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HHTPALHH 3HH

OT XMHHOB O THMYPHOB

PXOAOIHH, HCTOPHH, 3THOAOIHH, KYALTYP



Marepnant mexynapono nayuno xon]epennnn,
nocnxmenno 100-nernm co nx poxennx
Anexcanpa Mapxonnua Fenennnxoro

Canxr-Herepypr,
25 noxpx 2004 roa




INSTITUTE OF THE HISTORY OF MATERIAL CULTURE
OF THE RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

STATE HERMITAGE

ORIENTAL DEPARTMENT OF THE ST. PETERSBURG STATE UNIVERSITY












CENTRAL ASIA FROM THE ACHAEMENIDS TO THE TIMURIDS

ARCHAEOLOGY, HISTORY, ETHNOLOGY, CULTURE


Materials of an International Scientific Conference
dedicated to the Centenary of Aleksandr Markovich Belenitsky

St. Petersburg, November 25, 2004







St. Petersburg

2005




HHCTHTVT HCTOPHH MATEPHAHIHOH KVHITVPI PAH

IOCVAPCTBEHHIH 3PMHTAX

BOCTOuHIH uAKVHITET
CAHKT-HETEPFVPICKOIO IOCVAPCTBEHHOIO VHHBEPCHTETA













HHTPALHH 3HH OT XMHHOB O THMYPHOB

PXOAOIHH, HCTOPHH, 3THOAOIHH, KYALTYP


Marepnant mexynapono nayuno xon]epennnn, nocnxmenno
100-nernm co nx poxennx Anexcanpa Mapxonnua Fenennnxoro

Canxr-Herepypr, 25 noxpx 2004 roa







-

2005
FFK 63.3
H38


soauue ocvuecme.euo npu quuaucoeo noooeprre
Poccucroeo ev+auumapuoeo uav:uoeo qouoa
Hpoerm 04-01-14024 e


Ornercrnennt nayunt peaxrop: Editor-in-chief:
B. H. Hurouopoe Valery P. Nikonorov

Peaxnnonnax xonnernx: Editorial Board:
O. . Aru+vuruu Oleg F. Akimushkin
B. A. A.ruuu Vadim A. Alyokshin
C. I. K.umopu Sergej G. Klyashtorny
B. A. dumeuucru Boris A. Litvinsky
B. M. Maccou Vadim M. Masson
I. d. Ce+euoe Grigorij L. Semenov
. M. Cmeo.uu-Ka+eucru Ivan M. Steblin-Kamensky


H38 Hen1atna s 1 euenn Tuyn: ae, c1,
+1n, xyt1ya. Marepnant mexynapono nayuno xon]epennnn, nocnx-
menno 100-nernm co nx poxennx Anexcanpa Mapxonnua Fenennnxoro (Canxr-
Herepypr, 25 noxpx 2004 roa). CH.: Hncrnryr ncropnn marepnantno
xyntrypt PAH, 2005. 406 c., nn.

ISBN 5-2010-1233-7
K 63.3
Koppexrop n peaxrop . . +umpueea

Komntmrepnax opaorxa rexcra ntnonnena B. H. Hurouopoe+

Honncano n neuart 03.12.2004. uopmar 5988
1
/
8
. Iapnnrypa ocnonnoro rexcra Times New Roman
Heuart o]cernax. Fymara o]cernax. Tnpax 300 +xs. Oem 50 ycn. n. n. 3axas 65

Orneuarano n rnnorpa]nn Canxr-Herepyprcxoro Hncrnryra ncropnn PAH
197110, r. Canxr-Herepypr, yn. Herposanocxax, . 7
ren. (812) 2351586




Hncrnryr ncropnn marepnantno xyntrypt PAH, 2005
141
B. H. Hnxonopon
(Canxr-Herepypr,
Poccncxax ueepannx)
K BOHPOCV O HAPuHCKOM HACHEHH B CACAHHCKOM HPAHE: BOEHHOE EHO


Bonpoc o nap]xncxom nnnxnnn na rocyapcrnennte nncrnryrt n xyntrypy Hpana +noxn Caca-
nnon ouent axryanen no ro npnunne, uro eme n pennocrn cnoxnnoct, a n no ce ent cymecrnyer
mnenne, uro Cacannt nepct poom ns Hapca (Hepcnt) na mre Hpancxoro nnaro, coxpymnn
nap]xncxym nnacrnm Apmaxnon, paccmarpnnann cex n xauecrne nacnennxon cnonx nennxnx npe-
mecrnennnxon n connemennnxon Axemennon n crpemnnnct noccranonnrt cosannym remn mo-
rymecrnennym nmnepnm
1
. Ha nepnt nsrnx, Cacannt ecrnnrentno nmenn onpeenennoe npe-
crannenne o cnannom axemenncxom npomnom Hpana [Shahbazi 2001: 6669]. Fonee roro, nexoropte
axemenncxne nncrnryrt namnn orpaxenne n nx npaxrnxe [Frye 1983a]. Onaxo +ro nonce ne osnaua-
er, uro onn n n camom ene npononnn uerxo ocosnannym n nenenanpannennym nonnrnxy cneonannx
axemenncxnm rpannnxm. Haoopor, ecrt nce ocnonannx nonarart, uro n camtx pasntx onacrxx
cnoe exrentnocrn Cacannt ouent mnoroe nocnpnnxnn nmenno or cnonx nenocpecrnenntx npe-
mecrnennnxon nap]xn, xax +ro yenrentno noxasan 3. pmarep [Yar-Shater 1971]
2
. Honnocrtm
pasenxx +ry rouxy spennx, x xoren t nnxe noxpennrt ee aprymenramn ns c]ept noennoro ena.
Hauny, ecrecrnenno, c xapaxrepncrnxn noennoro ncxyccrna n noenno oprannsannn camnx nap-
]xn. Komnnexcnt ananns nemecrnenntx, nxonorpa]nuecxnx n nnctmenntx ncrounnxon noxastnaer,
uro nap]xncxoe noennoe eno naxonnoct na ouent ntcoxom nx cnoero npemenn yponne pasnnrnx
[cm.: Hnxonopon 1987]. Inannym pont n nem nrpann +nemenrt, cnxsannte cnonm nponcxoxennem co
crentm, uro oxcnxercx xouentm nponcxoxennem ocnonarene Hap]xncxo nmnepnn anapnon
(napnon) ns nnemenno xon]eepannn axon (aen), onranmnx n crennom apeane mexy Kacnnem n
Apanom [cm.: Olbrycht 1998: 5176]
3
. 3rn nomat, npnx n Hpan, camtm panxantntm opasom

3ra rema, nnxora nceptes ne crannnmaxcx n nayuno nnreparype, tna ouent xparxo sarponyra mnom n xan-
narcxo ncceprannn Boopyxenne n noennoe eno n Hap]nn, samnmenno n 1988 r. Xopomo nomnm, xax
A. M. Fenennnxn npoxnnn x moe ncceprannn nenoentnt nnrepec n, nnnmarentno osnaxomnnmnct c ee coepxa-
nnem, nonoxnrentno onennn paory n nenom, a raxxe oxasan mne mopantnym noepxxy, rora upesntuano naxnym.
C roro npemenn n neer orcuer nama c nnm pyxa, xoropax npoonxanact o camo ero cmeprn n 1993 r. Hacroxmax
crartx nocnxmaercx cnerno namxrn Anexcanpa Mapxonnua. B npenapnrentnom, xparxom nne ona tna npecran-
nena n xauecrne oxnaa na mexynapono xon]epennnn Sptantike in Mittelasien: Archologie, Geschichte, Kunst
(3.8. Jahrhundert), cocroxnmecx n Vnnnepcnrere Tmnnrena (Iepmannx) n nmne 2004 r. Hpn ee opaorxe ontmym
nomomt mne oxasann mon pystx-xonnern M. . Ontptxr, A. H. Konecnnxon n H. Cxynnennu, sa uro x ntpaxam nm
cnom ncxpennmm naroapnocrt. Pasymeercx, sa coepxanne +ro paort ornercrnennocrt necer rontxo ee anrop.
1
Cctnxn na anrnunte n nocrounte cpenenexonte ncrounnxn, a raxxe conpemennym nnnorpa]nm cm. n pa-
orax 3. pmarepa n A. B. Baxasn [Yar-Shater 1971: 517518; Shahbazi 2001: 6264]. Bor xapaxrepnt nx cro-
ponnnxon +ro reopnn naccax, npnnanexamn ntammemycx apxeonory-npanncry P. Inpmmany: Hxrt c nononnno
nexon cnycrx nocne naennx Axemennon nepcncxn napo nnont open nnacrt, n nonax nnacrnx (Cacannon.
B. H.) n xauecrne saxonnoro nacnennxa Axemennon oecneunna nenpeptnnocrt npancxo nnnnnnsannn [Ghirshman
1954: 290291]. Cnpanennnocrn pan cneyer ormernrt, uro +ror nccneonarent yrnepxan raxxe cneymmee: Bos-
poxennem npancxoro yxa n cnoe ycnemno nnemne nonnrnxo nap]xncxne Apmaxnt nororonnnn nyrt nx
Cacannon Cnxst mexy nnmn n Axemennamn tna oecneuena nap]xnamn [Ibid: 288].
2
Ocnonno resnc 3. pmarepa: Ecnn Cacannt n tnn nacnennxamn xomy-nno, ro, xax xaxercx, cxopee nap-
]xnam, uem Axemennam [Yar-Shater 1971: 531; o nnnorpa]nn n ero noepxxy cm.: Shahbazi 2001: 65, 7172].
Cneyer ormernrt, uro n pyrne nccneonarenn raxxe yxe opamann nnnmanne na +nemenrt xnno nap]xncxoro nponc-
xoxennx n neonornn, ncxyccrne n trono xyntrype cacanncxoro Hpana [cm., nanpnmep: Komenenxo 1971: 216;
Vanden Berghe 1987; Levit-Tawil 1993: 152, 154155, 161; Goldman 1993: 201212].
3
M. . Ontptxr n anrop +rnx crpox ncxoxr ns roro, uro anapnt-axn nmecre c pyrnmn, pocrnenntmn nm
npanoxstuntmn xouentmn nnemenamn Cpene Asnn, oxasann camoe ceptesnoe nosecrnne na ncropnm n xyntrypy
Hap]xncxoro rocyapcrna. 3ro mnenne ocnontnaercx na coomennxx ocronepno nnctmenno rpannnn, nocxoxme
x Hap]xncxo ncropnn Anonnoopa Apremnrcxoro [cm.: Nikonorov 1998a], a raxxe na apxeonornuecxnx marepnanax
c reppnropnn Hap]nent n Inpxannn mecra cnoxennx xpa yyme nmnepnn Apmaxnon n ns npnnexamnx x
nnm crenntx npocrpancrn. Eme pantme naxnte nen o ceptesnom snauennn ]axra xouennnuecxoro sanoenannx nx co-
nnantnoro pasnnrnx Hap]nn ntcxastnann H. Bontcxn n I. A. Komenenxo [cm., nanpnmep: Wolski 1964: 380; Koelen-
ko 1980]. Onaxo ne rax anno cront xpynnt anropnrer no xyntrype n pennrnn pennero Hpana, xax M. Foc, ]ax-
rnuecxn orneprna camy nosmoxnocrt cxontxo-nnyt snaunrentnoro nnnxnnx xouennnxon na nponecct ]opmnponannx
nap]xncxo rocyapcrnennocrn n xyntrypt [Boyce 1994; cm. raxxe: Schippmann 1987: 532; Ipanroncxn 2004: 87].
Hocxontxy n pamxax nacroxme crartn, ecrecrnenno, ner nosmoxnocrn necrn nonemnxy no annomy nonpocy, npena-
ram unrarenm osnaxomnrtcx c aprymenramn, npnneenntmn n neanne paore M. . Ontptxra [Olbrycht 2003].
142
nsmennnn, n coornercrnnn co cranapramn, ntpaoranntmn na nx ponne, noopyxenne, crpyxrypy
nocx n noenno oprannsannn, crparernm n raxrnuecxne npnemt ncnontsonannx nocx
4
. Hpeonaa-
mmax pont xouennnuecxoro xomnonenra n noennom ene rocyapcrna Apmaxnon tna onpeenena ne
rontxo camnm ]axrom anapno-axcxoro sanoenannx, no n rem nocroxnntm nnnxnnem, xoropoe oxast-
nana na Hap]nm crennax nepn]epnx npn nocpecrne naemntx orpxon, nanpanmnxcx Apmaxnamn
cpen xouentx nnemen Cpene Asnn (Iust. XLII, 1, 2; 5, 56; Lucian. Macrob. 15; Tac. Ann. VI, 44, 1;
XI, 8, 4; Ios. Ant. Iud. XVIII, 100; Strabo XVI, 1, 16) n Cenepnoro Kanxasa (Tac. Ann. VI, 33, 23) n
axrnnno yuacrnonanmnx n nx nnyrpn- n nnemnenonnrnuecxnx meponpnxrnxx [cm.: Komenenxo 1963;
Olbrycht 1998]. Bmecre c +rnmn xonrnnrenramn n Hap]nm nonaann nocnenne ocrnxennx napoon
enpasncxnx crene n onacrn noennoro ena.
Orpxt nomaon, cnyxnnmnx sa nnary (mercede: Iust. XLII, 1, 2; Tac. Ann. VI, 33, 23; 36, 3],
tnn naxno cocranno uacrtm apmnn nap]xn, xnnxxct, no cyrn, enncrnenno peantno noopyxen-
no cnno Apmaxnon, na xoropo n ycnonnxx ontmo camocroxrentnocrn snarnemnx nap]xncxnx
]amnnn, pacnonaranmnx cocrnenntmn nocxamn, noxonnnct nnacrt n anropnrer npanxme nnac-
rnn [Wolski 1965]. Hnosemnte naemnnxn ]opmnponann xpo apmaxncxoro nocxa oropnt xon-
nt orpx, nocroxnno naxonnmncx npn napcxo ocoe
5
, n cocran xoroporo raxxe nxonnn monote
nap]xncxne nonnt apncroxparnuecxoro nponcxoxennx
6
. Bonpexn cymecrnymmemy mnennm [Ken-
nedy 1996: 84], on tn nectma mnorouncnenntm, nocxontxy n onom ns namnx ncrounnxon coomaer-
cx, uro cnonm npncoennennem x ecrnymme apmnn, cpaxanmecx npornn Mapxa Anronnx n 36 r.
o n. +., napcxn orpx ceptesno ynennunn ee uncnennocrt (Plut. Ant. 44, 2)
7
. Fnnxamne x napm une-
nt xnana Apmaxnon raxxe mornn nmert npn cee snaunrentnte noopyxennte cnnt: nsnecrno, uro
xora npannrent Apmennn Tnpnar, par nap]xncxoro napx Bonoresa I, n 66 r. n. +. nanpannncx na
cnom xoponannm n Pnm, ro ero conponoxann rpn rtcxun ncannxon (Dio Cass. LXIII, 2, 1).
B cnyuae nont, cneyx monapmemy nonenennm, n nasnauennoe npemx n mecro npntnann
nmecre co cnonmn nocxamn npecrannrenn nap]xncxo apncroxparnn xax ntcme, n nnne Cypent
(Plut. Crass. 21, 49; etc.), Cnnnaxa (Tac. Ann. VI, 37, 3), Kapena (Ibid. XII, 12, 3; 13, 1; 14, 2), rax n ne
cront poonnro; npn +rom ecrnonano npannno: uem oraue nonnt, rem ontme ncannxon on no-
crannxer cnoemy napm (Iustin. XLI, 2, 6)
8
. Vcnnenne nap]xncxo noneno apmnn nponcxonno n sa
cuer noxpennenn, npnnonmtx napcxnmn namecrnnxamn xpynntx onacre. Tax, n xoe xamnannn
npornn Mapxa Kpacca (n 5453 rr. o n. +.) carpan Meconoramnn Cnnnax [cm.: Karras-Klapproth 1988:
159161] cnauana esycnemno ntrancx c neontmnm xonntm orpxom npornnocroxrt pnmcxomy
nropxennm (Dio Cass. XL, 12, 2), a sarem ntcrynnn conmecrno c Cypeno npornn apmnn Kpacca (Plut.
Crass. 21, 4; Flor. I, 46, 8; Fest. 17; Oros. VI, 13, 3). B xauecrne pyroro npnmepa moxno nasnart
Opnocnaa, cnyxnnmero n ro xe camo onxnocrn [Karras-Klapproth 1988: 99100], xoropt n
35 r. n. +. co mnornmn rtcxuamn ncannxon no cnonm nauanom nepemen na cropony pnmcxoro cran-
nennnxa Tnpnara, oponmerocx sa rpon Apmaxnon (Tac. Ann. VI, 37, 3).
B crparernuecxom n raxrnuecxom ornomennxx nap]xncxax apmnx npecrannxna coo ntcoxo
monntnym n manenpennym cnny, xoropax cocroxna n ocnonnom ns xonntx uacre nyx nnon sna-
unrentno macct nerxonoopyxenntx nyunnxon n ropaso mentmero no uncnennocrn orpxa nnxe-

