


load_ramdisk=

RAM-.
load_ramdisk= 1 , RAM-.
0 ( RAM-).
prompt_ramdisk=

, ,
(: promt_ramdisk=l).
ramdisk_size=

RAM- .
ramdisk=

( ) RAM-. , 1.44 ramdisk=1440. , 1.3.47.


18.1.3.
mem:
mem=
, .
: mem=l6384K mem=16M.
, ,
. , Intel 810 , 1 (
2 ). .
Intel (http://www.intel.com).
18.1.4.
debug
( ) printk().
, ,
klogd() .
,
(,
). , , console_loglevel. ,
DEBUG (7). k e r n e l . h .
init=
/sbin/init,
(). init
, imt=/bin/sh.
.
no-hit
386 ( ) hit,
.
388


. no-hit
hit. ,
486DX-100 . , nohit Linux .
387
,
no-scroll
.
reboot=

, . : cold
warm, . 2.0 ,
single
, , .

18.2.
, , . , , :
kernel-2.2.17-21mdk.i586.rpm
kernel-headers-2.2.17-21mdk.1586.rpm
, .
/ u s r / s r c / l i n u x / u s r / s r c / l i n u x - 2 .2.17. linux
linux-2 .2.17.
:
# cd / u s r / s r c / l i n u x
^

II, fa
Ji'f "?&}: ^^^

roceswr - ' ' II |".<-*


.,,,

,
.
.
,
,

lie j
>
s
i

. 18.1. Menuconfig

# make config
# make menuconfig
# make xconfig



, ,
,
.

make menuconfig

(. 18.1).
389

Code maturity level options

EO device support

Processor type and features

IEEE 1394 (fireWIre) support

Loadable module support

Network device support

General setup

Amateur Radio support

Plug and Play support

IrDA (infrared) support

Block devices

ISDN subsystem

Save and Exit

Networking options

Old CD-ROM drivers (not SCSI, not IDE)

Quit Without Saving

Telephony Support

Character devices

Load Configuration from Rle I

SCSI support

USB support

Store Configuration to File

j-

. 18.2. xconfig

. xconfig menuconfig, - X-Window (. . 18.2).


,
Save Configuration to an Alternative File.
,
,
. , ,
, , .
, ,
.
18.2.1. Processor type and features
, ,
1 , MTRR, .
: , ,
1,5 , .
.
, , 486, 586, Pentium, PPro, . Processor type and features j
,
Pentium, Processor faintly
( 1GBJ; Maximum Physical Memory
), * n !| Math emulation
v j!
,
* yj| v ;1| v '| ' MTRR (Memory Type Range Register) support
486. . 18.1 n
,
yji ^ -'! *' 1 Symmetric multi-processing support

Main Menu
Prev
.
:

. 18.3. Processor type and features

390

Gfiiieral setup |

Ill|| v

v.n|| BIGMEM support


n

[*
1* i v

ftny)

Help | |

Networking support

Hulp ;

PCI access mode

Help j ; :

j v. ||v . 'i * n |f, PCI quirks

i I.-V-. ;i v* "
\*

ii -v
HI ii v

' ...Heip:.j

,:. %; f!ist;";!i.:.;;- , ;};! : . . . ; '' Help -j

V nil

Backward-compatible /proc/pci

Help j

* n jj MCA support

! --

Help j

- n i l PCI support

| Help

<* nii SGI Visual Workstation support

i i Help j

^ n l j System VIPC

Main Menu

Next
-

Help |

/I

Prev
-_-

-:

;r;::::

. 18.4. General setup

r'<>V>:.

5 i;!

tafflWWifiiiff10^ '

.- oft .-."'i

Networfdng options j

I; -*'yii v

milvfiil! Packet socket

|; * ii V

i * yj|y

:j ;V n| Routing messages ;

:: :

^
'||||
<->.--sa

ItBlp i
1

Help i

-.'kJiiiis ^,-

1 * yilv: m i i v'" n .'}.'; Unix domain sockets

|
|
|
|

:.-:->^

; Help \

I i v n !i Network firewalls

* . ii v H:V' nii socket RitennB

Help 1

';.

!;* yj|y mij^; n I? Netlink device emulation

li.L.yJI.x

1
J:

' i ' v " ; ! Kernel/User netJink socket

J*5ii

:.:;;iw

Help i

':'.:1[ 'n i|,: TCP/iP networking


: Ii v- n jj IP: multicasting |
|
i

n
I * y.t"v :;-j!v !| IP: advanced router i

|:1^;^^:::^^

! Menu
fer

Help ;

:.........:..

Next

:SSai;a||;sL:::>,-^...,l

. J8.5. Networking options

18.1

386

486/486

' ':;Prev':'::-::J 1

AMD/Cyrix/Intel 386DX/DXL/SL/SLC/SX,
Cyrix 486DLC/DLC2, UMC 486SX-S
AMD/Cyrix/lntel/iBM DX4, 486DX/DX2/SL/SX/SX2 AMD/Cyrix 5x86
NexGen Nx586, UMC USD U5S

586/5/586/686

( ) Pentium, AMD K5

Pentium/K6/TSC

Intel Pentium/Pentium MMX, AMD K6.K6-3D

/686

Intel Pentium Il/Pro, Cyrix/IBM 6x86MX, MM

397

USBsupportj
Support for USB

-* yj;v r

USB verbose debug messages

/ :| v

Miscellaneous USB options


;v yji.v

* ni

",-t

* nj

!! V

Preliminary USB device fitesystem


Enforce USB bandwidth allocation (EXPERIMENTAL)
USB Controllers

v y;iv mi; * n.

UHCI (Intel PIIX4, VIA,...) support

,- IK* ml * n

UHCI Alternate Driver (JE) support

v* y l l x c m i ! *>!

OHCI (Compaq, iMacs, OPTi, SiS, ALi, ...) support


USB Devices
it

Next

. 18.6. USB support

586/5. ,
PPro, Linux ( : Intel Celeron
433). 1 , , , 1 .
Math emulation
, : 386SX/DX/SL/SLC 80387, 486SL/SX/SX2.
SMP (Symmetric multi-processing support)
,
? , .
SMP .
586. , 486.
, Pentium,
. ,
Enhanced Real Time Clock Support.
Advanced Power Management SMP.
MTRR
Intel P6 (Pentium Pro, Pentium II )
Memory Type Range Registers (MTRR).
. ,
PCI AGP. : Cyrix 6x86, 686, , AMD K6-2 (stepping 8
), 6-3, Centaur . BIOS MTRR , .
392


. , MTRR, . MTRR
3 .
18.2.2. Loadable module support
,
. ,
, .
.
18.2.3. General setup
BIGMEM

1GB.
Networking support
, . Linux .
PCI support
PCI.
PCI quirks
, BIOS.
BIOS , PCI.
. , . . BIOS ,

.
PCI bridge optimization (experimental)
PCI . . ,
.
Backward-compatible /proc/pci
/proc/pci,
PCI-. ,
, .
/proc/bus/pci. . ,
() /proc/bus/pci.
MCA support
MCA. MCA --
, IBM, - -
PS1/PS2. .
System V IPC
. metalab (ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/docs/LDP/
programmers-guide).
393


BSD Process accounting


, ,
. .
Sysctl support
Sysctl. Sysctl
. sysctl
8 . , , /, .
Kernel support for a.out/ELF/MISC/JAVA binaries
Linux- ELF-. , .
Parallel port support
.
PC-style hardware
( ),
PC. ,
IBM PC, Alpha .
Support foreign hardware
, ( PC) .
Advanced Power Management () BIOS support
: , - (, VESA-).
, apm=off.
:
1. ( ),
, .
2. no-hit.
3. ( 387).
4. floppy-nodma.
5. , .
6. .
Support Enable PM at boot time

. ,
BIOS , Standby
Suspend,
CPU Idle. ,
.
Make CPU Idle calls when idle
.
!
, .
, ,
394


. ,
SMP , !
Enable console blanking using

. ,
LCD-, Linux.
Ignore multiple suspend/resume cycles

Dell Inspiron 3200


. , .
RTC stores time in GMT

GMT,
, . ,
. GMT.
Allow interrupts during BIOS calls

. BIOS , , IBM ThinkPad.


. , .
18.2.4. PnP support
Plug and Play.
18.2.5. Block devices
Normal PC floppy disk support
FDD Linux, .
Enhanced IDE/MFM/RLL disk/cdrom/tape/floppy support
, SCSI-.
Use old disk-only driver on primary interface
Primary
master IDE. , (Primary master, Primary slave,
Secondary Master, Secondary slave). ,
SCSI-.
Include IDE/ATA-2 Disk support
IDE/ATA-2 . ,
-.
Use multi-mode by default
:
hda: set_multmode: status=0x51
hda: set_multmode: e r r o r = 0 x 0 4
.

395


Include IDE/ATAPI CDROM support
CDROM.
.
Include IDE/ATAPI TAPE support
IDE/ATAPI-.
Include IDE/ATAPI FLOPPY support
IDE/ATAPI-. LS-120 lomegaZIP, .
SCSI emulation support
SCSI
ATAPI, .
.
, .

18.2.6. Networking options


Packet Socket
Packet , , , tcpdump.
Kernel/User netlink support
.
, . 18.2.
18.2

Routing messages
Netlink device emulation
Network firewalls
Socket Filtering
UNIX domain sockets
TCP/IP networking
IP:firewalling (*)
IP:firewall packet (*)
IP: transperent proxy support (*)
IP: masquerading (*)
IP: ICMP masquerading (*)
IP: masquerading virtual
server support (*)
IP: broadcast GRE over IP (*)
IP: aliasing support
IP: TCP syncookie support
IP: allow large windows


. ,

firewall

UNIX-.
TCP/IP
IpChains
IpChains

IP-
-
IP-
broadcasting WAN

.
SYN-
.
16

, (*), . .
firewall .

396


18.2.7. SCSI support
SCSI.
SCSI- .
18.2.8. Network device support
(, ),
. ,
. , PCI- , ISA- .
18.2.9. IrDA, USB support
IrDA- USB-.
18.2.10. Filesystems
: , ,
, . :
Second ext fs (ext2), ISO 9660, MS Joliet CDROM extension,
VFAT, /proc, /dev/pts

: MS DOS FAT, MINIX.


,
.
18.2.11. Sound
, .
, ,
( ).
,
, , ,
.

78.3.
, ,
.
:
# make dep
:
# make bzlmage
, 20 (
) .
/usr/src/linux/arch/1386/boot.

397


, :
# make modules
:
# make modules_install

( /lib/modules). :
# make i n s t a l l
,
. .
/ e t c / l i l o . c o n f :
# vi / e t c / l i l o . c o n f
(
/ e t c / l i l o . c o n f . 4):
image=/usr/src/linux/arch/i386/boot/bzlmage
label=my_linux
root=/dev/hda5
append=" mem=128M"
read-only
:
# lilo
:
# reboot
.
.

398


.
RPM-

19

19.1.
. Linux
mail, fastmail, locate, which. ,
,
X Window.
. , ,
Intel Pentium 166 32 , ,
pine,
netscape -mail .
, , ,
, .
, ,
. ,
, Linux ,
appres
appres X,
.
: $ appres xterm
arch

.
: $ arch.
: 1686.

399

. RPM-
banner

, . .
[] []
be , .
, , be , .
, .
.
:

scale=3
sqrt(4)+2
4.000
quit
scale , ,
. sqrt .
for, while, continue,
break. s , , ,
, 1 .
bdftopcf

[]

-bdf

bdftopcf BDF PCF. PCF X.


bdftopcf , . 19.1.
bdftopcf

19.1

-I

-I

-L

, -I,

, -I,

- file

-
-t

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.
: 1,2,4

. : 1,2,4

bmtoa []
bmtoa .
atobm.
cal []
! ,
cksum
cksum (CRC)
. .
400

. RPM-
cpio []

cpio ,
. .
date

date . root .
, man date. MMddhhmmyy ,
, , , . , 14
2002 16:35 : date 0114163502
df []

.
, .
free []

free
. .
, - - ,
dumpkeys
.
echo []

echo .
-,
, .
fsinfo
X
Windows.
id

.
, . UID,
GID, , .
info

info man. info


, man.
insmod []

.
root.
kill [] PID

. kill . 5.
40?

. RPM-
killall []
.
login []
.
.
su.
Ismod
.
mdSsum .[]
MD5. -
, -t . -
, -s .
minicom []
Minicom . ,
.
minicom.
nice [] []
. nice
. 5.
passwd [] []
. root . .
.
, , , list.
pathchk
.
printenv
.
echo $_
ps
(. . 5).
renice []
. nice,
renice .
reset
() .
402

. -
nrnnod []
.
root.
[]
XModem.
minicom.
rxvt
rxvt xterm.
rz

[]
ZModem.
minicom.

sb []
YModem.
minicom.
setterm
.
.
sleep

. .
.
startx
X Window, . startx xinit.
strace []
.
.
stty
stty
. .
sx []
XMddem.
minicom.

systat
systat ciictfettfy, systat.
.
systat , daytime netstat.
systat , . 19.2.
sz

[]
ZModem.
minicom.
403

. RPM-
systat

19.2

netstat

systat
daytime

-
-S

-t

tee

[]


. ,
. ,
. -.
:
$ some_program | tee f i l e
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.
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Q
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Linux.
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write

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X Window.
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.
xconsole []
X ,
/dev/console. . 19.4.
xconsole

19.4

-daemon

( )

-file

/dev/console

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-nonotify
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, notify

-exitOnFail

xcpustate
,
xdpyinfo []
X.
xeyes []
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xf86config
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, .

405

. RPM-
xfd []

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xgc

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Window.
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.
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xkill -. X
. X Window (-)
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.

xlogo
X.

man.
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^ (. . 19.5).
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406

19.5

, .
_:_,


. RPM-
echo, X.
.
[]
X.
.
xpaint
. TIFF,
PPM, .
xrefresh
() .
xsetroot []

xsetroot X,
. .
xterm
,
X Window.
xv []
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GIF, JPEG, TIFF, PGM, PPM, PBM, BMP, PCX, IRIS RGB
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X.
, .
xwd []
xwd
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yes

.
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19.2. 1

> [V

^
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chgrp , . , (. . 19.6).
407

. RPM-
19.6

chgrp

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chown . , ,
root.
chgrp (. . 19.6).
chroot

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root.
file

[]
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find

find . find , .
, , , . . 19.7.
find
19.7

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,

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, :
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d ;
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, :
+ ;
m ;
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,

, :
+d d ;
d ;
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( , )

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408

. RPM-
. 19.7

-gid

-iname

.
( ),

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(i-node)

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, n

-Inane
-maxdepth

-mindepth

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, ,
/etc/group

-nouser

, /etc/passwd,

-path

-exec,

-perm _

-size n

-type _

: b ,
, d , f , I ,

-user

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gzip []

. ,
, ,
.gz. gzip . 19.8.
gzexe []
gzexe .
.
, . , gzexe (SFX). -d
.
locate []
.
.
gzip

19.8

-d

( , gunzip)
..iJil,
,
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-f
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(pack, deflate, Izh, compress)

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409

. -
mkfifo []
FIFO (First In First Out).
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mkfontdir
,
. ( ) fonts . dir
. X.
mknod [] _
mknod FIFO, ,
. , mkfifo,
0666 umask.
, (. . 19.9).

19.9

(FIFO)

- _.
.
pwd

.
size []
size .
, . 19.10.
sq _ _
sq .
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, sq.
umask
.
~ , 0777 umask.
umask 022.
size

19.10

-
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410

size UNIX SysV


size BSD

. RPM-
updatedb []
updatedb , locate .
, .
(. . 19.11).
updatedb

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--netpaths=dir1 dir2 ...
--netuser=username
--old-format
--11=
--prunepaths=dir1 dir2 ....

19.11

xfilemanager xfm
. Midnight Commander (me),
.
zcat
.
znew [] .Z .gz
znew , compress,
grip. ,
. 19.12.
znew

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19.12



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[]
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411

. -

19.3.
audiocompose
audiocompose ,
. .
audiosend
audiosend , .
biff
.
sendmail.
chfn []
, finger.
dnshostname []
. root
.
dnsquery []
DNS. (. . 19.13).
dnsquery

19.13

DNS

-t

: A, ANY, H1NFO, NS, CNAME, PTR, SOA, WKS, MX

: IN, CHAOS, HS, ANY.

-
-

-S

elm []
elm .
, mail,
, pine.
fastmail [],, _

. - , . . 19.14.
faucet []

faucet
. faucet , a hose (. )
.
412

. -
fastmail

-
-
-
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-f from
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>

19.14



Comments

from ()
Message-ID ( )
reply-to ()

( subject)

finger []
finger ,
chfh. finger , 79 /etc/services
.
Connection refused. 79 ,
. ,
, .

frm
.
ftp []
ftp FTP, . . 19.15, ftp . 19.16.
ftp

-d

-
-I
-
-V

19.15




.
, user
,

19.16
FTP


,/
account
! 2
append 1 2
ASCII .
Ascii


Bell

Binary
ftp
Bye

Case

cd

Cdup

413

. -
. 19.16

Chmod
Close
Cr
delete
dir
Disconnect
get 1 2
Glob
Hash
help
idle n
Image
led
Is
macdef
mdelete
mdir
mget
mkdir
mis
mode
modtime
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newer
open []
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proxy
put 1 2
Pwd
Quit

recv 1 2

reget 1 2
remotestatus
rename 1 2
Reset
restart

414

.




.
,
close
1, ,
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n


dir
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bye
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. RPM-
. 19.16

.

. ,
Runique
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1 2
send "! 2
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size

Status

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system
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type
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verbose

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rmdir

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, .
getpeername []
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hose

[]

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host [] []

host IP. IP-


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hostname []

: I3R!

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. $?1
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< >
lynx [] URL

lynx . , . Web. URL-,


(. . 19.17). ,
lynx, . 19.18.

415

. RPM-
19.17

lynx

-anonymous

,
-ascii

-auth=HMH

-book

-cache n

-case
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^ , -traversal, ,
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X rexeced

-dump
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emacs
-emacskeys
HTML
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FTP
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GET
-head
HEAD MIME

-homepage=URL

-image_links

-index=URL
-localhost

,
-loexec

MIME
-mime_header

-nobrowse


-noexec
-dump
-nolist
-nolog


-noprint
-noredir
URL
-nostatus

-numbersjinks

-post_data
POST
-realm
URL
-reload
-
-restrictions=
(. . 19.18)

-rlogin
rlogin
-selective
, .www_browsable
-show_cursor

-source
Web HTML
-telnet
TELNET
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-trace

-traversal

-underscore
-dump
-validate
URL , , http://www.linux.ru
-vikeys
vi

416

. RPM-

19.18

Bookmark

bookmark_exec

change_exec_perms
Default

dired_support

disk save

Download

Editor

Exec

exec frozen

file url

URL file://

goto
inside_ftp

goto

unside_news

Usenet

inside_rlogin

rlogin

inside telnet

telnet
jump

jump

ftp

mail

options_save

.lynxrc

outside_ftp

ftp

outside_news

Usenet

outside_rlogin

rlogin

outsidejelnet

telnet

print

shell

suspend

Ctrl+Z

telnet_port

telnet

mail []
mail , , . . ,
.
metamail []
metamail .
.
mimeencode []
mimeencode MIME. DOS/Windows/Windows NT UU (Unix to
Unix),
MIME. UU DOS/Windows . MIME. . 19.19.
14 . 851

417

. -
mimeencode

19.19

Base64 ( )

-q

quotes-printable

-U

CR/LF

mimeencode mmencode
.
pine []
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ping

ping .
ICMP ECHO_REQUEST ( 3)
. . Ctrl+C.
popclient []
, 2 . ,
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rusers []

, . -1
.
showaudio
showaudio ,
audiocompose.
sliplogin
, SLIP (Serial Line
Internet Protocol). / e t c / s l i p . h o s t s .
, , SLIP
.
talk

[]

.
,
: _@_.
telnet

[]

[]

Telnet.
tftp
tftp FTP (
t ).
418

. -
TFTP.
. tftp
: ascii, binary, connect, get, put, quit, status, timeout, verbose.
uudecode
uudecode UU- .
uuencode

uuencode UU- .
xbiff
xbiff biff, X Window.

19.4.

.
.
. . 19.20.

cat

19.20

Q
S

[]

cat ,
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479

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19.21

cat

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19.22




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19.23

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420

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19.24

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ed, 1
2

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RCS

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diff

19.25

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-X

diff3

[]

! 2

. diff3
. :
1. = = = =, ;
2. = = = 1, ;
3. = = = 2, ;
4. = = = 3, .
emacs []

emacs . Linux.
, .
expand []

421

. RPM-
expand .
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fmt

[]

fmt ,
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. 19.26.
19.26

fmt

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.
80 .
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ghostview
PostScript.
ghostscript.
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grep

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422

19.27

,
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groff DVI.
groff []

groff.
.
head []
head . .
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423

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19.28

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/usr/diet/words.
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Iprm [] _
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424

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more

[]
less, more .
less,
.
, UNIX Linux.

paste []
paste .
pico []
pico . pine pine
. pico . 19.29.
pica

+
-d
-
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-k
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-
-
-
-t
-V

-w
-X
-Z

19.29


Delete



. X Window
.


, , pine



Ctrl+Z

[]
.
. .
, . 19.30.

+
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-
-
-
-d
-
-F

19.30





"

. 1

425

. RPM-
. 19.30

-h
-I

-I

( 66 )

-
-
-

.

, .
,

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-w

printf
, .
sed

[]
sed .
, .
-f _.
.

sort []
sort ,
. (. . 19.31).
sort

19.31

+1[-2]

. !
2. 2 ,

-d
-f
-I

, ,

, ASCII,

(Jan, Feb )
, ,

-n

-
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-1

split [] ! 2

.
-.
, -.

426

. RPM-
tac

[]


. cat.
tail []

head. ,
tail 10 .
-1 .
tr [] ! 2

tr ! 2. .
.
unexpand []

unexpand
. -
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uniq [] ! 2

uniq ! 2. 2 ,
. . 19.32.

19.32

-d

-f n

-w n

-check-chars=n n
-skip-chars=n
n
-skip-fields=n

vi

n .

[]

vi .
.
we []

,
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. . 19.33.
427

. RPM-
we

19.33

-bytes

--chars
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-lines

--words

xedit
xedit , X Window.
kedit gedit. , Gnome.
zdiff
gzip diff.

