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GIS – Gas Insulated Substation Why GIS Types of Substation Switchgears [AIS/HIS/GIS] Space Reduction Analysis
GIS – Gas Insulated Substation
Why GIS
Types of Substation Switchgears [AIS/HIS/GIS]
Space Reduction Analysis with AIS/HIS/GIS
Specifications for GIS & AIS
400 kV / 220 kV GIS 400 kV side GIS Single Line Diagram & Components
400 kV / 220 kV GIS
400 kV side GIS
Single Line Diagram & Components of GIS
220 kV side GIS
Visual Comparison Between AIS & GIS Components
Techno - Economic Comparison Between AIS & GIS
Advancement in GIS
Life Cycle Cost Analysis – [AIS/HIS/GIS]
World Scenario -GIS

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Gas Insulated Substations (GIS) is a compact, multicomponent assembly enclosed in a ground metallic housing

Gas Insulated Substations (GIS) is a compact, multicomponent assembly enclosed in a ground metallic housing in which the primary insulating medium is compressed Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) gas.

SF6 acts as an insulation between live parts & the earthed metal closure.

The introduction of SF6 gas has revolutionized not only the technology of circuit breakers but also the layout of substations.between live parts & the earthed metal closure . The dielectric strength of SF6 gas at

The dielectric strength of SF6 gas at atmospheric pressure is approximately three times that of air.of circuit breakers but also the layout of substations. It is incombustible, non toxic, colorless and

It is incombustible, non toxic, colorless and chemically inert.

It is incombustible, non toxic, colorless and chemically inert.

It has arc-quenching properties 3 to 4 times better than air at equal pressure.

It has arc-quenching properties 3 to 4 times better than air at equal pressure.

Space requirement is only 10 to 25 percent of what is required is a conventional substation.toxic, colorless and chemically inert. It has arc-quenching properties 3 to 4 times better than air

GIS has small ground space requirements. Gas insulated Substations have easy maintenance( nearly zero Maintenance

GIS has small ground space requirements.

Gas insulated Substations have easy maintenance( nearly zero Maintenance

Less field erection time & less erection cost.

For underground powerhouse of Hydro electric power project where space constraint is a major issue.

For Fast Growing Major Cities where land availability is costlier.

Non-Flammability & Non-Explosive , Oil-free & Less Pollution

Surge Arrestor Current Transformer Bus Post Insulator Disconnector Live Tank-Circuit Breaker Dead Tank- CB Capacitor
Surge Arrestor
Surge Arrestor
Surge Arrestor Current Transformer Bus Post Insulator Disconnector Live Tank-Circuit Breaker Dead Tank- CB Capacitor
Current Transformer Bus Post Insulator
Current Transformer
Bus Post Insulator
Disconnector
Disconnector
Current Transformer Bus Post Insulator Disconnector Live Tank-Circuit Breaker Dead Tank- CB Capacitor Voltage

Live Tank-Circuit Breaker

Dead Tank- CB
Dead Tank- CB
Capacitor Voltage Transformer
Capacitor Voltage Transformer
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Surge Arrestor
Surge Arrestor
Surge Arrestor Capacitor Voltage Transformer Bus Post Insulator
Capacitor Voltage Transformer
Capacitor Voltage
Transformer
Surge Arrestor Capacitor Voltage Transformer Bus Post Insulator
Bus Post Insulator
Bus Post Insulator
Surge Arrestor Capacitor Voltage Transformer Bus Post Insulator
Surge Arrestor Capacitor Voltage Transformer Bus Post Insulator
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The weight and size of the GIS equipment do not change appreciably with the voltage class weight and size of the GIS equipment do not change appreciably with the voltage class as the bulk of the current – carrying components and enclosures have identical dimensions for similar thermal and short time current.

The additional insulation required for the next voltage class is achieved by increased gas density . next voltage class is achieved by increased gas density.

Owing to these flexibilities, a few manufacturers offer the same equipment for two voltage classes (like 170/145 kV).next voltage class is achieved by increased gas density . Even when the GIS equipment is

Even when the GIS equipment is designed for an individual voltage class, the dimensions and weights of the equipment differ marginally.same equipment for two voltage classes (like 170/145 kV). Table shows the dimensions, weight and floor

Table shows the dimensions, weight and floor loading for three voltage classes of GIS.