4
Cm. raxxe mnenne x. Koyncrona o rom, uro nap]xncxoe sanoenanne Hpana n Meconoramnn npnneno x samene
ram pennenepcncxo npaxrnxn noennoro ena crenno [Coulston 1986: 70].
5
Tac. Ann. VI, 36, 3: externorum corpori custodes; XV, 2, 4: prompta equitum manus, quae regem ex more spectatur;
Plut. Ant. 44, 2: j r [sc. ] Pr ; Arr. Parth. fr. 98: d ; Hdn. IV, 11, 5: ;
Strabo XVI, 1, 16: r . 3ror xonrnnrenr pacxnaprnpontnancx n mecrax npoxnnannx nap-
]xncxnx nape, xoropte snmy npononnn n Krecn]one, pxom c Cenenxne na Tnrpe, a nero n 3xaranax (Mnnx) n
Inpxannn (Strabo XVI, 1, 16).
6
Hsnecrno, uro nocne nopaxennx n rnenn Apraana IV ero corps dlite ns snarno nap]xncxo monoexn
(s) nmecre c apmxnamn n mnnnamn ycnemno npornnocroxn n Apmennn nropxennm cacanncxo apmnn, nosrnan-
nxemo Apamnpom I (Dio Cass. LXXX, 3, 3) [Widengren 1971: 758].
7
nx cpannennx: nnunt xonnt orpx apmxncxoro napx Apranasa I (55/5434), xananepnx xoroporo xnno
tna oprannsonana no nap]xncxomy opasny (cm.: Plut. Ant. 50, 4; cp.: ibid. 52, 23; Plut. Crass. 19, 1; Strabo XI, 14, 9;
cp.: ibid. XI, 4, 4), nacunrtnan 6000 rax nastnaemtx napentx crpaxe n conponoxammnx ( r r
: Plut. Crass. 19, 1). O uncnennocrn nap]xncxoro napcxoro xonrnnrenra n nsnecrno crenenn moxno cynrt no
nexnenncxo Knnre exnn Apamnpa ctna Hanaxa, omeme o nac n nepcnn VI n., n xoropo monntnoe nocxo
no nauanom Apraana IV onennnaercx n 4000 ncannxon (KnAp. IV, 8; 18; 24).
8
Cypena n nrne npn Kappax n 53 r. o n. +. xomanonan cocrnenntm nocxom ns 10 000 ncannxon (Plut.
Crass. 21, 7). Bosmoxnocrn nap]xncxo snarn cpene pyxn xocnenno emoncrpnpyer npnmep oraroro nannnoncxoro
enpex 3amapnca, xoropt n conponoxennn orpxa ns 500 xonntx nyunnxon ymen or nap]xncxnx nnacre n Cnpnm n
sarem x napm Hyen Hpoy Bennxomy (ym. n 4 r. o n. +.) (Ios. Ant. Iud. XVII, 2429) [Kennedy 1977: 529; 1996: 84].
143
mnxon, saxonanntx n ocnexn nmecre co cnonmn xonxmn. Hepnte (rpeu. j, nar. equites
sagittarii) tnn ouent nonnxnt n mornn necrn merxn n nnrentnt ocrpen nenpnxrenx ns cnonx
antnoontx cnoxnococranntx nyxon. Hsopaxennx nerxnx xonntx crpenxon nap]xncxoro rnna
mnpoxo npecrannent na namxrnnxax nosneanrnuno nxonorpa]nn ns ypa-Enponoc n pyrnx mecr
cnpncxo-meconoramcxoro npnrpannutx
9
(pnc. 1, 5; cp.: 3, 912). Apmaxnt tnn n cocroxnnn co-
part no cnon snamena ouent snaunrentnte cnnt nerxo xananepnn. Coomaercx, uro n 36 r. o n. +.
upaar IV nonen npornn Mapxa Anronnx 50 000 ncannxon, ns xoroptx rontxo 400 tnn cnoont-
mn (liberi: Iust. XLI, 2, 6), r. e. snarntmn nonnamn, cpaxanmnmncx n pxax nannnpno xonnnnt
ramaqparmoe (o nnx cm. nnxe), ocrantnte xe n cnoem ontmnncrne tnn xonntmn nyunnxamn. Hny-
rapx n paccxase o rex xe cotrnxx ronopnr, uro y upaara tno ne menee 40 000 ncannxon (Plut. Ant.
44, 2). Bo npemx rpaxancxo nont 69 r. n. +. n Pnmcxom rocyapcrne nap]xncxn napt Bonores I
npenaran Becnacnany n xauecrne noenno nomomn 40 000 xonntx crpenxon (Tac. Hist. IV, 51, 1; Suet.
Div. Vesp. 6, 4): pasymeercx, +ro tna nnmt uacrt nmemmnxcx n ero pacnopxxennn onon.
Hap]xncxne ponenocnte xananepncrt-nnxemnxn, nmenyemte n anrnuntx ncrounnxax xara-
]paxramn (rpeu. , nar. cataphracti/catafracti)
10
, crxxann cee ocoym cnany n anrnunom
mnpe n xopomo nsnecrnt xax no onncannxm n rpexo-narnncxo rpannnn
11
, rax n no namxrnnxam nso-
pasnrentnoro ncxyccrna
12
(pnc. 1, 14, 6). Kara]paxrt nanpannct npenmymecrnenno ns npecra-
nnrene menxo snarn ptnapcrna, nastnaemtx n nnctmenno rpannnn cnoontmn (= na-
ropontmn) n ncannxamn (cm. nnxe), n n uncnennom ornomennn ceptesno ycrynann nerxo xana-
nepnn nyunnxon. Tax, ecnn npn Kappax nocxo Cypent nacunrtnano 10 000 nonnon, ro ns nnx rontxo
1000 tnn xara]paxramn (ncero
1
/
10
or omero uncna) (Plut. Crass. 21, 7). B nap]xncxo apmnn,
npornnocroxnme Anronnm, ns 50 000 conar nnmt 400 tnn cnoontmn (= xara]paxramn; r. e.,
onn cocrannxnn
1
/
125
) (Iust. XLI, 2, 6). Pasmemennt n 40 r. o n. +. n Hepycannme nap]xncxn orpx
ns 210 ncannxon nxnmuan 10 cnoontx (
1
/
21
) (Ios. Ant. Iud. XIV, 342; cp.: Ios. Bell. Iud. I, 255). Tem
ne menee, n nap]xncxom raxrnuecxom ncxyccrne pont xara]paxron tna upesntuano naxno. B
uncno nx ocnonntx saau nxonnn: 1) ]ponrantnax araxa n recno comxnyrom crpom c nentm npoptna
oenoro nopxxa nenpnxrenx; 2) cepxnnanne xonrparax c ero cropont; 3) sanepmammn narncx na
npara, ceptesno emopannsonannoro merxnm n nenpexpamammnmcx ocrpenom ns nyxon [Hnxonopon
1995: 5558; Nikonorov 1997, vol. 1, 51]
13
. B ro xe npemx cneyer nouepxnyrt, uro nn xara]paxrt,
nn xonnte nyunnxn ne mornn pemnrt ncxo cpaxennx no orentnocrn: cyrt nap]xncxoro raxrnuecxo-
ro ncxyccrna saxnmuanact n crporo xoopnnannn nx ecrnn, uro oecneunnano nap]xnam noet
n oxx c nepnoxnaccno rxxeno nexoro +nnnnncrnuecxnx rocyapcrn n Pnma (camt rpomxn ns o-
memnx o nac npnmepon npnmenennx raxo raxrnxn +ro nrna npn Kappax
14
).