79.5. RPM-
RPM
, (RPM-).
, , ,
RPM-.
, .
, , , . :
port
.
README
, /usr/doc/port-l.0-99.
port.l
man.
/root/port. ,
, .
. : ,
, , , ,
. port 19.1
19.1. port
Summary: Program to c o n t r o l y o u r s e r i a l device
Name: port
V e r s i o n : 1.0
R e l e a s e : 101
Group: Monitoring
L i c e n s e : GPL
428

. RPM-
Packager: Denis K o l i s n i c h e n k o [ d h s i l a b s @ m a i l . r u ]
URL: h t t p : / / d k w s . n a r o d . r u
%description
port
. (1) - ,
port email
%files
%doc / r o o t / p o r t / R E A D M E
/root/port/port
/root/port/port.1
:
# rpm -bb / r o o t / p o r t / p o r t . s p e c

, :
E x e c u t i n g ( % i n s t a l l ) : / b i n / s h -e / v a r / t m p / r p m - t m p . 3 3 4 3 9
Proces'sing f i l e s : port-1.0-99
Finding
Provides: ( u s i n g / u s r / l i b / r p m / f i n d - p r o v i d e s ) . . .
Finding R e q u i r e s : (using / u s r / l i b / r p m / f i n d - r e q u i r e s ) . . .
Requires: Id-linux.so.2 l i b c . s o . 6 l i b c . s o . 6 ( G L I B C _ 2 . 0 )
: /usr/src/RPM/RPMS/i686/port-l.0-99.1686.rpm'

port-l.0-99.i686.rpm.
/usr/src/RPM/RPMS/i686.
RPM,
. ,
RPM, %preun %postun . ,
%preun
rm -f / u s r / b i n / p o r t
rm -f / u s r / m a n / m a n l / p o r t . 1

, .
.
. Midnight
Commander (me), / u s r / s r c / R P M / R P M S / i 6 8 6 / port-l.0-99.i686.rpm .
INFO, .
, ,
.
, .
, RPM- :
1. .
"2. .
3. RPM-.
429

. RPM-
,
. , .
RPM rpmrc.
/usr/lib/rpm, /etc, $HOME.
:
# rpm showrc

topdir rpmrc ,
,
RPM . :
# rpm showrc | grep topdir

-14
-14
-14
-14
-14
-14

_builddir %{_topdir}/BUILD
_rpmdir
%{_topdir}/RPMS
_sourcedir %{_topdir}/SOURCES
_specdir
%{_topdir}/SPECS
_srcrpmdir %{_topdir}/SRPMS
topdir
%{ usrsrc}/RPM

/usr/src/RPM.
, BUILD, RPMS, SOURCES,
SPECS, SRPMS.
BUILD RPM-. SOURCES . RPMS . , ,
. SRPMS
, . SPECS . _--.8.
, ,
RPM, SOURCES:
# s o u r c e _ c o d e - l . 0 . t a r . g z /usr/src/RPM/SOURCES.
RPM ,
, .
port port-1. 0-99.
/usr/src/RPM/port-l .0-99.
, RPM.
. :
, , , . . 19.1
Summary, Name, Version, Release, Group License.
, 19.1.
: BuildRoot.
BUILD. / u s r / s r c / R P M
, $RPM_BUILD_ROOT.
%RPM_BUILD_ROOT.
430

. RPM-
, .
BuildRoot - ,
.
.
%description, %files, %doc, %install. . 19.34
.

19.34

%description
%

%setup
%build

%files

%config
%doc
%install
%pre

%post
%preun
%postun
%clean


.
, .
% shell
. - ,
. , SOURCES, BUILD
. make

, .
, . $RPM_BUILD_ROOT.
BUILD.
%setup % (. )
, /etc
,
/usr/doc/[package] - [ver] - [release]
. ,
, .
install, 19.1
,
,
,
,
BUILD. clean rpm.
: rm -rf $RPM_BUILD_ROOT

%config
%doc. , %files.
%files
, %doc (
) %doc. :
%doc README TODO Changes
%doc I n s t a l l

%doc
README
TODO

Changes
Install

,
.
431

. -
-bb rpm.
RPM-,
, ,
-. SRPMS
port-1.0-99. src. rpm. To ,
.
SOURCES .
rpm, (. . 19.35).
rpm

-
-bb
-be
-bi
-

-bp

--recompile packag
e. src. rpm
--rebuild
package. src. rpm
--test
--clean
--showrc

19.35

: .
,
. ,

% %build.
%pre, %build, %install
, %files
%,
, , ,

,


BUILD

19.6. vi
, Unix- vi.
, ,
vi . vi , ,
,
vi. .
(vi visual editor), vi
. vi
:
1. .
2. .
3. .
,
, vi.
.
.
i ( insert)
432

. -
. Esc.
.
, ,
. ,
, vi . ,
w, q,
, wq, q!. , ":".
vi :
vi s o m e _ f i l e . t x t
some_file.txt , vi
. ,
~. ,
: , .
_.
i .
Enter,
Backspace Del.
Esc. .
i, .
. ,
, first second:
first_second third
, .
: , dd, dw.
, ,
dw , .
R.
, . ,
Insert.
vi , - ,
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, . w
, a b . 0 ()
$ .
Ctrl+F , a Ctrl+B
.
G. , 1G
, G ( ) .
433

. RPM-
vi ,
, ":", q!.
w, wq.
vi,
filename .
! filename
.

filename .
:! ,
, :r! Is /etc.
.

79.7. bash
, . ( ) bash (Bourne
Again Shell).
: sh, ash, bsh, tcsh, csh, zsh.
/etc/shells.
, .
, . .
. , ,
, .
:
#!/bin/bash

# ! .
(, ),
/etc/shells. , :
#!/usr/bin/my_proga

/usr/bin/my_proga
. :
#!/usr/bin/my_proga -f
:
#!/usr/bin/my_proga -f <_>
, . .
test:
#!/bin/bash

#
clear
echo $1
434

. RPM-
. , ,
. . ,
(1) .
:
. / t e s t Vasya Pupkin
, Vasya.
, :
echo $1 $2
, , :
echo "$1"
,
,
, . ,
Vasya Pupkin, Vasya
Pupkin. Ivanov Ivan Ivanovich,
Ivanov Ivan Ivanovich.
19.7.1.
. 5, /.
,
, . 5.

. :
cat / v a r / l o g / s e c u r e | less
ps -ax | grep "$UID" | less
cat (
/var/log/secure) less,
.
, . ps-ax , (grep
"$U1D") , (UID)
,
less. $UID , . .
.
:
l p r ~ f i l e . t x t ; Ipq
, . :
ps -ax | head -n I; ps -ax | grep httpd
ps , httpd.
435

. RPM-
, :
commandl && comand2
commands | | command4
commandl
commandl ( 0). command4
, commands 0. :
mkdir mydir && cd mydir
bash ,
. , . & , :
program &
19.7.2. /
/ . 5,
:
> ()
> ()
, ,
, , . :
{date; free; who; } > l o g f i l e
/
. , URL
:
Ipr URL

http://www.linux.ru
http://linux.ru.net
http://www.linux.org
URL

19.7.3.

. - , .
. ,
, , .
,
,
. , Pascal:
P r o g r a m Test;
V a r A : integer;
436

{ }

. RPM-
procedure GetLocal;
var A : integer; { )
begin
:=10;
writeln(A);
end;

begin
: =7;

writeln(A);
GetLocal(A);
writeln(A);
end;

7
10
7

bash . . ,
, , . ,
:
#!/bin/bash
# 1

NUM="one";
echo $NUM

(NUM="two"; echo $NUM;);

#!/bin/bash
# 2
NUM="one"; {NUM="two"; echo $NUM;};
echo $NUM
1 :
two
one

2:
two
two

. , ,
:
pwd; (cd /tmp; p w d ; ) ; pwd
:
/home/user
/tmp

/home/user

437

. RPM-
19.7.4.
. bash , ,
, Pascal. bash .

, , . . , :
VAR="my var"
echo $VAR
, . ,
VAR=13, , . , :
VAR="value 1"
read:
echo -n "Enter value: "
read x
echo $x

- echo
Enter value:, . read
, , . .
read :
read a b
, . Enter.
, ,
. , .
bash ,
:
* ? ; & ( ) | < > <_> <> <>
, ,
\. , \, \t, \?
. , ' '
. " "
. "\", ",", " ' ", " $ "
: \\, \$, \'
, . 19.36.

438

. -

19.36

$0

. , .
Pascal,
ParamStr(O)

$ ( -
, $1,
$2, ...)

. Pascal ParamStr(n)

$#

, .
ParamCount Pascal

$'
$@

, : "$1 $2 ..."

$?

$$

(PID)
(PID) (,
)

$!

, "$1" "$2" ...

.
echo " : "
echo $*
bash . , , ksh 1024- .
:
_[]=
:
[1]=23
[3]=54
[0]=77
. ,
, .
set. , :
set -A a r r a y 3 56 77 12
:
array[0]=3
array[1]=56
array[2]=77
array[3]=12

bash, ksh, . , ,
, bash:
array = ( [ 0 ] = 3 [3]=12 [2]=77 [1]=5)
:
${_[]}
439

. -
, () :
echo { $ a r r a y [ 0 ] }

:
${_[*]} ${_[@]}
, :
echo $ { a r r a y [ @ ] }
.
.
.
,
export. , ,
.
export:
export
export =
export . . .
export = = . . .

, ( ),
.
, .
unset:
unset
, . 19.37.
19.37

PWD
UID
REPLY
RANDOM
SECONDS
IPS (Internal Filed
Separator)
HOME
PATH
LOGNAME
MAIL
SHELL
TERM


,
, read
0 32767
,
. read . " \t\n",
: ;
\t ;
,<\


,
,

.
echo "$"
440

. -
19.7.5.
. 13 (. 13.5) .
DT date:
x
DT=Mate
,
( ). , :
x

USERS= who I wd -1

UP='date; uptime

,
date uptime.
,
, :
grep 'id -un' / e t c / p a s s w d
/etc/passwd
id -un

$ ( ( > )
:
= $((
e.cho $A

(10+51/2 ))

7, 7.5, . . ,
:
hrs = $ ( ( $SECONDS/3600 ) )
19.7.6.
:
if-fi.
case-esac.

if-fi

if-fi:
if

! then
2
e l i f then
4
else

fi

if-fi , . ! () , !, 441

. RPM-
.. if. :
if uuencode m y f i l e m y f i l e > m y f i l e . u u ; then
echo " ";
else
echo "";
fi

:
if ! then
2
fi

:
if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then echo ". . "; fi;
test
[]. , :
test -e /etc.passwd
[- /etc/passwd]
,
/etc/passwd. test . 19.38.
test

-d
-
-f
-k
-L
-
-s
-
-w
-
-z
-

19.38


,
,
,
,
,
,
, 0
,
,
,
, 0
, 0

test, ,
, 0 .
, test 0, :
[ word ] ; echo $?

[]; echo $?
1

(true), () .
test (false).
: strl =
str2 strl = = str2 , strl str2 .
: !
442

. -

! test, , strl != strl , strl str2


. ! NOT ().
, - -,
(OR) (AND). :
str="word"; export str; ["$str" -a -f / e t c / p a s s w d ] ; echo $?
0
str=""; export str; ["$str" -a -f / e t c / p a s s w d ] ; echo $?
1

str , f , /etc/passwd .
: = ,
0.
str , f . : = .
, . 19.39.

True
True
False

AND

True
False

19.39
False
False
False

OR

True
False

True
True
True

False
True
False

XOR

True
False

True
False
True

False
True
False

XOR . bash.
test, . 19.40.

19.40

-eq
-
-It

-gt
-le

-ge

bash , .
, : =0.
.
=124 ; export ;

[ 111 -It "$" ]

; echo $?

111 , 124, 0 ().


.
, , , export. , ( : test
) .

443

. RPM-

, test if,
, if test. 19.2.
19.2.
echo -n " ? "
read x
if [ $ = 5 ]

then echo " !"


elif [ $ = 4 ]
then echo ""
e l i f [ $x = 3 ]
then echo ""
e l i f [ $x = 2 ]
then echo " "
else echo " ???"
fi

5, ,
4 . , 1
, :
???.
case-esac

(case ) :
case in
!) ! ;;
)
esac

;;

(. 19.3), 19.2,
case if.
19.3. cose
echo -n " ?
\\

read x
case $x in
5) echo " !" ;;
4) echo "" ;;
3) echo "" ;;
2) echo " " ;;
*} echo " ???"
/ /

esac

: 2, 3,
4, 5 ,
.
444

. -
.
case case
Pascal, . *) ,
. , .
case
Pascal. :
, 3, 3, 4, 5, ... N. case break. bash .

,
| (OR).
case num in
1 | 2 | 3 ) echo "1 or 2 or 3
4 | 5 ) echo "4 or 5" ; ;
*) echo "other num"
;;
esac

bash ksh for, while, until, select, a


sh for while.
for:
for _ in
!
do

2
done
:
for i in 1 2 3 4 5; do echo $i; done
:
1 2 3 4 5
, bash
. ,
. :
/etc/passwd
:
for
do

str

in

'cat

/etc/passwd4

echo " $ s t r " ;


done

for , , ,
/etc/passwd.
while:
while !
do
2
done

445

. RPM-
while , , !,
. while
. ,
=1

while [$ -It 10]


do

echo $
X

$((

))

done
: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
10, ,
test false (x , 10).
until () ,
:
until !
do

done
until , , !,
. ,
. while, , .
( 19.4 19.5)
19.4. while
=1;

=1;

while ! [$ - 10]
do
echo $x
X = $(( $ + 1 ))

done

19.5. until
until [$x - 10]
do
echo $x
X = $<(

$ + 1

))

done

, 19.4 19.5, :
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
select, . :
select in !
do
2
done
:
echo "
select file in /home/den/temp/* QUIT
do
if [-e $file]; then less $file
else
break
done;
446

. RPM-
/home/den/temp f i l e . t x t , p r o t o . t x t , :
:
/home/den/temp/.
/home/den/temp/..
/home/den/temp/file.txt
/home/den/temp/proto.txt
QUIT
.
3 4 , .
QUIT .
break .
19.7.7.
, (. . 19.41).

19.41

${:-)
${ := }
${:?}
${:+)
${}

,
, , .

,

,

(),
.
, .
, ,

.
${1 :? " "}
,
. ,
.
19.7.8.
:
() { ; }
:
cdir()
{

#
cd /
447

. RPM-
,
, . .
,
. , :
#!/bin/bash
# fn
echo $$
cdir()
{
#
echo "=$"
=2

echo "Params $0 $# $1 $2"


echo "PID = $$"
return 0
cd $1
)
X=l

echo
cdir
echo
echo

"X=$X"
/etc
# "cd"
$?
"X=$X"

:
788
=1
=1
Params fn I /etc
788

=2

. , , PID 788
, . X
, .
X, * .
X
(=2). /etc,
. fn. :
bash,
cdir (change dir). , cd return 0, .

448

. -
19.7.9.
,
- .
() trap. trap
:
trap
:
- ,
;
-- ,
. 19.42. . 5.

19.42

01
02

SIGHUP
SIGINT

03

SIGQUIT

(quit)

09

SIGKILL

(kill). He

15

SIGTERM

(hangup)
(interrupt)

. 1, 2, 3, 15
trap : 1 2 3 15
: , .
, . -- tee
script.
1:
$LOGFILE=my_log
if ["$LOGGING" != "true"] then export LOGGING="true"; exec $0
I tee $LOGFILE; fi
2:
$LOGFILE=my_log
if ["$LOGGING" != " t r u e " ] ;
script $0 $LOGFILE; fi

then export LOGGING="true"; exec

LOGGING
.
tee, .
,
script.
:
script program -/program.log

15 . 851

449

20


.
X Window

X Window UNIX. (MIT) UNIX-. UNIX


X Window.
, (David
Wexelblat) MIT X Window
i80386-Pentium IV .
XFree86, ,
, 86 Linux,
FreeBSD . XFree86 XFree86 Project, Inc.
, .
,
, ? , ,
.
, ,
.
,
, , netconf linuxconf. , . ,
.
GUI (Graphic User Interface
) - : Netscape , lynx,
, . ,
, X Window,
.
X Window, - ,
. X Window
( X), KDE Gnome.
450

. X Window
, X ,
.
X? Linux-,
, . Intel Pentium III 600 MHz/32 MB
, Celeron 433 MHz/64
MB. -
64 128 . 64...128
-. 200 MHz. ,
, , , Intel Pentium
133 MHz 32 MB , X
. , ,
Celeron 400 MHz /128 MB,
. ,
- IP 166 /32 MB,
,
. ,
Windows 98 + WinGate,
Pentium III. , ,
Word 4. , . ,
. ,
Linux, X Window.
Linux + X Window. IP
166. - , X ,
.
, , fvwm fvwml, ,
.

20.1.
X Window
. ,
. Linux. /mnt/cdrom/Mandrake/RPMS,
Mandrake, /mnt/cdrom/RedHat/RPMS, Red
Hat Linux. :
rpm -in XFree*
X Window :
rpm -ih x*
,
xinetd. RPM-
, xinetd .
, ( )
-

451

. X Window
. X Window
. :
X F r e e 8 6 - 4 . 0 . l - 2 8 m d k . 1 5 8 6 . r p m
XFree86-libs-4.0.l-28mdk.1586.rpm
XFree86-server-4.0.l-28mdk.1586.rpm
XFree86-server-common-3.3.6-18mdk.i586.rpm
XFree86-xf s-4 . 0 . l-28mdk. 1586 . rpm
XFree86-glide-module-4 .0 . l-28mdk. 1586. rpm glide
XFree86-FBDev-3.3.6-18mdk.1586.rpm
XFree86-Xvfb-4.0. l-28mdk. 1586. rpm X Window
XFree86-Xnest-4..l-28mdk.1586.rpm
XFree86-100dpi-fonts-4.0.1-28mdk.i586.rpm
XFree86-75dpi-fonts-4.0.l-28mdk.1586.rpm
XFree86-cyrillic-fonts-4.0.l-28mdk.1586.rpm
xinitrc-2.4.4-32mdk.noarch.rpm
XFree86-SVGA-3.3.6-18mdk.1586.rpm

.
SVGA.
, , Mach 8, 32, 64; AGX, S3, VIRGE, IBM 8514,
.
. X Window. X KDE.
:
rpm -ih kde*
.
kde-il8n* ,
. KDE.
kde-il8n-Russian-2.0-lmdk.i586.rpm.
KDE.
:
1. kdebase-2.0-7mdk.i586.rpm
2. kdelibs-2.0-5mdk.i586.rpm
3. kdelibs-sound-2.0-5mdk.i586.rpm ()
4. kdeutils-2.0-3mdk.i586.rpm KDE
5. kdesupport-2.0-lmdk.i586.rpm -- (
)
6. kdepim-2.0-lmdk.i586.rpm
7. kdenetwork-2.0-lmdk.i586.rpm (, kppp)
8. kdemultimedia-2.0-4mdk.i586.rpm
()
9. kdegraphics-2.0-4mdk.i586.rpm (
)
10. kdeadmin-2.0-2mdk.i586.rpm
11. kdeaddutils-2.0-3mdk.i586.rpm
12. kdel-compat-1.1.2-7mdk.i586.rpm
1 ()
13. kdegames-2.0-lmdk.i586.rpm ()
14. kdetoys-2.0-lmdk.i586.rpm ()
452

. X Window
15. kdesdk-2.0-lmdk.i586.rpm SDK ( )
16. kdelibs-devel-2.0-5mdk.i586.rpm KDE ()
17. koffice-2.0-2mdk.i586.rpm K-Office
Gnome,
:
rpm -in gnome*
( )
. X Window. xf86config. , :
(,
) .
DrakConf X Window.
20.3.
:
In -sf /usr/XllR6/bin/XF86S3 /etc/Xll/X
XF86S3. , , xf86config Xconfigurator,
, - .
X. ,
X Window Linux.
X
. ,
X , X Window
, .
640x480 8- (256 ).
, X
, startx. X
, Ctrl+Alt+Fn,
. X ( X Window )
Alt+F7. ,
Alt+Fn. X
Window Ctrl+Alt+BackSpace.
startx
, .
. ,
Ctrl+Alt+Fl.
startx ,
xinit. X
Window. xinit,
. startx ,
. startx
( 20.1).

453

. X Window
20.1. startx
#!/bin/sh
# $ X C o n s o r t i u m : s t a r t x . c p p , v 1.4 9 1 / 0 8 / 2 2 11:41:29 rws Exp $
# $XFree86: xc/programs/xinit/startx.cpp,v 3.2 1998/12/20 11:58:22 dawes Exp $
#
# (c) 1999 Red Hat S o f t w a r e , Inc.
userclientrc=$HOME/.xinitrc
userserverrc=$HOME/.xserverrc
sysclientrc=/etc/Xll/xinit/xinitrc
sysserverrc=/et/XI1/xinit/xserverrc
clientargs=""
serverargs=""
if [ -f $userclientrc ]; then
clientargs=$userclientrc
else if [ -f $sysclientrc ]; then
clientargs=$sysclientrc
fi
fi
if [ -f $userserverrc ]; then
serverargs=$userserverre
else if [ -f $sysserverrc ]; then
serverargs=$sysserverrc
fi
fi
display=:0
whoseargs="client"
while [ "x$l" != "x" ]; do
case "$1" in
/"*l\.*>
if [ "$whoseargs" = "client" ] ; then
if [ "x$clientargs" = x ]; then
clientargs="$l"
else
clientargs="$clientargs $1"
fi
else
serverargs="$serverargs $1"
fi;;
)
whoseargs="server" ;;
*)
if [ "$whoseargs" = "client" ]; then
clientargs="$clientargs $1"
else
case "$1" in
:[0-9]) display="$l"
I

esac
shift

454

esac
fi ;;

*) serverargs="$serverargs $1"
/t

. X Window
done
# set up default Xauth info for this machine
mcookie= ^cookie
serverargs="$serverargs -auth $HOME/.Xauthority"
xauth add $display . $mcookie
xauth add 'hostname -f'$display . $mcookie
exec xinit $clientargs -- $display $serverargs
# various machines need special cleaning up,
# which should be done here

20.2. XF86Config
, X Window . ,
/etc. XF86Config
/ e t c / x i l .
, : , , , , ,
X Window. 20.2.
!
.
,
: Riva TNT2 Vanta, Samsung SyncMaster 550s.

