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Coepaanne

BBEEHHE .................................................................................................... 3
HHCT 3AAHH ........................................................................................... 4
1 3aanne N1 .................................................................................................. 5
2 3aanne N2 .................................................................................................. 5
3 3aanne N3 .................................................................................................. 8
3axnmuenne ................................................................................................... 12
Hnreparypa .................................................................................................... 13

3
BBEEHHE
Ananns ntuncnenne cnocrn cncremt npn nsnecrntx napamerpax n
crpyxrype n oxcnenne noneennx cncremt c raxnmn napamerpamn.
Hpn ntnonnennn cnoxntx pacuerntx saann n xypce reopnn
anromarnuecxoro ynpannennx ne oornct es npnmenennx cnennannsnponanntx
xomntmrepntx nporpamm. Ono ns raxnx nporpamm xnnxercx MathCADn ero
npnnoxennx. B annom paore, na npnmepe ntnonnennx rnnonoro omamnero
saannx, npnneent ocnonnte merot paort c yxasanntmn npnnoxennxmn.
Taxxe npnneent ocnonnte reopernuecxne nonoxennx nx onpeenennx
nepearounte ]ynxnn, nx pacuera nepexono, nmnyntcno nepexono
]ynxnn, onpeenennx ycranonnnmeecx n nauantnoe snauennx nepexono
]ynxnnn, uacrorntx xapaxrepncrnx, ycrounnocrn cncremt.



4
AHCT 3AAHHR
1. 3anncart n]]epennnantnte ypannennx cncrem ynpannennx c onnm
ntxoom n nymx nxoamn n v, nepearounte ]ynxnnn xoroptx nmemr
cneymmn nn:.
3 2
5 7
( ) ;
2 5
u
p
W s
p p p
+
=
+ + +
3 2
3 1
( ) .
2 5
v
p
W s
p p p
+
=
+ + +

2. nx cncremt, saanno n]]epennnantntm ypannennem (cm. rannny 1
napnanron) ntnonnnrt cneymmne saannx:
1. Hpeopasonart cncremy x oneparopnomy nny.
2. 3anncart nepearounym ]ynxnnm cncremt.
3. Hsopasnrt crpyxrypnym cxemy cncremt n pasomxnyrom n samxnyrom
nne (cm. npnmep).
4. nx samxnyro n pasomxnyro cncrem ynpannennx onpeennrt
xapaxrepncrnuecxne ypannennx.
5. Ho nonyuenntm xapaxrepncrnuecxnm ypannennxm samxnyro n
pasomxnyro cncrem ynpannennx onpeennrt ycrounnocrt cncrem no
cneymmnm xpnrepnxm:
a) Iypnnna;
) Mnxanona.
Bapnanr n]]epennnantnoe ypannenne
12 3 3 5 3 y y y x x + + = +

3. Hnneapnsonart nennnenoe n]]epennnantnoe ypannenne n
oxpecrnocrn rouxn c xoopnnaramn
0
=1,
0
=0,
0
=0:
2
4 3 2 5 4 .
dx dy
xy x y y
dt dt
+ =

4. Ho nsnecrno nepearouno ]ynxnnn +nemenra W(s) narn ero xpnnym
pasrona n neconym ]ynxnnm, nocrponrt rpa]nxn.
, ) , )
4 +3
( )
+1 3 +2
s
W s
s s
= .
5
1 3aanne N1
1. 3anncart n]]epennnantnte ypannennx cncrem ynpannennx c onnm
ntxoom n nymx nxoamn n v, nepearounte ]ynxnnn xoroptx nmemr
cneymmn nn:.
3 2
5 7
( ) ;
2 5
u
p
W s
p p p
+
=
+ + +
3 2
3 1
( ) .
2 5
v
p
W s
p p p
+
=
+ + +