9
Cumont 1926: fig. 3, 4; Rostovtzeff 1931: pl. XLI, 2; XLIII, 2; 1933: pl. XXI, 1, 2; 1935: fig. 63, 64, 71, 79; 1936:
fig. 23; 1943: pl. XVIII, XIX; Hopkins 1934: pl. XXXV, 3, 4; 1939: pl. LVI, 13; Cumont, Rostovtzeff 1939: pl. XIV, XV;
Goldman 1999: 2237/A.1, 2, 410, 11, B.13; Wilcox 2003: 8, 18.
10
Hopono o ponenocno xonnnne anrnunoro mnpa cm.: Mielczarek 1993; Nikonorov 1998b; o nap]xncxnx xa-
ra]paxrax: Mielzarek 1990; 1993: 5164; 1998. Bepoxrnee ncero, xara]paxrt noxnnnnct n xonne IV nauane III n. o
n. +. xax pesyntrar noenno pe]opmt, nponeenno n cpee crenntx nnemen Cpene Asnn na ocnone ontra nx no-
paxenn or apmnn Anexcanpa Maxeoncxoro n xoe ero nocrouno xamnannn [cm.: Nikonorov 1997: vol. 1, 2023].
11
Plut. Crass. 18, 3; 21, 7; [24, 1]; 25, 5; 6; [25, 79; 27, 2]; Dio Cass. XL, 15, 2; XLIX, 20, 2; 26, 2 [cp.: XL,
22, 23]; Propert. III, 4, 8; 12, 12; cp.: IV, 3, 8; Hdn. IV, 14, 3; 15, 2; [Iust. XLI, 2, 10; Arr. Parth. fr. 20 = Suid. s. v.
]; Naz. Paneg. 24, 6 [cp.: Front. Princ. hist. 16].
12
Gall 1990b: 1130, Abb. 1, 3, 10, Taf. 18; 1996: 6871, Abb. 4; Rostovtzeff 1933: pl. XXII; Kraeling, Welles
1967: 9394, fig. 10; Xasanon 1971: ran. XXIX, 4, 5; Wilcox 2003: 7, 17; Goldman 1999: 3234/A.14. Cneyer orme-
rnrt, uro xonnte nyunnxn n xara]paxrt, xoropte nsopaxent na rpa]]nrn, nnnnrn n reppaxorax, nponcxoxmnx ns
anrnuntx cnoen pennnx ropoon Cnpnn n Meconoramnn (cm., nanpnmep, pnc. 1, 35), otuno paccmarpnnamrcx n
nayuno nnreparype xax opast nap]xncxnx nonnon. B nacroxme crarte x npnepxnnamct +ro arpnynnn, nocxont-
xy annte namxrnnxn ncxyccrna orpaxamr nmenno nap]xncxym npaxrnxy noennoro ena, axe ecnn nx nepconaxn n
ne xnnxmrcx +rnnuecxnmn nap]xnamn (cp. pnc. 3, 912, re, cxopee ncero, noxasant xonnte crpenxn ns uncna mecrntx
xnrene ypa-Enponoc n Xarpt). Ocoo cneyer cxasart o snamennrom rpa]]nrn ns ypa-Enponoc c nsopaxennem
araxymmero xara]paxra (pnc. 1, 4). 3ror pncynox tn nanecen na creny uacrnoro oma, nocrpoennoro n 232/3 r. n. +., a
n 240-e rr. nepecrpoennoro n xpncrnancxym nepxont. Ipa]]nrn tno naueprano n nepnt nepno cymecrnonannx
+roro sannx [Kraeling, Welles 1967: 3739], r. e. yxe 1015 ner cnycrx nocne naennx nnacrnn Apmaxnon, onaxo
npecrannennt na nem rnn noennoro cnapxxennx xnnxercx, necomnenno, nap]xncxnm.
13
B xauecrne eme ono oeno saaun xara]paxron nastnaercx oxpyxenne npaxecxoro crpox [Xasanon 1971:
72], onaxo raxo raxrnuecxn mero nnxax ne sa]nxcnponan n penne nnctmenno rpannnn, n, onee roro, on ena
nn tn nosmoxen no npnunne nx cpannnrentno manouncnennocrn.
14
Hanonee erantno xo +roro cpaxennx onncan Hnyrapxom n nonom Kaccnem (Plut. Crass. 23, 827, 2; Dio
Cass. XL, 21, 124, 1); o ero cocrnenno noennom acnexre n nap]xncxo raxrnxe cm.: Hnxonopon 1995; Nikonorov
144
B xauecrne ononnnrentnoro pecypca nononnennx xonnnnt nap]xncxnx nape cnyxnnn noopy-
xennte cnnt nx comsnnxon n naccanon npexe ncero, nape Apmennn, xoropte pacnonarann ont-
mnm uncnom xax xara]paxron, rax n xonntx nyunnxon (Plut. Crass. 19, 1; Plut. Ant. 50, 4; Strabo XI, 4,
4; 14, 9). Ceptesnym nomory ncannxamn mornn oxasart Apmaxnam raxxe n onaanmne snaunrent-
ntmn cnnamn xananepnn npannrenn Mnnn (Strabo XI, 13, 2; Plut. Ant. 52, 3; cp.: ibid. 39, 9) n neont-
mnx cenepomeconoramcxnx rocyapcrn Anaent (Ios. Ant. Iud. XX, 86) n Ocpoent
15
. Kpome roro,
Apmaxnt n nx naccant nnora nonyuann noepxxy co cropont orentntx npannrene apanncxnx
apaon (Dio Cass. LXVIII, 22, 2).
Hap]xncxax nexora tna, xax npannno, nemnorouncnenno n cocroxna n ocnonnom ns nyunnxon
( ), nanpanmnxcx ns onee entx (P), uem xananepncrt, nme
(Dio Cass. XL, 15, 2) +ro coomenne onpeenenno ronopnr ne rontxo o nesnaunrentno raxrnuec-
xo ponn nemnx conar n apmaxncxo apmnn, no n o nx npnnnxennom connantnom craryce. B +ro
cnxsn sacnyxnnaer nnnmannx cneymmn naccax ns Hcropnn Homnex Tpora n nepeaue Rcrnna
(Iust. XLI, 3, 4): y nap]xn nnemnee pasnnune mexy nmtmn naropontmn (cnoontmn: liberi) n
sanncnmtmn or nnx (paamn: servi) saxnmuaercx n rom, uro nepnte esxr na xonxx, a nropte xoxr
nemxom. Ecrecrnenno, ne cneyer nocnpnnnmart +ry nn]opmannm yxnantno, onaxo ona nnonne or-
paxaer connantnym n noennym oprannsannm nap]xncxoro omecrna, cnoxnnmymcx n nocrouno uac-
rn nmnepnn Apmaxnon, n pamxax xoropo npecrannrenn pasntx n nepapxnuecxom n nmymecrnen-
nom ornomennxx xareropn nacenennx, cnxsanntx cnonm nponcxoxennem c xouentmn ocnonarenxmn
Hap]xncxo epxant, cnyxnnn ncxnmunrentno n xonnnne (cm. nnxe, c. 147)
16
. B apmaxncxym
+noxy repmnn ncannx npnnxn snauenne snarnt uenonex, ptnapt xax npornnonocrannenne
cnony nexornnen, xoropoe crano cnnonnmom nonxrnx npocronmnn [Shahbazi 1987b: 728].
Hpnnnxennoe nonoxenne nexort n nocxe Apmaxnon, xoneuno xe, ne osnauano, uro ee pont n
noenntx xamnannxx tna n nonce nesnaunrentno: nomnmo ncnonnennx ncnomorarentntx oxsannoc-