20.2. XF86Config
Section "Files"
RgbPath "/usr/XllR6/lib/Xll/rgb"
FontPath
FontPath

"/usr/XllR6/lib/Xll/fonts/cyrillic"
"unix/:-l"

EndSection
Section "ServerFlags"
EndSection
Section "Keyboard"
Protocol
"Standard"
AutoRepeat 250 30
LeftAlt
Meta
RightAlt
Meta
ScrollLock
Compose
RightCtl
Control
XkbDisable
"xfree86"
XkbKeycodes
"default"
XkbTypes
"default"
XkbCompat
XkbSymbols
"us(pclOS)"
XkbGeometry
"pc"
"xfree86"
XkbRules
XkbModel
"pel 05"

455

. X Window
XkbLayout
EndSection
Section "Pointer"
Protocol
"PS/2"
Device
"/dev/psaux"
EmulateSButtons
Emulate3Timeout
50
EndSection
Section "Monitor"
Identifier "My Monitor"
VendorName "Samsung"
ModelName
"SyncMaster 550s"
HorizSync
30-61
V e r t R e f r e s h 50-120
ModeLine "1024x768" 75.00 1024 1048 1184 1328 768 771 777 806 -hsync -vsync
ModeLine "1024x768"
65.00 1024 1048 1184 1344 768 771 777 806 -hsync -vsync
# 1024x768, 70.0Hz; hfreg=56.476002, vfreq=70.069000
ModeLine "1024x768"
75.00 1024 1048 1184 1328 768 771 777 806 -hsync -vsync
# 1024x768, 75.0Hz; hfreq=60.022999, vfreq=75.028999
ModeLine "1024x768"
78.75 1024 1040 1136 1312 768 769 772 800 +hsync +vsync
# 1024x768, 75.0Hz; hfreq=60.022999, vfreq=75.028999
ModeLine "1024x768"
78.75 1024 1040 1136 1312 768 769 772 800 +hsync +vsync
# 1280x1024, 75.0Hz; hfreq=79.975998, vfreq=75.025002
ModeLine "1280x1024" 135.00 1280 1296 1440 1688 1024 1025 1028 1066 +hsync +vsync
I
# ModeLine
#
EndSection
Section "Device"
Identifier "Generic VGA"
Chipset
"generic"
EndSection
Section "Device"
Identifier
"RIVA TNT2"
VendorName "Unknown"
BoardName
"Unknown"
#
Chipset
"RIVATNT2"
#
VideoRam
8192
Option
"power_saver"
EndSection
Section "Screen"
Driver "svga"
Device
"RIVA TNT2"
Monitor
" My Monitor "
DefaultColorDepth 32
Subsection "Display"
Depth
8
Modes
"1024x768" "800x600" "640x400"
Viewport

456

. X Window
EndSubsection
Subsection "Display" ,
Depth
16
Modes
"1024x768" "800x600" "640x480"
ViewPort

EndSubsection
Subsection "Display"
Depth
24
Modes
"1024x768" "800x600" "640x480"
ViewPort

EndSubsection
Subsection "Display"
Depth
32
Modes
"1024x768" "800x600" "640x480"
ViewPort

EndSubsection
EndSection
Section "Screen"
Driver "vga!6"
Device
"Generic VGA"
Monitor
" My Monitor "
Subsection "Display"
Modes
"640x480" "800x60'0"
ViewPort

EndSubsection
EndSection
Section "Screen"
Driver "vga2"
Device
"Generic VGA"
Monitor
" My Monitor "
Subsection "Display"
Modes
"640x480" "800x600"
ViewPort

EndSubsection
EndSection
Section "Screen"
Driver "accel"
Device
"RIVA TNT2"
Monitor
" My Monitor "
DefaultColorDepth 32
Subsection "Display"
Depth
8
Modes
"1024x768" "800x600" "640x400"
ViewPort
.
EndSubsection
Subsection "Display"
Depth
16
Modes
"1024x768" "800x600" "640x480"
ViewPort

EndSubsection

457

. X Window
Subsection "Display"
Depth
24
Modes
"1024x768" "800x600" "640x480"
Viewport

EndSubsection
Subsection "Display"
Depth
32
Modes
"1024x768" "800x600" "640x480"
Viewport

EndSubsection
EndSection
Section. "Screen"
Driver "fbdev"
Device
"RIVA TNT2"
Monitor
" My Monitor "
DefaultColorDepth 32
Subsection "Display"
Depth
8
Modes
"default"
Viewport

EndSubsection
Subsection "Display"
Depth
16
Modes
"default"
Viewport

EndSubsection
Subsection "Display"
Depth
24
Modes
"default"
. Viewport

EndSubsection
Subsection "Display"
Depth
32
Modes
"default"
Viewport

EndSubsection
EndSection
Files , X
Window. :
Font Path
"/usr/XHR6/lib/Xll/fonts/cyrillic"

, X Ctrl+Alt+Backspace
System. ,

System. Restart X Server
.
Server Flags. . ( ).

458

. X Window

Keyboard , Pointer . Monitor .


My Monitor.
Screen. Screen
( Device) ,
. :
Depth
32

20.3. X Window
X Window. Red Hat Linux, setup.
XF86Setup ( ) Xconfigurator.
X : , .
X (, \186config), , ,
, !
, . xf86config X,
, .
Linux Mandrake.
XFdrake. Xconfigurator XFdrake (. . 20.1).

((
iref'fi
.
.
i 02.4

, pTft^H^v^^-l^^il'nyiiaiiifn^ij^^?;;'^! |
. 20.1.
. ,
Ctrl+Alt++,
Ctrl+Alt+-.
+ - . (. 20.2)
, X [ ?
?

, , - Z0m2m
X.
.
,
, , (. . 20.4).

459

. X Window

X .
, X ?

. 20.3. X Window
.
, .

Choose the window manager to run:

OK

KDE

. 20.4.

. ,
. , , .
XFdrake .
, . 20.5.
(. . 20.6).
, (Generic), .


(. . 20.7).

.
, .
. 20.5. XFdrake

Generic Standard VGA, 640x480 @ 60 Hz


Generic SuperVGA, 1024x768 @ 87 Hz inter I
Generic SuperVGA, 800x600 @ 56 Hz
Monitor 1600x1; I
Monitor 1600x12 I
Multi-frequency ' I
Multi-frequency ' |
Multi-frequency '
Non-interlaced SVGA, 1024x768 60 Hz,
t- SVGA , 1024x768 70
^SuperVGA, 1024x768 87 ! |
h SuperVGA, 800x600 56 Hz
t- 8514.1024x768 87 |
"- VGA, 640x480 80 Hz
Goldstar
HP
Highscreen
Hitachi
Hyundai

Genoa
Hercules
Intel
Leadtek
Matrox
Miro
NVIDIA
-GeForce
-GeForce 256 (generic)
- GeForce DDR (generic)
- GeForce2 DDR (generic)
- Riva 128 (generic)
- Riva TNT (aen
Number Nin
Oak
Octek
Orchid
JOther
L-M

. 20.6.

460

. 20.7.

. X Window

20.4. Windows
, . XF86Config
X. , Windows. , Windows, Linux.
windows-ttf .
DrakConf DrakFont ( drakfont). (. 20.8)
Windows.

'

/ ;.

'

":

.;;:

14

actionis
anagnostiko
aplos
arial (monotype)
arial (val)
arial black
arial narrow

"
; :

. ;|

tf,16
:

Wipdows .

. 20.8. DrakFont


: (. 20.9).
Drakf onifmmii Wimluws
ere are the fonts that you can jri stall:
XF86Config:
FontPath " / u s r / X l l R 6 / l i b / X l l /
fonts/win-ttf"

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461

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464

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465

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,
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466

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469

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470

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471

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473

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20.7. -
, 486- X-.
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475

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, . , , PCI,
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( :
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476

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,
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( 18).
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: Networking options
IP: kernel level configuration,
support. DHCP,
DHCP (DHCP support). ,
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, )
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,
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.
:
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, :
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, .
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rdev / d e v / f d O / d e v / f d O
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:
mknod /dev/boot255 0 255
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, .
chroot.
. NFS
8, .
nfs (nfsd). , nfsutils Mandrake Red Hat.
477

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Debian , apt-get nfs-user-server.
/etc/exports :
/usr/xterm 192.168.0.2/255.255.255.0(rw,no_root_squash)
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. :
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Debian apt-get install bootp
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: xtermOl
-;
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udp wait root
/usr/sbin/tcpdbootpd -i -t 120
:
bootps dgram udp
wait
root
/usr/sbin/bootpd bootpd -i -t 120
xinetd:
service bootps
{
socket_type = dgram
protocol
= udp
user
= root
wait
= yes
# Linux Mandrake / Red Hat
server
= /usr/sbin/rpc.bootparamd
# Debian
server
= /usr/sbin/bootpd
}

xinetd (inetd) :
k i l l a l l -HUP inetd
xdm. Red Hat Mandrake xdm, , .
Debian, xdm
. (
) :
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xdm / e t c / x i l / x d m .
Xservers :
1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 0 . 2 : 0 foreign
X-. Xaccess :
192.168.0.2
478

. X Window
xdm-conf ig DisplayManager.requestPort:
, .
xmd 20.3...20.5. , , .
20.3. /etc/Xl 1/xdm/Xservers
# $XConsortium: Xserv.ws.,v 1.3 93/09/28 14:30:30 gildea Exp
$
I
#
# $XFree86: xc/programs/xdm/config/Xserv.ws.cpp,v 1.1.1.1.12.2
1998/10/04 15:23:14 hohndel Exp $
#
I Xservers file, workstation prototype
t
# Each X terminal line should
# look like:
#
XTerminalName:0 foreign
#
:0 local /usr/XllR6/bin/X
192.168.0.2:0 foreign
20.4.

/etc/Xl 1/xdm/Xaccess

192.168.0.2
20.5. /etc/Xl 1/xdm/xdm-config
! $ X C o n s o r t i u m : x d m - c o n f . c p p / m a i n / 3 1996/01/15 1 5 : 1 7 : 2 6 gildea
$
DisplayManager.errorLogFile:
/var/log/xdm-error.log
DisplayManager.pidFile:
/var/run/xdm.pid
DisplayManager.keyFile:
/etc/Xll/xdm/x.dm-keys
DisplayManager.servers:
/etc/Xll/xdm/Xservers
displayManager.accessFile: /etc/Xll/xdm/Xaccess
! All displays should use authorization, but we cannot be sure
! X terminals will be configured that way, so by default
! use authorization only for loca! displays :0, :1, etc.
DisplayManager._0.authorize:
true
DisplayManager._!.authorize:
true
! The following three resources set up display :0 as the
console.
DisplayManager._0.setup:/etc/Xll/xdm/Xsetup_0
DisplayManager._0.startup: /etc/Xll/xdm/GiveConsole
DisplayManager._0.reset:/etc/Xll/xdm/TakeConsole
DisplayManager._0.startAttempts: 1
i
DisplayManager*resources:
/etc/Xll/xdm/Xresources
DisplayManager*session:
/etc/Xll/Xsession
DisplayManager*authComplain:
false

479

21
Linux
v

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. :
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483

Linux
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.
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http://down]oad.nvidia.com/XFree86_40/1.0-2960/NVIDIA_GLX-1.0-2960.i386.rpm

, (. . 21.1).

21.1

Red Hat Linux 7.3

NVIDIA_kernel-1. 0-2960. rh73up.i686.rpm

ALT Junior Linux

NVIDIA_kernel-1. 0-1541 -alt7.i686.rpm

Mandrake Linux 8.2

NVIDIA_kernel-1.0-2960.mdk82up.i586.rpm

,
(386, 586, 686).
:
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rpm -ivh N V I D I A _ G L X . 1 3 8 6 . r p m

, ,
. :
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. , , 1280x1024, 1024x768 800x600.
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:
mkinitrd-2.7.1
mktemp-1.3.1
modutils-2.4.10
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, :
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/ e t c / X H / X 8 6 C o n f ig-4
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Driver "nv"
( , , Driver "vesa"). :
Driver "nvidia"
484

Linux
, :
Load"glx"
, :
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/ e t c / X H / X F 8 6 C o n f i g - 4
(. 21.1).
21.1. /etc/Xll/XF86Config-4 nVidia
Section "ServerLayout"
Identifier "Anaconda Configured"
Screen 0 "ScreenO"
InputDevice "Moused" "CorePointer"
InputDevice "KeyboardO" "CoreKeyboard"
EndSection
Section "Files"
RgbPath "/usr/XHR6/lib/Xll/rgb"
FontPath "unix/:7100"
FontPath "/usr/XHRG/lib/Xll/fonts/cyrillic/"
EndSection
Section "Module"
Load"dbe"
Load"glx"
Load"extmod"
Load"fbdevhw"
Load"pex5"
Load"pex5"
Load"record"
Load"xie"
EndSection
Section "InputDevice"
Identifier "KeyboardO"
Driver "keyboard"
Option "XkbRules" "xfree86"
Option "XkbModel" "pclOS"
Option "XkbLayout" "ru"
Option "XkbVariant"
"basic"
EndSection
Section "InputDevice"
Identifier "Moused"
Driver
"mouse"
Option "Protocol" "PS/2"
Option "Device" "/dev/psaux"
Option "ZAxisMapping" "4 5"

485

Linux
Option
EndSection

"EmulateSButtons" "no"

Section "Monitor"
Identifier "MonitorO"
VendorName "Monitor Vendor"
ModelName
"Monitor Model"
HorizSync
30-61
VertRefresh 50-120
Option "dpms"
# -- 1400x1050 # 1400x1050 @ 60Hz, 65.8 kHz hsync
Modeline "1400x1050"
129 1400 1464 1656
1050 1051 1054 1100 +HSync +VSync
# 1400x1050 @ 70Hz, 76.8 kHz hsync
Modeline "1400x1050"
151 1400 1464 1656
1050 1051 1054 1100 +HSync +VSync
# 1400x1050 @ 75Hz, 82.3 kHz hsync
Modeline "1400x1050"
162 1400 1464 1656
1050 1051 1054 1100 +HSync +VSync
# 1400x1050 @ 85Hz, 93.2 kHz hsync
Modeline "1400x1050"
184 1400 1464 1656
1050 1051 1054 1100 +HSync +VSync
EndSection

1960
1960
1960
1960

Section "Device"
Identifier "RIVA TNT2"
Driver
"nvidia"
VendorName "RIVA TNT2"
BoardName
"RIVA TNT2"
EndSection
Section "Screen"
Identifier "ScreenO"
Device "RIVA TNT2"
Monitor "MonitorO"
DefaultDepth
16
Subsection "Display"
Depth
16
Modes
"1024x768"
EndSubsection
EndSection
Section "DRI"
Mode 0 6 6 6
EndSection

Ctrl+Alt+Backspace X. ,
nVidia. X , AGP 2. , ,
HbGlwrapper:
486

Linux
# rpm -qa I grep -i libglwrapper
, :
# rpm -ihv libGLwrapper*
,
RPM .
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:
libglwrapper
(Quake II, Heretic II)
GL.
:
I rm -rf / u s r / X l l R 6 / l i b / l i b G L . s o
# rm -rf / u s r / X H R 6 / l i b / l i b G L . s o . l
# In -s / u s r / X l l R 6 / l i b / l i b G L . s o . n v i d i a / u s r / X l l R 6 / l i b / l i b G L . s o
# In -s / u s r / X H R 6 / l i b / l i b G L . s o . n v i d i a / u s r / X H R 6 / l i b / l i b G L . so . 1

- HbGL.so
libGL.so. 1 ,
.
.
nVidia ,
, Linux.
Windows-, wine, ,
. ,
Windows- .

21.4. Windows- wine



Linux-, , , ( )
Linux . Win32-BepcHH.
wine, Windows- Linux.
wine ,
Windows. Windows
winex ( -- winex2, winexS). He
wine winex!. winex , ,
. http://www.transgaming.com.
winex rpm.
, , .
: wine, winex,
winex2, winexS. , wine, , .

487

Linux

21.5. wine
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.

wine :
Counter Strike
StarCraft
Fallout
Fallout 2
Gunman
Quake 2
Quake 3
Soldier of Fortune
Unreal Tournament
Red Alert ( )
Diablo 2
Cesaer
Return to Castle Wolfenstain
Star track
Kingpin
Nox
Jadded Alliance
4x4 Evolution
American McGee Alice
Daikatana
Heroes of Might and Magic III
Delta Force 1,2
, .
reg .wine root:

# rm -rf / r o o t / . w i n e / * . r e g

, :
startx
X , , , ,
xterm. :
# wine install_program

, setup.exe
-.
:
wine /mnt/cdrom/setup.exe
/usr/local/wine-c/games/<HasBa_> / u s r / share/wine-c/games/<Ha3BaHMe_Mr>. , ,
, / r o o t / . wine/ . conf ig. Drive :
488

Linux
[Drive ]
"Path" = V u s r / s h a r e / w i n e - c "
"Type" = "hd"
"Label" = "MS-DOS"
"Filesystem" = "win95"
config, $/ .wine.
/ e t c / w i n e . r e g .
,
, / u s r / s h a r e / w i n e - c / g a m e s / < H a 3 B a H M e
, :
wine game.exe
winex game.exe
winex2 game.exe
winexS game.exe
, game.exe
. X,
, kterm, KDE. ,
. / u s r / s h a r e / w i n e - c /
/< ,
wine (. . 21.1).
. , Unreal Tournament

(Software Rendering), Direct3D.

. 21.1. wine

489

Linux
.
/ r o o t / . w i n e /root/.wine_<Ha3Baime
/root/ >_:
touch /root/ >_

,
(wine, winex, winex2).
wine :
export WINEPREFIX=$HOME/.wine_<Ha3BaHne >
cd "//1!/1-//< >"
wine < > <>

winex:
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/local/winex/lib:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH
export P A T H = / u s r / l o c a l / w i n e x / b i n : $ P A T H
export WINEPREFIX=$HOME/.!_< >
cd " / u s r / l o c a l / w i n e - c / g a m e s / < H a 3 B a H n e >"
winex < > <>

winexl:
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/local/winex2/lib:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH
export P A T H = / u - s r / l o c a l / w i n e x 2 / b i n : $PATH
export WINEPREFIX=$HOME/.!_< >
cd " / u s r / l o c a l / w i n e - c / / >"
winex2 < > <>

:
chmod u+x < >_run
/!/<
>_.
Microsoft,
/usr/local/wine-c/system. , / u s r / l o c a l / w i n e - c .
chmod -R o+w /usr/local/wine-c. /usr/local/wine-c,
.
/root/ . w i n e / c o n f i g Managed, N, Desktop:
; Allow the window manager to manage created windows
"Managed" = "N"
; Use a desktop w i n d o w of 6 4 0 x 4 8 0 for W i n e
; "Desktop" = " 8 0 0 x 6 0 0 "

, , game.
, .
/home/game
. :
/ r o o t / * _ r u n /home/game
cd /home/game
490

Linux
chmod o+x *_start
cd /root/Desktop/* /home/game/Desktop
chown -R game:game /home/game/Desktop
mkdir /home/game/.kde/apps/share/WINE
cp -R /root/.kde/apps/share/WINE /home/game/.kde/apps/share/WINE
chown -R game:game /home/game/.kde/apps/share/WINE
game .
, : ,
Windows 98, xterm
quake quake_run. ,
, , ,
:

xterm? ,
*_run.
':

;:

KDE
- (. . 21.2).


. 21.2,
KDE,

Windows
ll/home/game/unreal start
';";;..; :: /*:


I
.

;1
.--:
|~- :: .}
.
^>|:


(. 21.3). . 21.3
,

UNREAL (
. 21.3.
;

491

Linux
unreal_start).
.
- ^
;";;: :: - -
';1.;:
"

SUID t

, /home/game/rnireal_start
ifpynna- xterm e /

game/unreal_start.
jgame
:
xterm, ,
. 21.4.

.
(. 21.4).
.
:
Mozilla, licq, Star (Open) Office, XMMS.
.-> PHwram.flesktt

21.6.
Linux
-.
Linux xmms.
winanip.
-, . winamp, xmms
(. . 21.5).
xmms, Media Player. , xmms (. 21.6).
Ji; Hoatun - Media Haver
;

. 21.5. xmms
. 21.6. Media Player

492

Linux
-
cdplayer (. 21.7). cdp
cdplay, .
X Window,
, mpgl23.

MPEG1, MPEG2, MPEG3. .
VCD MPEG gtv (. . 21.8). Double, Loop.
1

CD Player

. 21.7. -CD

. 21.8. gtv


MIDI- Brahms.
MIDI-, , .
, aRts (. . 21.9).
Sound Mixer
(. . 21.10). ,
, .
Karaoke Media/Karaoke Player.
jf4->" aRts B'i :;1

WOUJb;-^.;;: .,,,.:;.,::.::;;,

; . I ,;;.;

1
1

[Si

H
. _:y

:.'.'

}.-:':-

ifes

[;;,..;:

| : Yii

. . :V.:'.:

'. .'.
: ;::::

: ::

'.; -,' v .;: :-,\

ill:;:

-33

-'i5B.-;::::l;:;i

'^ :-:'- svi

. 21.9.
aRts

. 21.10. Sound Mixer

493

Linux
Linux -
(cdrecord), -CD. ,
,
Linux .

27.7.

.
. , , :
1. , .
2. .
3. .
4. 4, -.
, ,
.
, . ,
, . ,
. ,
, 47,
?
.
,
Linux, , , . ,
, TCP/IP Linux
, Windows.
Gnome
, .
,
.
21.7.1.
,
. , .
, Online .
. , , -.
, , :
1. .
2. Online-.
3. -.

494

Linux
.
.
Online-,
:
1. IPChains IPTables ( ).
2. - SocksS.
. . , Unreal
Tournament 7777 .
7777, , ,
, .
. 14 .
SocksS ,
IP-. 1-, . 14, SocksS.
SocksS ,
ICQ.
(-) :
1. .
2. - SQUID.
3. DNS.
4. SocksS.
5. Web-.
6. .
,
. ,
. SQUID Web- ,
Web-.
DNS .
DNS , , DNS, :
1. DNS.
2. .
.
- SMTP-, ,
smtp.mail.ru, . , . 13, DNS
. 10, SQUID . 15.
, -
,
.
495

Linux
21.7.2.
, . , . , , . ,
,
, .
, 30 ,
10 30 .
-. .

. , , :
, () , .
, ,
, , ,
. , ,
, .
, ,
. .
,
, .
, , ,
, .
, . ,
, .

