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2

Coepaanne
Bneenne ......................................................................................................... 3
Hncr saannx ................................................................................................... 4
1 Hpeopasonanne crpyxrypno cxemt n nonyuenne nepearouno
]ynxnnn CAV ........................................................................................................... 5
2 Onpeenenne napamerpon Hu ..................................................................... 6
3Pacuer n nocrpoenne uacrorntx xapaxrepncrnx.......................................... 7
4 Beconax xapaxrepncrnxa .............................................................................. 9
5 Hepexonax xapaxrepncrnxa...................................................................... 10
3axnmuenne ................................................................................................... 13
Hnreparypa .................................................................................................... 14
Hpnnoxenne.15
3
BBEEHHE
Cnn1es cnc1eu an1oua1nuecxoro ynpannennn
Ananns ntuncnenne cnocrn cncremt npn nsnecrntx napamerpax n
crpyxrype n oxcnenne noneennx cncremt c raxnmn napamerpamn.
Hpn ntnonnennn cnoxntx pacuerntx saann n xypce reopnn
anromarnuecxoro ynpannennx ne oornct es npnmenennx cnennannsnponanntx
xomntmrepntx nporpamm. Ono ns raxnx nporpamm xnnxercx MathCADn ero
npnnoxennx. B annom paore, na npnmepe ntnonnennx rnnonoro omamnero
saannx, npnneent ocnonnte merot paort c yxasanntmn npnnoxennxmn.
Taxxe npnneent ocnonnte reopernuecxne nonoxennx nx onpeenennx
nepearounte ]ynxnn, nx pacuera nepexono, nmnyntcno nepexono
]ynxnn, onpeenennx ycranonnnmeecx n nauantnoe snauennx nepexono
]ynxnnn, uacrorntx xapaxrepncrnx, ycrounnocrn cncremt.
4
AHCT 3AAHHR
nx CAV, nsopaxenno na pncynxe 1, ynpocrnrt crpyxrypnym cxemy,
narn npemennte n uacrornte xapaxrepncrnxn.
1
( ) W s
4
( ) W s
5
( ) W s
3
( ) W s
Pncynox 1 Crpyxrypnax cxema nccneyemo CAV
1
2 2
2 1
( ) ;
1
k
W s
T s T s
=
+ +
( )
1
3
1
( ) ;
k T s
W s
s
+
=
4
1
( )
1
k
W s
T s
=
+
;
5
1
( )
1
ks
W s
T s
=
+
.
Hapamerpt cncremt
1 0.1 k N = + ;
1
10 0.1 T N = + ;
2 1
9 T T = .
Homep napnanra N =2.
5
1 Hpeopasonanne c1pyx1ypnon cxeum n nonyuenne
nepea1ounon qynxnnn CAY
Vnpocrnm ncxonym cxemy
( )
np
W s
( ) y t
( ) x t
k
( )
oc
W s
Pncynox 2 Crpyxrypnax cxema npeopasonanno CAV. Bar 1
Ha +ro cxeme nepearounax ]ynxnnx npxmo cnxsn npecrannena xax
nponsneenne
1 3 5
( ), ( ) n ( ) W s W s W s .
3
1
np 1 3 5 2 2 2 2
2 1 1 2 1
( 1)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 1
k T s k ks k
W s W s W s W s
T s T s s T s T s T s
+
= = =
+ + + + +
.
( )
3
W s
( ) y t
( ) x t
Pncynox 3 Crpyxrypnax cxema npeopasonanno CAV. Bar 2
Ha +ro cxeme nepearounax ]ynxnnx oexra ynpannennx, oxnauennoro
oparno cnxstm (no arunxy),npecrannxercx xax
3 3
2 2 2 2
cn 2 1 2 1
3 3 2 2 4
2 1 1 cn oc
2 2 2 2
2 1 1 2 1 1
3 3
1
2 2 4 2 2 4
2 1 1 2 1 1
1
( ) 1 1
( )
( 1)( 1) 1 ( ) ( )
1
1 1 ( 1)( 1)
( 1)
( 1)( 1) ( 1)( 1)
1
k k
W s T s T s T s T s
W s
k k T s T s T s k W s W s
T s T s T s T s T s T s
k T s k
T s T s T s k T s T s T s k
T s
+ + + +
= = = =
+ + + + +
+
+ + + + + +
+
= = =
+ + + + + + + +
+
3 3
1
2 3 2 2 2 4
1 2 1 2 1
( ) 2 1
k T s k
TT s s T T T s k
+
=
+ + + + +
.
6
2 Onpeenenne napaue1pon Hm
Onpeennm xo+]]nnnenrt nonnnomnantno ]opmt:
2
3 1 2
* a T T = ;
1 2
2 2
2
* a T T = + ;
1 1
* 2 a T = ;
4
0
* 1 a k = + ;
* 3
1 1
b k T =
* 3
0
. b k =
Onpeennm npnneennte xo+]]nnnenrt nonnnomnantno ]opmt:
3
1 a = ;
2 2
1 2
2
2
1 2
T T
a
T T
+
= ;
1
1
2
1 2
2T
a
T T
= ;
4
0
2
1 2
1 k
a
TT
+
= xo+]]nnnenrt nonnnoma snamenarenx (cocrnennoro oneparopa
cncremt).
1
1 b =
0
1
1
b
T
= xo+]]nnnenrt nonnnoma uncnnrenx (oneparop nxonoro nosecrnnx).
3 3
1
2 2
1 2 2
k T k
K
T T T