1997: vol. 1, 51; cp.: Brizzi 1983: 930; Mielczarek 1990; 1993: 4244. O cxoopnnnponannom nsanmoecrnnn nerxo
n rxxeno xananepnn xax ocnonononarammem raxrnuecxom npnnnnne npnmenennx xara]paxron cm. raxxe: Hyrauen-
xona 1966: 31, 43; Xasanon 1971: 75, 93; Gabba 1974: 3132; Coulston 1986: 6061; cp.: Shahbazi 1987a: 498. 3ameuy,
uro n nccneonarentcxo nnreparype uacro ncrpeuaercx nenpannntnoe nonnmanne nap]xncxo raxrnxn. Tax, tno nt-
cxasano mnenne, uro nmenno xara]paxrt, naroapx cnonm nnxam n nyxam, nosnonxnmnm nm onnaxono ycnemno cpa-
xartcx xax n nnxnem om, rax n na ncrannnn, npnnecnn nap]xnam noey npn Kappax [Toncron 1948: 211227;
Fnanarcxn 1954: 114, npnmeu. 8; Menmxona 1964: 84]. C pyro cropont, cunraercx, uro rnannym pont rora ctrpa-
nn xonnte nyunnxn [Tarn 1930: 8991; Hildinger 1997: 4647], a nap]xncxne ponnponannte ncannxn ncnontso-
nannct cxopee nx ncnxonornuecxoro nosecrnnx, uem n xauecrne ocnonno cnnt [upa 1972: 268269]. Cornacno
eme ono rouxe spennx, pemammnmn n nrne npn Kappax oxasannct noxnt manenp nap]xn n omnxn camnx pnmnxn,
a ne rexnonornuecxoe npenocxocrno nnn raxrnxa nap]xncxnx xara]paxron [Eadie 1967: 164].
15
Cornacno xocnenntm anntm, npannrenn nacenenno apaamn Ocpoent nmenn n cnoem pacnopxxennn mno-
rouncnennym rxxenym n nerxym xonnnny: n 115 r. n. +. Arap VII npenoxnn n ap pnmcxomy nmneparopy Tpaxny
xone, 250 xara]paxron, nannnpn nx ncannxon n nomae, a raxxe 60 000 crpen (Arr. Parth. fr. 47). Bo npemx
pnmcxo-nap]xncxnx xon]nnxron ocpoencxne nnacrt otuno, rano nnn xnno, npnnnmann cropony nap]xn (Plut.
Crass. 21, 14; 22, 1, 35; 28, 57; Dio Cass. XL, 20, 121, 1; 22, 1; 23, 12; Tac. Ann. VI, 44, 5; XII, 12, 2; 3; 14, 1).
16
3ra ocoennocrt oprannsannn noopyxenntx cnn Hap]nn, xoneuno xe, xopennnact n cnenn]nxe noennoro
ena pennnx nomaon Henrpantno Asnn n n nx menrannrere. Onn ne rontxo npenounrann cpaxartcx xonntmn, no n
noome ne paccmarpnnann nemn o xax onecrt, a xoxenne nemxom nx myxunnt cunrann enom nenpecrnxntm
n axe nosopntm (Amm. Marc. XXXI, 2, 20: o ananax) [cm. raxxe: Hnxonopon 2002a: 247, npnmeu. 31]. Bectma noxa-
sarentno, uro n anrnuno, apmxncxo, apacxo n nepcncxo nnctmenntx rpannnxx neonoxparno nouepxnnaercx,
uro nx apmxncxnx n nepcncxnx nape cam ]axr cnemnnannx no mnornx cnyuaxx xnnxncx axrom ouent ceptesnoro ynn-
xennx [Garsoan 1976: 217219, n. 53, 54], a ns +nnuecxo rpannnn, orpaxamme peannn cacanncxoro n onee pan-
nero npemenn, cneyer, uro npancxax snart noome npesnpana xoty nemxom axe na xoporxoe paccroxnne [Shahbazi
1987b: 729]. Heestnrepecno ormernrt n +ro cnxsn, uro n sopoacrpncxom anoxannnrnuecxom counnennn xamacn-
namax, nexoropte marepnant ns xoroporo, nnnmo, nocxoxr x nap]xncxomy npemenn [cm.: Boyce 1989: 127], cpen
crpamntx norpxcenn, oxnammnx Hpan, npecxastnaercx n raxo npornnoecrecrnennt, c rouxn spennx ero anropa,
connantnt xaraxnnsm: Bcannx (asr) craner nemnm (paak), a nemn ncannxom. Pat (bandakn) nsoyr na
nyrt snarntx (ztn) (xH: 3536) [Tafazzoli 2000: 14]. Hpana, Kceno]onr n cnoem ncenoncropnuecxom pomane
Knponenx, nanncannom mexy 386 n 355 rr. o n. +., yrnepxan, uro eme co npemen Knpa Bennxoro (550530)
nepct naroponoro nponcxoxennx nepennrannct ncxnmunrentno na nomaxx (Xen. Cyr. IV, 3, 23). Onaxo xopomo
nsnecrno, uro nepct axemenncxo +noxn, nxnmuax snart, cnyxnnn ne rontxo n xonntx, no n n nexorntx +nnrntx
uacrxx (Hdt. VII, 41), n nce onn n nospacre or 20 o 50 ner xax xananepncrt n nemne yuacrnonann n xamnannxx n xa-
uecrne nonnon n xomannpon (Strabo XV, 3, 19). a n cam napt apn I (522486) n cnoe nanncn ns Haxm-n Pycrama
(DNb 4145) c ropocrtm ronopnr, uro on onnaxono xopomn oen n xax nexornnen, n xax ncannx [Kent 1953: 139,
140]. nx npancxoro nnatxn nap]xncxoro nnn cacanncxoro npemenn noonoe saxnnenne, n cnny tronanmnx rora
npecrannenn o rom, uro nonncxax onecrt +ro cpaxartcx rontxo n xauecrne xananepncra, tno t nemtcnnmo.
145
re (cnyxa npn oose, nnxenepno-crponrentnte paort n r. n.), nemee nonncrno tno nesamennmo
no npemx oentx ecrnn n ropntx mecrnocrxx n npn ocaax ropoon. Hpn neoxonmocrn nap]xn-
cxne napn mornn conpart no cnonmn snamenamn ouent snaunrentnte cnnt nexort (Ios. Ant. Iud.
XX, 86), noxptnax cnon norpenocrn n ne, xax npannno, sa cuer cnonx naccanon n comsnnxon. Tax,
apmxne mornn npeocrannrt nap]xnam ne menee 30 000 nexornnnen (Plut. Crass. 19, 1), a npannrenn
Mnnn Arponarent noome tnn n cocroxnnn ntcrannrt na none ox o 40 000 nemnx nonnon
(Strabo XI, 13, 2). Anrnunte ncrounnxn (Tac. Ann. XII, 13, 1; 14, 1; XV, 2, 4; 4, 3; cp.: Dio Cass.
LXVIII, 22, 2) n cnpncxax Xponnxa Apent (VI n.) [Hnrynencxax 1956: 8485, 90; Anemant 2003:
501502] ormeuamr exrentnoe yuacrne n noenntx xamnannxx nap]xn orpxon ns Anaent, npnuem
n Xponnxe Apent paccxastnaercx, uro n 135 r. n. +. n noxo npornn ananon (?) ntcrynnna 20-
rtcxunax apmnx nap]xn n anaennen, xoropax, nocxontxy noenart npecroxno n ropax, nennxom coc-
roxna ns nexornnnen. B cocrane nocx nocnenero apmaxncxoro napx nape Apraana IV ynomnna-
mrcx enemnrt nonnt ns ropno onacrn enem (enaman) na mro-sananom noepexte Kac-
nncxoro mopx (KnAp. VII, 5; BH: V/crx. 4657) [Widengren 1971: 742, 743, 775, 776; Tafazzoli 2000:
6], xoropte tnn xopomo noopyxenntmn nexornnnamn, ycnemno cpaxanmnmncx n nnxnem om n
npexpacno nororonnenntmn x noenntm ecrnnxm n ropntx ycnonnxx n x ocantm onepannxm
17
.
Bpemx or npemenn Apmaxnt npnnnexann x cnyxe n nexore nnenntx cenenxncxnx n pnmcxnx
conar. Tax, n 128 r. o n. +. upaar IV nocne noet na cenenxncxnm napem Anrnoxom VII nnen n
cnom apmnm saxnauenntx n nnen nonnon nocnenero n pocnn nx n o npornn nroprmnxcx n npe-
ent Hap]nn xouennnxon-cxn]on, onaxo rpexn n camt pemammn momenr cpaxennx, xora nparn
crann oonenart nap]xn, nepemnn na nx cropony n ocymecrnnnn onroxannym mecrt sa [cno]
nnen, [ynnuroxnn] n xponano pesne nap]xncxoe nocxo n camoro napx upaara (Iust. XLII, 1, 45).
pyro nsnecrnt npnmep: nocne pasrpoma Mapxa Kpacca n 53 r. o n. +. nnennte pnmcxne nernonept
tnn nocenent n anexo Maprnane (Plin. NH VI, 47; Solin. 48, 3), n, no xpane mepe, uacrt ns nnx
tna saecrnonana na nap]xncxo noenno cnyxe (Flor. II, 20, 45; Vell. Pat. II, 82, 2; cp.: Hor.
Carm. III, 5, 59; Dio Cass. LIV, 8, 1; Iust. XLII, 5, 11)
18
. Ouennno, ra xe yuacrt noxnana n rex
pnmnxn, xoropte tnn nsxrt n nnen n xoe pyrnx neyauntx xamnann npornn nap]xn, n uacrnocrn,
Mapxa Anronnx
19
. Haxonen, ns ranmynuecxo nnreparypt nsnecrno, uro +xsnnapxn (rnant) nye-
cxnx omnn Cenepno Meconoramnn n cnyuae nont tnn oxsant noctnart ncnomorarentnte xon-
rnnrenrt n apmnm nap]xn [Foxmannn 1966: 137; Hyxonnn 1987: 136]. Ho-nnnmomy, +rn orpxt
cocroxnn npenmymecrnenno ns nexornnnen, xorx nexoropte saxnrounte enpen ns Bannnonnn pacno-
narann n cocrnenntmn xonntmn pyxnnamn (cm. npnmeu. 8).
Bnpouem, xaxo t snaunrentno nn tna nopo pont nexort n noenntx xamnannxx nap]xn,
rnannoe mecro n nx noennom ncxyccrne esoronopouno npnnanexano xonnomy nonncrny. He cnyua-
no conpemennnxn yrnepxann, uro ncx momt nap]xn saxnmuaercx n nx xananepnn (x l, |
P: Plut. Crass. 19, 1). Fes cront oecnocono noenno oprannsannn, xoropym cosann
Apmaxnt, ecrecrnenno, tno t nenosmoxno nn ycranonnenne nx nonnrnuecxoro xonrponx na
mnorouncnenntmn napoamn n semnxmn, nomemnmn n cocran Hap]xncxo nmnepnn, nn n nenom
ycnemnoe npornnocroxnne n nonax c moryunm Pnmom
20
.

17
Hmenno rax onnctnamr enemnron nnsanrncxne ncrounnxn VI n., xora re n xauecrne onnaunnaemtx coms-
nnxon cpaxannct n cocrane cacanncxnx nocx (Procop. Bell. VIII, 14, 510, 12; Agath. III, 17, 69; cp.: ibid. 28, 67)
[Felix 1996; Bosworth 1999: 160, n. 405].
18
B oxymenre Nov 280 ns apxnna Crapo Hnct ]nrypnpymr na nnna, nocxmne snanne tgmdr (nauantnnx
rarmt), cocroxmee ns nyx uacre rpeu. (orpx) n nap]. dr (nauantcrnymmn). Hpenonaraercx, uro
+ro snanne xantxa c pnmcxoro noennoro repmnna n rpeuecxo nepeaue (xomannp orpxa), noxnnn-
meecx n nap]xncxom noennom nexcnxone xax pas n cnxsn c enopranne nonnon Kpacca n nocrounte paont Hap]nn,
re onn tnn oprannsonant n orpxt no nauanom nap]xncxnx rarmaapon n, n rom uncne, rpynnnct na centcxo-
xosxcrnenntx paorax [txxonon, Hnnmnn 1966:148152; cp.: Bader 1996: 269270]. Kcrarn, cnono rarma n nex-
nenncxo ]opme tmy xax oosnauenne nonncxoro nopasenennx sa]nxcnponano n nanncn, ocrannenno cacann-
cxnmn conaramn n cnnarore ypa-Enponoc [Hyxonnn 1987: 266, npnmeu. 62].
19
Cymecrnyer mnenne, uro nnennte cenenxncxne n pnmcxne conart cnyxnnn nap]xnam n xauecrne naemnn-
xon [Wolski 1965: 107], onaxo nonce ne ncxnmueno, uro onn necnn cnyxy na npnnynrentno ocnone, nonyuax onpe-
enennoe coepxanne or rocyapcrna xax sa cno parnt rpy, rax n sa xosxcrnennym exrentnocrt n mnpnoe npemx.
20
B cnonx neannnx paorax no ncropnn pnmcxo apmnn A. K. Ioncyopcn aer onontno ynnunxnrentnym
xapaxrepncrnxy noennoro ena nap]xn. B uacrnocrn, on nnmer: 3]]exrnnnocrt nap]xncxo apmnn n snaunrentno
crenenn nepeonenena, rnanntm opasom ns-sa nenpannntnoro nonnmannx nrnt npn Kappax. Ono ns npnunn nopa-
xennx npn Kappax tno ro, uro Kpacc pyxononn necanancnponanno apmne Ecnn canancnponannax apmnx ep-
xnrcx nmecre n ne enaer omnox, axe nnraxct n oenom nopxxe, ro nap]xncxoe nocxo ne morno naexrtcx nonrt
ee axe na orxptrom npocrpancrne [Goldsworthy 1998: 67]. Taxoe saxnmuenne cnennanncra no pnmcxnm noenntm
146
Bnnxnne nap]xn na noennoe eno pannnx Cacannon tno oycnonneno nymx ocnonntmn ]ax-
ropamn: (1) nepexoom rnan snarntx nap]xncxnx poon nmecre co cnonmn noopyxenntmn cnnamn na
cropony noenrene nx nuepamnnx cmsepenon-Apmaxnon, n (2) coxpanennem n Hpane npn Cacann-
ax n nenom ro moenn noenno oprannsannn omecrna, xoropax cnoxnnact eme n nap]xncxym +no-
xy. Hepnt ]axrop ocrarouno ouennen n cnere rexcron nannce cacanncxnx maxanmaxon nropo
nononnnt III n. n. +. Banypa I na Kaae-n 3apymr n Haxm-n Pycrame (cocrannena mexy 260 n
262 rr.) n Hapce n Haxynn (mexy 293 n 296 rr.). Cornacno +rnm anntm, snarnemne nap]xncxne
]amnnnn, cpen xoroptx, n nepnym ouepet, cneyer nasnart Kapenon n Cypenon, axe nocne nae-
nnx Apmaxnon (ox. 224 r.) sannmann n nepapxnuecxo crpyxrype rocyapcrna nepntx Cacannon ca-
moe nouernoe mecro, ycrynax nepnencrno rontxo nepcncxo +nnre, cnxsanno pocrnom c npanxme
nnacrne [Huyse 1999: Bd. 1, 5455, 58; Bd. 2, 135137, 155; Skjrv 1983: 3334, 4243; upa
1972: 288289, 295296; Frye 1984: 295296, 316; Hyxonnn 1987: 120, 165]. Hs naxyntcxo na-
nncn nsnecrno, uro nap]xncxax apncroxparnx no npemx nonnrnuecxoro xpnsnca 293 r. ntcrynnna na
cropone Hapce n nomorna emy saxnarnrt cacanncxn rpon, npnuem nap]xne ncera ynomnnamrcx n ee
rexcre n y+re c nepcamn, na nropom mecre [Skjrv 1983: 29, 31, 3334, 4243, 63, 64, 67, 68;
Hyxonnn 1987: 163, 165, 168]. He moxer trt nnxaxnx comnenn n rom, uro Apamnp I n ero nacne-
nnxn rontxo npn noepxxe xpynnemnx ]amnnn nap]xncxoro nponcxoxennx cmornn ocymecrnnrt
nporpammy tcrporo oennennx ncero Hpana no cnoe +rno, a raxxe ycnemno noenart c rpos-
ntmn npornnnnxamn Pnmom na sanae n Kymanamn na nocroxe. Ho nce nnnmocrn, Apamnp
nmen cnoe rnanno nentm nnxnnannm npanxme nnacrnn Apmaxnon c rem, urot nmecre co
cnonm poom sanxrt ee mecro. Ena nn on namepenancx ncxopennrt ncm cncremy nap]xncxo nnacrn,
rem onee uro n cnoe anrnapmaxncxo exrentnocrn on onontno tcrpo namen croponnnxon n
nnne oraremnx nap]xncxnx apncroxparon
21
, xnno neonontntx nonoxennem, cnoxnnmnmcx n rocy-
apcrne npn nocnennx Apmaxnax Bonorese VI n Apraane IV, n ne xenanmnx xeprnonart coo
pan samnrt nx nnrepecon. Pesyntrar cocroxnmerocx nnacrnnoro nepenopora onxen tn nx
ycrponrt: mecro ocnaenmero or nenpeptnntx nnyrpennnx n nnemnnx non npanxmero xnana Apma-
xnon renept sanxn amnnnosnt nepcncxn po Cacannon, uro, n cnom ouepet, npnneno x ycnne-
nnm Hpana n noenno-nonnrnuecxom ornomennn; cama xe ntcmax nap]xncxax snart coxpannna cnon
orarcrna n npexnee npnnnnernponannoe nonoxenne, uro moxno nanmart na npnmepe nncrarent-
no cytt Cypenon n Kapenon n cacanncxoe npemx
22
. Tax nastnaemax anrnnap]xncxax peaxnnx