RatedRatedRatedRated voltagevoltagevoltagevoltage

145145145145 kVkVkVkV

170170170170 kVkVkVkV

245245245245 kVkVkVkV

BayBayBayBay width,width,width,width, mmmm

1.5

2.02.02.02.0

2.02.02.02.0

BayBayBayBay Depth,Depth,Depth,Depth, mmmm

3.33.33.33.3

3.353.353.353.35

3.43.43.43.4

BayBayBayBay height,height,height,height, mmmm

3.2

3.43.43.43.4

3.43.43.43.4

FloorFloorFloorFloor area,area,area,area, sq.msq.msq.msq.m

4.95

6.76.76.76.7

6.86.86.86.8

Volume,Volume,Volume,Volume, m3m3m3m3

15.84

22.78

23.12

Weight,Weight,Weight,Weight, kgkgkgkg

3800

5000

5700

FloorFloorFloorFloor loading,loading,loading,loading, kg/kg/kg/kg/sq.msq.msq.msq.m

765

750

840

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    132132132132 KvKvKvKv   220220220220 KvKvKvKv   400400400400 KvKvKvKv 765765765765
   

132132132132 KvKvKvKv

 

220220220220 KvKvKvKv

 

400400400400 KvKvKvKv

765765765765 KvKvKvKv

Clearances

Clearance for 132 Kv

Diff in Clearance with Next Voltage class

Clearance for 220 Kv

Diff in Clearance with Next Voltage Class

Clearance for 400 Kv

Diff in Clearance with Next Voltage class

 

Mini.Clearance B/W Ph – Ph

1.22 m

0.840.840.840.84

mmmm

2.06 m

1.941.941.941.94

mmmm

4.0 m

3.63.63.63.6

mmmm

7.6 m

Mini.Clearance B/W Ph - Ear

1.07 m

0.710.710.710.71

mmmm

1.78 m

1.721.721.721.72

mmmm

3.5 m

1.41.41.41.4

mmmm

4.9 m

Sectional

3.50 m

0.780.780.780.78 mmmm

4.28 m

2.222.222.222.22 mmmm

6.5

m

3.83.83.83.8

10.3m

Clearance

 

Ground

4.6 m

0.90.90.90.9 mmmm

5.5 m

2.52.52.52.5 mmmm

8.0

m

   

Clearance

 

Earth Clearance: this is the clearance between live parts and earthed structures, walls, screens and ground.

Phase Clearance: this is the clearance between live parts of different phases.

Section Clearance: this is the clearance between live parts and the terminals of a work section. The limits of this work section, or maintenance zone, may be the ground or a platform from which the man works.

Minimum Clearance for Different Voltage Level [GIS]
Minimum Clearance for Different Voltage Level [GIS]
 

145145145145 KvKvKvKv (132(132(132(132 Kv)Kv)Kv)Kv)

245245245245 KvKvKvKv (220(220(220(220 Kv)Kv)Kv)Kv)

 

420420420420 KvKvKvKv

800800800800 KvKvKvKv

 

(765(765(765(765 Kv)Kv)Kv)Kv)

Clearance for 132 Kv

Diff in Clearance with Next Voltage class

Clearance for 220 Kv

Diff in Clearance with Next Voltage class

Clearance for 420 Kv

Diff in Clearance with Next Voltage class

 

Centre-to-

0.37 m

0.090.090.090.09 mmmm

0.46 m

0.200.200.200.20 mmmm

0.66 m

0.150.150.150.15 mmmm

0.81 m

centre distance of phases

Right-of way

1.3 m

0.20.20.20.2 mmmm

1.5 m

0.60.60.60.6 mmmm

2.1 m

0.50.50.50.5 mmmm

2.6 m

width

External

 

240

 

310

 

470

620

diameter

     

Gas pressure at 20 C

 

420

 

420

 

420

420

Specifications for 400 KV GIS (ELK-3)

1

Rated Voltage

420420420420

KvKvKvKv

2

Rated Power Frequency withstand voltage

650650650650

KvKvKvKv

3

Rated Lightning impulse withstand voltage

1425142514251425

KvKvKvKv

4

Rated Switching Impluse withstand voltage

1052105210521052

KvKvKvKv

5

Rated Frequency

50505050

HzHzHzHz

6

Busbar current

6300630063006300

AAAA

7

Feeder Current

4000400040004000

AAAA

8

Rated Short time Withstand Current

63636363

KAKAKAKA

 