= = xo+]]nnnenr nepeaun.
Hepearounax ]ynxnnx npecrannrcx n nne
0 1
3
3 2
2 1 0 1 2 3
( )
( )
( )( )( )
s b K s
W s K
s a s a s a s s s s s s
+
= =
+ + +
,
re
1 2 3
, n s s s xopnn xapaxrepncrnuecxoro nonnnoma snamenarenx.
1
2
3
s
s
s
=
=
=
-7.0
-0.099+0.1i
-0.099-0.1i
;
;
.
Pacuer npnneen n cpee MathCAD n npnnoxenne.
7
3Pacue1 n noc1poenne uac1o1nmx xapax1epnc1nx
Hpn paccmorpennn ntnyxenntx xoneann cncrem npn noaue na nxo
rapmonnuecxnx xoneann naxnym pont nrpamr uacrornte xapaxrepncrnxn. Hx
pont ocoenno samerna npn nccneonannn ycrounnocrn:
Komnnexcnax ]ynxnnx W(je) nastnaercx xomnnexcno uacrorno
xapaxrepncrnxo cncremt nnn amnnnryno-]asono uacrorno
xapaxrepncrnxo.
uynxnnx P(e) n Q(e) nastnamrcx coornercrnenno ecrnnrentno n
mnnmo uacrorntmn xapaxrepncrnxamn.
uynxnnx (e) nu(e), onpeenxemtmn sanncnmocrxmn:
2 2
(e) (e) (e);
(e)
(e) .
(e)
A P Q
Q
arctg
P
= +
(
=
(

nastnamrcx coornercrnenno amnnnryno-uacrorno (AuX) n ]asouacrorno
(uuX) xapaxrepncrnxamn.
Btneem sanncnmocrn nx xaxo xapaxrepncrnxn xonearentnoro snena:
( ) ( )
1 0 0 1
3 2 2 3
3 2 1 0 0 2 3 1
2 3
0 1 0 2 3 1
2 2 3 2
0 2 3 1
e
( e)
e e e ( e ) ( e e)
( e ) ( e e)
( e ) ( e e)
j b b b j b
W j
j a a j a a a a j a a
b j b a a j a a
a a a a
+ +
= = =
+ +
+ +
= =
+
2 2 3 3
0 0 2 1 0 2 0 3 1 1 3 1
2 2 3 2
0 2 3 1
2 3 3 2
0 0 2 1 3 1 0 3 1 1 0 2
2 2 3 2 2 2 3 2
0 2 3 1 0 2 3 1
( e ) ( e ) ( e e) ( e e)
( e ) ( e e)
( e ) ( e e) ( e e) ( e )
.
( e ) ( e e) ( e ) ( e e)
b a a j b a a j b a a b a a
a a a a
b a a b a a b a a b a a
j
a a a a a a a a
+ +
= =
+
+
= +
+ +
Bemec1nennan uac1o1nan nepea1ounan qynxnnn
2 3
0 0 2 1 3 1
2 2 3 2
0 2 3 1
( e ) ( e e)
( e)
( e ) ( e e)
b a a b a a
P j
a a a a