pennocrxm, n ntcme crenenn neoexrnnnoe, xnnxercx pesyntrarom ero onocroponne nnrepnperannn anntx
rpexo-pnmcxo nnctmenno rpannnn n nectma nonepxnocrntx npecrannenn o nap]xncxom noennom ene noome
[cm.: Goldsworthy 1998: 6068; 2000: 131136]. Hosnonm cee n +ro cnxsn nnmt samernrt, uro axe n 166 r. n. +.,
r. e. ncero sa 60 ner o xpymennx Hap]xncxoro rocyapcrna, snamennrt pnmcxn oparop Mapx Kopnenn uponron,
esycnonno, xopomo ocneomnennt n conpemenntx emy noenntx peannxx, yrnepxan, uro ns ncex napoon rontxo
nap]xne xnnxmrcx ocrontmn npornnnnxamn Pnma (soli hominum Parthi adversus populum Romanum hostile nomen
haud umquam contemnendum gesserunt: Front. Princ. hist. 6). Hsnecrno raxxe, uro pnmnxne, cronxnynmnct c ouent cept-
esntmn nponemamn n opte npornn nap]xncxnx xara]paxron n nerxnx xonntx nyunnxon, tnn ntnyxent paspa-
artnart cnennantnte raxrnuecxne npnemt nx connaannx c nnmn [cm.: Campbell 1987: 2427, 29; 1993: 217218].
21
Cornacno Hcropnn Apmennn Monceca Xopenann, Apamnpa noepxann nourn nce morymecrnennte nap-
]xncxne xnant, sa ncxnmuennem Kapenon, xoropte ocrannct nepntmn nocnenemy apmaxncxomy napm Apraany n
tnn sa +ro nourn norononno ncrpenent nepcamn (MX II, 7174; 87). Bnpouem, +ra nn]opmannx ena nn ocronepna,
nocxontxy po Kapenon n ecrnnrentnocrn coxpannn cnoe ntcoxoe nonoxenne n npn Cacannax (cm. npnmeu. 22).
Iopaso onee npanonoono yrnepxenne pyroro penneapmxncxoro ncrounnxa, Ara]anrena, o rom, uro ncx es
ncxnmuennx nap]xncxax apncroxparnx npnnxna cropony nepcon [Xanartxnn 1903: 121; Widengren 1971: 779; Tep-
Mxprnuxn 1979: 41]. Xopenann xe, asnpyxct n cnoem nonecrnonannn o opte apmxncxoro napx Xocpona I npornn
Apamnpa I n ocnonnom na anntx ns rpya Ara]anrena, n ro xe npemx oannxer or cex nexoropte erann, n rom
uncne n ouent comnnrentnt paccxas o pasrpome nepntm Cacannom poa Kapenon [Xanartxnn 1903: 123].
22
O camtx snarntx npancxnx ]amnnnxx nap]xno-cacanncxoro npemenn cm.: Nldeke 1879: 437440; Herzfeld
1932: 5285; Christensen 1944: 18, 20, 2526, 103105; upa 1972: 262; Frye 1984: 226; Karras-Klapproth 1988: 48
49, 165171; Garsoan 1989: 382383, 409410. unent poa Cypenon, ue rnannt omen pacnonarancx na nocroxe
Hpana, n Cencrane, tnn ocoenno nnnxrentnt npn nope xax Apmaxnon, rax n Cacannon. Camt nsnecrnt
nap]xncxn Cypena noenrent Mapxa Kpacca npn Kappax sannman no orarcrny, nponcxoxennm n cnane nro-
poe mecro nocne napx (Plut. Crass. 21, 6). Inana +roro xnana nmen upesntuano npecrnxnym npnnnnernm xopononart
nap]xncxnx monapxon ns poa Apmaxnon npn nx ncrynnennn na npecron (Plut. Crass. 21, 8; Tac. Ann. VI, 42, 4). Hpe-
nonaraercx, uro npn Apmaxnax n nepntx Cacannax (o Banypa II) Cypent ncnonnxnn oxsannocrn nauantnnxa
xananepnn ncero napcrna [Chaumont 1961: 298304, 310313] (o +ro onxnocrn cm. nnxe, c. 149150). B caca-
nncxoe npemx nanontmym nsnecrnocrt nonyunn Cypena, xnnxnmncx rnannoxomanymmnm apmne maxanmaxa Ba-
nypa II (309379): n uacrnocrn, on nosrnannxn nepcncxne nocxa, npornnocroxnmne pnmcxomy nropxennm n 363 r.
(Amm. Marc. XXIV, 2, 4; 3, 1; 4, 7; 6, 12; XXV, 7, 5; XXX, 2, 5; 7; Zosim. III, 15, 5; 19, 1; 20, 4; 25, 5; 31, 1; Malal. XIII,
147
ecrnnrentno nmena mecro n Hpane, no yxe npn nosnnx Cacannax n no nnonne nposanuecxnm
npnunnam
23
.
Tenept ornocnrentno nroporo ]axropa. Cnennantnte nccneonannx, npnopnrer n xoroptx npn-
nanexnr I. A. Komenenxo, noxastnamr, uro n xopenntx, nocrountx onacrxx Apmaxncxo nmne-
pnn noennax oprannsannx nap]xncxoro omecrna, no cyrn, connaana c connantno crpyxrypo. Ona
tna erepmnnnponana camnm ]axrom xouennnuecxoro sanoenannx n orpaxana ry cncremy omecrnen-
no nepapxnn anapnon-axon, xoropax cnoxnnact na nx crenno ponne eme o npnxoa na cenepo-
nocrox Hpana. Camym nepxnmm uacrt connantno nnpamnt sannman npanxmn xnan Apmaxnon,
cocpeorounnmn n cnonx pyxax ncm nepxonnym nnacrt n rocyapcrne. 3a nnm cneonann nca-
nnxn noromxn anapno-axcxnx sanoenarene, xoropte ennnnct na ne rpynnt: (1) apncroxpart,
n rom uncne npecrannrenn ntcmero nap]xncxoro nonnnrera (Cypent, Kapent n p.), onpeenxemte
n ncrounnxax xax cnoonte, asart n yuacrnonanmne n noenntx xamnannxx n xauecrne xara]pax-
ron; (2) unent pxontx anapno-axcxnx poon, cocrannxnmne ocnonno no uncnennocrn xonrnnrenr
apmaxncxoro nocxa nerxonoopyxenntx xonntx nyunnxon. B nnxne uacrn connantno necrnn-
nt pacnonarannct ne rpynnt +xcnnyarnpyemoro nacenennx sanncnmoe omnnnoe xpecrtxncrno an-
roxronnoro nponcxoxennx (nenart) n pat, npecrannxnmne camte pasnnunte napnanrt pacxo
sanncnmocrn [nopono cm.: Koelenko 1980; Ianon, Komenenxo, Cepnrtx 1992: 4749].
Xorx c npenoxenntm I. A. Komenenxo napnanrom connantno crpyxrypt Hap]xncxoro nap-
crna moxno cornacnrtcx ne no ncex eranxx [cm.: Hnxonopon 1992; Olbrycht 2003: 7789], rem ne
menee, cneyer npnsnart naxnocrt xopomo aprymenrnpyemoro nm ntnoa o cymecrnonannn n Hap]nn
cnox noenno snarn ncannxon (npana, c ro oronopxo, uro +ror repmnn, cxopee ncero, ne pac-
npocrpanxncx na nonnon-npocronmnnon anapno-axcxoro nponcxoxennx, cnyxnnmnx n nerxo xa-
nanepnn
24
). K nemy, n uacrnocrn, npnnanexan ncannx sbr(y) (= asbr) no nmenn Cacan,
xoropt ynomxnyr n nap]xncxom ocrpaxe 1669 (= Nov. 280-bis), arnponannom 72 r. o n. +., ns nn-
noxpannnnma Crapo Hnct [txxonon, Hnnmnn 1966: 141142; Diakonoff, Livshits 1998: 148;
Hnnmnn 1979: 99; Bader 1996: 270, 271]. Tam sanncano, uro Cacan cenan nsnoc nnna or cex, r. e.,
cxopee ncero, ynnarnn n xasny noart (apennym nnary) c nonyuennoro nm sa cnyxy sementnoro
naena [Hnnmnn 1979: 99]. Hnrepecno, uro cnono ncannx n +rom oxymenre npnneeno n penne-
nepcncxo ]opme asabra, nsnecrno eme no nanncxm apnx I (DB 2.71; 3.41, 72; DNb 4142, 44,
45) [Kent 1953: 122, 124128, 139, 140; Bader 1996: 271; Olbrycht 2003: 81]. Bnpouem, +ror repmnn