. , Windows, . ,

Linux. 12 Linux Terminal Server,
,
. ,
. , :
1. , .
2. .
3. .
, .
: , .
, Linux (,
). ,
. , ,
den (. . 21.11):
l a s t den
496

Linux

,
Crooteiocalhost root] last den
:
last den
ttal
Tue Jun 4 16 :35 - down
<00 :05)
den
Tue Jim 4 15 :12 - doun
(00 :10)
,
l
den
:0
Tue Jun 4 15 :12 - 15:13
(00 :01)
I
den
(00 :09)
:0
Tue Jun 4 15 :01 - 15:11
i
len
:0
Tue Jun 4 14 :57 - 14:58 (00 :00)
den
pts/l
:0
. 1
Tue Jun 4 14 :54 - 14:54 (00:00)

;
den
:0
Pti:/0
Tue Jun 4 14 :49 - 14:57
(00 :07>
den
:/0
:0
Tue Jun 4 14 :42 - 14:49
(00 :07)
.
den
Tue Jun 4 14 :4l - 14:57 (00 :16)
:0
den
(00 :00)
tty2
Hon Jun 3 14 :42 - doun

i
den
tta2
Won Jun 3 14:40 - 14:41
(00 :oo>
den
tty2
Won Jun 3 14 :3B - 14:40
(00:02)

I
begins Tue May 28 15:12:02 2002

CrootSlocalhost root]* |
lastlog
(. 21.12). last lastlog


tmsM:,
/var/log/lastlog,

. 21.11.
.
. -
, .
, .
: - -. -

. -
.
-
itnp begins Tue 2 15:12:02 2002
irooteiocalhost root]* lastloe

Latest
6 11:51:58 0300 2002
,
*Never logged in*
Never logged in*
Never logged in
Never logged in
,
Never logged in
Never logged in
, Never logged in

Never logged in*
Never logged in
timeout Never logged in
jucp
Never logged in
Dperator

Never logged
games
Never logged
iopher
.
Never logged
Ftp
Never
nobody

Never logged
ailnull
Never logged
rpr>
Never logged
Never logged
-,
Never logged
-, .
. 21.12.
|^ 1. - rootfi'localhost:- -

folBE!

- ':::,'-. :.:'.;:.;,:.::

pti!/l

pt!

UtBp

497

Linux
. , . , , , , .
.
, X- .
X- . 20. .
. , gamel,
gamel. : gamel, game2, ..., gameN.
,
.
. -
, .
. 20 X-,
X- ,
.
X-. ? , X Window.
/etc/initab :
X:123456:respawn:/usr/bin/Xll/X
:
X : 1 2 3 4 5 6 : r e s p a w n : / u s r / b i n / X l l / X -query 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 0 . 1

(X -query 192.168.0.1) X
( 5)
X IP- 192.168.0.1. ,
.
, . 20.
X Window.
,
, : X
Window , NFS
X Window.
X Window,
, NFS.
(NFS) . 8.
. , , NFS. ,
,
100 /. (hub)
(switch).
.
, :
Linux shell. -,

498

Linux
bash . -,
Pascal,
, .

rj" " - rootfrlocalhost:

A
CrootSlocalhost root] u
4:37 up 18 min, 5 users, load average: 0.03, 0.14, 0.10
USER
TTY
FROM
LOGINS
IDLE
JCPU
PCPU
den
ttal
4:35pn 17.00s 0,58s 0.26s ssh localhost
root
pts/0
4:19p 17 : 17 0 .03s 0.03s /bin/cat
w
root
pts/1
4:19p O.OOs 1.87s 1.70s /usr/bin/mc -P
root
pts/2
4:24p\ 12 : 18 0 Is 0 . 11s /bin/bash
(. 21.13).
root
pts/4
localhost.locald 4:36pn 12 .OOs 0 ,07s 0 ,07s -bash
CrootMocalhost root]" I


,

,
, V

HO
^aiiiiilliliiiA
,

. 21.13. w
(load
average). , w
. , ,
.
, ,
:
ps user username
. 21.14.
-*- - raotui-iocalhost:
!root@localhost root} ps user root
f^j|
,
TIME CHD
PID TTY
1
00:00:04 imt
root.
2
00:00:00 keventd
3
00:00:00 kapi-idled
H
4
00:00:00 ksoftirqd_CPUO
5
00:00:00 ksuapd


6
00:00:00 kreclaind
7
00:00:00 bdflush

.
e
00:00:00 kupdated

9
334
339

472 ?
490 ?
566 ttul
567 tt2
568 tta3
569 tta4
570 tta5
571 ttu6
572 ?
580 ?
581 ?

00:00:00 mdrecoverad

00:00:00 sysiogd
00:00:00 klogd
00:00:00 xinetd

00:00:00 gpn
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00
00:00:00

login
mingetty
mingetta
ningetta
ningettu
mingetta

00:00:00 gd
00:00:00 gdn
00:00:18 x

pj
[*]]

sar
. 21.14. , root

499

Linux
21.2. newclient
#!/bin/bash
#
# GPL
# () 2002 Denis Kolisnichenko, dhsilabs@mail.ru
#
FONT="-cronyx-fixed-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-*-koi8-r"
#
GM="700x70"
#
MSG="Bame . 5
"
if [ $# -It 4 ]; then
{ echo "Usage: newclient warntime time user num";
exit 1;
}
fi;

f
sleep $1
# , warntime
xmessage -display server:$4 -fn $FONT -geometry $GM -bg black -fg green $MSG
sleep $2
P='ps user $3 | grep -i gnome-session | /bin/awk -F " " '{ print $1 }' '
echo $P
#
kill -9 $P
echo "Time of user $3 is out"
:
newclient 3540 3600 gamel 1
newclient 55m 60m game2 2
newclient 55m Ih game3 3
newclient 23h Id game4 4
.
, .
,
MSG ( , ). ,
.
, ( ), ( h),
( d).


. ,
. ,
gamel, 1.
:
xmessage -display server:$4 -fn $FONT -geometry $GM -bg black -fg green $MSG

500

Linux
MSG
$4 server. X-
$4.
, . 21.15.
-* xmessage
! . 5
okay

. 21.15.

,
. Gnome,
gnome-session. , .
. 21.2 , Gnome:
=*ps user $3 | grep -i gnome-session | /bin/awk -F " " ' print $1 }' '
KDE,
:
P='ps -user $3

| grep -i kdeinit

/ b i n / a w k -F " "

M print $1

f >

, ? : : , Gnome.
newclient, , ?
. , :
newclient 55m 60m gamel 1 &
.
(1 ), :
Time of user gamel is out
21.7.3.
Linux
, , ( , ),
. ,
: ,
. , , /usr/bin/mc /usr/bin/kcontrol-panel
root: Norton
Commander Linux KDE.

507

22.1.
,
, .
, ,
. : ,
.
Linux
. , ,
Unix- , . Linux
: Bliss, Lion, Nuxbee, Ramen, RST Satyr.
Linux , , , ,
.
http://www.avp.ru.

AVP DrWeb. DOS-
.
AVP ( , http://www.avp.ru) DrWeb (
, http://www.drweb.ru) Linux.
,
- AVP,
.
AVP Linux ( DrWeb Linux) Linux
Windows. , Linux , :
,
Windows.
, ,
, ,
, .

502


22.1.1. DrWeb Linux
.
DrWeb, . . 22.2
.
DrWeb :
rpm -ihv d r w e b d - 4 . 2 7 - l i n u x . 1 3 8 6 . r p m
, .
www.drweb.ru.
DrWeb /opt/drweb.
. drweb32.key, , .
. ,
, .
/opt/drweb, drweb32.key
drweb.key drwebd.key:
. / d r w e b 3 2 . k e y /opt/drweb
/opt/drweb/drweb32.key /opt/drweb/drweb.key
cp / o p t / d r w e b / d r w e b 3 2 . k e y / o p t / d r w e b / d r w e b d . k e y

/ o p t / d r w e b /
d r w e b . i n i .
:
OutputMode = Terminal
Color, Terminal. .
:
/opt/drweb/drweb /root/cih.exe
(. . 22.1), DrWeb
/ r o o t / c i h . Win95.CIH.1035. DrWeb
(Cured: 0), (Deleted: 0), (Renamed: 0 Moved: 0).
(0 ), 45 /.
,
t e s t . c o m . -
,
:
50!%@[4\PZX54( )7)7}$EICAR-STANDARD-ANTIVIRUS-TEST-FILE!$+*

test.com. :
EICAR Test File (Not a V i r u s ! )
, .
,
. :
http://www.dials.ru/drweb/free.

503

-
[root@dhsilabs /root] /opt/drweb/drweb /root/cih.exe
Key file: /opt/drweb/drweb.key
Registration info:
0000000000
xxxxxxxxxx
Loading /opt/druieb/drwebase.vdb - Ok, virus records: 28520
/root/cih.exe infected with Uin95.CIH.1035
Scan report for "/root/cih.exe":
Cured
Scanned
Infected
Deleted
Renamed
Modified
Suspicious
Moved
Scan time
00:00:00 Scan speed : 45 Kb/s
CrootSlocalhost root] Croot@localhost ]

. 22.1. DrWeb

,
, . update.pl.
/opt/drweb/update.
:
./update.pl /opt/drweb
/opt/drweb ,
. ,
. ,
:
.
,
.
update_drweb:
#!/bin/sh
/opt/drweb/update/update.pi /opt/drweb
/ e t c / c r o n . daily. ,
. ,
.
drwebd.
, . :
# /opt/drweb/drwebd
504

:
Key f i l e : /opt/drweb/drwebd.key
Registration i n f o :
0000000000
xxxxxxxxxx
Loading / o p t / d r w e b / d r w e b a s e . v d b Ok, v i r u s records: 2 8 5 2 0
Daemon is installed, TCP socket created on port 3000

,
. drwebd .
22.1.2. AVP Linux
AVP :
1. - ().
2. .
3. , Windows 9x,
Windows NT, Linux/UNIX, OS/2.
4. -, MS Office.
5. Java-.
6. .

386 ( ) 8 ( 16 ). , Linux.
- CD-ROM
:
mount -t iso9660 /dev/hdd /mnt/cdrom
/dev/hdd CDROM.
/mnt/cdrom/Products/KAVLinux.
AVPWSELinux. tgz. -
.
, , :
chmod 4 4 4 A V P W S E L i n u x . t g z
:
tar zxvf AVPWSELinux.tgz
:
A V P i n s t a l l e r A V P W S L i n u x . t g z . :
./AVPInstaller
. AVP 3.0 build 135.1.
:
I t h i n k you use Redhat-like s y s t e m . Y o u didnt write package in
command l i n e . Search in current d i r e c t o r y ?

(Redhat-) , ,

505

. ,
AVP:
In package / K A V L i n u x / A V P W S E L i n u x / A V P W S L i n u x . t g z f o u n d AVPWSLinux
( A n t i v i r a l Toolkit Pro f o r L i n u x ) (Foundation f i l e s ) ) , version
3.0 build 135. Do you want to install it?

Enter. , AVP Linux:


Do you want run / o p t / A V P / A v p L i n u x .
AVP : . ,
, . ,
/ o p t / A V P .
.
, . :
mount / d e v / f d O / m n t / f l o p p y
- key.
/opt/AVP/AvpUnix.key.
. AvpUnix.key, - .
/ o p t / A V P /
A v p U n i x . i n i ( 22.1).
22.1. AvpUnix.ini
[AVP32]
DefaultProfile=defUnix.prf
LocFile=None
[Configuration]
KeyFile=AvpUnix.key
KeysPath=/opt/AVP
SetFile=avp.set
BasePath=/opt/AVP
SearchInSubDir=No

d e f U n i x . p r f (
). AVPTuner, .
AvpUnix.key. ,
, BasePath.
. , BasePath,
AvpLmux .
- , avp.set.
. ,
avp. set . ,
/opt/AVP/Bases,
:

506


[Configuration]
KeyFile=AvpUnix.key
KeysPath=/opt/AVP
SetFile=/opt/Bases/avp.set
BasePath=/opt/AVP/Bases
SearchInSubDir=No
,
/ o p t / A V P / B a s e s . , - /mnt/cdrom/Bases, . Windows,
.
, Windows .
avp.set, AvpLinux (,
). Linux
.
. (. . 22.2):
/opt/AVP/AvpLinux /home/den
(. . 22.3).
. 22.3, 290 87 .
78 /, 10 .
, (Suspicious).

[root@localhost root] /opt/ftVP/AvpLinux /home/den


I
I
I

Antiviral Toolkit Pro by Eugene Kaspersky for Linux


Copyright(C) Kaspersky Lab. 1996-2001
Version 3.0 build 135.3

Registration info:
Key name
Ser. number
Price pos.
Antiviral databases were loaded. Known records:
Current object: /home/den
/home/den/.bash_logout ok.
/home/den/.bash_proflie ok,
/home/den/.bashrc ok.
/home/den/.gtkrc ok.
/home/den/.gnome/gdm ok.
/home/den/.gnome/acceIs/Terminal ok.
/home/den/.gnome/gnome-upgrade ok.
/home/den/,gnome/default.urn ok.
/home/den/.gnome/.gnome-smproxy-qX2x4T ok.
/home/den/.gnome/panel ok,
/home/den/.gnome/panel.d/default/launchers/eek-00475daf56.desktop ok.
/home/den/.gnome/panel.d/default/launchers/hadjaha-005ebab078.desktop ok|
/home/den/.gnome/panel.d/default/launchers/moe-0047b660ca.desktop ok,
/home/den/,gnome/panel.d/default/launchers/gegl-000abbd79f.desktop ok.
/home/den/.gnome/panel,d/default/launchers/gegl-0p7b96ee25.desktop ok.
==

. 22.2. AVP

507


D-* , rootiSlocalhosU" -
r

:A*i..

9^^&

>

/home/den/Desktop/. directory ok.


/home/den/Desktop/Trash/. directory ok.
/home/den/Desktop/Home ok.
/home/den/Desktop/KDE Control Panel ok.
/home/den/Desktop/www . redhat , com ok .
/home/den/Desktop/cdrom ok.
/home/den/Desktop/f loppy ok.
/home/den/Desktop/c ok.
/home/den/Desktop/d ok*
/home/den/ .kderc ok.
/home/den/. xmms/config ok.
/home/den/. xmms/xmms.m3u ok.
/home/den/. default. kpr ok.
/home/den/first. kpr ok.
/home/den/first. kpr~ ok.
Scan process completed.
Sector Objects
Files
Folders
Archives

0
290
87
0

Speed (Kb/sec)

78

Packed

Scan time

[root@localhost root] |

00:00:10

'

Known viruses
Virus bodies
Disinfected
Deleted
Warnings
Suspicious
Corrupted
I/O Errors

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

^^
. 22.3. AVP

,
:
Report Only (Ok)
( ).
disinfect
.
Delete
.
- , Enter, d D
. , , AVP
, .
, -,
AvpLinux. AVP .
( )
, disinfect.
, AvpLinux
. , ( -
) AvpLinux
. AVP Linux
, ,
, AVP , ,
. , AVP .
AVP Linux ,
, , , ,
. , , .
508


, . MBR --. Boot --. - - .
AVP
DOS 6.0,
.
, .
Linux.
, qmkbootdisk.
AVP. , AvpDaemon
-- .
.
AVP: , Web-, .
/ e t c / i n i t . d avpdaemon
/opt/AVP/avpdaemon.rh, Redhat- . AVP
. , :
/etc/init.d/avpdaemon start
AVP AVPTuner. : / o p t / A V p / A V P T u n e r
(. . 22.4).
I

i :;

. 22.4.

'

AVPTuner

509

: Location, Objects, Scanning, Actions, Options, Mail.


Location , . , Add folder.
, .
.
, , (,
, ).
Smart.
, .
Objects ,
.
Scanning, Actions .
Options . (Code
Analyzer). (Redundant Scanning)
, .
Mail .

AvpUpdater.
:
/opt/AVP/AvpUpdater - u i = f t p : / / f t p . k a s p e r s k y l a b . r u / u p d a t e s
crond.
update_avp:
#!/bin/sh
/opt/AVP/AvpUpdater -ui=ftp://ftp.kasperskylab.ru/updates

/ e t c / c r o n . daily. , . ,
daily.avc, , .
,
. ( ),
.

22.2.
AVPKeeper . AVP AVPKeeper,
():
sendmail, postfix, qmail.
sendmail, AVPDaemon .
510

AVPKeeper : .
, .
, ,
.
, ,
( Internet) . , , .

.
, :
.
,
. :
.
AVPKeeper.
AVP, .
kavselinux. tgz /mnt/cdrom/Products/KAVLinux
- .
( ) :
chmod 4 4 4 k a v s e l i n u x . t g z
tar zxvf k a v s e l i n u x . t g z
kavinstaller.
. , ,
AVP , . ,
. ,
AVPKepper . ()
:
/KAVLinux/kavs/kavkeeper-sendmail-linux-3.5.136.tgz
kavkeeper-sendmail (KAV Keeper for sendmail), 3.5 build 135. Do you
want to install it?

,
:
Found [file] What do you want doing with this file? (Overwrite/Write with
new e x t e n s i o n / S k i p )

w -- . ,
, .
KAV (Kaspersky AntiVirus) , , .
kavscanner, -- kavtuner.
kavdaemon. kavupdater. AVP KAV :
.

511


sendmail. , sendmail
:
/
/etc/init.d/sendmail stop
/opt/AVP/kavkeeper
sendmail-cf / u s r / s h a r e .
:
m4 kav_glb.mc > / e t c / s e n d m a i l . c f
m4 kav_loc.mc > / e t c / s e n d m a i l . c f
,
AVPKeeper, - -
. , AVPKeeper.
.
1. - /etc/sendmail. cf
.
2. kav_glb.mcu kav_loc. me .~ , ,
, . ,
- .
.

kav_loc.mc (. 22.2).
22.2. kav_loc.mc
divert(-1)
dnl This is the macro config file used to generate the /etc/
sendmail.cf
dnl file. If you modify thei file you will have to regenerate
the

dnl /etc/sendmail.cf by running this macro config through the


m4

dnl preprocessor:
dnl

dnl m4 /etc/sendmail.me > /etc/sendmail.cf


dnl

dnl You will need to have the sendmail-cf package installed for this to
dnl work.
include ( *. ./m4/cf .m4' )
define('confDEF_USER_ID',"8:12")
OSTYPE ( 4inux' )
u n d e f i n e ( 4JUCP_RELAY')
undefine('BITNET^RELAY')
define('confAUTO_REBUILD' )
definerconfTO_CONNECT', 4m')
define('confTRY_NULL_MX_LIST',true)
define('confDONT_PROBE_INTERFACES',true)
dnl definerKAVKEEPER_MAILER', V u s r / l o c a l / b i n / k a v k e e p e r ' )
dnl d e f i n e ( ' K A V K E E P E R _ C O N F I G ' , V e t c / k a v k e e p e r . i n i ' )

512


dnl define( 'KAVKEEPER_LOCAL_MAILER', 'mail.local')
FEATURE('smrsh', Vusr/sbin/smrsh')
FEATURE(mailertable)
FEATURE ( Virtusertable', 'hash -o /etc/mail/virtusertable')
FEATURE(redirect)
FEATURE(always_add_domain)
FEATURE (use_cw__file)
FEATURE (local_kav)
MAILER(smtp)
FEATURE('access_db')
FEATURE('blacklist_recipients')
dnl We strongly recommend to comment this one out if you want
dnl to protect
dnl yourself from spam. However, the laptop and users on
dnl computers that do
dnl not hav 24x7 DNS do need this.
FEATURE('accept_unresolvable_domains')
dnl FEATURE('relay_based_on_MX')
-
kav_loc.mc, , ,
, , mc- :
m4 mysystem.mc > /etc/sendmail.cf
, mc-
:
dnl d e f i n e ( ' K A V K E E P E R _ M A I L E R ' , V u s r / l o c a l / b i n / k a v k e e p e r ' )
dnl define('KAVKEEPER_CONFIG', V e t c / k a v k e e p e r . i n i ' )
define( 'KAV_LOCAL_HACK')
dnl define('confDEF_USER_ID','kavuser:kavuser')
dnl define('confRUN_AS_USER','kavuser')
dnl define('KAVKEEPER_MAILER_FLAGS', "APhnu9')
MAILER(kavkeeper)
! sendmail .
, . sendmail (/etc/init.d/sendmail start)
:
uuencode / r o o t / k e r n 3 8 6 . e x e kern386.exe | mail -s Just_Run_It evg
, Win95.CIH, evg. .
(. /var/mail/root). -
, 22.3.
22.3.
Return-Path:
From: root@domain.ru
: rootSlocalhost.localdomain
S u b j e c t : SENDER ! V i r u s found in message f r o m you !
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: t e x t / p l a i n ; charset="US-ASCII"
17 3ait. 851

513


You sent to user evg message with VIRUS
KAV Report:
kern386.exe infected: Win95.CIH.1035
Bye !

Return-Path:<>
From:rootSdomain.ru
To:rootSdomain.ru
Subject:ADMIN ! ALARM ! Virus found !
MIME-Version:!. 0
Content-Type :multipart/mixed;
boundary="=NEXT=AVPCHECK=2002=l84=1025707050=1225=0="
This is a MIME-encapsulated message
-=NEXT=AVPCHECK=2002=184=1025707050=1225=0=
Content-Type:text/plain
Content-Transfer-Encoding:US-ASCII
User rootSlocalhost.localdomain send to user evg. mail with virus.
KAV report:
kern386.exe

infected:

Win95.CIH.1035

, , ,
, . ,
evg , .
/var/log/kavkeeper- [date] .log .
AVPKeeper -: . , , ,
, ( ) .
, , ,
. ,
.
kavkeeper. ini. , AVPKeeper.

574

23

23.1. SATAN
, . SATAN,
,
. SATAN (Security Administrator Tool for Analyzing Networks)
.
SATAN ,
( )
.
, . ,
, . . , ,
FreeBSD,
Linux, . ,
,
, FreeBSD , Linux.
, SATAN Linux,
, FreeBSD.
: FreeBSD
Linux. Linux :
http://www.ibiblio.org/pub/packages/security/Satan-for-Linux/
satan-1.1.l.linux.fixed2.tgz

FreeBSD http://www.fish.com/satan.
Linux satan-1.1.1.
:
perl reconfig
, Perl
5, , ,
. reconfig. He
515


Perl,
51...70: :
f o r $dir (@all_dirs) {
:
Idle " \ n C a n ' t find perlS! Bailing o u t . . . \ n " u n l e s s $PERL;

Perl. Perl
, /usr/bin, :
print "\nPerl5 is in $PERL\n";
:
$PERL=/path-to-perl/
SPERL Perl.
src/boot boot..
:
char * s t r c h r ( ) ;
( 24).
/ s r c / f p i n g / f p i n g . c
SATAN FreeBSD. ( 189...191):
tifndef SYS_ERRLIST_DECLARED
extern char * s y s _ e r r l i s t [ ] ;
tendif
, . :
structure has no member named *th_sport' ( * t h _ d p o r t ' ) th_sport source, a th_dport dest. pa tcphdr (TCP Header) TCP. BSD , - th_sport, Linux source (, th_dport
dest). tcphdr / u s r / i n c l u d e / n e t i n e t / t c p . h .
:
make linux
linux SATAN Linux.
,
, SATAN. conf ig/
paths.pi.
, 23.1. - ( ),
.
23.1. paths.pl
$FINGER="/usr/bin/finger";
$FTP="/usr/bin/ftp",
$RPCINFO="/usr/sbin/rpcinfo";

516


$RUSERS="/usr/bin/rusers";
$SHOWMOUNT="/usr/sbin/showmount";
$YPWHICH="/usr/bin/ypwhich";
$NSLOOKUP="/usr/bin/nslookup";
$XHOST="/usr/bin/Xll/xhost";
$PING="/bin/ping",
$MOSAIC="/usr/bin/netscape";
$TCP_SCAN="bin/tcp_scan";
$UDP_SCAN="bin/udp_scan";
$FPING="bin/fping";
$NFS_CHK="bin/nfs-chk";
$YP_CHK="bin/yp-chk";
$SAFE_FINGER="bin/safe_finger";
$MD5="bin/md5";
$SYS_SOCKET="bin/sys_socket";
$BOOT="bin/boot";
$GET_TARGETS="bin/get_targets";
$TIMEQUT="bin/timeout";
$SATAN_CF="config/satan.cf"; $SERVICES="config/services";
SATAN Netscape.
Mosaic Lynx, Netscape. SATAN
./satan
. SATAN
HTTP- Netscape,
. SATAN .
SATAN Web-,
, .
: SATAN , SATAN.
root. Netscape SATAN (. . 23.1).
Data Management ,
. ( satandata) Open/Create.

