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# 1.

17

## (Linear Equation System)

(Linear Equation)
a1x1 a 2x2

...

a nxn b

a i, b x i
x i i = 1, 2, , n b

1.24

x1 2 x 2 3 x 3 x 4

2.

2x y 4z

3.

x1 2x2 3x 3 nx n 1

2.
3.
4.

y2
x 3y2 7
y sin x 0
sin x
3x 2y z xz 4 xz
x1 2x2 x 3 5 x 1

## a11x1 a12x2 a1n x n

a21x1 a22x2 a2n x n

b1
b2

a m1x1 a m2x2 a mn x n

1.

1.

ai

bm

------ (1.3)

x i bi
i 1 , 2 , , m j 1 , 2 , , n
(1.3)
a ij

a
a 22 a 2n
21

a
a m2 a mn
m1
mn

x1
x
2

x
n n1

b1
b
2

bm m1

01417322

AX B

x1
a
x
a22 a2n
21

2 B
A
X

,
,
a
x
a m2 a mn
m1

b1
b
2

b
m

## a11 a12 a1n

a
a22 a2n
21
A : B
a
m1 a m2 a mn

A
B

b1
b2

bm

X
A : B
1.25

x 1 2x 2 3x 3

A : B

x1 x2 4x 3

2x1 3x2

1 2 3 x

1
1
4

x2
2 3 0 x

1 2 3

1 1 4
2 3 0

1

2
7

1

2
7

(Solution) (1.3)
(1.3)

x1 , x2 , , x n

(1.3)

1.17 AX B CX D 2
m n A : B ~ C : D

1.26
x y 2z

2x 4y 3z

3x 6y 5z

x y 2z 9
2x 4y 3z 1
3x 6y 5z 0

A : B =

1
2
3

1 1
2

2 4 3
3 6 5

1
0

(2) - 2 (1)
(3) - 3 (1)

x y 2z 9
2y 7z 17
3y 11z 27
R 2 2R 1

R 3 3R 1

1
2
2

1 1
2

0 2 7
0 3 11

1
2
3

17
27

x y 2z
7
y z
2
3y 11z

9
17
2
27

1
2
3

01417322
1
R
2 2

1 1
2

7
0 1
2

0 3 11

9
17

2
27

3 - 3 2
x y 2z
7
y z
2
1
z
2
R 3 3R 2

2 3

x y 2z
7
y z
2
z

2R 3

9
17
2
3
2

1 1

0 1

0 0

2
7
2
1
2

9
17
2
3

1 1

0 1

0 0

2
7
2
1

1
2
3

9
17

2
3

1
2
3

9
17

2
3

z = 3 y 2 x 1 1.17

(Gaussian Eliminations)

1 - 2

x 11z
7
y z
2
z

35
2
17
2
3

1
2
3

.
1 0

0 1
0 0

R1 R2

11
2
7
2
1

35
2
17

2
3

1 - 11 3

2
2 + 7
2

x
y
z
R1

1
2
3

1 0 0

0 1 0
0 0 1

11
R
2 3

7
R2 R 3
2

2
3

x 1 , y 2 , z 3

rank A = 3 = rank [A : B]

1.27
x 2y 3z 4w

x 3y 5z 7 w

11

z 2w

()

A : B

1 2 3
4 5

7 11
1 3 5
1 0 1 2 6

01417322

-
-
-

1.18 m n
AX = B rank A = rank [A : B] = r
r = n
r < n n r

1.28
x y 2z 5w

2x 5y z 9w

2x y z 3w

11

x 3y 2z 7 w

1.

2.

a
2.1

3.

x 2y 3z 2w

2x 5y 8z 6w

3x 4y 5z 2w

x+yz

2x + 3y + az

x + ay + 3z

2.2

a, b

2.3

x + 2y - 3z

2x + 6y - 11z

x - 2y + 7z

01417322

1.3
1.

x1 2x2

1.1

3x1 4x2 3x 3 1
2x1 x2 x 3 3

x1

1.2

x3 1

x1 2x2 x 3 3

1.3

x3
2x2 x 3

x1

1
x5

2x 3 x 4

2.

2.1

2.3

3.