p. 335, 7; 11; 336, 1). Hoono cnoemy anexomy npexy, npocnannnmemycx npn Kappax, +ror Cypena raxxe cunrancx
nroptm nnnom n rocyapcrne nocne napx (Amm. Marc. XXIV, 2, 4; XXX, 2, 5). unent oma Cypenon uacro ntnonnxnn
oxsannocrn noenauantnnxon n namecrnnxon nonnacrntx nepcam sement (MX III, 64; 65; uancroc IV, 33; 36; V, 38;
Men. Fr. 6, 1; 16, 1; Theophyl. Sim. III, 5, 14; 6, 3; 9, 9; Theophan. Byz. Fr. 3). Hpecrannrenn pyro ouent snarno
]amnnnn nap]xncxoro nponcxoxennx Kapenon, utn nnaennx naxonnnct n Mnnn, roxe nepno cnyxnnn Caca-
nnam. B uacrnocrn, onn ns Kapenon n 368371 rr. xomanonan nepcncxo apmne, ecrnonanme n Apmennn
(uancroc IV, 55; 58; V, 1). Ornptcx +roro poa Cyxpa npocnannncx n xamnannn npornn +]rannron nocne rnenn maxan-
maxa Heposa (484) n nrpan upesntuano naxnym pont npn nope ero npeemnnxon Banama n Kanaa I (Taapn: 120
121, 126128, 130133, 135, 138140, 271 [N] = 110111, 116118, 120, 126128, 130132, 302 [B]) [Christen-
sen 1944: 294297, 336]. B VI n. Kapen no nmenn xnann ncnonnxn oxsannocrn namecrnnxa Xopacana (nnanapn:
125126) [Konecnnxon 1970: 54, 63]. B nepno apacxoro sanoenannx Hpana (nropax rpert VII n.) unent +roro xnana
npnnxnn axrnnnoe yuacrne n oopone Cacanncxoro rocyapcrna [Konecnnxon 1982: 57, 145, 211]. Hocnenn ns ns-
necrntx Kapenon, Masnap, ncxope nocne npnnxrnx nm ncnama ntcrynnn npornn raxnpncxnx namecrnnxon Xopacana n
tn xasnen n 225 r. x. (840 r.) [Bosworth 1999: 117118, n. 298]. Haxonen, ntcoxoe mecro n noenno-nonnrnuecxo
xnsnn cacanncxoro Hpana sannman nap]xncxn no nponcxoxennm po Mnxpan (cm. npnmeu. 23 n 30).
23
Cyryo orpnnarentnoe ornomenne cacanncxnx nnatx x nap]xnam tno nnnnnnponano Kanaom I (488
531) n ero ctnom Xocponom I (531579) n xauecrne neonornuecxoro oocnonannx nx crpemnennx x ycnnennm monap-
me nnacrn sa cuer ymentmennx nnnxnnx xpynnemnx apncroxparnuecxnx ]amnnn, uacrt xoroptx nmena nap]xncxne
xopnn. Anrnnap]xncxn anraronnsm, ouennno, ocoenno ycnnnncx n npannenne Xocpona II (591628), nocxontxy
nnacrt y nero ocnapnnan Faxpam uynn, xoropt npnnanexan x poy Mnxpan, pocrnennomy nap]xncxomy npanxme-
my omy Apmaxnon [Nldeke 1879: 139140, Anm. 3, 438439; Bosworth 1999: 131, n. 340], n ntcrynan no nosyn-
rom nosnpamennx Apmaxnon na rpon nnatx Hpana (BH: VI/crx. 15 13715 154) [Shahbazi 1989: 521]. B pesyntrare
n nosnecacanncxo neonornn nap]xncxn nepno cran paccmarpnnartcx xax npemx pasnaa n xaoca, a n oxonuarent-
no cnoxnnmecx rora xe o]nnnantno ncropnn Hpana, nsnecrno xax Khvady-nmag (Knnra nape), ero apmaxn-
cxomy npomnomy tno orneeno nnuroxno mano mecra [cm.: Yarshater 1983: 473476].
24
Ananornuntm tno enenne nocxa n apmaxncxo Apmennn: ram, napxy c xananepne ns unenon snarntx
poon (azatani ayruji), cymecrnonana raxxe xonnnna ns npocronmnnon (amik ayruji) [Hepnxanxn 1983: 17; cp.:
Garsoan 1989: 573574]. Baxno ormernrt n +ro cnxsn, uro na noennym oprannsannm Apmennn nap]xncxn Hpan
oxasan ouent cnntnoe nnnxnne [cm.: Chaumont 1987b: 436437], a anrnunax rpannnx onpeenenno cnnerentcrnyer o
cxoxecrn noopyxennx n raxrnxn nap]xncxo n apmxncxo xonnnnt eme n I n. o n. +. (cm. npnmeu. 7).
148
cymecrnonan n n cocrnenno nap]xncxom nanncannn: xax spbrk (= aspwrag) on sa]nxcnponan na
nap]xncxom ocrpaxe III n. n. +. ns Ixyp-xant n Crapom Mepne [Livshits, Nikitin 1991: 116117; Bader
1996: 271] n xax spwr (= aspwr) n 3- xnnre cpenenepcncxo +nnnxnonenn X n. enxapr
(enxapr: 241/l. 17) [Widengren 1957: 170, n. 2; txxonon, Hnnmnn 1966: 142; Olbrycht 1993: 81].
B Knnre exnn Apamnpa ctna Hanaxa (VI n.) ncannxn (aswrn) neonoxparno ynomn-
namrcx n cocrane cnnrt n nocxa xax nocnenero nap]xncxoro napx Apraana IV, rax n nepnoro caca-
nncxoro maxanmaxa Apamnpa I n nexoroptx ns comsnnxon n nparon nocnenero (KnAp. II, 13; 15;
IV, 18; 24; VI, 5; 7; VIII, 2; 7; X, 1; 9; 17; XI, 8; XII, 6; 15; XIII, 15; 16; XVII, 1; 4; 7; 8; 10; 15). Homn-
mo cpenenepcncxnx, apacxne n rpeuecxne ncrounnxn raxxe onpeenenno ronopxr o cacanncxnx
ncannxax (apa. aswirah, rpeu. ) xax o ocoo connantno rpynne n cmtcne snarntx
nonnon, ptnapcrna [Nldeke 1879: 441; Christensen 1944: 112, 265, 368369; Widengren 1957:
170176; 1976: 287292; cp.: Bosworth 1987; 1999: 101, n. 258; Skjrv 1987]. B r. n. Cacanncxom
cyennxe, cocrannennom oxono 620 r., necxontxo pas peut ner o cnncxe ncannxon (aswr-nipk)
(Cyennx A16, 11, 13, 1516; A17, 1; A19, 25; cp.: BH: V/crx. 59715972; 6085; VI/crx. 1928)
[Hepnxanxn 1973: 359, 360, 365, 440; Perikhanian 1997: 276, 277, 280, 281, 328, 339]. Baxno ormernrt,
uro n +rom mpnnuecxom copnnxe ynomnnaercx nemt, xoropax npeocrannxercx (nauncnxercx) na
omynnponanne ncannxy (xwstag pad man hangrin aswr: Cyennx 77, 6): n annom nac-
caxe nmeercx n nny sementnt naen, ntananmncx napcxo xasno xonnomy nonny n noxnsnennoe
ycnonnoe nnaenne [Hepnxanxn 1973: 230, 440, 469; 1983: 142; Perikhanian 1997: 188, 189, 339, 356;
Hnnmnn 1979: 99]. 3ro, n cnom ouepet, sacrannxer nac ncnomnnrt nap]xncxoro ncannxa Cacana
ns nncncxoro oxymenra 1669. B apmaxncxom n cacanncxom Hpane ncannxn npecrannxnn
coo mnorouncnennym menxym snart n pamxax npnnnnernponannoro cocnonnx nonnon
25
, unent xoro-
poro nocnnn npancxoe nanmenonanne ztn (naroponte, snarnte)
26
, rora xax n anrnuntx
napparnnntx n oxymenrantntx ncrounnxax onn nastnannct cnoontmn
27
. Onn nonyuann or
nmenn monapxa nnn oraremnx apncroxparon sementnte naent na npanax noxnsnenno apent n
tnn oxsant sa +ro necrn noennym cnyxy n pxax rxxeno xonnnnt xara]paxron
28
.

25
Xorx nonxrne cocnonnt crpo otuno acconnnpyercx c Cacannamn, onaxo nnonne nepoxrno, uro cocno-
nnx, nxnmuax noennoe, noxnnnnct n Hpane yxe npn nap]xnax, n +ro tno cnxsano c npnxoom rya cosarene nmne-
pnn Apmaxnon cpeneasnarcxnx xouennnxon-axon, npnnecmnx c coo ro coxpannnmeecx n nx cpee cocnonnoe
enenne, xoropoe nosnnxno y npancxnx nnemen eme n anecrncxym +noxy, no tno sarem yrpaueno n camom Hpane n
mnncxo-axemenncxoe npemx [cm.: Honocentnen 1980: 123125]. Bonncxoe cocnonne n nap]xno-cacanncxom Hpa-
ne, cocroxnmee ns asaron (o nnx cm. npnmeu. 26), nmeno onontno cnoxnym nnyrpennmm crpyxrypy, uro, n uacrnocrn,
narnxno emoncrpnpymr rpnym]antnte pente]t Banypa I (240272) n Fnmanype (Fnmanyp III n II), re nsopa-
xent npnnercrnymmne maxanmaxa xonnte nponeccnn ns npecrannrene noenno snarn, xoroptx no ocoennocrxm
nx napanoro onauennx n nexoroptm pyrnm npnsnaxam moxno ornecrn x pasntm nepapxnuecxnm rpynnam [Herrmann
1980: 1526, 3640, fig. 13, pl. 1, 3, 1640; Herrmann, Mackenzie 1983: 1921, 2425, fig. 2, pl. 9, 2022]. Co-
rnacno Hnctmy Tancapa (VI n.), nonncxoe cocnonne nopasenxnoct na cemt panron, npnuem n ero pamxax apncro-
xpart croxnn ntme ntxonen ns menee snarntx cnoen omecrna, n nocnennm nx nontmennx n snannn neoxonmo
tno nporn no cnyxeno necrnnne, naunnax c camtx nnxnnx unnon (HTanc.: 4849) [Tafazzoli 2000: 15].
26
O connantnom snauennn +roro repmnna n xnacce asaron n pennenpancxom omecrne cm.: Christensen 1944:
111112; Nyberg 1974: 41; Hepnxanxn 1983: 1417; Blois 1985; Konecnnxon 1987: 183185; Chaumont 1989;
Garsoan 1989: 512513; Olbrycht 2003: 8184. B Hexcnxone Iesnxnx (V nnn VI n. n. +.) +ro cnono nepenonrcx xax
camte nnxamne x napm [nmn] (j d : Hesych. s. v. Py). B npnnnnne, repmnn asart
noxptnan npecrannrene ncero nonncxoro cocnonnx, n rom uncne n apncroxparon camoro ntcoxoro panra, no na ene
on otuno ncnontsonancx nx oosnauennx mnorouncnenno cnyxnno menxo snarn ncannuecrna (= ptnap-
crna). Homnmo nap]xno-cacanncxoro Hpana, xnacc asaron cymecrnonan n apmaxncxo Apmennn [Honocentnen 1972:
7580; 1980: 196198; Toumanoff 1989a], a n pannecpenenexonym +noxy raxxe n Core [Cmnpnona 1970: 69
86], Kanxascxo Anannn [Honocentnen 1980: 198199] n Ipysnn, npnuem n nocnene no nanmenonannem asnay-
pon [Honocentnen 1980: 200202; 1972: 80], xoropte ]opmnponann connantno npnnnnernponannoe cocnonne nca-
nnxon (mx+p+n) [cm.: Honocentnen 1972: 8081].
27
Har. liberi: Iust. XLI, 2, 6; rpeu. d: Ios. Ant. Iud. XIV, 342; Ios. Bell. Iud. I, 255 (cp.: Hesych. s. v.
P d). B onronom xonrpaxre ns ypa-Enponoc, cocrannennom na rpeuecxom xstxe n 121 r. n. +. (nepra-
menr 10), ynomxnyr Maneu, nap]xncxn canonnnx ouent ntcoxoro panra, n rnrynarype xoroporo, necmorpx na nme-
mmymcx ram naxyny (crx. 5), xnno npncyrcrnonano ntpaxenne d: ns [cocnonnx] cnoontx (= asaron)
[Rostovtzeff, Welles 1931: 6, 52; Welles 1959: 112113, 115, 116; Xypmyxn 2003: 4344]. B annom xonrexcre cnono
liberi/d cneyer nonnmart n snauennn naroponte, a ne xax cnoonte n npornnonocrannennn paam.
28
Hoxasarentno, uro, cornacno Cacanncxomy cyennxy, ncannxn nonyuann naent na omynnpo-
nanne, r. e. oporocroxmee noopyxenne, n nepnym ouepet, ooponnrentnoe. B paccxase nnsanrncxoro ncropnxa
ueo]nnaxra Cnmoxarrt o cotrnxx npannennx Xopmnsa IV (579590) coomaercx, uro nepcncxn napt pacnpee-
nxn semnn mexy nonnamn, xaxt ns xoroptx n mnpnoe npemx nen xosxcrno na cnoem yuacrxe, oecneunnax rem ca-
mtm cnon npoonontcrnennte nyxt (Theophyl. Sim. III, 15, 4). B pyrom mecre nam ncrounnx ynomnnaer nonncxne
149
Homnmo camnx ncannxon, n ncrounnxax ynomnnamrcx onxnocrnte nnna n snannxx rnan-
nt nauantnnx xonnnnt n nauantnnx xonnnnt. Hnrepnperannx +rnx rnrynon npecrannxer coo
nponemy, rpynopaspemnmym npn ntnemnem cocroxnnn namnx ncrounnxon: ne ouent xcno, sannma-
nn nn nx nocnrenn pyxonoxmne nocrt nnyrpn ncannuecxoro cocnonnx, cnyxnnn nn onn no npemx
oentx ecrnn n xauecrne ntcmnx o]nnepon, nnn xe ntcrynann n oonx +rnx xauecrnax. Kax
rnannt nauantnnx xonnnnt mzn sppty (= mazan asppat) nexn Tnpnar ]nrypnpyer cpasy n
13 xosxcrnenntx oxymenrax ns Crapo Hnct ( 16461658, npnuem na 16461653 coxpann-
nact ara 76 r. o n. +.) [txxonon, Hnnmnn 1960: 19, 87, 92, 100; 1966: 141; Diakonoff, Livshits
1998: 146147; Chaumont 1987c: 791; Bader 1996: 270]. B pyrom oxymenre ns nncncxoro apxnna
( 2685) ynomnnaercx spp(ty) (= asppat) nauantnnx xonnnnt, nnunoe nmx xoroporo ne nsnecrno
[Diakonoff, Livshits 2001: 178; Bader 1996: 270; Olbrycht 2003: 81]. Pnmcxn ncropnx Tannr npn
onncannn cotrn 62 r. n. +. ronopnr o nap]xncxom nauantnnxe xonnnnt (praefectus equitatus) no
nmenn Basax (Tac. Ann. XV, 14, 2). Hnrepecno raxxe ormernrt, uro n pennexnracxo yncxo
rpannnn coomaercx o Ant Cmane, nocneonarene ynsma nap]xncxoro nponcxoxennx, xoro-
pt n xauecrne ropronna n 180-e rr. n. +. npntn n Knra, re ero no sacnyram crann nennuart Hpe-
nonrent xananepnn (ICu: 108)
29
. Ho necomnenntm nap]xncxnm nnnxnnem onxnocrt nauant-
nnxa xananepnn (aspet) cymecrnonana n apmaxncxo Apmennn, xnnxxct npeporarnno snarnoro poa
Farparynn, rnana xoroporo nontsonancx nouernemnm npanom nosnarart xopony na ronony napx, xax
+ro enann n Hap]nn Cypent [Chaumont 1961: 298304; 1967: 472474, 478, 479, 486; 1987b: 435,
436437; 1987c: 791; Toumanoff 1987; 1989b: 419; Garsoan 1989: 509] (cm. npnmeu. 22).
3naunrenen oem nn]opmannn o nauantnnxax xonnnnt nx cacanncxoro Hpana. Tax, ntco-
xonocrannennt noennt unnonnnx n raxom snannn cpenenepc. sppt, nap]. sppty (= asppat),
rpeu. P no nmenn Hepos npncyrcrnyer n cnncxe ntcme snarn npn nope Banypa I na
Kaae-n 3apymr (ox. 260 r.) [Huyse 1999: Bd. I, 5758, Bd. II, 155; 2002: 207; Chaumont 1987c: 791;
Garsoan 1989: 509]. Or Ammnana Mapnennnna, yuacrnnxa nepcncxo xamnannn nmneparopa Rnnana
(363 r.), mt cntmnm o nauantnnxe xonnoro nonncrna (equestris magister militiae) no nmenn Mepena
(Amm. Marc. XXV, 1, 11)
30
n o nauantnnxax ncannxon (magistri equitum = vitaxae), xoropte
ynpannxnn omnpntmn onacrxmn n npeenax epxant Cacannon (Ibid. XXIII, 6, 14). Pannennsan-