Specifications for 220 KV GIS (ELK-14)

 

1

Rated Voltage

UptoUptoUptoUpto 300300300300 KvKvKvKv

2

Rated Power Frequency withstand voltage

460460460460

KvKvKvKv

3

Rated Lightning impulse withstand voltage

1050105010501050

KvKvKvKv

4

Rated Switching Impluse withstand voltage

850850850850

KvKvKvKv

5

Rated Frequency

50505050

HzHzHzHz

6

Rated Continuous Current

4000400040004000

AAAA

7

Rated Short time Withstand Current

50505050

kkkkAAAA

400 kV/ 220 kV Substation with 5 bays at 400 kV and 7 bays at

400 kV/ 220 kV Substation with 5 bays at 400 kV and 7 bays at 220 kV Substation with 5 bays at 400 kV and 7 bays at 220 kV

2 nos. 315 MVA , 400/220/33 kV three phase Auto Transformers . 315 MVA, 400/220/33 kV three phase Auto Transformers

Gas Insulated Switchgear type ELK -3 at 400 kV and ELK-10 at 220 KV from ABB Switzerland ELK -3 at 400 kV and ELK-10 at 220 KV from ABB Switzerland

Substation commissioned in 2007.-3 at 400 kV and ELK-10 at 220 KV from ABB Switzerland Power received from #####

Power received from ##### & ***** at 400 KV. ##### & ***** at 400 KV.

Power supplied to Delhi Transco at 220 KV . Delhi Transco at 220 KV.

To ICT 1 To ICT 2 From # # # Bus Coupler Bay F r

To ICT 1

To ICT 2
To ICT 2
To ICT 1 To ICT 2 From # # # Bus Coupler Bay F r o
From # # #
From # # #
Bus Coupler Bay
Bus Coupler Bay

From * * * *

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1. Barrier insulator 2. Busbar Gas Compartment 3. Feeder Gas Compartment 4. CB Gas compartment
1. Barrier insulator
2. Busbar Gas Compartment
3. Feeder Gas Compartment
4. CB Gas compartment
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5.

Voltage transformer

Bus bars Circuit Breakers Disconnecting switches Earthing switches Current transformers Voltage transformers Cable and
Bus bars Circuit Breakers Disconnecting switches Earthing switches Current transformers Voltage transformers Cable and

Bus bars

Circuit Breakers

Disconnecting switches

Earthing switches

Current transformers

Voltage transformers

Cable and boxes

Gas supply and gas monitoring equipment

1.Circuit Breaker 2.Operating mechanism (CB) 3.Current Transformer t

4 Di

5.Maintenance earthing switch 6.Fast acting earthing switch 7.Voltage transformer 8.SF6 Bushing

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A circuit breaker is an automatically-operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical from damage
A circuit breaker is an automatically-operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical from damage

A circuit breaker is an automatically-operated electrical switch designed to protect an electrical from damage caused by overload or short circuit.

Its basic function is to detect a fault condition and, by interrupting continuity, to immediately discontinue electrical flow.from damage caused by overload or short circuit . Unlike a fuse , which operates once

Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then has to be replaced, a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation

manually or automatically) to resume normal operation Current interruption in a high-voltage circuit-breaker is
manually or automatically) to resume normal operation Current interruption in a high-voltage circuit-breaker is

Current interruption in a high-voltage circuit-breaker is obtained by separating two contacts in a medium, such as SF6, having excellent dielectric and arc quenching properties. dielectric and arc quenching properties.

After contact separation, current is carried through an arc and the arc is interrupted & cooled by a gas blast of sufficient intensity.obtained by separating two contacts in a medium, such as SF6, having excellent dielectric and arc

Assembly of Metal enclosed Breaking poles Each CB comprises three single-phase metal enclosed breaker poles
Assembly of Metal enclosed Breaking poles Each CB comprises three single-phase metal enclosed breaker poles

Assembly of Metal enclosed Breaking poles

Each CB comprises three single-phase metal enclosed breaker poles.

Each Pole consists of operating mechanism, the interrupter column with 2 interrupting chambers in series & the enclosure with the basic support structure. 2 interrupting chambers in series & the enclosure with the basic support structure.

To guarantee simultaneous interruption, the chambers are mechanically connected in series.