Pasnoxnm Hu na oneparopt nxontx ntxontx nosecrnn:
A (p) =
3 2
2 5 p p p + + + cocrnennt oneparop cncremt;
B
u
(p) =5 7 p + oneparop nxonoro nosecrnnx u;
B
v
(p) =3 1 p + oneparop nxonoro nosecrnnx v;
Maremarnuecxax moent n omem nne sannctnaercx cneymmnm opasom
A(p)x(t)= B
u
(p)y
u
(t)+B
v
(p)y
v
(t).
Cneonarentno, n]]epennnantnte ypannennx omero nna nexnno
oneparopno ]opmt sannmercx cneymmnm opasom:
(
3 2
2 5 p p p + + + )y(t) =(5 7 p + )u(t)+ (3 1 p + )v(t).
Bnex oneparop n]]epennnponannx
d
p
dt
= , sannmem otxnonennoe
cxanxpnoe n]]epennnantnoe ypannennx (V):
3 2
3 2
2 5 5 7 3
d y d y dy du dv
y u v
dt dt dt dt dt
+ + + = + + + .

2 3aanne N2

2. nx cncremt, saanno n]]epennnantntm ypannennem (cm. rannny 1
napnanron) ntnonnnrt cneymmne saannx:
1. Hpeopasonart cncremy x oneparopnomy nny.
2. 3anncart nepearounym ]ynxnnm cncremt.
3. Hsopasnrt crpyxrypnym cxemy cncremt n pasomxnyrom n samxnyrom
nne (cm. npnmep).
6
4. nx samxnyro n pasomxnyro cncrem ynpannennx onpeennrt
xapaxrepncrnuecxne ypannennx.
5. Ho nonyuenntm xapaxrepncrnuecxnm ypannennxm samxnyro n
pasomxnyro cncrem ynpannennx onpeennrt ycrounnocrt cncrem no
cneymmnm xpnrepnxm:
a) Iypnnna;
) Mnxanona.
Bapnanr n]]epennnantnoe ypannenne
12 3 3 5 3 y y y x x + + = +

nx cncremt anromarnuecxoro ynpannennx (CAV) onnctnaemo
maremarnuecxo moentm (MM) n nne otxnonennoro cxanxpnoro
n]]epennnantnoro ypannennx (V):
3 2
3 2
3 3 0 1 5 3
d y d y dy dx
x x
dt dt dt dt
+ + + = + .
Hnn n omem nne otxnonennoro cxanxpnoro n]]epennnantnoro
ypannennx
3 2
3 2 1 0 1 0
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) a p a p a p a y t b p b x t + + + = +
Bnex oneparop n]]epennnponannx
d
p
dt
= , sannmem otxnonennoe
cxanxpnoe n]]epennnantnoe ypannennx (V) n oneparopno ]opme:
, ) , )
3 2
3 3 0 1 5 3 p p p y p x + + + = + .
3annmem V n xnnt nn
( ) y t =
3 2
5 3
( )
3 3 0 1
p
x t
p p p
+
+ + +

B ypannenne nneem nepearounte ]ynxnnn n oneparopnom (cnmnontnom)
nne:
, )
, )
, )
3 2
5 3
3 3 0 1
B p
p
W p
A p p p p
+
= =
+ + +
;
Crpyxrypnax cxema n pasomxnyrom n samxnyrom nnax npecrannent na
pncynxax 1 n 2
7
, )
O
W p
( ) x t
( ) y t

Pncynox 1 Crpyxrypnax cxema pasomxnyro CAV
Xapaxrepncrnuecxn nonnnom pasomxnyro CAV npecrannrcx n nne
A
p
(p) =
3 2 3 2
3 2 1 0
3 3 0 1 a p a p a p a p p p + + + = + + + .

, )
O
W p
( ) x t
( ) y t
k
, )
oc
W p

Pncynox 2 Crpyxrypnax cxema samxnyro CAV
Ha +ro cxeme nepearounax ]ynxnnx oexra ynpannennx, oxnauennoro
oparno cnxstm, npecrannxercx xax
, )
1 0
3 2
O 3 2 1 0 1 0
3 3 2
1 0
O oc 3 2 1 0 1 0
3 2
3 2 1 0
1 0
3 2
3 2 1 1 0 0
( )
( )
1 ( ) ( )
1
.
b p b
W s a p a p a p a b p b
W s
b p b
W s W s a p a p a p a b p b
a p a p a p a
b p b
a p a p a b p a b
+
+ + + +
= = = =
+
+ + + + + +
+
+ + +
+
=
+ + + + +

Xapaxrepncrnuecxn nonnnom samxnyro CAV npecrannrcx n nne
A
s
(p) = , )
3 2 3 2
3 2 1 1 0 0
3 3 5 4 a p a p a b p a b p p p + + + + + = + + + .