. Target Selection.
, (. . 23.2).
, ,
. (light),
(normal) (heavy). ,
Start the scan.
: SATAN
, , , . 517


N;*>tf: SATAN

IMt
I

1
:|* Bookmarks--^

1||||:

lifeile://localhost/usr/src/satan-1.1.

(Seciii-ity i

|1

. 23. J. SATAN

Netscape.
. ,
light .
SATAN, ( root), SATAN
(Reporting and Data Analysis).
SATAN root , , SATAN.
Netscape HTTP_REFERER,
SATAN.
SATAN Configuration Management,
satan.cf .

: max_proximity_level.
.
. ,
518

host',
Scan;%e:t

,,

. 23.2.
11

, . SATAN
host.depl.company.ru. , depl.company.ru DNS ns.depl.company.ru. NS
> ns.company.ru. company
. max_proximityjevel 2,
.

23.2.
, ,

180 e-mail
?? ,
.

579


() : !!!
,
(). , Cool Girl! Enjoy It!.
- (Worm) .
... :
AVP ,
.

/etc/mail/access ( access.db,
access). sendmail.
, () SMTP. :
I |
:
localhost. localdomain
localhost
RELAY
127.0.0.1
OK
spammer@spamworld.com
spamworld.com
192.168.1
RELAY
host.mydomain.ruREJECT
mydomain.ru
RELAY

RELAY

REJECT
E R R O R : " 5 5 0 Access denied"

- SMTP.
spammer@spamworld.com, spamworld.com. 192.168.1.*.
SMTP- ,

mydomain.ru host.
RELAY ,
() , sendmail
, , ( DNS).
REJECT.
Access denied. ERROR , (
). ERROR -:
ERROR:D.S.N:Message, D.S.N RFC 1893.
, :
makemap hash / e t c / m a i l / a c c e s s < /etc/mail/access

makemap. sendmail !

520

23.3.
,
. --
. , , - :
#!/bin/bash
# loop
echo " "
./loop
,
. - .
,
:
Unable to fork
. ,
/ e t c / s e c u r i t y / l i m i t s . c o n f .
l i m i t s . c o n f . :
<domain> <type> <item> <value>
(domain) :
1. .
2. . @.
3. *. .
(type) : (soft) (hard).
, , .
, .
(item), :
core
core ().
data
().
fsize
().
memlock
().
nofile
.
stack
().

().

.
as
.
niaxlogins
.
locks
.
. , user.
:
user s o f t nproc 50
user hard nproc 60
521


( 50),
.
, dialupl dialup2.
30 . 30 ,
15
. :
Sdialupl maxlogins 14
@dialup2 -- maxlogins 14
15 (maxlogins 14 ).
:
Too many logins for ' d i a l u p l '
,
root. , . /etc/securetty,
, , root. root . (
) /etc/securetty.
, su (super user). , root,
, root.

522

24

.
, ,
, Linux. , ,

, .
, , , Web FTP- ,

.
, ?
,
. (,
!), . : - ( ) , , . -
, , .
, , .
.
, , ,
.
, . ,
.
?
. , IP . ,
: .
, ,
IP-, .
, IP-
, .
, ,

523


, , ,
. , , 100%.
: ,
,
. ,
( IP-), :
,
.
Windows ( ), 135...139 129.
. 17.
Internet Explorer ( ,

). IE
Microsoft. Netscape
Communicator IE, TheBat! Outlook, Microsoft.
, Web FTP-.
.
40-60 ,
. , .
, .
. 4.
RAID .
RAID .
.
, . . ,
(
)
. ,
, . ( ) .
, ,
, .
, . , . -
- ,
, HOWTO, . HOWTO .
!
524

.
Linux
Linux /etc. , . .
.

. 1

codepages

CORBA/servers

CORBA.
Gnome

crond*

, crond
. /etc/crontab

cups

CUPS

default/useradd
DrakConf

useradd

DrakConf

emacs

emacs ( )

gnome

Gnome

gtk

, Gtk.
, .
. , ,

htdig

( ) ht:/Dig

httpd

Apache

mail

sendmail

openldap
pam.d

LDAP

postfix

postfix

PPP
profile. d

pppd

rc.d

.
. /etc/inittab

skel

ssh

ssh

urpmi

urpmi. RPM .

525


. . 1

at. deny
auto.*
bashrc

conf.linuxconf

crontab
csh.cshrc

csh. login

exports
fax.config
fb. modes
fdprm
filesystem

fstab

ftpusers
gettydefs

gpm-root.conf

group
gshadow

host.conf

hosts

hosts.allow
hosts.deny
identd.conf
inetd.conf
inittab
isapnp.gone

issue, issue.net

lilo.conf

Imhosts

login.defs
lynx.cfg
mime-magic

mime-types

modules. conf
mold
mtab

11

xinet.d
aliaces
anacrontab

526

X Window
xinetd

Anacron
at
automount ( autofs)
bash
linuxconf.
linuxconf
crond
Shell
, ,
Shell
. NFS




.

, FTP
( getty)
gpm. gpm


Shadow Passwords

.

IP-.
,
,

inetd
. init
ISA
. issue
, issue.net , , telnet
LILO
Samba.
Windows NT. , NetBIOS IP-
useradd groupadd
lynx
MIME-
MIME-. Apache
apache-mime. types, httpd.conf

(Message of The Day)


. . 1

networks
passwd

printcap
proftpd.conf


ProFTPD

protocols
pwdb
quota.conf
sendmail.cf

services

passwd

shells

shutmsg

smb.conf
termcap
xinetd.conf

, RFC 1340
pwdb

sendmail
-.
RFC 1700

(Shadow Passwords)


wu-ftpd
Samba

xinetd

/etc/xinet.d
xinetd.conf,
xinetd /etc/xinetd.d.
,
. , ,
. .
, xinetd. conf. xinetd.conf ,
, , . .
xinetd.conf
. 1.
. xinetd.conf
#
t xinetd
#

defaults
{

instances
= 60
log_type
= SYSLOG authpriv
log_on_success
= HOST PID
log_on_failure
= HOST RECORD

includedir /etc/xinetd.d

527


defaults . includedir .
( .2):
.2
# :
# : echo [top]
service echo
{
type
= INTERNAL
id
= echo-stream
socket_type = stream
p r o t o c o l = tcp
user
= root
wait
= no
disable
= yes

/etc/urpmi/urpmi.cfg
urpmi
RPM-.
root. u r p m i . c f g ,
.
/etc/aliases
(. .). :
: _
.
newaliases.
.. /etc/aliases
#
MAILER- DAEMON:
postmaster
p o s t m a s t e r : root
#
bin :
root
daemon:
root
games:
root
Ingres:
root
nobody:
root
system:
root
toor:
root
uucp:
root
t
manager: root
dumper:
root

528


operator:
root
decode:
root
# root
troot:
marc

/etc/host, conf
. .
order (. .4). : hosts,
bind, nis, . hosts
order , /etc/hosts. bind
DNS. nis (Network
Information Server), .
IP- ,
order. multi ,
IP-. on.
.4. /etc/host.conf
order h o s t s , b i n d
multi on

/etc/hosts
/etc/hosts IP-. :
IP- _
/etc/hosts .5.
. 5. /etc/hosts
127.0.0.1
localhost.localdomain
localhost
127.0.0.1
dhsilabs.com
dhsilabs
1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 1 . 2 pppO.com
PPPO

/etc/networks
.
:
_ #

, , netstat
,
, , .
networks .6.
^ .6.

/etc/networks

.net99 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 9 9 . 0 net99 # Net 99


.net98 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 9 9 . 0 net98 # Net 98
.net97 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 9 9 . 0 net97 # Net 97
529


/etc/motd
(Message of The Day).
. . .
/etc/resolv.conf
DNS.
nameserver , ,
. search
, .
(. .7).
. 7. /etc/resolv.conf
-search .dhsilabs.com .com .ru
nameserver 1 2 7 . 0 . 0 . 1
nameserver 192.168.1.1
nameserver 1 9 2 . 1 6 8 . 9 9 . 1
search domain, ,
, , .
/etc/protocols
.8. /etc/protocols
# /etc/protocols:
#
# (IP)
#
# RFC 1340
0 IP
# (IP)
ip
icmp
1 ICMP
t
igmp
2 IGMP
#
3 GGP
# -
ggp
ipencap
4 IP-ENCAP # IP, IP
5 ST
st
# ST
6 TCP
tcp
# .
egp
8 EGP
#
pup
12 PUP
# PARC -
udp
17 UDP
#
hmp
20 HMP
#
xns-idp
22 XNS-IDP
# Xerox NS IDP
rdp
27 RDP
tt "reliable datagram" protocol
iso-tp4
29 ISO-TP4
# ISO 4
xtp
36 XTP
# Xpress
ddp
37 DDP
#
idpr-cmtp 39 IDPR-CMTP # IDPR Control Message Transport
ipv6
41 IPv6
t IPv6

530


ipv6-route43 IPv6-Route# IPv6
ipv6-frag 44 IPv6-Frag # IPv6
ipv6-crypt50 IPv6-Crypt# IPv6
ipv6-auth 51 IPv6-Auth # IPv6
ipv6-icmp 58 IPv6-ICMP # ICMP IPv6
ipv6-nonxt59 IPv6-NoNxt# "No Next" IPv6
ipv6-opts 60 IPv6-Opts f IPv6
rspf
73 RSPF
# Radio Shortest Path F i r s t ,
vmtp
81 VMTP
# V e r s a t i l e Message Transport
ospf
89 OSPFIGP
# Open Shortest Path F i r s t IGP
ipip
94 IPIP
# IP
encap
98 ENCAP
t IP
DARPA . DDN.

/etc/services
.9. /etc/services
# /etc/services:
#
#
# RFC
tcpmux
1/tcp
echo
7/tcp
7/udp
echo
discard
9/tcp
sink null
9/udp
discard
sink null
systat
11/tcp
users
13/tcp
daytime
13/udp
daytime
netstat
15/tcp
17/tcp
quote
qotd
18/tcp
msp
18/udp
msp
19/tcp
ttytst so
chargen
1 9/udp
ttytst so
chargen
ftp-data
20/tcp
21/tcp
ftp
21/udp
fspd
fsp
ssh
22/tcp
ssh
22/udp
23/tcp
telnet
# 24 --
25/tcp
mail
smtp
I 26 -
timserver
37/tcp
time
37/udp
timserver
time
rip
3 9/udp
resource
name
nameserver 42/tcp

1700
# TCP

#
#

# SSH
# SSH


IEN 116

531


whois43/tcp
nicname
#
re-mail-ck50/tcp
#
re-mail-ck50/udp
#
nameserver
domain
53/tcp
domain
53/udp
nameserver
#
mtp
57/tcp
#
bootps
67/tcp
bootps
67/udp
#
bootpc
68/tcp
bootpc
68/udp
69/udp
tftp
# Internet Gopher
gopher
70/tcp
gopher
70/udp
77/tcp
netrjs
rje
finger
79/tcp
WWW
http
# WorldWideWeb HTTP
80/tcp
I HyperText Transfer Protocol
WWW
80/udp
link
ttylink
87/tcp
kerberosS krb5 # Kerberos v5
kerberos 88/tcp
kerberos 88/udp
kerberosS krbS # Kerberos v5
supdup
95/tcp
# 100 -
# usually from sri-nic
hostnames 101/tcp
hostname
# part of ISODE.
iso-tsap 102/tcp
tsap
# also used by CSO name server
cso-ns
csnet-ns 105/tcp
csnet-ns 105/udp
cso-ns
poppassd
#3com-tsmux
106/tcp
#3com-tsmux
106/udp
poppassd
# Telnet
rtelnet
107/tcp
rtelnet
107/udp
postoffice# POP 2
pop2
109/tcp
pop-2
pop-2
pop2
109/udp
# POP 3
pop-3

110/tcp

110/udp
pop-3
sunrpc
111/tcp
portmapper
# RPC 4.0 portmapper TCP
sunrpc
111/udp
portmapper
# RPC 4.0 portmapper UDP
authentication tap ident
auth
113/tcp
sftp
115/tcp
uucp-path 117/tcp
nntp
119/tcp
readnews untp # USENET News Transfer Protocol
ntp
123/tcp
ntp
123/udp
#
netbios-ns!37/tcp
# NETBIOS
netbios-ns!37/udp
netbios-dgm
138/tcp
# NETBIOS
netbios-dgm
138/udp
netbios-ssn
139/tcp
NETBIOS
netbios-ssn
139/udp
imap2
143/tcp
imap
# Interim v2
imap2
143/udp
imap

532


snmp
161/udp
# Simple Net Mgmt Proto
snmp-trap 162/udp
snmptrap # Traps for SNMP
cmip-man 163/tcp
# ISO mgmt over IP (CMOT)
cmip-man 163/udp
cmip-agent!64/tcp
cmip-agent164/udp
xdmcp
177/tcp
# X Display
xdmcp
177/udp
nextstep 178/tcp
NeXTStep Nextstep
# NeXTStep
nextstep 178/udp
NeXTStep Nextstep
#
bgp
179/tcp
# Border Gateway
bgp
179/udp
prospero 191/tcp
prospero 191/udp
ire
194/tcp
# Internet Relay Chat
194/udp
ire
smux
199/tcp
# SNMP Unix
smux
199/udp
at-rtmp
201/tcp
# AppleTalk
at-rtmp
201/udp
202/tcp
at-nbp
# AppleTalk
at-nbp
202/udp
at-echo
204/tcp
I AppleTalk echo
at-echo
204/udp
at-zis
206/tcp
# AppleTalk
206/udp
at-zis
gmtp
209/tcp
# qmail
209/udp
qmtp
# The Quick Mail Transfer Protocol
210/tcp
z3950
wais
# NISO Z39.50 database
z3950
210/udp
wais
ipx
213/tcp
# IPX
ipx
213/udp
imap3
220/tcp
# Interactive Mail Access (IMAP)
220/udp
imap3
# , 5 (IMAP)
rpc2portmap
369/tcp
rpc2portmap
369/udp
# Coda portmapper
codaauth2 370/tcp
codaauth2 370/udp
# Coda-
ulistserv 372/tcp
I UNIX L i s t s e r v
ulistserv 372/udp
Idap
389/tcp
t Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
Idap
389/udp
# Lightweight Directory Access Protocol
https
443/tcp
# MCom
https
443/udp
# MCom
snpp
444/tcp
t Simple Network Paging Protocol
snpp
444/udp
# Simple Network Paging Protocol
saft
487/tcp
# Simple Asynchronous File Transfer
saft
487/udp
I Simple Asynchronous File Transfer
npmp-local610/tcp
dqs313_qmaster # npmp-local / DQS
npmp-loca!610/udp
dqs313_qmaster I npmp-local / DQS

533


npmp-gui
npmp-gui
hmmp-ind
hmmp-ind

611/tcp
611/udp
612/tcp
612/udp

dqs313 execd
dqs313_execd
dqs313 intercell
dqs313 intercell

t
#
#
#

npmp-gui / DQS
npmp-gui / DQS
HMMP Indication / DQS
HMMP Indication / DQS

#
# UNIX

t
exec
512/tcp
biff
512/udp
comsat
login
513/tcp
who
513/udp
whod
shell
514/tcp
cmd
syslog
514/udp
printer
515/tcp
spooler
talk
517/tcp
ntalk
518/udp
route
520/udp
router routed
timed
525/udp
timeserver
tempo
526/tcp
newdate
courier
530/tcp
rpc
conference531/tcp
chat
n,etnews
532/tcp
readnews
netwall
533/udp
uucp
540/tcp
uucpd
afpovertcp548/tcp
afpovertcp548/udp
remotefs 556/tcp
rfs server rfs
klogin
543/tcp
kshell
544/tcp
krcmd
kerberos-adm
749/tcp

1
#
# RIP

#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#

-for emergency broadcasts


uucp daemon
AFP over TCP
AFP over TCP
Brunhoff remote filesystem
Kerberized ^rlogin' (v5)
Kerberized 'rsh' (v5)
Kerberos ^kadmin' (v5)

#
webster
765/tcp
webster
765/udp
*
ingreslock
1524/tcp
ingreslock
1524/udp
prospero-np
1525/tcp
prospero-np
1525/udp
datametrics
1645/tcp
datametrics
1645/udp
sa-msg-port
1646/tcp
sa-msg-port
1646/udp
radius
1812/tcp
radius
1812/udp
radacct
1813/tcp
radacct
1813/udp
cvspserver
2401/tcp
cvspserver
2401/udp
venus
2430/tcp
venus
2430/udp
534

# Network dictionary

# Prospero non-privileged
old-radius
old-radius
old-radacct
old-radacct

# datametrics / old radius entry


# datametrics / old radius entry
# sa-msg-port / old radacct entry
# sa-msg-port / old radacct entry
# Radius
# Radius
1 Radius Accounting
# Radius Accounting
t CVS client/server operations
# CVS client/server operations
# codacon port
# Venus callback/wbc interface


venus-se 2431/tcp
# tcp side effects
venus-se 2431/udp
I udp sftp side effect
codasrv
2432/tcp
# not used
codasrv
2432/udp
# server port
codasrv-se2433/tcp
# tcp side effects
codasrv-se2433/udp
# udp sftp side effect
mysql
3306/tcp
# MySQL
mysql
3306/udp
# MySQL
rfe
5002/tcp
# Radio Free Ethernet
rfe
5002/udp
# Actually uses UDP only
cfengine
5308/tcp
# CFengine
cfengine 5308/udp
# CFengine
bbs
7000/tcp
t BBS service
#
# Kerberos 5
#
kerberos4
750/udp
kerberos-iv kdc# Kerberos () udp
kerberos4
750/tcp
kerberos-iv kdc# Kerberos () tcp
kerberos_master 751/udp
# Kerberos
kerberos_master 751/tcp
# Kerberos
# Kerberos
passwd_server 752/udp
krb_prop
# Kerberos slave propagation
754/tcp
kreg
# Kerberos
krbupdate
760/tcp
kpasswd
kpwd
# Kerberos "passwd"
761/tcp
kpop
1109/tcp
# Pop, Kerberos
knetd
# Kerberos
2053/tcp
zephyr-srv
# Zephyr
2102/udp
2103/udp
# Zephyr serv-hm
zephyr-clt
zephyr-hm
2104/udp
eklogin
2105/tcp # Kerberos:
#
# ( NetBSD)
supfilesrv871/tcp
supfiledbg1127/tcp
#
#
#
rtmp
1/ddp
nbp
2/ddp
echo
4/ddp
zip
6/ddp
# Debian
poppassd 106/tcp
poppassd 106/udp
mailq
174/udp
mailq
174/tcp
ssmtp
465/tcp
gdomap
538/tcp
gdomap
538/udp

Eudora
Eudora
# SMTP SSL

535


snews
563/tcp
ssl-ldap
636/tcp
omirr
808/tcp
omirr
808/udp
rsync
873/tcp
rsync
873/udp
swat
901/tcp
inetd
simap
993/tcp
spopS
995/tcp
socks
1080/tcp
socks
1080/udp
rmtcfg
1236/tcp
xtel
1313/tcp
support
1529/tcp
cfinger
2003/tcp
ninstall 2150/tcp
ninstall 2150/udp
afbackup
2988/tcp
afbackup 2988/udp
icp
3130/tcp
icp
3130/udp
postgres 5432/tcp
postgres 5432/udp
fax "
4557/tcp
hylafax
4559/tcp
noclog
5354/tcp
noclog5354/udp
hostmon
5355/tcp
hostmon
5355/udp
ircd
6667/tcp
ircd
6667/udp
webcache
8080/tcp
webcache 8080/udp
tproxy
8081/tcp
tproxy
8081/udp
mandelspawn
9359/udp
amanda
10080/udp
kamanda
10081/tcp
kamanda
10081/ud
amandaidx 10082/tcp
amidxtape 10083/tcp
isdnlog
20011/tcp
isdnlog
20011/udp
vboxd
20012/tcp
vboxd
20012/udp
jserver
22273/tcp
binkp
24554/tcp
binkp
24554/udp
asp
27374/tcp
a'sp
27374/udp

536

t NNTP SSL
t LDAP SSL
omirrd
omirrd
# rsync
# rsync
# Add swat service used via
#
#
#
#

IMAP SSL
POP-3 SSL
- socks
- socks

# GNU Finger
# ninstall
# ninstall
# Afbackup system
I Afbackup system
# Internet Cache Protocol (Squid)
t (Squid)
# POSTGRES
# POSTGRES
# FAX: ()
# HylaFAX - ()
# noclogd, TCP (nocol)
# noclogd, UDP (nocol)
# hostmon, TCP (nocol)
# hostmon, TCP (nocol)
# Internet Relay Chat
t Internet Relay Chat
# WWW:
# WWW:
#
#
mandelbrot
# amanda
# amanda (Kerberos)
# amanda (Kerberos)
# amanda
# amanda
# isdn
# isdn
I voice box system
# voice box system
# JServer
# Binkley
# Binkley
#
t


tfido
60177/tcp
tfido
60177/udp
fido
60179/tcp
fido
60179/udp
#
linuxconf 98/tcp
smtp 465/tcp
imaps993
pop3s 995

#
#
I
#

Ifmail
Ifmail
Ifmail
Ifmail

(FIDO Mail)

services , . - , , .

/etc/modules.conf
,
(. ).
. 10. /etc/modules.conf
alias net-pf-4 ipx
pre-install pcmcia_core /etc/re.d/init.d/pcmcia start
alias parport_lowlevel parport_pc
pre-install plip modprobe parport_pc ; echo 7 > /proc/parport/
0/irq
alias sound-slot-0 via82cxxx_audio
if, else,
elseif, endif. :
if

elseif

endif
path :
path=nyTb
path net, misc, scsi, video, ipv4
. - .
- , , , path :
path[net]=.
path : []=.
install, pre-install,
post-install. . ,
install, insmod. , pre-install post-install, . :

537


remove . :
remove
,
rmmod. alias . , alias
iso9660 isofs. (keep, add, define)
.