=
+
.
Mnnuan uac1o1nan nepea1ounan qynxnnn
3 2
0 3 1 1 0 2
2 2 3 2
0 2 3 1
( e e) ( e )
( e) .
( e ) ( e e)
b a a b a a
Q j
a a a a
+
=
+
Aunnn1yno-uac1o1nan xapax1epnc1nxa
8
AuX ntpasnrcx uepes (e) n (e) P Q n cneymmem nne
( )
( )
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
2 3 3 2
0 0 2 1 3 1 0 3 1 1 0 2
2 2
2 2 3 2 2 2 3 2
0 2 3 1 0 2 3 1
( ) (e) (e)
( e ) ( e e) ( e e) ( e )
( e ) ( e e) ( e ) ( e e)
A P Q
b a a b a a b a a b a a
a a a a a a a a
e = + =
+
= + =
+ +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 3 3
0 0 2 0 0 2 1 3 1 1 3 1
2 2 3 2
0 2 3 1
( e ) 2 ( e ) ( e e) ( e e)
( e ) ( e e)
b a a b a a b a a b a a
a a a a
+ +
=
+
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
3 2 3 2
0 3 1 0 0 2 1 3 1 1 0 2
( e e) 2 ( e ) ( e e) ( e ) b a a b a a b a a b a a + + +
=
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2 3 3 2
0 0 2 1 3 1 0 3 1 1 0 2
2 2 3 2
0 2 3 1
( e ) ( e e) ( e e) ( e )
( e ) ( e e)
b a a b a a b a a b a a
a a a a
+ + +
= =
+
2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2
0 2 0 1 3 1 0 1
2 2 3 2
0 2 3 1
( e ) ( ) ( e e) ( )
( e ) ( e e)
a a b b a a b b
a a a a
+ + +
= =
+
( )
2 2 2 2 3 2
0 1 0 2 3 1
2 2 3 2
0 2 3 1
( ) ( e ) ( e e)
( e ) ( e e)
b b a a a a
a a a a
+ +
= =
+
2 2
0 1
2 2 3 2
0 2 3 1
.
( e ) ( e e)
b b
a a a a
+
=
+
uasouacrornax ]ynxnnn uepes (e) n (e) P Q ntpasnrcx n nne
3 2
0 3 1 1 0 2
2 2 3 2
0 2 3 1
2 3
0 0 2 1 3 1
2 2 3 2
0 2 3 1
3 2
0 3 1 1 0 2
2
0 0 2 1 3
( e e) ( e )
( e ) ( e e) ( )
( )
( e ) ( e e) ( )
( e ) ( e e)
( e e) ( e )
( e ) ( e
b a a b a a
a a a a Q
arctg arctg
b a a b a a P
a a a a
b a a b a a
arctg
b a a b a
| | +
|
| | + e
|
| e = = =
|
e |
\ .
|
+
\ .
+
=

3
1
.
e) a
| |
|

\ .
Amnnnryno-]asonax uacrornax xapaxrepncrnxa (AuuX) crponrcx na
xomnnexcno nnocxocrn. Ona npecrannxer coo reomerpnuecxoe mecro xonnon
nexropon (roorpa]), coornercrnymmnx uacrorno nepearouno ]ynxnnn npn
nsmenennn uacrort or 0 o ecxoneunocrn. Ho ocn acnncc orxnatnaercx
nemecrnennax uacrt n no ocn opnnar mnnmax. nnna nexropa nponeennoro ns
9
nauana xoopnnar n rouxy AuuX, coornercrnymmym xaxo-ro ntpanno
uacrore, panna moynm uacrorno nepearouno ]ynxnnn. Vron mexy nexropom
n nonoxnrentntm nanpannennem nemecrnenno ocn, orcunrtnaemt npornn
uacono crpenxn, panen aprymenry nnn ]ase uacrorno nepearouno ]ynxnnn.
Taxnm opasom, AuuX aer nosmoxnocrt narnxno npecrannrt nx xaxo
uacrort nxonoro nosecrnnx snena ornomenne amnnnry ntxono n nxono
nennunn n cnnr ]as mexy nnmn.
Ipa]nxn uacrorntx xapaxrepncrnx nx ncxono cncremt nocrpoent n
cpee Mathcad 14, a raxxe tna onpeenena onenxa ycrounnocrn cncremt.
Btmensnoxennte pacuert npnneent n npnnoxennn x xonrpontntm paoram.
4 Beconan xapax1epnc1nxa
B namem cnyuae ntuncnenne necono ]ynxnnn cneyer naunnart c
npecrannennx nepearouno ]ynxnnn n nne cymmt poe, y xoropo nopxox
snamenarenx panen ennnne.
uynxnnx neca opnrnnan nepearouno ]ynxnnn:
{ ;
1
1
( ) ( ) Re ( )
n
st
i
i
w t L W s s W s e
s s

=
= =
=

,
Hpecrannm Hu ( )
1
W s n nne cymmt npocrtx poe:
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1
1 2 3
3 1 2
10.824s+1.061
( )
+7 +0.099 0.1i 0.099 0.1i
.
+7 +0.099 0.1i 0.099 0.1i

= = =
+ +
= + +
+ +
K s
W s
s s s s s s s s s
C C C
s s s
Btuncnnm xo+]]nnnenrt pasnoxennx (ntuert):
( )
( )
( )
1
i
i
s s
B s
C
A s
v v
=
= nnn ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
i
i
i i i
s s
s s
B s
C s s W s s s
A s
v v
v
=
=
= = .
Ko+]]nnnenrt nx necono xapaxrepncrnxn (pacuer npnneen n
nncrnnre):
10
1
2
3
C
C
C
=
=
=
-0.11
0.054-0.00078i
0.054+0.00078i
;
;
.
Opnrnnan nepearouno ]ynxnnn - neconax ]ynxnnx ) t ( w nonyuaercx xax
pesyntrar oparnoro npeopasonannx Hannaca Hu
( ) ( ) { ;
1
w t L W s