Onpeennm ycrounnocrt cncremt no xpnrepnm Iypnnna.
B coornercrnnn c xpnrepnem Iypnnna, nx ycrounnocrn CAV
neoxonmo, urot nce naronantnte mnnopt onpeennrenx Iypnnna,
cocrannennoro ns xo+]]nnnenron xapaxrepncrnuecxoro nonnnoma, tnn ontme
nynx, ro ecrt nx CAV rpertero nopxxa onxnt ntnonnxrtcx ycnonne, uro
onpeennrenn ontme nynx:
8
2 0
3 1
2 0
0
0
0
a a
a a
a a
A =
1 2
2 0
2 1 2 3 0
3 1
3 0;

0 3 0.3 0;

a
a a
a a a a
a a
A = = >
A = = = = <

Onpeennm ycrounnocrt cncremt no xpnrepnm Mnxanona
Cncrema anromarnuecxoro ynpannennx yer ycrounna rora n rontxo
rora, xora mnnmax , ) Y e uacrt xapaxrepncrnuecxoro ypannennx, npnpannennax
x nynm, nmeer rontxo ecrnnrentnte xopnn, a snaxn snauenn nemecrnenno
uacrn , ) X e , coornercrnymmne +rnm xopnxm, uepeymrcx.
nx +roro or oneparopno ]opmt xapaxrepncrnuecxoro ypannennx
nepeem x xomnnexcno, nponsnex sameny e p j =
.

A
p
(e) =
3 2
3 2 1 0
e e e ja a ja a + + .
X
p
(e) =
2
2 0
e a a + =
2
3e 1 + nemecrnennax uacrt.
e 1/3 =
Y
p
(e) =
3
3 1
e e= a a +
2
3e 0 + mnnmax uacrt.
e 1/3 =
Btno: cncrema n pasomxnyrom cocroxnnn neycrounna


3 3AAHHE N3
Ho nsnecrno nepearouno ]ynxnnn +nemenra W(s) narn ero xpnnym
pasrona n neconym ]ynxnnm, nocrponrt rpa]nxn.
, ) , )
4 +3
( )
+1 3 +2
s
W s
s s
= .
9
B namem cnyuae ntuncnenne necono ]ynxnnn cneyer naunnart c
npecrannennx nepearouno ]ynxnnn n nne cymmt poe, y xoropo nopxox
snamenarenx panen ennnne.
uynxnnx neca opnrnnan nepearouno ]ynxnnn:
{ ;
1
1
( ) ( ) Re ( )
n
st
i
i
w t L W s s W s e
s s

=
= =
=

,
Hpecrannm Hu , )
1
W s n nne cymmt npocrtx poe:
, ) , )
1 2
1 2
4 +3
( ) .
+1 3 +2
C C s
W s
s s s s s s
= = +


Btuncnnm xo+]]nnnenrt pasnoxennx (ntuert):
, )
, )
, )
1
i
i
s s
B s
C
A s
v v
=
= nnn , ) , ) , )
, )
, )
i
i
i i i
s s
s s
B s
C s s W s s s
A s
v v
v
=
=
= = .
Ko+]]nnnenrt nx necono xapaxrepncrnxn (pacuer npnneen n
nncrnnre):
1
2
C
C
=
=
1
0.327
;
;
.