One grading capacitor guarantees an equalized voltage distribution.

chambers are mechanically connected in series. One grading capacitor guarantees an equalized voltage distribution. 2 5
chambers are mechanically connected in series. One grading capacitor guarantees an equalized voltage distribution. 2 5
chambers are mechanically connected in series. One grading capacitor guarantees an equalized voltage distribution. 2 5
chambers are mechanically connected in series. One grading capacitor guarantees an equalized voltage distribution. 2 5

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Making use of arc energy to produce the pressure necessary to quench the arc and
Making use of arc energy to produce the pressure necessary to quench the arc and
Making use of arc energy to produce the pressure necessary to quench the arc and
Making use of arc energy to produce the pressure necessary to quench the arc and

Making use of arc energy to produce the pressure necessary to quench the arc and obtain current interruption. Low current interruption, up to about 30% of rated short-circuit current, is obtained by a puffer blast.

rated short-circuit current, is obtained by a puffer blast . A valve between the expansion and

A valve between the expansion and compression volumes. valve between the expansion and compression volumes.

When interrupting low currents the valve opens under the effect of the overpressure generated in the compression volume. The blow-out of the arc is made as in a puffer circuit breaker by compression of the gas obtained by the piston action.

by compression of the gas obtained by the piston action. In the case of high currents

In the case of high currents interruption, the arc energy produces a high overpressure in the expansion volume, which leads to the closure of the valve and thus isolating the expansion volume from the compression volume.

isolating the expansion volume from the compression volume. 2 7 The overpressure necessary for breaking is
isolating the expansion volume from the compression volume. 2 7 The overpressure necessary for breaking is

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The overpressure necessary for breaking is obtained by the optimal use of the thermal effect.

Each Pole of the CB is equipped with the Hydraulic spring operating mechanism. It combines
Each Pole of the CB is equipped with the Hydraulic spring operating mechanism. It combines
Each Pole of the CB is equipped with the Hydraulic spring operating mechanism. It combines

Each Pole of the CB is equipped with the Hydraulic spring operating mechanism.

It combines the advantages of both Hydraulic operating mechanism & Spring energy storage type. Hydraulic operating mechanism & Spring energy storage type.

A Hydraulic pump moves oil from low pressure reservoir to high pressure reservoir side of the energy piston.

to high pressure reservoir side of the energy piston. Opening & Closing of CB is initiated
to high pressure reservoir side of the energy piston. Opening & Closing of CB is initiated

Opening & Closing of CB is initiated by trip coil actuation.

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Current transformer (CT) is used for measurement of electric currents. Current transformers are also known

Current transformer (CT) is used for measurement of electric currents. Current transformers are also known as instrument transformers.

Current transformers are commonly used in metering and protective relays in the electrical power industry.

and protective relays in the electrical power industry. When current in a circuit is too high
and protective relays in the electrical power industry. When current in a circuit is too high

When current in a circuit is too high to directly apply to measuring instruments, a current transformer produces a reduced current accurately proportional to the current in the circuit, which can be conveniently connected to measuring and recording instruments.

Voltage transformers (VTs), also referred to as “ Potential transformers " (PTs), are used in

Voltage transformers (VTs), also referred to as “Potential transformers" (PTs), are used in high-voltage circuits.

They are designed to present a negligible load to the supply being measured, to allow protective relay equipment to be operated at lower voltages, and to have a precise winding ratio for accurate metering

protective relay equipment to be operated at lower voltages, and to have a precise winding ratio
protective relay equipment to be operated at lower voltages, and to have a precise winding ratio
The single pole inductive voltage transformer is connected to switch gear with the connecting flanges

The single pole inductive voltage transformer is connected to switch gear with the connecting flanges with a barrier insulator.

gear with the connecting flanges with a barrier insulator. The primary winding is insulated with SF6

The primary winding is insulated with SF6 gas & connected to high voltage terminal.gear with the connecting flanges with a barrier insulator. The primary winding is wounded on the

The primary winding is wounded on the top of the core & secondary windings.

is wounded on the top of the core & secondary windings. The secondary winding is connected
is wounded on the top of the core & secondary windings. The secondary winding is connected

The secondary winding is connected to the terminals in the external terminal box through a gas tight multiple bushing.

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Disconnector and Earthing switches are safety devices used to open or to close a circuit

Disconnector and Earthing switches are safety devices used to open or to close a circuit when there is no current through them.

They are used to isolate a part of a circuit, a machine, a part of an overhead line or an underground line so that maintenance can be safely conducted.