=
Hocrannxx n naennte snauennx xo+]]nnnenron n nonmcon
nepearountx ]ynxnn, onpeennm neconym ]ynxnnm nx xaxoro nxoa
( )
3 1 2
-s -s -s
1 2 3
t t t
w t e

= + +
;
5 Hepexonan xapax1epnc1nxa
Hepexonax ]ynxnnx - opnrnnan or ornomennx nepearouno ]ynxnnn x
oneparopy Hannaca s :
{ ;
1 1
1
( )
( ) ( ) Re ( )
n
st
i
i
W s
h t L H s L sH s e
s s s

=

= = =
`
=
)

.
0 20 40 60
0.05
0.1
w t ( )
t
w t ( ) float 2 , 0.11 e
7.0 t
0.054 0.00078i + ( ) e
0.099 0.1i + ( ) t
+ 0.054 0.00078i ( ) e
0.099 0.1i ( ) t
+
11
Ho+romy nx nepexoa or nsopaxenn x opnrnnanam nenecoopasno
npecrannrt nepearounte ]ynxnnn n nsopaxennx nepexontx ]ynxnn n nne
cymmt npocrtx poe.
B omem nne nsopaxenne nepexono ]ynxnnn onpeenxercx
ornomennem nepearouno ]ynxnnn x oneparopy Hannaca
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1
1 2 3
W s K s
H s
s s s s s s s s

= =

,
Pasnoxennx nsopaxenn nepearountx ]ynxnn na npocrte pon
nmemr ononnnrentnoe cnaraemoe
0
C s , onpeenxemoe nonmcom
0
s =0:
( ) ( ) ( )
0 3 1 2
10.824s+1.061
( )
+7 +0.099 0.1i 0.099 0.1i
.
+7 +0.099 0.1i 0.099 0.1i
= =
+ +
= + + +
+ +
H s
s s s s
C C C C
s s s s
Btuncnnm xo+]]nnnenrt pasnoxennx (ntuert):
( )
( )
( )
1
i
i
H
s s
B s
C
A s
=
= nnn ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
i
i
i i i
s s
s s
B s
C s s H s s s
sA s
=
=
= = .
Ko+]]nnnenrt nx necono xapaxrepncrnxn:
0
1
2
3
C
C
C
C
=
=
=
=
0.015
-0.281-0.263i
-0.281+0.263i
0.51
;
;
;
.
Hocrannxx naennte snauennx xo+]]nnnenron n nonmcon
nepearountx ]ynxnn, onpeennm nepexonym ]ynxnnm nx xaxoro nxoa:
( )
3 1 2
s s s
0 1 2 3
t t t
h t e

= + + +
;
h t ( ) float 2 , 0.015e
7.0 t
0.28 0.26i ( ) e
0.099 0.1i + ( ) t
0.28 0.26i + ( ) e
0.099 0.1i ( ) t
0.51 +
12
0 20 40 60
0.2
0.4
0.6
h t ( )
h 100 ( )
t
13
3AKAKHEHHE
Ananns n nccneonanne cncrem anromarnuecxoro ynpannennx (CAV)
xnnxercx ono ns naxntx nponem, pemenne xoropo no mnorom onpeenxer
yponent pasnnrnx nayxn n rexnnxn. Ho+romy saaua cosannx xauecrnenno nontx
CAV, oecneunnammnx ntcoxym rounocrt ynpannennx n aanrannn xnnxercx
axryantno n ynnpaercx n ananns n nccneonanne MM. C yxecrouennem ycnonn
+xcnnyarannn cncrem ynpannennx ntnnramrcx ononnnrentnte rpeonannx x
nx ycrounnocrn.
14
AHTEPATYPA
1. Teopnx anromarnuecxoro ynpannennx. u. 1 / Ho pe. A.A.Boponona. -
M.: Btcmax mxona, 1986. - 367 c.: nn.
2. Honon E.H. n p. Teopnx nnnentx cncrem anromarnuecxoro
perynnponannx n ynpannennx. - M.: Hayxa, 1989. - 304 c.: nn.
3. Hmaen .X., Konantcxn 3. n p. Ananns n cnnres cncrem ynpannennx.
Teopnx. Merot. Hpnmept pemennx rnnontx saau c ncnontsonannem
nepconantnoro xomntmrepa. - Hn]opmannono-nsarentcxn nenrp Cypryrcxoro
roc. yn-ra, 1998. - 172 c.: nn.
4. Conoonnnxon B.B., Hnornnxon B.H., xonnen A.B. Teopnx
anromarnuecxoro ynpannennx rexnnuecxnmn cncremamn. - M.: ns-no MITV,
1993. - 648 c.: nn.