ntnnart ( d), xoropte cacanncxn monapx npeocrannxn noenntm sa nx cnyxy (Ibid. III, 16,
13; cp.: ibid. III, 18, 14: N N k s ), no-
nnnmomy, peut sect ner o enexntx nosnarpaxennxx (cp.: : ibid. IV, 9, 2) [cm. raxxe: Whitby 1994: 254
255]. Hnrepecno, uro n xonrexcre +rnx coomenn Cnmoxarrt nocxo nepcon nmenyercx rxxenonoopyxenntm (
: Theophyl. Sim. III, 15, 5; 16, 13): annt repmnn, ecrecrnenno, osnauaer ne nexory n rxxenom cnapxxennn n
rpexo-nnsanrncxom cmtcne (xoropym Cacannt nnxora ne nmenn), a nannnpnym xananepnm, ont xoropo, no
xpane mepe, co npemenn noenno pe]opmt, nponeenno Xocponom I n VI n. (cm. npnmeu. 39), nonyuann or rocyap-
crna cpecrna na cnoe coepxanne. Boome xe cncrema naenennx nonnon, n rom uncne xonntx, sementntmn yuacrxa-
mn or nmenn napx sa cnyxy n apmnn cymecrnonana yxe n nmnepnn Axemennon. Ho nasnannem aru ona sa]nxcnpo-
nana n oxymenrax nropo nononnnt VIV nn. o n. +. ns Bannnonnn. 3ra cncrema semnenontsonannx nocnna xapaxrep
noenno xononnsannn n pacnpocrpanxnact na conar, naxonnmnxcx na nepcncxo cnyxe, xax nnosemnen (caxon,
ernnrxn, nnnnen, ]pnrnnen, nnnnen n p.), rax n nepcon n mnnnen. Bnaentnt naenon, nomnmo ortnannx
nonncxo nonnnnocrn, tnn oxsant camn opaartnart semnm n nnarnrt n xasny enexnym n narypantnym noart
[anamaen, Hyxonnn 1980: 157161, 237238; Dandamayev 1989: 331, 333; Hnnmnn 1979; He]xnn 2001: 412
427]. B nsnecrno crenenn nncrnryr aru moxer paccmarpnnartcx n xauecrne moenn nx nap]xno-cacanncxo
npaxrnxn naenennx ncannxon semne. Onaxo sect cneyer nmert n nny na npnnnnnnantntx momenra: 1) +ror
nncrnryr npecrannxna coo pasnonnnocrt axemenncxo noenno xononnsannn ueupaucrux onacre; 2) mexy
noenntmn oprannsannxmn Axemennon, c ono cropont, n Apmaxnon n Cacannon, c pyro, tnn ceptesnte pas-
nnunx. Hpenonoxenne o rom, uro cocnonne ncannxon cymecrnonano yxe n rocyapcrne Axemennon, nocxontxy
]opma cnona ncannx n oxymenre 1669 ns Crapo Hnct sbr (asbr) sanmcrnonana ns pennenepcncxoro
xstxa [txxonon, Hnnmnn 1966: 142; cp.: Hnnmnn 1979: 99100], ne naxonr noepxxn n omemnx o nac anntx
o axemenncxom omecrne: n ero crpyxrype, crporo ronopx, ne sacnnerentcrnonano npncyrcrnne xaxnx-nno cocno-
nn, n rom uncne nonncxoro [Frye 1972: 8587; Honocentnen 1980: 123124; Olbrycht 2003: 8889].
29
Ant Cmant tn, cxopee ncero, ntxonem ne ns camo Hap]nn, a ns nno-nap]xncxnx nnaenn na cenepo-
sanae Hnncxoro cyxonrnnenra [cm.: Mxprtuen 2002: 2930]. Bnonne nepoxrno, uro eme o nepeesa n Knra Ant
Cmant sannman na cnoe ponne ntcoxn noennt nocr nauantnnxa xonnnnt.
30
3ror Mepena, nosmoxno, tn rnano cacanncxoro ncannuecxoro cocnonnx, na uro xax yro t namexaer
cocran nonncrna, ntcrynnnmero no ero nauanom npornn pnmnxn: na napcxnx ctna n ontmoe uncno snarnemnx
(optimates), nce saxonannte n xenesnte ocnexn (Amm. Marc. XXV, 1, 1112). On npnnanexan x poy Mnxpan
onomy ns nennxnx cemecrn Hpana nap]xncxoro nponcxoxennx. Hpoxonn Kecapncxn ronopnr o noenauantnnxe
ns +roro xnana no nmenn Hepos, nosrnannxnmem nepcon n cpaxennn npn ape n 530 r., onaxo ero poonoe nmx (-
) on nepeaer xax onxnocrt (Procop. Bell. I, 13, 16; 14, 1; 5; 7; 11; 13; 20; 29; 44; 17, 26), xorx n pyrom mecre
cnoero rpya ynomnnaer nepca no nmenn Mnppan, nosrnannxnmero rapnnson xpenocrn Herpa n Hasnxe (Ibid. II, 30, 7).
150
rncxne ncropnxn, ouennno, no omnxe npnnoxr rnryn E n E (= nauantnnx
xonnnnt) n xauecrne nnuntx nmen ntcoxonocrannenntx nepcncxnx nentmox n napcrnonanne
Kanaa, Xocpona I n Xocpona II (Theophan. Chron. A. M. 6013; Procop. Bell. I, 9, 24; 11, 5; 23, 6;
Theophyl. Sim. IV, 3, 5) [Huyse 2002: 207]
31
. ueo]nnaxr Cnmoxarra raxxe yxastnaer, uro xananepnm
y nepcon nosrnannxn (s y l) npecrannrent nxroro ns cemn snarnemnx poon Hpana
(Theophyl. Sim. III, 18, 9)
32
. 3nanne nauantnnx xonnnnt aswrn slr sa]nxcnponano raxxe
n nexnenncxom rexcre nosnecacanncxoro npemenn Oxcnenne maxmar n nsoperenne napon
(Bu 10) [Christensen 1944: 368; Tafazzoli 2000: 13]. Cacanncxne rnant ncannxon n nennxne ns
ncannxon ynomxnyrt n n apacxnx ncrounnxax (nnanapn: 133, 134).
Ocoo cneyer ormernrt, uro n nacroxmee npemx nsnecrnt neuarn necxontxnx xpynnemnx no-
enauantnnxon (sphbed) Hpana, ocymecrnnxnmnx no nropo nononnne VI n. ntcmee noennoe xomano-
nanne n ono ns uertpex uacre Cacanncxo nmnepnn cenepno, mxno, nocrouno n sanano,
npnuem nexoropte ns nnx nmenn ononnnrentnte rnrynt: nepcncxn nauantnnx xonnnnt (aspbed
prsg) on xe cnaxe mra; nap]xncxn nauantnnx xonnnnt (aspbed phlaw) on xe cnax-
e nocroxa; nauantnnx xonnnnt napcrna (pyro napnanr: nauantnnx napcxo xonnnnt) (ahr
aspbed) on xe cnaxe cenepa [Gyselen 2001: 2327, 36, 39, 45, 46]. Tounoe noenno-amnnncrpa-
rnnnoe snauenne +rnx ntcoxnx xananepncrcxnx snann ocraercx nexcntm, no, nosmoxno, uro nx nocn-
renn, xnnxxct rnannoxomanymmnmn na nnepenno nm reppnropnn, ononpemenno pyxononnn uem-ro
npoe pernonantntx orenenn cocnonnx ncannxon (rax xe xax n vitaxae/magistri equitum Am-
mnana Mapnennnna?). Hepcncxn n nap]xncxn nauantnnxn xonnnnt, nnnmo, nounnxnnct
nauantnnxy xonnnnt napcrna (noono romy, xax n nap]xncxym +noxy rnannt nauantnnx xon-
nnnt onxen tn sannmart nepapxnuecxn onee ntcoxoe mecro, uem npocro nauantnnx xonnnnt).
3anepmax remy nap]xncxoro n cacanncxoro ncannuecrna, xorenoct t oparnrt nnnmanne
na cneymmee. Connantno n nmymecrnenno npnnnnernponannte xnacct ncannxon, npecrannrenn
xoroptx necnn cnyxy n xananepnn, onpeenenno cymecrnonann n nenrpax anrnuno nnnnnnsannn
Ipennn (n A]nnax) n Pnme
33
. Onaxo neoxonmo nouepxnyrt, uro a]nncxne n pnmcxne ncannxn
nnxora ne nrpann ponn rnannoro poa nocx cnonx rocyapcrn, re nepnoe mecro espasentno npn-
nanexano rxxenonoopyxenno nexore ronnnron n nernonepon coornercrnenno. Ecnn ne yrnynxrtcx
n ouennnte cnenn]nuecxne pasnnunx mexy cncremamn connantntx ornomenn n Ipennn n Pnme, c
ono cropont, n n Hpane, c pyro, ro yxe +ro nropocrenennoe noennoe snauenne a]nncxnx n pnm-
cxnx ncannxon npnnnnnnantno ornnuaer nx or nap]xncxnx n cacanncxnx. Cneyer raxxe cxasart
n necxontxo cnon n noepxxy resnca o xouennnuecxnx xopnxx npancxoro ncannuecrna. B +ro
cnxsn n ntcme crenenn npnmeuarentno, uro ns Faxrpnn, r. e. pernona, noneprmerocx, noono
Hap]nn, sanoenannm nomaamn ns nenrpantnoasnarcxnx crene (npana, nosnee no nropo nono-
nnne II n. o n. +.), nponcxoxr ne nanncn, coepxanne xoroptx nanpxmym nepexnnxaercx c npnne-
entmn ntme anntmn o ncannuecxom cocnonnn n nap]xno-cacanncxom Hpane. Hepnax na
remme-neuarn (xpannrcx n Iocyapcrnennom 3pmnraxe), nsroronnenno oxono cepennt IV n. n. +.
[Cranncxn 1961; Stavisky 1960: 103106, pl. III, 22a], ntnonnena axrpncxnm xypcnnntm
nnctmom n nepeaer snanne nauantnnx xonnnnt [Henning 1962; Davary 1982:
110, 163164, s. v.; Hnnmnn 1969: 66]. Bropax nannct nnctmom xxapomrxn na ]parmenre xepa-