.
X Window
, X Window,
, . .1.
X Window

-background <red | green | blue>


-background
-bg
-display :_
-fg
-fn
-font
-foreground_color <red | green | blue>
-foreground
-geometry + +
-geometry
-geometry + +
-height n
-position
-reverse
-rv
-size
-Wb <red | green | blue>
-Wf
-WG + +
-WG
-WG + +
-Wh
-Wi
-width
-Wpxy
-Wr :
-Ws
-Wt
-Ww

538

. 1




X. 0

.
xfontsel
.
xfontsel








-reverse







,


X. 0


.

. . 18
. ,
IDE-, SCSI? ,
,
.
( )
, , , .
, .
: .
RPM:
, . -
, ,
(warning)
.
,
, , . make menuconfig (config xconfig)
. (make zlmage). :
. , ,
make menuconfig.
.1 .
, ,
. .1 , . -,
.
, ,
. -, , , .
:
,
, , . , .1. ,
, ,
, , .
-
. , , , ,
.
?

539


.2 .
.
? : make
menuconfig : ,
. , ,
menuconfig.
( ):
make config. ,
Y, N . Y - -
, N ,
. :
CONFIG_EXPERIMENTAL ?
Y N.
.1.
#
# Automatically generated by make menuconfig: don't edit
I
# Code maturity level options
#
CONFIG_EXPERIMENTAL=N
#
# Processor type and features
#
# CONFIG_M386 is not set
# CONFIG_M486 is not set
# CONFIG_M586 is not set
# CONFIG_M586TSC is not set
CONFIG_M686=y
CONFIG_X8 6_WP_WORKS_OK=y
CONFIG_X8 6_INVLPG=y
CONFIG_X86_BSWAP=y
CONFIG_X86_POPAD_OK=y
CONFIG_X86_TSC=y
CONFIG_X86_GOOD_APIC=y
CONFIG_lGB=y
# CONFIG_2GB is not set
# CONFIG_MATH_EMULATION is not set
CONFIG_MTRR=y
# CONFIG_SMP is not set
#
# Loadable module support
#

540


# CONFIG MODULES is not set
# General setup
I
# CONFIG_BIGMEM is not set
CONFIG_NET=y
CONFIG_PCI=y
# CONFIG_PCI_GOBIOS is not set
# CONFIG_PCI_GODIRECT is not set
CONFIG_PCI_GOANY=y
CONFIG_PCI_BIOS=y
CONFIG_PCI_DIRECT=y
# CONFIG_PCI_QUIRKS is not set
CONFIG_PCI_OLD_PROC=y
# CONFIGJ4CA is not set
# CONFIG_VISWS is not set
CONFIG_SYSVIPC=y
CONFIG_BSD_PROCESS_ACCT=y
CONFIG_SYSCTL=y
CONFIG_BINFMT_AOUT=y
CONFIG_BINFMT_ELF=y
# CONFIG_BINFMT_MISC is not set
# CONFIG_BINFMT_JAVA is not set
CONFIG_PARPORT=y
# CONFIG_PARPORT_PC is not set
f CONFIG_APM is not set
# CONFIGJTOSHIBA is not set

#
# Plug and Play support
#
# CONFIG_PNP is not set
#
# Block devices
f
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_FD=y
# CONFIG_BLK_DEV_IDE is not set
I CONFIG_BLK_DEV_HD_ONLY is not set
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_LOOP=y
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_NBD=y
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_MD=y
I CONFIG_AUTODETECT_RAID is not set
I CONFIG_MD_LINEAR is not set
# CONFIG_MD_STRIPED is not set
# CONFIG_MD_MIRRORING is not set
I CONFIG_MD_RAID5 is not set
# CONFIG_MD_TRANSLUCENT is not set
# CONFIG MD HSM is not set

54?


CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM=y
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM_SZE=4096
t CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INITRD is not set
# CONFIG_BLK_DEV_XD is not set
# CONFIG_BLK_DEV_DAC960 is not set
CONFIG_PARIDE_PARPORT=y
# CONFIG_PARIDE is not set
# CONFIG_BLK_DEV_IDE_MODES is not set
t CONFIG_BLK_CPQ_DA is not set
# CONFIG_BLK_CPQ_CISS_DA is not set
# CONFIG BLK DEV HD is not set
# Networking options
#
CONFIG_PACKET=y
CONFIG_NETLINK=y
CONFIG_RTNETLINK=y
CONFIG_NETLINK_DEV=y
CONFIG_FIREWALL=y
CONFIG_FILTER=y
CONFIG_UNIX=y
CONFIG_INET=y
CONFIG_IP_MULTICAST=y
CONFIG_IP_ADVANCED_ROUTER=y
CONFIG_RTNETLINK=y
CONFIG_NETLINK=y
# CONFIG_IP_MULTIPLE_TABLES is not set
# CONFIG_IP_ROUTE_MULTIPATH is not set
# CONFIG_IP_ROUTE_TOS is not set
# CONFIG_IP_ROUTE_VERBOSE is not set
CONFIG_IP_ROUTE_LARGE_TABLES=y
CONFIG_IP_PNP=y
CONFIG_IP_PNP_DHCP=y
CONFIG_IP_PNP_BOOTP=y
# CONFIG_IP_PNP_RARP is not set
CONFIG_IP_FIREWALL=y
CONFIG_IP_FIREWALL_NETLINK=y
CONFIG_NETLINK_DEV=y
CONFIG_IP_TRANSPARENT_PROXY=y
CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE=y
CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_ICMP=y
CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_MOD=y
CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_IPAUTOFW=y
CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_IPPORTFW=y
CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_MFW=y
CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_PPTP=y
# CONFIG_DEBUG_IP_MASQUERADE_PPTP is not set
# CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_IPSEC is not set
# CONFIG IP MASQUERADE GENERIC is not set

542


CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_VS=y
CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_VS_TAB_BITS=12
CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_VS_RR=y
CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_VS_WRR=y
CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_VS_LC=y
CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_VS_WLC=y
# CONFIG_IP_ROUTER is not set
CONFIG_NET_IPIP=y
CONFIG_NET_IPGRE=y
CONFIG_NET_IPGRE_BROADCAST=y
CONFIG_IP_MROUTE=y
CONFIG_IP_PIMSM_Vl=y
# CONFIG_IP_PIMSM_V2 is not set
CONFIG_IP_ALIAS=y
# CONFIG_ARPD is not set
CONFIG_SYN_COOKIES=y
CONFIG_INET_RARP=y
CONFIG_SKB_LARGE=y
CONFIG_IPV6=y
CONFIG_IPV6_EUI64=y
CONFIG_IPV6_NO_PB=y
# CONFIG_IPX is not set
# CONFIG_ATALK is not set
# CONFIG_X25 is not set
# CONFIG_LAPB is not set
# CONFIG_BRIDGE is not set
# CONFIG_LLC is not set
# CONFIG_ECONET is not set
# CONFIG_WAN_ROUTER is not set
# CONFIG_NET_FASTROUTE is not set
# CONFIG_NET_HW_FLOWCONTROL is not set
# CONFIG_CPU_IS_SLOW is not set
#
# QoS and/or fair queueing
#
# CONFIG_NET_SCHED is not set
#
# Telephony Support
#
# CONFIG_PHONE is not set
# CONFIG PHONE IXJ is not set

-# SCSI support
I
# CONFIG SCSI is not set

543


#
#
#
#
#
#

120 device support


CONFIG_I20 is not set
CONFIG_I20_PCI is not set
CONFIG_I20_BLOCK is not set
CONFIG 120 SCSI is not set

# IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support


#
# CONFIG_IEEE1394 is not set

#
# Network device support
#
CONFIG_NETDEVICES=y
#
# ARCnet devices
#
# CONFIG_ARCNET is not ' set
CONFIG_DUMMY=y
# CONFIG_BONDING is not set
# CONFIG_EQUALIZER is not set
# CONFIG_ETHERTAP is not set
f CONFIG NET SB1000 is not set
# Ethernet (10 or lOOMbit)
#
CONFIG_NET_ETHERNET=y
# CONFIG_NET_VENDOR_3COM is not set
# CONFIG_LANCE is not set
# CONFIG_NET_VEN.DOR_SMC is not set
# CONFIG_NET_VENDOR_RACAL is not set
CONFIG_RTL8139=y
CONFIG_RTL8139TOO=y
# CONFIG_NET_ISA is not set
# CONFIG_NET_EISA is not set
# CONFIG_NET_POCKET is not set

#
#
#
f
#
#
#
#
#

544

Ethernet (1000 Mbit)


CONFIG_ACENIC is not set
CONFIG_HAMACHI is not set
CONFIG_YELLOWFIN is not set
CONFIG_SK98LIN is not set
CONFIG_FDDI is not set
CONFIG HIPPI is not set


# CONFIG_PLIP is not set
CONFIG_PPP=y
# CONFIG_SLIP is not set
CONFIG_CIPE=y
# CONFIG_NET_RADIO is not set

t
#
I
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
I
#
#
#
#
#

Token ring devices


CONFIGJTR is not set
CONFIG_NET_FC is not set
CONFIG_RCPCI is not set
CONFIG SHAPER is not set
Wan interfaces
CONFIG_HOSTESS_SV11 is not set
CONFIG_COSA is not set
CONFIG_SEALEVEL_4021 is not set
CONFIG_SYNCLINK_SYNCPPP is not set
CONFIG_LANMEDIA is not set
CONFIG_COMX is not set
CONFIG_HDLC is not set
CONFIG_DLCI is not set
CONFIG SBNI is not set

# Amateur Radio support


f
# CONFIG_HAMRADIO is not set

I
# IrDA (infrared) support
*
# CONFIG_IRDA is not set
#
# ISDN subsystem
#
# CONFIG_ISDN is not set
.#
# Old CD-ROM drivers (not SCSI, not IDE)
#
# CONFIG_CD_NO_IDESCSI is not set
#
# Character devices
#
18 . 851

545


CONFIG_VT=y
CONFIG_VT_CONSOLE=y
CONFIG_SERIAL=y
CONFIG_SERIAL_CONSOLE=y
CONFIG_SERIAL_EXTENDED=y
CONFIG_SERIAL_MANY_PORTS=y
CONFIG_SERIAL_SHARE_IRQ=y
# CONFIG_SERIAL_DETECT_IRQ is not set
CONFIG_SERIAL_MULTIPORT=y
# CONFIG_HUB6 is not set
# CONFIG_SERIAL_NONSTANDARD is not set
CONFIG_UNIX98_PTYS=y
CONFIG_UN1X9 8_PTY_COUNT=2 5 6
# CONFIG_PRINTER is not set
CONFIG_MOUSE=y
# Mice
#
# CONFIG_ATIXL_BUSMOUSE is not set
CONFIG_BUSMOUSE=y
t CONFIG_MS_BUSMOUSE is not set
# CONFIG_PSMOUSE is not set
# CONFIG_82C710_MOUSE is not set
# CONFIG_PC110_PAD is not set

#
# Joysticks
I
# CONFIG_JOYSTICK is not set
# CONFIG_QIC02_TAPE is not set
t CONFIG_WATCHDOG is not set
CONFIG_NVRAM=y
CONFIG_RTC=y
#
#
t
t
#
t

I2C support
CONFIG_I2C is not set
CONFIG_AGP is not set
CONFIG_DRM is not set

#
t Video For Linux
i
# CONFIG_VIDEO_DEV is not set
# CONFIG_DTLK is not set
#
# Ftape, the floppy tape device driver

546

#
i CONFIG_FTAPE is not set
# CONFIG UNIKEY is not set

# USB support
#
f CONFIG_USB is not set

#
I Filesystems
#
CONFIG_QUOTA=y
CONFIG_AUTOFS_FS=y
# CONFIG_SUPERMOUNT is not set
# CONFIG_ADFS_FS is not set
# CONFIG_AFFS_FS is not set
# CONFIG_HFS_FS is not set
# CONFIG_FAT_FS is not set
# CONFIG_MSDOS_FS.is not set
# CONFIG_UMSDOS_FS is not set
# CONFIG_VFAT_FS is not set
CONFIG_IS09660_FS=y
# CONFIG_JOLIET is not set
# CONFIG_UDF_FS' is not set
# CONFIG_MINIX_FS is not set
# CONFIG_NTFS_FS is not set
# CONFIG_HPFS_FS is not set
CONFIG_PROC_FS=y
CONFIG_DEVPTS_FS=y
# CONFIG_QNX4FS_FS is not set
CONFIG_ROMFS_FS=y
CONFIG_EXT2_FS=y
# CONFIG_SYSV_FS is not set
# CONFIG_UFS_FS is not set
# CONFIG_REISERFS_FS is not set
# CONFIG_EFS_FS is not set
#
# Network File Systems
#
# CONFIG_CODA_FS is not set
CONFIG_NFS_FS=y
CONFIG_ROOT_NFS=y
CONFIG_NFSD=y
CONFIG_NFSD_SUN=y
CONFIG_SUNRPC=y
CONFIG_LOCKD=y
CONFIG_SMB_FS=y
CONFIG_NCP_FS=y

547


CONFIG_NCPFS_PACKET_SIGNING=y
CONFIG_NCPFS_IOCTL_LOCKING=y
CONFIG_NCPFS_STRONG=y
CONFIG_NCPFS_NFS_NS=y
# CONFIG_NCPFS_OS2_NS is not set
CONFIG_NCPFS_MOUNT_SUBDIR=y
CONFIG_NCPFS_NLS=y
CONFIG_NCPFS_EXTRAS=y

I
# Partition Types
f
CONFIG_BSD_DISKLABEL=y
CONFIG_MAC_PARTITION=y
CONFIG_SMD_DISKLABEL=y
CONFIG_SOLARIS_X86_PARTITION=y
CONFIG_UNIXWARE_DISKLABEL=y
CONFIG_NLS=y
#
# Native Language Support
#
CONFIG_NLS_DEFAULT="cp437"
# CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_437
# CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_737
# CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_775
t CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_850
# CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_852
# CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_855
# CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_857
# CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_860
# CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_861
# CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_862
# CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_863
# CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_864
# CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_865
CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_866=y
# CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_869
# CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_874
# CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_932
# CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_936
# CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_949
# CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_950
CONFIG_NLS_IS08859_l=y
CONFIG_NLS_IS08859_2=y
# CONFIG_NLS_IS08859_3 is
# CONFIG_NLS_IS08859_4 is
CONFIG_NLS_IS08859_5=y
# CONFIG_NLS_IS08859_6 is
I CONFIG NLS IS08859 7 is

548

'

is
is
is
is
is
is
is
is
is
is
is
is
is

not
not
not
not
not
not
not
not
not
not
not
not
not

set
set
set
set
set
set
set
set
set
set
set
set
set

is
is
is
is
is
is

not
not
not
not
not
not

set
set
set
set
set
set

not set
not set
not set
not set


# CONFIG_NLS_IS08859_8 is not set
# CONFIG_NLS_IS08859_9 is not set
I CONFIG_NLS_IS08859_14 is not set
CONFIG_NLS_IS08859_15=y
CONFIG NLS KOI8 R=y
# Console drivers
I
CONFIG_VGA_CONSOLE=y
CONFIG_VIDEO_SELECT=y
# CONFIG_MDA_CONSOLE is not set
# CONFIG_FB is not set
#
# Sound

#
# CONFIG_SOUND is not set
#
# Kernel hacking
#
# CONFIG_MAGIC_SYSRQ is not set

.2.

#
# Automatically generated by make menuconfig: don't edit
#
#
# Code maturity level options
I
CONFIG_EXPERIMENTAL=y

I
# Processor type and features
#
# CONFIG_M386 is not set
# CONFIG_M486 is not set
# CONFIG_M586 is not set
# CONFIG_M586TSC is not set
CONFIG_M686=y
CONFIG_X8 6_WP_WORKS_OK=y
CONFIG_X86_INVLPG=y
CONFIG_X8 6_BSWAP=y
CONFIG_X8 6_POPAD_OK=y
CONFIG_X86_TSC=y
CONFIG_X8 6_GOOD_APIC=y

549


CONFIG_lGB=y
# CONFIG_2GB is not set
# CONFIG_MATH_EMULATION is not set
CONFIG_MTRR=y
# CONFIG_SMP is not set

#
t Loadable module support
#
CONFIG_MODULES=y
CONFIG_MODVERSIONS=y
CONFIG_KMOD=y
t General setup
I
CONFIG_BIGMEM=y
CONFIG_NET=y
CONFIG_PCI=y
# CONFIG_PCI_GOBIOS is not set
# CONFIG_PCI_GODIRECT is not set
CONFIG_PCI_GOANY=y
CONFIG_PCI_BIOS=y
CONFIG_PCI_DIRECT=y
CONFIG_PCI_QUIRKS=y
# CONFIG_PCI_OPTIMIZE is not set
CONFIG_PCI_OLD_PROC=y
# CONFIG_MCA is not set
# CONFIG_VISWS is not set
CONFIG_SYSVIPC=y
CONFIG_BSD_PROCESS_ACCT=y
CONFIG_SYSCTL=y
CONFIG_BINFMT_AOUT=m
CONFIG_BINFMT_ELF=y
CONFIG_BINFMT_MISC=m
CONFIG_BINFMT_JAVA=m
CONFIG_PARPORT=m
CONFIG_PARPORT_PC=m
# CONFIG_PARPORT_OTHER is not set
CONFIG_APM=y
# CONFIG_APM_IGNORE_USER_SUSPEND is not set
# CONFIG_APM_DO_ENABLE is not set
t CONFIG_APM_CPU_IDLE is not set
# CONFIG_APM_DISPLAY_BLANK is not set
# CONFIG_APM_IGNORE_SUSPEND_BOUNCE is not set
# CONFIG_APM_RTC_IS_GMT is not set
# CONFIG_APM_ALLOW_INTS is not set
I CONFIG_APM_REAL_MODE_POWER_OFF is not set
CONFIG TOSHIBA=m

550

#
# Plug and Play support
I
CONFIG_PNP=y
CONFIG PNP PARPORT=m

# Block devices
#
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_FD=y
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_IDE=y
I CONFIG_BLK_DEV_HD_IDE is not set
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_IDEDISK=y
CONFIG_IDEDISK_MULTI_MODE=y
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_IDECD=y
I CONFIG_BLK_DEV_IDETAPE is not set
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_IDEFLOPPY=m
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_IDESCSI=m
f CONFIG_IDE_TASK_IOCTL_DEBUG is not set
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_CMD6 4 0=y
f CONFIG_BLK_DEV_CMD640_ENHANCED is not set
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RZ1000=y
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_IDEPCI=y
CONFIG_IDEPCI_SHARE_IRQ=y
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_IDEDMA=y
# CONFIG_IDEDMA_AUTO is not set
CONFIG_IDEDMA_NEW_DRIVE_LISTINGS=y
CONFIG_IDEDMA_PCI_EXPERIMENTAL=y
CONFIG_IDEDMA_PCI_WIP=y
# CONFIG_BLK_DEV_OFFBOARD is not set
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_AEC62XX=y
CONFIG_AEC62XX_TUNING=y
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_ALI15X3=y
# CONFIG_WDC_ALI15X3 is not set
OONFIG_BLK_DEV_AMD7 4 0 9=y
CONFIG_AMD7 4 0 9_OVERRIDE=y
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_CMD64X=y
CONFIG_CMD64X_RAID=y
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_CY82C693=y
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_CS5530=y
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_HPT34X=y
CONFIG_HPT34X_AUTODMA=y
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_HPT366=y
HPT366_FIP=y
HPT366_MODE3=y
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_PIIX=y
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_OPTI621=y
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_PDC202XX=y
CONFIG_PDC202XX_BURST=y
CONFIG PDC202XX MASTER=y

551


CONFIG_BLK_DEV_SIS5513=y
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_TRM290=y
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_VIA82CXXX=y
# CONFIG_VIA82CXXX_TUNING is. not set
# CONFIG_IDE_CHIPSETS is not set
CONFIG_IDEDMA_IVB=y
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_LOOP=m
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_NBD=m
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_MD=y
CONFIG_AUTODETECT_RAID=y
CONFIG_MD_LINEAR=mi
CONFIG_MD_STRIPED=m
CONFIG_MD_MIRRORING=m
CONFIG_MD_RAID5=m
I CONFIG_MD_TRANSLUCENT is not set
# CONFIG_MD_HSM is not set
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM=y
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM_SIZE= 4 0 9 6
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_INITRD=y
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_XD=m
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_DAC960=m
CONFIG_PARIDE_PARPORT=m
CONFIG_PARIDE=m
CONFIG_PARIDE_PD=m
CONFIG_PARIDE_PCD=m
CONFIG_PARIDE_PF=m
CONFIG_PARIDE_PT=m
CONFIG_PARIDE_PG=m
CONFIG_PARIDE_ATEN=m
CONFIG_PARIDE_BPCK=m
CONFIG_PARIDE_COMM=m
CONFIG_PARIDE_DSTR=m
CONFIG_PARIDE_FIT2=m
CONFIG_PARIDE_FIT3=m
CONFIG_PARIDE_EPAT=m
CONFIG_PARIDE_EPIA=m
CONFIG_PARIDE_FRIQ=m
CONFIG_PARIDE_FRPW=m
CONFIG_PARIDE_KBIC=m
CONFIG_PARIDE_KTTI=m
CONFIG_PARIDE_ON20=m
CONFIG_PARIDE_ON26=m
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_IDE_MODES=y
CONFIG_BLK_C PQ_DA=m
CONFIG_BLK_CPQ_CIS S_DA=m
# CONFIG_BLK_DEV_HD is not set
#
# Networking options
#