0 1 : 2

1 1 : 3

1 2 : 4

1 2

5 4

3 4 : 5

3 2 : 1

2.2

2.4

0
0

0 : 0

1 : 0

1 : 1

0 1 0 : 1

1 0 0 : 2
0 1 1 : 3

0 0 1 : 4

2x y 2z 4
3.1

x 3y z 3

2x 2y z 9

3x 4y z 7

x
3.3

z 2

4x 3y 2z 16
3x 14y 2z 1

2y z 7

3.2

z4

x 2y 2z 1
3.4

x 3y z 4
x 3y 2z 3

.
3x 2y 2z 3

3w x 7y 9z 4
w x 4y 4z 7

3.5

3.6

2y 3z 0

2x 3y 3z 7
2x 4y 2z 2
5x 2y 4z 15

2w x 4y 6z 6

4.

x 2y z b1
x y z b2
x y

5.

b3

4.1

b1 1 , b2 3 , b3 3

4.2

b1 5 , b2 0 , b3 0

4.3

b1 1 , b2 1 , b3 3

4.4

b1

x 2y 3z 3

2x 2y z 9

3x 2y z 1

5.1

2y z 7

5.2

x y 2z 4

2x 3y 3
5.4

3x 2y 7

x 3y z 4
x 3y 2z 3

x 2y 2z 2
3x 2y z 5

5.5

z4

x 2y 2z 1

x 2y 5

5.3

2x 5y 3z 4

x 3 x 4 x5 4
2x1 4x2 2x 3 4x 4 2x 5 4

5.6

2x1 4x2 3x 3 3x 4 3x 5 4

x 4y 6z 0
6.

1
1
, b2 3 , b3
2
7

## 3x1 6x2 6x 3 3x 4 6x5 4

x 2y z b1
x y z b2
x y

.
.

b3

b1 1 , b2 3 , b3 3

b1 5 , b2 0 , b3 0

b1 1 , b2 1 , b3 3

b1

1
1
, b2 3 , b3
2
7

01417322
7.

. 10

3w x 7y 9z 4
w x 4y 4z 7
w

2y 3z 0

2w x 4y 6z 6

8.

xy3
2x 2y k

.
.
.
9.

9.1

b1 , b2

b3

x 2y 5z b1
4x 5y 8z b2

b4

9.2

3x 3y 3z b3
10.

2x 3y z w b1
x 5y z 2w b2
x 2y 2z 3w b3
3x y 3z 4w b4

a
.
.
.
x y z 1
10.1

2x 3y az 3
x ay 3z 2

10.2

x 2y

3z 4

3x y

5z 2

4x y a 2 14 z a 2

1.3
1 2 0

2
4 3

3 1 1

1. 1.1

y z

x
2. 2.1

2x

1 0 1 0 0

0 2 1 0 1

2 1 0
0 0

1.3

x1 2x2 3x 3 4x 4 5

2.3

5x1 4x2 3x 3 2x 4 1

y 2z 4
x6 ,

3. 3.1

y 2 ,

z3

3.2

x 1 , y 5 , z 3

3.3

x 61/ 23 ,

3.4

x 7

3.5

x 6 ,

y 10 ,

3.6

x 1

y 1

y 20 / 23
y4

z 107 / 23

,
z 1

z 7 ,
,

w 1

z2

4. 4.1

x 13 / 3 , y 4 / 3 , z 8 / 3

4.2

x 5 / 3 , y 5 / 3 , z 10 / 3

4.3

x 3 , y 0 , z 4

5.3

3
3

6.

x 3, y 0, z 4

5.1

x 3 , y 3 , z 2

13
4
8
,y ,z
3
3
3

.
.

w 1, x 6, y 10, z 7

8.

.
.
.

10.1

5.2

x 3 , y 1

x 2 , y 1 , z 1

7.
9.1

5
5
10
x ,y ,z
3
3
3
41
5
25
x
,y ,z
42
6
21

k6

k6

b1 b2 b3
a 4

a4

a 4

11

01417322

. 12

## (Homogeneous equation system)

m n AX = 0

a11x1 a12x2 a m xn

## a21x1 a22x2 a2n x n

a m1x1 a m2x2 a mn xn

rank A = rank [A : B] B = 0
1 x1 x2 x n 0
(trivial solution)
AX = 0 m n
1. rank A = n x1 x2 x n 0
2. rank A < n

1.29

x + 2y - 3z = 0
2x + 5y
3x -

+ 2z

= 0

- 4z

= 0

1.30

x 2y z 0
x 3y 2z 0
3x 8y 3z 0

13

01417322

. 14

1.4

1.

2x1 x2 3x 3 0
x1 2x2
0

2.

x2 x 3 0

2x 2y 4z 0
w
y 3z 0

3.

3x 2y 2z 0

4.

v 3w 2x 0
2u v 4w 3x 0

2w 3x y z 0

2u 3v 2w x 0

2w x 3y 2z 0

4u 3v 5w 4x 0

x1 3x2

x4 0
x1 4x2 2x 3
0

5.

2x2 2x 3 x 4 0
2x1 4x2 x 3 x 4 0

x1 2x2 x 3 x 4 0

1.4
1.

x1 x2 x 3 0

2.

x = 0, y = 0, z = 0

3.

wt, x t, yt, t0

4.

x=

5.

x 3y 2z 0
2x 3y z 0

7
5
t s , y = 2t 3s, y = s, w = t
2
2
x1 x2 x 3 x 4 0