Opnrnnan nepearouno ]ynxnnn - neconax ]ynxnnx ) t ( w nonyuaercx xax
pesyntrar oparnoro npeopasonannx Hannaca Hu
, ) , ) { ;
1
w t L W s

=
Hocrannxx n naennte snauennx xo+]]nnnenron n nonmcon
nepearountx ]ynxnn, onpeennm neconym ]ynxnnm nx xaxoro nxoa
, )
1 2
-s -s
1 2
t t
w t e

= +
;


w t ( ) float 2 , 0.33e
0.67 t
1.0e
1.0 t
+
10

Kpnnax pasrona - opnrnnan or ornomennx nepearouno ]ynxnnn x
oneparopy Hannaca s :
{ ;
1 1
1
( )
( ) ( ) Re ( )
n
st
i
i
W s
h t L H s L sH s e
s s s

=

= = =
`
=
)

.
Ho+romy nx nepexoa or nsopaxenn x opnrnnanam nenecoopasno
npecrannrt nepearounte ]ynxnnn n nsopaxennx nepexontx ]ynxnn n nne
cymmt npocrtx poe.
B omem nne nsopaxenne nepexono ]ynxnnn onpeenxercx
ornomennem nepearouno ]ynxnnn x oneparopy Hannaca
Pasnoxennx nsopaxenn nepearountx ]ynxnn na npocrte pon
nmemr ononnnrentnoe cnaraemoe
0
C s , onpeenxemoe nonmcom
0
s =0:
, ) , )
, ) , ) , )
1
0 1 2
1 2 3 1 2
( ) .
W s K s
C C C
H s
s s s s s s s s s s s s s

= = = + +


Btuncnnm xo+]]nnnenrt pasnoxennx (ntuert):
, )
, )
, )
1
i
i
H
s s
B s
C
A s
=
= nnn , ) , ) , )
, )
, )
i
i
i i i
s s
s s
B s
C s s H s s s
sA s
=
=
= = .
Ko+]]nnnenrt nx necono xapaxrepncrnxn:
0
1
2
C
C
C
=
=
=
-1
-0.485
1.5
;
;
.

Hocrannxx naennte snauennx xo+]]nnnenron n nonmcon
nepearountx ]ynxnn, onpeennm nepexonym ]ynxnnm nx xaxoro nxoa:
0 5 10 15 20
0.5
1
w t ( )
t
11
, )
1 2
s s
0 1 2
t t
h t e

= + +
;







h t ( ) float 2 , 0.48 e
0.67 t
1.0 e
1.0 t
+ 1.5 +
0 2 4 6 8 10
0.5
1
1.5
h t ( )
t
12
3AKAKHEHHE
Ananns n nccneonanne cncrem anromarnuecxoro ynpannennx (CAV)
xnnxercx ono ns naxntx nponem, pemenne xoropo no mnorom onpeenxer
yponent pasnnrnx nayxn n rexnnxn. Ho+romy saaua cosannx xauecrnenno nontx
CAV, oecneunnammnx ntcoxym rounocrt ynpannennx n aanrannn xnnxercx
axryantno n ynnpaercx n ananns n nccneonanne MM. C yxecrouennem ycnonn
+xcnnyarannn cncrem ynpannennx ntnnramrcx ononnnrentnte rpeonannx x
nx ycrounnocrn.


13
AHTEPATYPA
1. Teopnx anromarnuecxoro ynpannennx. u. 1 / Ho pe. A.A.Boponona. -
M.: Btcmax mxona, 1986. - 367 c.: nn.
2. Honon E.H. n p. Teopnx nnnentx cncrem anromarnuecxoro
perynnponannx n ynpannennx. - M.: Hayxa, 1989. - 304 c.: nn.
3. Hmaen .X., Konantcxn 3. n p. Ananns n cnnres cncrem ynpannennx.
Teopnx. Merot. Hpnmept pemennx rnnontx saau c ncnontsonannem
nepconantnoro xomntmrepa. - Hn]opmannono-nsarentcxn nenrp Cypryrcxoro
roc. yn-ra, 1998. - 172 c.: nn.
4. Conoonnnxon B.B., Hnornnxon B.H., xonnen A.B. Teopnx
anromarnuecxoro ynpannennx rexnnuecxnmn cncremamn. - M.: ns-no MITV,
1993. - 648 c.: nn.