The opening of the line isolator or busbar section isolator is necessary for safety, but not sufficient. Grounding must be conducted at both the upstream and downstream sections of the device under maintenance. This is accomplished by earthing switches.

both the upstream and downstream sections of the device under maintenance. This is accomplished by earthing
both the upstream and downstream sections of the device under maintenance. This is accomplished by earthing
both the upstream and downstream sections of the device under maintenance. This is accomplished by earthing
Disconnect switches are designed to continuously carry load currents and momentarily carry short circuit currents
Disconnect switches are designed to continuously carry load currents and momentarily carry short circuit currents
Disconnect switches are designed to continuously carry load currents and momentarily carry short circuit currents

Disconnect switches are designed to continuously carry load currents and momentarily carry short circuit currents for a specified duration.

They are designed for no-load switching , opening , or closing circuits where negligible currents are made or interrupted (including capacitive current and resistive or inductive current , or when there is no significant voltage across the open terminals of the switch.

Fast earth switch and maintenance earth switch are the two types of earth switches used

Fast earth switch and maintenance earth switch are the two types of earth switches used for gas insulated sub-station systems.

Fast earth switch is used to protect the circuit-connected instrument voltage transformer from core saturation caused by direct is used to protect the circuit-connected instrument voltage transformer from core saturation caused by direct current flowing through its primary as a consequence of charge stored online during isolation / switching off the line.

Use of fast earth switch provides a parallel (low resistance) path to drain the residual static charge quickly, thereby protecting the instrument voltage transformer from the damages that may otherwise be caused. The basic construction of these earth switches is identical.

from the damages that may otherwise be caused. The basic construction of these earth switches is
from the damages that may otherwise be caused. The basic construction of these earth switches is
from the damages that may otherwise be caused. The basic construction of these earth switches is
from the damages that may otherwise be caused. The basic construction of these earth switches is

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Wave Trap Capacitance Voltage Transformer Lightening Arrestor Capacitor Voltage Transformers convert transmission class
Wave Trap Capacitance Voltage Transformer Lightening Arrestor Capacitor Voltage Transformers convert transmission class
Wave Trap Capacitance Voltage Transformer Lightening Arrestor Capacitor Voltage Transformers convert transmission class
Wave Trap Capacitance Voltage Transformer Lightening Arrestor Capacitor Voltage Transformers convert transmission class

Wave Trap

Capacitance

Voltage

Transformer

Lightening

Arrestor

Capacitor Voltage Transformers convert transmission class voltages to standardized low and easily measurable values, used for metering, protection and control of the high voltage system.

Additionally, Capacitor Voltage Transformers serve as a coupling capacitor for coupling high frequency power line carrier signals to the transmission line.

Lightning Arresters or Surge Arresters are always connected in Shunt to the equipment to be

Lightning Arresters or Surge Arresters are always connected in Shunt to the equipment to be protected, they provide a low impedance path for the surge current to the ground

a low impedance path for the surge current to the ground Line trap also is known
a low impedance path for the surge current to the ground Line trap also is known

Line trap also is known as Wave trap. It traps Hi-frequency communication signals sent on the line from the remote substation and diverting them to the telecom/ tele protection panel in the substation control room (through coupling capacitor and LMU).

This is relevant in Power Line Carrier Communication (PLCC) systems for communication among various substations without dependence on the telecom company network.

SF6 – Air Bushings are used for connecting to open terminal equipment & Overhead transmission

SF6 – Air Bushings are used for connecting to open terminal equipment & Overhead transmission lines . are used for connecting to open terminal equipment & Overhead transmission lines.

SF outdoor bushings allow the enclosed switchgear to be connected to overhead lines.SF6 – Air Bushings are used for connecting to open terminal equipment & Overhead transmission lines

Overhead transmission lines . SF outdoor bushings allow the enclosed switchgear to be connected to overhead
Overhead transmission lines . SF outdoor bushings allow the enclosed switchgear to be connected to overhead

CABLE TERMINATION (Fig - a): High-Voltage cables of various types are connected to SF6 switchgear via cable connection assembly & also it enables the GIS & Cables to be tested separated

also it enables the GIS & Cables to be tested separated Fig - a Fig -

Fig - a

enables the GIS & Cables to be tested separated Fig - a Fig - b Transformer

Fig - b

the GIS & Cables to be tested separated Fig - a Fig - b Transformer connection
the GIS & Cables to be tested separated Fig - a Fig - b Transformer connection

Transformer connection (Fig - b) consists of Oil/SF6 bushing, the enclosure, the main circuit end terminal & removable connection.