552


CONFIG_PACKET=y
CONFIG_NETLINK=y
CONFIG_RTNETLINK=y
CONFIG_NETLINK_DEV=y
CONFIG_FIREWALL=y
CONFIG_FILTER=y
CONFIG_UNIX=y
CONFIG_INET=y
CONFIG_IP_MULTICAST=y
CONFIG_IP_ADVANCED_ROUTER=y
CONFIG_RTNETLINK=y
CONFIG_NETLINK=y
# CONFIG_IP_MULTIPLE_TABLES is not set
f CONFIG_IP_ROUTE_MULTIPATH is not set
# CONFIG_IP_ROUTE_TOS is not set
# CONFIG_IP_ROUTE_VERBOSE is not set
# CONFIG_IP_ROUTE_LARGE_TABLES is not set
# CONFIG_IP_PNP is not set
CONFIG_IP_FIREWALL=y
CONFlG_IP_FIREWALL_NETLINK=y
CONFIG_NETLINK_DEV=y
CONFIG_IP_TRANSPARENT_PROXY=y
CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE=y
CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_ICMP=y
CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_MOD=y
CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_IPAUTOFW=m
CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_IPPORTFW=m
CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_MFW=m
CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_PPTP=m
# CONFIG_DEBUG_IP_MASQUERADE_PPTP is not set
# CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_IPSEC is not set
# CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_GENERIC is not set
CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_VS=y
CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_VS_TAB_BITS=12
CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_VS_RR=m
CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_VS_WRR=m
CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_VS_LC=m
CONFIG_IP_MASQUERADE_VS_WLC=m
# CONFIG_IP_ROUTER is not set
CONFIG_NET_IPIP=m
CONFIG_NET_IPGRE=m
CONFIG_NET_IPGRE_BROADCAST=y
# CONFIG_IP_MROUTE is not set
CONFIG_IP_ALIAS=y
# CONFIG_ARPD is not set
CONFIG_SYN_COOKIES=y
CONFIG_INET_RARP=m
CONFIG_SKB_LARGE=y
CONFIG_IPV6=m
CONFIG IPV6 EUl64=y

553


CONFIG_IPV6_NO_PB=y .
CONFIG_IPX=m
# CONFI,G_IPX_INTERN is not set
# CONFIG_SPX is not set
CONFIG_ATALK=m
# CONFIG_X25 is not set
CONFIG_LAPB=m
# CONFIG_BRIDGE is not set
# CONFIG_LLC is not set
# CONFIG_ECONET is not set
CONFIG_WAN_ROUTER=m
# CONFIG_NET_FASTROUTE is not set
# CONFIG_NET_HW_FLOWCONTROL is not set
# CONFIG_CPU_IS_SLOW is not set

#
# QoS and/or fair queueing
I
# CONFIG_NET_SCHED is not set
#
# Telephony Support
t
CONFIG_PHONE=m
CONFIG PHONE IXJ=m
# SCSI support
f
CONFIG_SCSI=y
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_SD=y
CONFIG_CHR_DEV_ST=m
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_SR=y
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_SR_VENDOR=y
CONFIG_CHR_DEV_SG=m
# CONFIG_SCSI_MULTI_LUN is not set
CONFIG_SCSI_CONSTANTS=y
CONFIG_SCSI_LOGGING=y

#
# SCSI low-level drivers
#
CONFIG_BLK_DEV_3W_XXXX_RAID=m
CONFIG_SCSI_7000FASST=m
CONFIG_SCSI_ACARD=m
CONFIG_SCSI_AHA152X=m
CONFIG_SCSI_AHA1542=m
CONFIG_SCSI_AHA1740=m
CONFIG_SCSI_AACRAID=m
CONFIG SCSI AIC7XXX=m

554


# CONFIG_AIC7XXX_TCQ_ON_BY_DEFAULT is not set
CONFIG_AIC7XXX_CMDS_PER_DEVICE=8
CONFIG_AIC7XXX_PROC_STATS=y
CONFIG_AIC7XXX_RESET_DELAY=5
CONFIG_SCSI_IPS=m
CONFIG_SCSI_ADVANSYS=m
CONFIG_SCSI_IN2000=m
CONFIG_SCSI_AM53C974=m
CONFIG_SCSI_MEGARAID=m
CONFIG_SCSI_BUSLOGIC=m
# CONFIG_SCSI_OMIT_FLASHPOINT is not set
CONFIG_SCSI_CPQFCTS=m
CONFIG_SCSI_DTC3280=m
CONFIG_SCSI_DPT_I20=m
CONFIG_SCSI_EATA=m
CONFIG_SCSI_EATA_TAGGED_QUEUE=y
# CONFIG_SCSI_EATA_LINKED_COMMANDS is -not set
CONFIG_SCSI_EATA_MAX_TAGS=1
CONFIG_SCSI_EATA_DMA=m
CONFIG_SCSI_EATA_PIO=m
CONFIG_SCSI_FUTURE_DOMAIN=m
CONFIG_S SI_GDTH=m
CONFIG_SCSI_GENERIC_NCR5380=m
t CONFIG_SCSI_GENERIC_NCR53C400 is not set
CONFIG_SCSI_G_NCR5380_PORT=y
# CONFIG_SCSI_G_NCR5380_MEM is not set
CONFIG_SCSI_INITIO=m
CONFIG_SCSI_INIA100=m
CONFIG_SCSI_PPA=m
CONFIG_SCSI_IMM=m
# CONFIG_SCSI_IZIP_EPP16 is not set
# CONFIG_SCSI_IZIP_SLOW_CTR is not set
CONFIG_PPSCSI=m
CONFIG_PPSCSI_T348=m
CONFIG_PPSCSI_T358=m
CONFIG_PPSCSI_ONSCSI=ra
CONFIG_PPSCSI_SPARCSI=m
CONFIG_PPSCSI_EPSA2=m
CONFIG_PPSCSI_EPST=m
CONFIG_SCSI_NCR53C406A=m
CONFIG_SCSI_SYM53C416=m
CONFIG_SCSI_SIM710=m
CONFIG_SCSI_NCR53C7xx=m
t CONFIG_SCSI_NCR53C7xx_sync is not set
CONFIG_SCSI_NCR53C7xx_FAST=y
CONFIG_SCSI_NCR53C7xx_DISCONNECT=y
CONFIG_SCSI_NCR5 3C8XX=m
CONFIG_SCSI_SYM53C8XX=m
CONFIG_SCSI_NCR53C8XX_DEFAULT_TAGS=8
CONFIG SCSI NCR53C8XX MAX TAGS=32

555


CONFIG_SCSI_NCR53C8XX_SYNC=20
CONFIG_SCSI_NCR53C8XX_PROFILE=y
# CONFIG_SCSI_NCR53C8XX_IOMAPPED_ is not set
# CONFIG_SCSI_NCR53C8XX_PQS_PDS is not set
f CONFIG_SCSI_NCR53C8XX_SYMBIOS_COMPAT is not set
CONFIG_SCSI_PAS16=m
CONFIG_SC SI_PC12 =m
CONFIG_SCSI_PCI2220I=m
CONFIG_SCSI_PSI240l=m
CONFIG_SCSI_QLOGIC_FAS=m
CONFIG_SCSI_QLOGIC_ISP=m
CONFIG_SCSI_QLOGIC_1280=m
CONFIG_SCSI_QLOGIC_FC=m
CONFIG_SCSI_QLOGIC_2xOO=m
CONFIG_SCSI_SEAGATE=m
CONFIG_SCSI_DC395x_TRMS1040=m
CONFIG_SCSI_DC3 9 OT=m
# CONFIG_SCSI_DC390T_NOGENSUPP is not set
CONFIG_SCSI_T128=m
CONFIG_SCSI_U14_34F=m
# CONFIG_SCSI_U14_34F_LINKED_COMMANDS is not set
CONFIG_SCSI_U14_34F_MAX_TAGS=8
CONFIG_SCSI_ULTRASTOR=m
CONFIG SCSI DEBUG=m
t 120 device support
#
CONFIG_l20=m
CONFIG_I20_PCI=m
CONFIG_l20_BLOCK=m
CONFIG_I20_SCSI=m

I
# IEEE 1394 (FireWire) support
#
CONFIG_IEEE1394=m
CONFIG_IEEE139 4_PCILYNX=m
CONFIG_IEEE1394_PCILYNX_LOCALRAM=y
CONFIG_IEEE1394_PCILYNX_PORTS=y
CONFIG_IEEE1394_AIC5800=m
CONFIG_IEEE1394_OHCI1394=m
CONFIG_IEEE1394_VIDE01394=m
CONFIG_IEEE1394_RAWIO=m
# CONFIG_IEEE1394_VERBOSEDEBUG is not set
t
# Network device support
i
CONFIG NETDEVICES=y

556

#
# ARCnet devices
#
# CONFIG_ARCNET is not set
CONFIG_DUMMY=m
CONFIG_BONDING=m
CONFIG_EQUALIZER=m
CONFIG_ETHERTAP=m
CONFIG_NET_SB1000=m

#
# Ethernet (10 or lOOMbit)
#
CONFIG_NET_ETHERNET=y
CONFIG_NET_VENDOR_3COM=y
CONFIG_ELl=m
CONFIG_EL2=m
CONFIG_ELPLUS=m
CONFIG_EL16=m
CONFIG_EL3=m
CONFIG_3C515=m
CONFIG_BC90X=m
CONFIG_VORTEX=m
CONFIG_LANCE=m
CONFIG_NET_VENDOR_SMC=y
CONFIG_WD80x3=m
CONFIG_ULTRA=m
CONFIG_ULTRA32=m
CONFIG_SMC9194=m
CONFIG_NET_VENDOR_RACAL=y
CONFIG_NI5010=m
CONFIG_NI52=m
CONFIG_NI65=m
CONFIG_RTL8139=m
CONFIG_RTL8139TOO=m
CONFIG_NET_ISA=y
CONFIG_AT1700=m
CONFIG_E2100=m
CONFIG_DEPCA=m
CONFIG_EWRK3=m
CONFIG_EEXPRESS=m
CONFIG_EEXPRES S_PRO=m
CONFIG_FMV18X=m
CONFIG_HPLAN_PLUS=m
CONFIG_HPLAN=m
CONFIG_HP100=m
CONFIG_ETH16I=m
CONFIG_NE2000=m
# CONFIG_SEEQ8005 is not set
CONFIG_SK_G16=y

557


CONFIG_NET_EISA=y
CONFI.G_PCNET32=m
CONFIG_AC3200=m
CONFIG_APRICOT=m
CONFIG_CS89xO=m
CONFIG_DM9102=m
CONFIG_DE4X5=m
CONFIG_DEC_ELCP=m
CONFIG_DEC_ELCP_OLD=m
CONFIG_DGRS=m
CONFIG_EEXPRESS_PR0100=m
CONFIG_E100=m
CONFIG_EEXPRESS_PR01000=m
CONFIG_LNE390=m
CONFIG_NE3210=m
CONFIG_NE2K_PCI=m
CONFIG_RL100ATX=m
CONFIG_TLAN=m
CONFIG_VIA_RHINE=m
CONFIG_SIS900=m
CONFIG_ES3210=m
CONFIG_EPIC100=m
# CONFIG_ZNET is not set
CONFIG_NET_POCKET=y
CONFIG_ATP=y
CONFIG_DE600=m
CONFIG DE620=m

# Ethernet (1000 Mbit)


#
CONFIG_ACENIC=m
CONFIG_HAMACHI=m
CONFIG_YELLOWFIN=m
CONFIG_SK98LIN=m
CONFIG_FDDI=y
# CONFIG_DEFXX is not set
CONFIG_SKFP=m
# CONFIG_HIPPI is not set
#
# Appletalk devices

#
CONFIG_LTPC=m
CONFIG_COPS=m
CONFIG_COPS_DAYNA=y
CONFIG_COPS_TANGENT=y
CONFIG_IPDDP=m
CONFIG_IPDDP_ENCAP=y
CONFIG_IPDDP_DECAP=y

558


CONFIG_PLIP=m
CONFIG_PPP=m
CONFIG_SLIP=m
CONFIG_SLIP_COMPRESSED=y
CONFIG_SLIP_SMART=y
CONFIG_SLIP_MODE_SLIP6=y
CONFIG_CIPE=m
CONFIG_NET_PADIO=y

CONFIG_STRIP=m
CONFIG_WAVELAN=m
CONFIG_ARLAN=m

#
# Token ring devices
I
CONFIG_TR=y
CONFIG_IBMTR=m
CONFIG_IBMLS=m
CONFIG_IBMOL=m
CONFIG_SKTR=m
CONFIG_NET_FC=y
CONFIG_IPHASE5526=m
CONFIG_RCPCI=m
CONFIG_SHAPER=m
f
# Wan interfaces
#
CONFIG_HOSTESS_SVll=m
CONFIG_COSA=m
CONFIG_SEALEVEL_4021=m
CONFIG_SYNCLINK_SYNCPPP=m
CONFIG_LANMEDIA=m
CONFIG_COMX=m
CONFIG_COMX_HW_COMX=m
CONFIG_COMX_HW_LOCOMX=m
CONFIG_COMX_HW_MIXCOM=m
CONFIG_COMX_PROTO_PPP=m
CONFIG_COMX_PROTO_LAPB=m
CONFIG_COMX_PROTO_FR=m
CONFIG_HDLC=m
CONFIG_N2=m
CONFIG_C101=m
CONFIG_WANXL=m
CONFIG_PC300=m
CONFIG_PC300_X25=y
CONFIG_DLCI=m
CONFIG_DLCI_COUNT=24
CONFIG_DLCI_MAX=8
CONFIG SDLA=m

559

.,
.

CONFIG_WAN_DRIVERS=y
CONFIG_VENDOR_SANGOMA=m
CONFIG_WANPIPE_CARDS=4
# CONFIG_WANPIPE_FR is not set
CONFIG_WANPIPE_PPP=y
CONFIG_WANPIPE_CHDLC=y
CONFIG_SBNI=m

#
# Amateur Radio support
#
# CONFIG_HAMRADIO is not set
t
# IrDA (infrared) support
#
CONFIG_IRDA=m
CONFIG_IRLAN=m
CONFIG_IRCOMM=m
CONFIG_IRDA_ULTRA=y
CONFIG_IRDA_OPTIONS=y
CONFIG_IRDA_CACHE_LAST_LSAP=y
CONFIG_IRDA_FAST_RR=y
f CONFIG_IRDA_DEBUG is not set
CONFIG_IRDA_COMPRESSION=y
CONFIG_IRDA_DEFLATE=m
#
# Infrared-port device drivers
#
CONFIG_IRTTY_SIR=m
CONFIG_IRPORT_SIR=m
CONFIG_NSC_FIR=m
CONFIG_WINBOND_FIR=m
CONFIG_TOSHIBA_FIR=m
CONFIG_SMC_IRCC_FIR=m
CONFIG_DONGLE=y
CONFIG_ESI_DONGLE=m
CONFIG_ACTISYS_DONGLE=m
CONFIG_TEKRAM_DONGLE=m
CONFIG_GIRBIL_DONGLE=m
CONFIG_LITELINK_DONGLE=m
CONFIG_OLD_BELKIN_DONGLE=m
CONFIG_AIRPORT_DONGLE=m
#
# ISDN subsystem
#
CONFIG_ISDN=m
CONFIG_ISDN_PPP=y

560

>


CONFIG_ISDN_PPP_VJ=y
CONFIG_ISDN_MPP=y
CONFIG_ISDN_AUDIO=y
# CONFIG_ISDN_TTY_FAX is not set

t
# ISDN feature submodules
#
CONFIG_IS DN_DRV_LOOP=m
# CONFIG ISDN DIVERSION is not set
# Passive ISDN cards
#
CONFIG_ISDN_DRV_HISAX=m
CONFIG_HISAX_EURO=y
CONFIG_DE_AOC=y
# CONFIG_HISAX_NO_SENDCOMPLETE is not set
# CONFIG_HISAX_NO_LLC is not set
# CONFIG_HISAX_NO_KEYPAD is not set
CONFIG_HISAX_lTR6=y
CONFIG_HISAX_NIl=y
CONFIG_HISAX_16_0=y
CONFIG_HISAX_16_3=y
CONFIG_HISAX_TELESPCI=y
CONFIG_HISAX_SOBOX=y
CONFIG_HISAX_AVM_Al=y
CONFIG_HISAX_FRITZPCI=y
CONFIG_HISAX_AVM_A1_PCMCIA=y
CONFIG_HISAX_ELSA=y
CONFIG_HISAX_IXlMICROR2=y
CONFIG_HISAX_DIEHLDIVA=y
CONFIG_HISAX_ASUSCOM=y
CONFIG_HISAX_TELEINT=y
CONFIG_HISAX_HFCS=y
CONFIG_HISAX_SEDLBAUER=y
'CONFIG_HISAX_SPORTSTER=y
CONFIG_HISAX_MIC=y
CONFIG_HISAX_NETJET=y
CONFIG_HISAX_NETJET_U=y
CONFIG_HISAX_NICCY=y
CONFIG_HISAX_ISURF=y
CONFIG_HISAX_HSTSAPHIR=y
CONFIG_HISAX_BKM_A4T=y
CONFIG_HISAX_SCT_QUADRO=y
CONFIG_HISAX_GAZEL=y
CONFIG_HISAX_HFC_PCI=y
CONFIG_HISAX_W6692=y
# CONFIG HISAX HFC SX is not set

561

#
# Active ISDN cards
#
CONFIG_ISDN_DRV_ICN=m
CONFIG_ISDN_DRV_PCBIT=m
# CONFIG_ISDN_DRV_SC is not set
# CONFIG_ISDN_DRV_ACT2000 is not set
CONFIG_ISDN_DRV_EICON=m
CONFIG_ISDN_DRV_EICON_ISA=y
CONFIG_ISDN_CAPI=m
CONFIG_ISDN_CAPI_MIDDLEWARE?=y
CONFIG_ISDN_CAPIFS=y
CONFIG_ISDN_DRV_AVMBl_BlISA=y
CONFIG_ISDN_DRV_AVMBl_BlPCI=y
CONFIG_ISDN_DRV_AVMBl_BlPCIV4=y
CONFIG_ISDN_DRV_AVMBl_TlISA=y
CONFIG_ISDN_DRV_AVMBl_BlPCMCIA=y
# CONFIG_ISDN_DRV_AVMB1_T1PCI is not set
# CONFIG_ISDN_DRV_AVMB1_C4 is not set
CONFIG_ISDN_DRV_AVMBl_VERBOSE_REASON=y

i
i Old CD-ROM drivers (not SCSI, not IDE)
#
# CONFIG CD NO IDESCSI is not set
# Character devices
#
CONFIG_VT=y
CONFIG_VT_CONSOLE=y
CONFIG_SERIAL=y
CONFIG_SERIAL_CONSOLE=y
CONFIG_SERIAL_EXTENDED=y
CONFIG_SERIAL_MANY_PORTS=y
CONFIG_SERIAL_SHARE_IRQ=y
# CONFIG_SERIAL_DETECT_IRQ is not set
CONFIG_SERIAL_MULTIPORT=y
# CONFIG_HUB6 is not set
CONFIG_SERIAL_NONSTANDARD=y
CONFIG_COMPUTONE=m
CONFIG_ROCKETPORT=m
CONFIG_CYCLADES=m
# CONFIG_CYZ_INTR is not set
CONFIG_DIGIEPCA=m
CONFIG_ESPSERIAL=m
CONFIG_MOXA_INTELLIO=m
CONFIG_MOXA_SMARTI0=m
CONFIG_ISI=m
CONFIG RISCOM8=m

562


CONFIG_SPECIALIX=m
CONFIG_SPECIALIX_RTSCTS=y
CONFIG_SX=m
CONFIG_RIO=m
CONFIG_RIO_OLDPCI=y
CONFIG_STALDRV=y
CONFIG_STALLION=m
CONFIG_ISTALLION=m
CONFIG_SYNCLINK=m
CONFIG_N_HDLC=m
CONFIG_UNIX98_PTYS=y
CONFIG_UNIX98_PTY_COUNT=256
CONFIG_PRINTER=m
CONFIG_PRINTER_READBACK=y
CONFIG_MOUSE=y
#
i Mice
f
CONFIG_ATIXL_BUSMOUSE=m
CONFIG_BUSMOUSE=m
CONFIG_MS_BUSMOUSE=m
CONFIG_PSMOUSE=y
CONFIG_82C710_MOUSE=m
CONFIG_PC110_PAD=m
#
t Joysticks

tt
CONFIG_JOYSTICK=m
CON FI G_JOY_ANALOG=m
CONFIG_JOY_ASSASSIN=m
CONFIG_JOY_GRAVIS=m
CONFIG_JOY_LOGITECH=m
CONFIG_JOY_SIDEWINDER=m
CONFIG_JOY_THRUSTMASTER=m
CONFIG_JOY_CREATIVE=m
CONFIG_JOY_LIGHTNING=m
CONFIG_JOY_PCI=m
CONFIG_JOY_MAGELLAN=m
CONFIG_JOY_SPACEORB=m
CONFIG_JOY_S PACEBALL=m
CONFIG_JOY_WARRIOR=m
CONFIG_JOY_CONSOLE=m
CONFIG_JOY_DB9=m
CONFIG_JOY_TURBOGRAFX=m
# CONFIG_QIC02_TAPE is not set
CONFIG WATCHDOG=y

563

I Watchdog Cards
#
# CONFIG_WATCHDOG_NOWAYOUT is not set
CONFIG_WDT=m
I CONFIG_WDT_501 is not set
CONFIG_SOFT_WATCHDOG=m
CONFIG_PCWATCHDOG=m
CONFIG_ACQUIRE_WDT=m
CONFIG_60XX_WDT=m
CONFIG_MIXCOMWD=m
CONFIG_NVRAM=m
CONFIG_RTC=y

#
I I2C support
f
CONFIG_I2C=m
CONFIG_I2C_ALGOBIT=m
CONFIG_I2C_PHILIPSPAR=m
CONFIG_l2C_ELV=m
CONF'lG_I2C_VELLEMAN=m
CONFIG_I2C_ALGOPCF=m
CONFIG_I2C_ELEKTOR=m
CONFIG_I2C_MAINBOARD=y
CONFIG_I2C_ALI15X3=m
CONFIG_I2C_HYDRA=m
CONFIG_I2C_PIIX4=m
CONFIG_I2C_VIA=m
CONFIG_I2C_ISA=m
CONFIG_I2C_CHARDEV=m
#
# Hardware sensors support
#
CONFIG_SENSORS=m
CONFIG_SENSORS_ADM1021=m
CONFIG_SENSORS_ADM9240=m
CONFIG_SENSORS_GL518 SM=m
CONFIG_SENSORS_LM75=m
CONFIG_SENSORS_LM78=m
CONFIG_SENSORS_LM80=m
CONFIG_SENSORS_SIS5595=m
CONFIG_SENSORS_W83781D=m
CONFIG_SENSORS_OTHER=y
CONFIG_SENSORS_EEPROM=m
CONFIG_SENSORS_LTC1710=m
CONFIG_AGP=m
CONFIG_AGP_INTEL=y
CONFIG AGP I810=y