For Hi-Voltage test on GIS, transformer is isolated from switchgear by dismantling the removable connection

The insulating and interrupting capability of the SF6 gas depends on the density of the

The insulating and interrupting capability of the SF6 gas depends on the density of the SF6 gas .

The pressure of the SF6 gas varies with temperature, so a mechanical or electronic temperature compensated pressure switch is used to monitor the equivalent of gas density. temperature compensated pressure switch is used to monitor the equivalent of gas density.

Gas Density Monitor is directly mounted on the enclosure. The gas pressure acts on metal bellows, with a reference volume for compensation of the temperature.

with a reference volume for compensation of the temperature. In case of gas leakage a micro-switch
with a reference volume for compensation of the temperature. In case of gas leakage a micro-switch

In case of gas leakage a micro-switch is actuated. Thresholds for refilling (first stage) or lock-out alarm(second stage) can be mechanically set. The response character is shown in the Molier diagramme.

) or lock-out alarm( second stage ) can be mechanically set. The response character is shown
) or lock-out alarm( second stage ) can be mechanically set. The response character is shown
) or lock-out alarm( second stage ) can be mechanically set. The response character is shown

41

Isolating Gas Pressure is generally 350-450 Kpa at 20 deg cel. Quenching gas pressure is
Isolating Gas Pressure is generally 350-450 Kpa at 20 deg cel.
Isolating Gas Pressure is
generally 350-450 Kpa at 20 deg
cel.
Quenching gas pressure is about 600-700 Kpa
Quenching gas pressure is
about 600-700 Kpa
Outdoor Equipment exposed to arctic conditions contains a mixture of SF6 & N2.
Outdoor Equipment exposed to
arctic conditions contains a
mixture of SF6 & N2.
gas pressure is about 600-700 Kpa Outdoor Equipment exposed to arctic conditions contains a mixture of
gas pressure is about 600-700 Kpa Outdoor Equipment exposed to arctic conditions contains a mixture of
gas pressure is about 600-700 Kpa Outdoor Equipment exposed to arctic conditions contains a mixture of

42

An autotransformer is an electrical transformer with only one winding . The winding has at
An autotransformer is an electrical transformer with only one winding . The winding has at

An autotransformer is an electrical transformer with only one winding.

The winding has at least three electrical connection points called taps. The voltage source and the load are each connected three electrical connection points called taps. The voltage source and the load are each connected to two taps.

One tap at the end of the winding is a common connection to both circuits (source and load). Each tap corresponds to a different source or load voltage.

Each tap corresponds to a different source or load voltage. 2 nos. 315 MVA, 400/220/33 kV
Each tap corresponds to a different source or load voltage. 2 nos. 315 MVA, 400/220/33 kV

2 nos. 315 MVA, 400/220/33 kV three phase Auto Transformers

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An autotransformer for power applications is typically l i g h t e r l i g h t e r l lighterlighterlighterlighter and lesslesslessless costlycostlycostlycostly than a two-winding transformer, up to a voltagevoltagevoltagevoltage ratioratioratioratio ofofofof aboutaboutaboutabout 3:13:13:13:1 - beyond that range a two-winding transformer is usually more economical.

In an autotransformer a portion of the s a m e s a m e s a m e s a m samesamesamesame windingwindingwindingwinding acts as part of both the primary and secondary winding.

i n d i n g w i n d i n g w i n
i n d i n g w i n d i n g w i n
To Line-4 To Line-3 Bus Coupler Bay To Line-2 To Line-1 From ICT 1 From
To Line-4
To Line-4
To Line-3
To Line-3
Bus Coupler Bay
Bus Coupler
Bay

To Line-2

To Line-1
To Line-1
To Line-4 To Line-3 Bus Coupler Bay To Line-2 To Line-1 From ICT 1 From ICT
From ICT 1
From ICT 1
From ICT 2
From ICT 2
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(For Further Space reduction) Gas Insulated Transformer (GIT) Instead of Oil Immersed Transformer (OIT). SMART

(For Further Space reduction)

Gas Insulated Transformer (GIT) Instead of Oil Immersed Transformer (OIT).

SMART GIS - Integration of Electronic CT’s & PT’s

Combined Earthing Switch & Disconnector

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Natural Cooled type Forced-Gas-Circulated , Forced-Air- Forced-Gas-Circulated , Natural- Air-Cooled 56

Natural Cooled type

Natural Cooled type Forced-Gas-Circulated , Forced-Air- Forced-Gas-Circulated , Natural- Air-Cooled 56

Forced-Gas-Circulated , Forced-Air-

Natural Cooled type Forced-Gas-Circulated , Forced-Air- Forced-Gas-Circulated , Natural- Air-Cooled 56

Forced-Gas-Circulated , Natural- Air-Cooled

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  GIT OIT Medium SF6 Insulating oil Turn Insulation PET film Cellulose paper Conservator
  GIT OIT Medium SF6 Insulating oil Turn Insulation PET film Cellulose paper Conservator
 

GIT

OIT

Medium

SF6

Insulating oil

Turn Insulation

PET film

Cellulose paper

Conservator

Not Required

Necessary

Pressure Relief Device

Not required

Necessary

Others

Fundamentally Same

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Nonflammability – Gas insulated transformers , using incombustible SF6 gas as insulation and cooling medium,

Nonflammability – Gas insulated transformers , using incombustible SF6 gas as insulation and cooling medium, enable to remove a fire fighting equipment from transformer room.

Non Tank – explosion - Pressure tank enables to withstand the pressure rise in case of internal fault.

Compactness – Since conservator or pressure relief equipment is not necessary, height of transformer room can be reduced approximately 2 – 2.5 meters.

Easy installation – oil or liquid purifying process is not necessary in case of gas-insulated transformer.

Easy inspection and maintenance work -Only SF6 gas pressure shall be basically monitored during periodically inspection.

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The Combined sensors are the Rogowski coil for current measurement and the capacitive divider for
The Combined sensors are the Rogowski coil for current measurement and the capacitive divider for
The Combined sensors are the Rogowski coil for current measurement and the capacitive divider for

The Combined sensors are the Rogowski coil for current measurement and the capacitive divider for voltage Combined sensors are the Rogowski coil for current measurement and the capacitive divider for voltage measurement

A combined current and voltage sensor has been developed to replace the conventional current and voltage transformers in GIS.and the capacitive divider for voltage measurement 1. Serial Optic Link 2. Voltage sensor 3. Rogowski

the conventional current and voltage transformers in GIS. 1. Serial Optic Link 2. Voltage sensor 3.

1. Serial Optic Link 2. Voltage sensor 3. Rogowski Coil

Why Combined Voltage & current Sensor ? Advanced CT’s without a magnetic core (Rowgowski coil)

Why Combined Voltage & current Sensor ?

Advanced CT’s without a magnetic core (Rowgowski coil) & Capacitive sensor have been developed to save space and reduce the cost of GIS.

The output signal is at a low level, so it is immediately converted by an enclosure mounted device to a digital signal

Small size - Helps to optimize the use of space in the switchgear

Lighter weight means less material usage and lower life cycle costs (LCC)

Large dynamic range - permits minimization of number of sensor types needed and improvement of some protection functions.

Protection and measurement functions combined.

Lower losses mean lower LCC (Life Cycle Cost)

Current Measurement – Current Sensor instead of Current Transformer The current sensor is based on
Current Measurement – Current Sensor instead of Current Transformer The current sensor is based on
Current Measurement – Current Sensor instead of Current Transformer The current sensor is based on

Current Measurement – Current Sensor instead of Current Transformer

The current sensor is based on a Rogowski coil (a coreless inductive current transformer).

Voltage Measurement – Voltage Sensor instead of Voltage Transformer

The voltage sensor is based on a capacitive electrical field sensor (Capacitive ring sensor).

The capacitive ring, which acts as a voltage sensor, also has a linear characteristic and is very simple in terms of the insulation.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 6. 7. 1. Busbar with Combined DS & ES 2. Circuit
1.
2.
3.
4.
6.
7.
1. Busbar with Combined DS & ES
2. Circuit Breaker
3. Current Transformer
4. Voltage transformer
5. Combined DS & ES with cable sealing
end
6. Hi-Speed ES
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7. Control Cubicle

Busbar with Combined DS & ES Circuit-breaker Current sensor (Rogowski coil) Electro-optical voltage transforme Make-proof earthing switch Control cubicle

The DSES incorporates the two functions of a disconnector and a maintenance earthing switch as

The DSES incorporates the two functions of a disconnector and a maintenance earthing switch as a result saving the space in GIS.