564


CONFIG_AGP_VIA=y
CONFIG_AGP_AMD=y
CONFIG_AGP_SIS=y
CONFIG_AGP_ALI=y
CONFIG_DRM=y
CONFIG_DRM_TDFX=m
CONFIG_DRM_GAMMA=m
CONFIG_DRM_R128=m
CONFIG_DRM_l810=m
CONFIG DRM MGA=m
I Video For Linux

i
CONFIG_VIDEO_DEV=m
CONFIG_RADIO_RTRACK=m
CONFIG_RADIO_RTRACK2=m
CONFIG_RADIO_AZTECH=m
CONFIG_RADIO_CADET=m
CONFIG_RADIO_MIROPCM20=m
CONFIG_RADIO_GEMTEK=m
CONFIG_RADIO_TRUST=m
CONFIG_VIDEO_BT848=m
CONFIG_VIDEO_BWQCAM=m
CONFIG_VIDEO_CQCAM=m
CONFIG_VIDEO_CPIA=m
CONFIG_VIDEO_CPIA_PP=m
CONFIG_VIDEO_CPIA_USB=m
CONFIG_VIDEO_PMS=m
CONFIG_VIDEO_SAA5249=m
CONFIG_RADIO_SF16FMI=m
CONFIG_RADIO_TYPHOON=m
CONFIG_RADIO_TYPHOON_PROC_FS=y
CONFIG_RADIO_ZOLTRIX=m
CONFIG_VIDEO_ZORAN=m
CONFIG_VIDEO_BUZ=m
CONFIG_DTLK=m

#
# Ftape, the floppy tape device driver
#
CONFIG_FTAPE=m
CONFIG_ZFTAPE=m
CONFIG_ZFT_DFLT_BLK_SZ=10240
CONFIG_ZFT_COMPRESSOR=ra
CONFIG_FT_NR_BUFFERS=3
# CONFIG_FT_PROC_FS is not set
CONFIG_FT_NORMAL_DEBUG=y
# CONFIG_FT_FULL_DEBUG is not set
# CONFIG FT NO TRACE is not set

565


# CONFIG_FT_NO_TRACE_AT_ALL is not set
CONFIG_FT_STD_FDC=y
# CONFIG_FT_MACH2 is not set
# CONFIG_FT_PROBE_FC10 is not set
t CONFIG_FT_ALT_FDC is not set
CONFIG_FT_FDC_THR= 8
CONFIG_FT_FDC_MAX_RATE=2
CONFIG_FT_ALPHA_CLOCK=0
# CONFIG_UNIKEY is not set

#
# USB support
#
CONFIG_USB=m
# CONFIG_USB_DEBUG is not set
CONFIG_USB_DEVICEFS=y
CONFIG_USB_BANDWIDTH=y
CONFIGJJSB_UHCI=m
CONFIG_USB_UHCI_ALT=m
CONFIG_USB_OHCI=m
CONFIG_USB_PRINTER=m
CONFIG_USB_SCANNER=m
CONFIG_USB_AUDIO=m
CONFIG_USB_ACM=m
CONFIG_USB_SERIAL=m
CONFIG_USB_SERIAL_GENERIC=y
CONFIG_USB_SERIAL_VISOR=ra
CONFIG_USB_SERIAL_WHITEHEAT=m
CONFIG_USB_SERIAL_FTDI_SIO=m
CONFIG_USB_SERIAL_KEYSPAN_PDA=m
CONFIG_USB_SERIAL_KEYSPAN=m
CONFIG_USB_SERIAL_KEYSPAN_USA28=y
CONFIG_USB_SERIAL_KEYSPAN_USA28X=y
CONFIG_USB_SERIAL_KEYSPAN_USA19=y
CONFIG_USB_SERIAL_KEYSPAN_USA18X=y
CONFIG_USB_SERIAL_KEYSPAN_USA19W=y
CONFIG_USB_SERIAL_DIGI_ACCELEPORT=m
CONFIG_USB_SERIAL_OMNINET=m
CONFIG_USB_SERIAL_DEBUG=y
CONFIG_USB_IBMCAM=m
CONFIG_USB_OV511=m
CONFIG_USB_DC2XX=m
CONFIG_USB_MDC800=m
CONFIG_USB_STORAGE=m
# CONFIG_USB_STORAGE_DEBUG is not set
CONFIG_USB_DABUSB=m
CONFIG_USB_PLUSB=m
CONFIG_USB_PEGASUS=m
CONFIG_USB_RI0500=m
CONFIG_USB_DSBR=m
CONFIG USB BLUETOOTH=m

566


CONFIG_USB_KAWETH=m
CONFIG_USB_HID=m
CONFIG_USB_KBD=ra
CONFIG_USB_MOUSE=m
CONFIG_USB_WACOM=m
CONFIG_USB_WMFORCE=m
CONFIG_INPUT_KEYBDEV=m
CONFIG_INPUT_MOUSEDEV=m
CONFIG_INPUT_MOUSEDEV_SCREEN_X=1024
CONFIG_INPUT_MOUSEDEV_SCREEN_Y=768
CONFIG_INPUT_JOYDEV=m
CONFIG_INPUT_EVDEV=m

#
# Filesystems
#
CONFIG_QUOTA=y
CONFIG_AUTOFS_FS=m
CONFIG_SUPERMOUNT=m
# CONFIG_ADFS_FS is not set
# CONFIG_AFFS_FS is not set
CONFIG_HFS_FS=m
CONFIG_FAT_FS=m
CONFIG_MSDOS_FS=m
# CONFIG_UMSDOS_FS is not set
CONFIG_VFAT_FS=m
CONFIG_IS09660_FS=y
CONFIG_JOLIET=y
CONFIG_UDF_FS=m
# CONFIG_UDF_RW is not set
CONFIG_MINIX_FS=m
CONFIG_NTFS_FS=m
# CONFIG_NTFS_RW is not set
CONFIG_HPFS_FS=m
CONFIG_PROC_FS=y
CONFIG_DEVPTS_FS=y
# CONFIG_QNX4FS_FS is not set
CONFIG_ROMFS_FS =m
CONFIG_EXT2_FS=y
CONFIG_SYSV_FS=m
CONFIG_UFS_FS=m
# CONFIG_UFS_FS_WRITE is not set
CONFIG_REISERFS_FS=m
# CONFIG_REISERFS_CHECK is not set
CONFIG_EFS_FS=m
CONFIG_SGI_PARTITION=y
I
# Network File Systems
i
CONFIG CODA FS=m

567


CONFIG_NFS_FS=m
CONFIG_NFSD=m
CONFIG_NFSD_SUN=y
CONFIG_SUNRPC=m
CONFIG_LOCKD=m
CONFIG_SMB_FS=m
CONFIG_NCP_FS=m
CONFIG_NCPFS_PACKET_SIGNING=y
CONFIG_NCPFS_IOCTL_LOCKING=y
CONFIG_NCPFS_STRONG=y
CONFIG_NCPFS_NFS_NS=y
CONFIG_NCPFS_OS2_NS=y
CONFIG_NCPFS_SMALLDOS=y
CONFIG_NCPFS_MOUNT_SUBDIR=y
CONFIG_NCPFS_NLS=y
CONFIG_NCPFS_EXTRAS=y

# Partition Types
I
CONFIG_BSD_J5ISKLABEL=y
CONFIG_MAC_PARTITION=y
CONFIG_SMD_DISKLABEL=y
CONFIG_SOLARIS_X86_PARTITION=y
CONFIG_UNIXWARE_DISKLABEL=y
CONFIG_NLS=y
#
# Native Language Support

#
CONFIG_NLS_DEFAULT="cp437"
CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_437=m
CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_737=m
CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_775=m
CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_850=m
CONFIG_NLS_CODE PAGE_8 5 2 =m
CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_855=m
CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_857=m
CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_860=m
CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_861=m
CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_8 62=m
CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_8 63=m
CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_864=m
CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_865=m
CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_866=m
CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_869=m
CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_874=m
CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_932=m
CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_936=m
CONFIG NLS CODEPAGE 949=m

568


CONFIG_NLS_CODEPAGE_950=m
CONFIG_NLS_IS08859_l=m
CONFIG_NLS_IS08859_2=m
CONFIG_NLS_IS08859_3=m
CONFIG_NLS_IS08859_4=m
CONFIG_NLS_IS08859_5=m
CONFIG_NLS_IS08859_6=m
CONFIG_NLS_IS08859_7=m
CONFIG_NLS_IS08859_8=m
CONFIG_NLS_IS08859_9=m
CONFIG_NLS_IS08859_14=m
CONFIG_NLS_IS08859_15=m
CONFIG_NLS_KOI8_R=m

t
# Console drivers
#
CONFIG_VGA_CONSOLE=y
CONFIG_VIDEO_SELECT=y
CONFlG_MDA_CONSOLE=m
CONFIG_FB=y
CONFIG_DUMMY_CONSOLE=y
# CONFIG_UNICON is not set
CONFIG_FB_PM2=m
CONFIG_FB_ATY=m
CONFIG_FB_VESA=y
# CONFIG_FB_VGA16 is not set
CONFIG_VIDEO_SELECT=y
CONFIG_FB_MATROX=m
CONFIG_FB_MATROX_MILLENIUM=y
CONFIG_FB_MATROX_MYSTIQUE=y
CONFIG_FB_MATROX_G100=y
CONFIG_FB_MATROX_MULTIHEAD=y
# CONFIG_FB_ATY128 is not set
# CONFIG_FB_VIRTUAL is not set
# CONFIG_FBCON_ADVANCED is not set
CONFIG_FBCON_CFB8=y
CONFIG_FBCON_CFB16=y
CONFIG_FBCON_CFB2 4 =y
CONFIG_FBCON_CFB32=y
# CONFIG_/BCON_FONTWIDTH8_ONLY is not set
tt CONFIG_FBCON_FONTS is not set
CONFIG_FONT_8x8=y
CONFIG_FONT_8xl6=y
#
# Sound
#
CONFIG_SOUND=m
CONFIG SOUND CMPCI=m

569


CONFIG_SOUND_CMPCI_FM=y
CONFIG_SOUND_CMPCI_MIDI=y
CONFIG_SOUND_CS4281=m
CONFIG_SOUND_FUSION=m
CONFIG_SOUND_EMU10Kl=m
CONFIG_SOUND_ES1370=m
CONFIG_SOUND_ES1371=m
CONFIG_SOUND_MAESTRO=m
CONFIG_SOUND_ESSSOL01=m
CONFIG_SOUND_ICH=m
CONFIG_SOUND_SONICVIBES=m
CONFIG_SOUND_TRIDENT=m
CONFIG_SOUND_MSNDCLAS=m
# CONFIG_MSNDCLAS_HAVE_BOOT is not set
CONFIG_MSNDCLAS_INIT_FILE="/etc/sound/msndinit.bin"
CONFIG_MSNDCLAS_PERM_FILE="/etc/sound/msndperm.bin"
CONFIG_SOUND_MSNDPIN=m
# CONFIG_MSNDPIN_HAVE_BOOT is not set
CONFIG_MSNDPIN_INIT_FILE="/etc/spund/pndspini.bin"
CONFIG_MSNDPIN_PERM_FILE="/etc/sound/pndsperm.bin"
CONFIG_SOUND_VIA82CXXX=m
CONFIG_SOUND_OSS=m
CONFIG_SOUND_PAS=m
CONFIG_SOUND_SB=m
CONFIG_SOUND_GUS=m
CONFIG_GUS16=y
CONFIG_GUSMAX=y
CONFIG_SOUND_MPU401=m
CONFIG_SOUND_PSS=m
# CONFIG_PSS_MIXER is not set
CONFIG_SOUND_MSS=m
CONFIG_SOUND_SSCAPE=m
CONFIG_SOUND_TRIX=m
CONFIG_SOUND_MAD16=m
CONFIG_MAD16_OLDCARD=y
# CONFIG_SOUND_WAVEFRONT is not set
CONFIG_SOUND_CS4232=m
CONFIG_SOUND_OPL3SA2=m
CONFIG_SOUND_MAUI=m
CONFIG_SOUND_SGALAXY=m
CONFIG_SOUND_AD1816=m
CONFIG_SOUND_OPL3SAl=m
# CONFIG_SOUND_SOFTOSS is not set
CONFIG_SOUND_YM3812=m
CONFIG_SOUND_VMIDI=m
CONFIG_SOUND_UART6850=m
CONFIG_SOUND_NM256=m
CONFIG SOUND YMPCI=m

570

# Additional low level sound drivers


#
CONFIG_LOWLEVEL_SOUND=y
CONFIG_ACI_MIXER=m
CONFIG_VIDEO_MSP3400=m
CONFIG_AWE32_SYNTH=m
CONFIG_AEDSP16=m
CONFIG_AEDSP,16_BASE=220
CONFIG_MPU_BASE=330
CONFIG_SC6600=y
CONFIG_SC6600_JOY=y
CONFIG_SC6600_CDROM=4
CONFIG_SC6600_CDROMBASE=0
CONFIG_AEDSP16_SBPRO=y
CONFIG_AEDSP16_BASE=220
CONFIG_AEDSP16_SB_IRQ=5
CONFIG_AEDSP16_SB_DMA=0
CONFIG_AEDSP16_MPU401=y
CONFIG AEDSP16 MPU IRQ=5
# Kernel hacking
I
CONFIG_MAGIC_SYSRQ=y

.
Linux

Red Hat Linux


Mandrake Linux
ASP Linux
ALT Linux
KSI Linux
Black Cat Linux
Open Linux (Caldera)
Yellow Dog Linux ( Macintosh)
SuSE Linux
Debian Linux
Infomagic
LinuxPPC ( MacPowerPC)
Turbo Linux (Pacific Hi-Tech)
Slackware Linux
Linux

Web-
http://www.redhat.com
http://www.linux-mandrake.com/ru
http://www.asplinux.ru
http://www.altlinux.ru
http://www.ksi-linux.com
http://www.blackcatlinux.com
http://www.calderasystems.com
http://www.terrasoftsolutions.com
http://www.suse.com
http://www.debian.org
http://www.infomagic.com
http://www.linuxppc.com
http://www.turbolinux.com
http://www.slackware.com
http://www.kernel.org

571


Linux

Linux. Ru
Linux. Ru. Net
Linux RSP Web Site (Russian Security Project)
Linux. Org.Ru
()
Linux World Kiev
Linux
Linuxoid Linux
Linux
Internet
SQUID:
Linux -
GIMP
SAG ( )
FTP- LDP (Linux Documentation Project)
Web- LDP

.
Denis Kolisnichenko's Web Site
PHP
Dago.Org

Web-
http://www.linux.ru
http://linux.ru.net
http://www.linuxrsp.ru
http ://www.linux.org .ru
http://www.softerra.ru/freeos/
http://linux.kiev.ua
http://linux.cn.ua
http://www.linuxoid.ru
http://www.nevod.ru/linux
http://www.atlas.net.ru
http://squid.opennet.ru/
http://linux-ve.chat.ru
http://gimp.linux.ru.net
http://hibase.cs.hut/fi/~liw/linux/sag
ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/linux/docs
http://metalab.unc.edu/LDP/
http://www.mailinfo.ru/
http://come.to/vodolaz/
http://dkws.narod.ru
http://phpclub.net
http://www.dago.org



Desktop (KDE)
GNOME
Enlighment
FVWM
Window Maker
Afterstep
Blackbox
XFce:
11
Gnome
GNU- X Window Linux

Web-
http://www.kde.org
http://www.gnome.org
http://www.enlightment.org
http://www.fvwm.org
http://www.windowmaker.org
http://www.afterstep.org
http://www.blackbox.org
http://www.xfce.org/
http://www.x1 1 .org
http://www.themes.org
http://www.xfree86.org


RPM -
Linux
GNU-

Web-

http://linuxwww.db.erau.edu
http://rpmfind.net
http://freshmeat.com
http://www.gnu.org
http://www.linuxgames.org
http://www.happypenguin.org

Quake
Open Sound Systems
HP
Java- Linux

http://www.linuxquake.org
http ://www.opensound .com
http://hpinkjet.sourceforge.net/
http://www.blackdown.org
http://www.linuxlinks.com

572

Web- Russian Apache


Web- Apache
FTP server ProFTPD
Internet Software Consortium: BIND, INN, DHCP
BIND
Sendmail
QMAIL
- Squid
Samba
POPS Qpopper
Postfix (SMTP)
MOSIX
Linux
Zope

Comanche
web- Apache
ASPSeek 1 .1 .3
Point To Point Protocol
1 2 Linux Terminal Server Project

Web-
http://www.apache.ru
http://www.apache.org
http://www.proftpd.org
http://www.ics.org
http://www.isc.org/products/BIND/
http://www.sendmail.org
http://www.qmail.org
http://www.squid.org
http://www.samba.org
http://www.eudora.com/free/qpop.html
http://www.postfix.org/start.html
http://www.mosix.cs.huji. . il/txt_distribution. html
http://www.zope.org
http://www.covalent.net/projects/comanche/
http://www.aspseek.org
ftp://ftp.linuxcare.com.au/pub/ppp/
http://k12os.org/

Web-

:
CFS:
TCFS:
Generic Graphic Interface
SATAN: Security Administrators Tool for Analyzing Networks
PGP:
Secure Shell
IBM - JFS
ReiserFS 3.6.25:
SAINT

Internet
Libsafe Linux

http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/libs/pam/index.html
ftp://ftp.research.att.com/dist/mab
http://edu-gw.dia.unisa.it/tcfs
http://synergy.caltech.edu/~ggi/
http://www.trouble.org/--zen/satan/satan.html
http://www.pgp.com
http://www.cs.hut.fi/ssh/
http://oss.software.ibm.com/developer/opensource/jfs/
http://devlinux.com/pub/namesys/
http://www.wwdsi.com/saint/
http://www.atlas.net.ru
http://www.avaya.ru/

Linux

FTP- Red Hat


Red Hat Linux

FTP- Open Linux
FTP- SuSE Linux
FTP- Debian Linux
FTP- LinuxPPC
FTP- Turbo Linux
ShoolForge
Seul

ftp://ftp.redhat.com
ftp://updates.redhat.com
ftp://contrib.redhat.com
ftp://ftp.calderasystems.com
ftp://ftp.suse.com
ftp://ftp.debian.org
ftp://ftp.linuxppc.com
ftp://ftp.turbolinux.com
http://schoolforge.net/
http://richtech.ca/seul/

573

Linux Weekly News


Linux.com
Linux Today
Linux Power
Linux Focus
Linux World
Linux Mail
Linux Journal
Linux Gazette
Linux Online
Linux International
Linux European
Linux
Linux-
Linux News
Linux Web Site Watcher
Linux.Ru.Net
Linux-Online
Linux.Ru

Web-
http://www.lwn.com
http://www.linux.com
http://www.linuxtoday.com
http://www.linuxpower.org
http://www.linuxfocus.org
http ://www.linuxworld .org
http://www.linuxmail.org
http://www.linuxjournal.org
http://www.linuxgazette.org
http://www.linux.org
http://www.li.org
http://www.uk.linux.org
http://www.kernelnotes.org
http://slashdot.org
http://www.linuxnews.ru
http://webwatcher.org
http://linux.ru.net
http://www.linux-online.ru
http://www.linux.ru


comp.os.linux.announce
comp.os.linux.development.apps

Linux-.
, Linux.
comp.os.linux.development.system....TO .
comp.os.linux.hardware
, Linux.
comp.os.linux.admin
.
comp.os.linux.misc
.
comp.os.linux.setup
Linux.
comp.os.linux.networking
Linux .

Oracle
Sybase
IBM - DB2
Informix for Linux
Ingress II
AdabasD
MySQL
GNU SQL
InterBase SQL Server
PostgreSQL
Falgship xBase
Gaby Gnome

574

Web-
http://www.oracle.com
http://www.sybase.com
http://www.software.ibm.com/data/db2/
http://www.informix.com/linux
http://www.cai.com/products/ingres.htm
http://www.softwareag.com
http://www.mysql.com
http://www.ispras.ru/~kml/gss
http://www.borland.com
http://www. postgresql .org
http://www.fship.com/free.html
http://gaby.netpedia.net

Web-

Office
Corel (WordPerfect, Corel Linux)
Star Office
Gnome Workshop Project

http://koffice.kde.org
http://linux.corel.com
http://www.stardivision.com
http://www.gnome.org/gw.html
http://www.openoffice.org/dev_docs/
OpenOffice
source/get_binaries.html
Mozilla
http://mozilla.org/releases/
Opera Web-
http://www.opera.com/download/linux.html
Netscape Communicator
http://www.netscape.com
Galeon: GNOME
http://galeon.sourceforge.net/
Amaya 4.2.1: W3C http://www.w3.org/Amaya/
Links:
http://artax.karlin.mff.cuni.cz/~mikulas/links/
Lynx:
http://lynx.browser.org
Quanta+: HTML-
http://quanta.sourceforge.net/
Balsa:
http://www.balsa.net/
Evolution:
http://www.helixcode.com/apps/evolution.php3
Sylpheed
http://sylpheed.good-day.net/
VIM
http://www.vim.org
XEmacs
http://www.xemacs.org/

Linux

Linux
, Tkc
Java-
Perl
GNOME

OpenProjects Network
Free Pascal for Linux
GTK+
Python

: Web

Web-
http://www.linuxprogramming.org
http://www.scriptics.com
http://java.sun.com
http://www.perl.com
http://developers.gnome.org
http://developer.kde.org
http://www.openprojects.nu
http://www.freepascal.org
http://www.gtk.org/
http://www.python.org/
http://phpclub.net
http://www.php.net

Bootkit
Rescue Shell Scripts
Cat Rescue
SAR Search and Rescue
SAR Search and Rescue
Yard

()-
ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/system/Recovery/Bootkit-vw.tar.gz
ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/system/Recovery/rescue.tgz
ftp://gd.cs.csufresno.edu/pub/sun4bin/src/CatRescue100.tgz
http://www.icce.rug.nl/karel/programs/SAR.html
ftp://ftp.icce.rug.nl/pub/unix/SAR-vw.tar.gz (vw - )
http://www.cs.umass.edu/~fawcett/yard.html

575

Pine:
Fetchmail:
Zope:

GNU Parted:
Licq: ICQ
Modutils:
Linuxconf:
NcFTP: FTP-client
FreeAmp:
LILO: Linux LOader
WINE: WIN32, WIN16 DOS
VMWare
(dos, win)
OpenGUI:
Downloader:
, ,

Web-
http://www.washington.edu/pine/
http://www.tuxedo.org/-esr/fetchmail/
http://www.zope.org
http://www.gnu.org/software/parted/parted.html
http://licq.sourceforge.net
ftp://ftp.ocs.com.aU/pub/modutils/v2.4/
http://www.solucorp.qc.ca/linuxconf/
http://www.ncftp.com/ncftp/
http://www.freeamp.org/
ftp://sd.dynhost.com/pub/linux/lilo/
ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/Linux/ALPHA/
wine/development/
http://www.vmware.com
http://www.bochs.com
http://www.tutok.sk/fastgl/
http://www.krasu.ru/soft/chuchelo

^F<?r<bn4

4^-A' -^ .

7,^v<y >^

^o ^Z^-^ V% Ob %, *