This is achieved by a sliding contact characterized by three defined positions:

- disconnector open / earthing switch closed

- disconnector closed / earthing switch open

-disconnector open / earthing switch open

The use of one moving contact for the disconnector and the earthing switch inhibits simultaneous closed position of both switches.

switch inhibits simultaneous closed position of both switches. Busbar with Combined Disconnector & Earthing Switch 68

Busbar with Combined Disconnector & Earthing Switch

switch inhibits simultaneous closed position of both switches. Busbar with Combined Disconnector & Earthing Switch 68

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Combined disconnector and earthing switch is mounted at the front, and acts via bevel gears and an insulating shaft on the three parallel contact pins.

and an insulating shaft on the three parallel contact pins. Depending on the direction of movement

Depending on the direction of movement the contacts act as disconnector or earthing switch (maintenance earthing switch). direction of movement the contacts act as disconnector or earthing switch (maintenance earthing switch).

By means of a crank handle, manual operation of the combined disconnector and earthing switch is also possible.

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By means of a crank handle, manual operation of the combined disconnector and earthing switch is
By means of a crank handle, manual operation of the combined disconnector and earthing switch is
By means of a crank handle, manual operation of the combined disconnector and earthing switch is
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(O & M)
(O & M)
(O & M) 75

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AIS GIS Life cycle cost Planning and engineering 100% 80% Real estate 100% 40% Primar
AIS
GIS
Life cycle cost
Planning and engineering
100%
80%
Real estate
100%
40%
Primar
y
e
q
ui
p
ment
100%
120%
Secondary equipment
100%
100%
Earthwork, civil work, structures
100%
60%
Electrical assembly and erection
100%
70%
Maintenance
100%
50%
Outage
100%
50%
Life cycle costs after 10 years
100%
Max. 70%
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Optimizing of acquisition costs Acquisition costs are mainly influenced by the layout, the redundancy concept

Optimizing of acquisition costs

Acquisition costs are mainly influenced by the layout, the redundancy concept and the requirement area for the installation.

The optimization of the layout and the redundancy can be supported by LCC analysis which take into account the different reliability figures of the different technologies.

The goal is to achieve optimal availability of the substation with minimized costs.

Cost of Acquisition
Cost of Acquisition

Optimizing of costs of ownership

Cost of Ownership
Cost of Ownership

The costs of ownership are dominated by the maintenance strategy and the reliability of the switchgear. By means of LCC analysis, the different maintenance strategies can be simulated.

Pure corrective maintenance can be compared with time-based or reliability – centered maintenance.

Cost of Ownership
Cost of Ownership

Optimizing of renewal costs

LCC calculations assist in determining the optimal date for replacing an existing substation.

Aged equipment requires intensified maintenance, more specialized experts and spare parts.

The effect of investment costs of new equipment with reduced maintenance costs can be balanced with the increased expenditure for intensified maintenance of the old equipment

Cost of GIS is high. The life of GIS is affected by certain factors such

Cost of GIS is high.

The life of GIS is affected by certain factors such as: conductive particles, partial discharges and contamination (decomposition products, water, etc

Gas Insulated Substations (GIS) can be used for longer times without any periodical inspections.

However, conducting contamination (i.e. aluminum, copper and silver particles) could seriously reduce the dielectric strength of gas-insulated system.

SF6 has been identified as a greenhouse gas, safety regulations are being introduced in order to prevent its release into atmosphere.

The first GIS’s were put in operation in 1967 in Switzerland and Germany . The

The first GIS’s were put in operation in 1967 in Switzerland and Germany.

The GIS in Germany is still in operation, whereas the GIS in Switzerland were recently decommissioned after 35 years of operation without major fault or gas leak.

An assessment made on SF6 gas leakage over the lifetime of the first GIS and concluded that overall leakage rate was about 0.4% per year.

SF6 gas leakage over the lifetime of the first GIS and concluded that overall leakage rate
SF6 gas leakage over the lifetime of the first GIS and concluded that overall leakage rate
SF6 gas leakage over the lifetime of the first GIS and concluded that overall leakage rate
SF6 gas leakage over the lifetime of the first GIS and concluded that overall leakage rate

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