31
Bnpouem, ueo]nnaxr Cnmoxarra ormeuaer, uro nepct npenounramr, urot nx nastnann cornacno sannmae-
mo nmn onxnocrn, a ne nmenem, anntm nm or poxennx (Theophyl. Sim. I, 9, 6).
32
3ror xe anrop coomaer o rom, xax Conxan, npannrent Hncnnna n comsnnx Xocpona II n ero none c
Faxpamom uynnom, cnann nexoero Pocaca (Xopmnsa) xonntm nocxom (j k), nocnan ero
npornn 3aecnpara, croponnnxa ysypnaropa (Theophyl. Sim. V, 1, 9). B pyrom naccaxe, nonecrnymmem o +rom xe
cotrnn (Ibid. V, 13, 4), ynomnnaercx o noctnxe ncannxon nmecre c nx npenonrenem ( N
T), r. e. Pocacom, ute snanne n rpeuecxo nepeaue (T) cneyer nonnmart rontxo xax xomannp orpxa
xonntx nonnon, a ne nauantnnx xonnnnt (xorx nonnt no ero nauanom tnn nmenno ncannxamn-ptnapxmn).
Ouennno, ro xe camoe cneyer cxasart n o onom ns snamennremnx y nepcon no nmenn Ba]pns, xoroporo Haxo-
paran, rnannoxomanymmn cacanncxnmn nocxamn n 3axanxaste, ocrannn n xauecrne xomannpa (k) na ont-
me uacrtm cnoe xonnnnt nocne nopaxennx or nnsanrnnen y uacnca n 555 r. (Agath. III, 28, 10; cp.: Theophyl. Sim.
III, 18, 10: y n ). Bonpexn mnennm M.-H. Bomon [Chaumont 1961: 313], Ba]pns ena nn
xnnxncx nauantnnxom nce xananepnn Cacanncxoro rocyapcrna, a, nepoxrnee ncero, ncnonnxn ]ynxnnn xomanymme-
ro nonentmn xonntmn uacrxmn na saxanxascxom rearpe oentx ecrnn. He ncxnmueno, uro on nenrnuen Baxpnsy,
onomy ns ncannxon (aswiratihi) Xocpona I, xoroporo ror nanpannn n Hemen no rnane noenno +xcnennnn npornn
anccnnnen, a nocne noet na nnmn nocrannn ramomnnm namecrnnxom (Taapn: 223227, 230237, 257258,
263264 [N] = 239242, 245252, 289, 294 [B]) [no cp.: Frye (forthcoming)].
33
O a]nncxnx js cm.: Bugh 1988; Spence 1993; o pnmcxnx equites: McCall 2001.
151
mnuecxoro cocya ns Kapa-rene n Crapom Tepmese coepxnr p. n. or cnona asvavhara- (ncannx)
[Beprorpaona 1995: 7475]; no naneorpa]nuecxnm npnsnaxam ona arnpyercx III nauanom IV n.
n. +. [Tam xe: 2628]. 3ror xe repmnn (cxopee ncero, n xauecrne rnryna npecrannrene snarn) n
]opmax asavrika-, asavraka- n p., xnno sanmcrnonanntx, xax n cnono ns Kapa-rene, ns npancxo
nexcnxn, ncrpeuaercx n nanncxx ns Hnnn [Beprorpaona 1995: 75; Hnnmnn 1969: 66, npnmeu. 95;
Davary 1982: 164]. Hcxox ns roro ]axra, uro nosnnxnonenne Kymancxo nmnepnn, xoropax na nnxe
cnoero morymecrna (n xonne I nepno nononnne III nn.) oxnartnana Faxrpnm n Cenepo-3ananym
Hnnm, xnnnoct cnecrnnem nropxennx nenrpantnoasnarcxnx xouennnxon, moxno npenonoxnrt, uro
nonncxoe cocnonne ncannxon cnoxnnoct raxxe n n rocyapcrne Kyman (npexe ncero, n camo
Faxrpnn) na ocnone npetymero connantnoro ontra ero ocnonarene, nmenmnx xouenoe nponcxox-
enne (pyrnmn cnonamn, noono romy, xax +ro nponsomno panee n Bocrouno Hap]nn n pesyntrare
ee sanoenannx anapnamn) [Nikonorov 1997: vol. 1, 51]. ne ynomxnyrte ntme nanncn, xorx onn n
ornocxrcx yxe x nocrxymancxomy npemenn, xax xaxercx, coepxar namex na +ro. Kpome roro, n
nanncn na occyapnn ns Tox-xant n Xopesme, arnpyemo VII nauanom VIII n. n. +., raxxe ynomn-
naercx rnana ncannxon (srpt) [Hnnmnn 1979: 100]. Hpncyrcrnne rnrynon, nmemmnx ornomenne
xo ncannuecrny (n cmtcne cocnonnx), n noenno-connantno nomenxnarype Hap]nn, Faxrpnn n Xo-
pesma, r. e. pernonon, utx ncropnx n +noxy pennocrn tna camtm recntm opasom cnxsana co cren-
ntm mnpom Henrpantno Asnn, cxopee ncero, orpaxaer re ceptesnte nsmenennx n noenno n conn-
antno c]epax, xoropte nponsomnn n +rnx onacrxx n nocnenne nexa o name +pt no camtm
nenocpecrnenntm nosecrnnem xouennnxon
34
.
Hnrepecnte cneennx o npannnax xomnnexronannx nocx npn onom ns nocnennx Apmaxnon,
Bonorese V (190/191207/208), n npn nepnom cacanncxom nape, Apamnpe I (224240), npnnonr
nx conpemennnx, pnmcxn ncropnx Ieponan (ox. 165 ox. 250). Tax, onnctnax cotrnx 193 r. n. +.,
on coomaer, uro y nap]xn ner conar, cnyxamnx sa nnary (), n nocroxnno apmnn (-
), a camo nocxo conpamr, xora +ro neoxonmo, npannrenn onacre (-
) no npnxasy napx (Hdn. III, 1, 2). O ocoennocrxx monnnsannonno npaxrnxn nepcon no npemx
nont c pnmnxnamn n 231232 rr. on ronopnr cneymmee: onn ne ncnontsymr conar, cnyxamnx sa
nnary (), noono pnmnxnam, ner y nnx n perynxpntx n nocroxnntx narepe nx roro,
urot ynpaxnxrtcx n noennom ncxyccrne; no y nnx conpamrcx nce myxunnt, a nnora n xenmnnt,
xax rontxo npnxaxer napt. Kora nona saxanunnaercx, xaxt nosnpamaercx x cee omo, nonyunn
ns otun ro, uro emy ocranoct (Ibid. VI, 5, 3). Pacnymennoe no omam nocxo nepcon, nnmer anee
nam anrop, nenerxo copart nnont, nocxontxy ono ne xnnxercx nn oprannsonanntm, nn nocroxnntm
(x c ), npecrannxx coo cxopee ronny, uem apmnm; n sanacon npoo-
nontcrnnx y nnx nmeercx crontxo, cxontxo xaxt, npnxox, npnnocnr c coo nx cocrnenno
neoxonmocrn; c rpyom n neoxorno noxnamr onn ere, xen n ponym semnm (Ibid. VI, 7, 1).
B nenom annte Ieponana, cymecrnenno ononnxx pyr pyra, cnnerentcrnymr o ontmom
cxocrne ocnonntx npnnnnnon noenno monnnsannn n Hpane n nosnenap]xncxn n pannecacann-
cxn nepnot. B ro xe camoe npemx neoxonmo noxcnnrt, nouemy +ror anrop cront xareropnuno
yrnepxaer o rom, uro nap]xne n nepct ne ncnontsymr conar, cnyxamnx sa nnary. eno n rom, uro

34
Hpana, onpeenennym pont n connantno-nonnrnuecxo xnsnn oceno-semneentuecxnx onacre Cpene
Asnn ncannuecrno nrpano eme c axemenncxoro npemenn. Hcropnxn Anexcanpa Maxeoncxoro neonoxparno ynomn-
namr ncannxon ns Faxrpnn, Apen (Apnn) n Cora (js: Arr. Anab. III, 11, 3; 21, 4; 25, 7; 28, 10; Diod. XVII, 78, 2;
equites: Curt. IV, 12, 6; V, 8, 4; VII, 4, 30; 6, 15; VIII, 2, 1516), xoropte, xax nonaramr nexoropte nccneonarenn, mor-
nn ]opmnponart uro-ro npoe npnnnnernponannoro nonncxoro cocnonnx [Briant 1984: 8284; cp.: Htxnxon 2001; 2003:
133]. B camom ene, +rn ncannxn tnn xopomo oyuenntmn noennomy ncxyccrny npo]eccnonanamn, ornnuanmnmncx
or ocnonno macct cnonx connemennnxon onee ntcoxnm nmymecrnenntm (= omecrnenntm) crarycom [cm.: Bernon
2001: 8081]. B ro xe npemx onn npx nn npecrannxnn coo xnacc ncannxon (= ptnape) no nap]xno-cacann-
cxomy opasny, nocxontxy npn Axemennax n oceno-semneentuecxo Cpene Asnn (xax n n camom Hpane) ne cy-
mecrnonann eme ycnonnx nx enennx omecrna na xnacct-cocnonnx, xoropte nauann ]opmnponartcx ram ne panee
+noxn Apmaxnon. Tepmnn js/equites n annom cnyuae cneyer nonnmart ne n connantnom cmtcne, a rontxo n
xauecrne rexnnuecxoro oosnauennx xonntx nonnon, xax ero npnmenxmr re xe ncropnxn Anexcanpa no ornomennm x
onam xananepnn y nepcon, maxeonxn, cxn]on n p. B +ro cnxsn noxasarentno, uro axrpncxnm ncannxam
( js) n paccxase Appnana o nrne npn Ianramenax n 331 r. o n. +. (Arr. Anab. III, 11, 3) coornercrnyer
axrpncxax xonnnna (x l) n coomennn Hnyrapxa o rom xe cotrnn (Plut. Alex. 32, 5). Faxrpncxne,
corncxne n apecxne ncannxn, o xoroptx ner peut, cxopee ncero, cnyxnnn n pyxnnax npannrene rex amnnn-
crparnnno-reppnropnantntx oxpyron (= oasncntx n ropntx paonon), re onn npoxnnann. 3rn npannrenn (:
Arr. Anab. IV, 1, 5; 21, 1; 9; satrapae: Curt. VIII, 2, 19; 4, 21) orneuann sa oenym nororonxy cnonx nonnon n no npnxasy
n no nepxonntm xomanonannem axemenncxoro namecrnnxa nenn nx n noxot nnn na omenocxonte cmorpt, no
sanepmennn xoroptx re nosnpamannct n cnon epennn (vici: Curt. VII, 4, 20) [cm.: Nikonorov 1997: vol. 1, 2425].
152
no repmnnom y Ieponana nao nonnmart ne naemnnxon noome, nocxontxy nocnenne n
ecrnnrentnocrn npnnnexannct sa entrn na nap]xncxym cnyxy (no rontxo nanpannct onn
otuno sa npeenamn napcrna Apmaxnon cm. ntme, c. 142), a nonnon nocroxnno apmnn, naxonn-
mnxcx na rocyapcrnennom xanonante, xax +ro tno n Pnmcxo nmnepnn
35
.
Bropoe yrnepxenne Ieponana y nap]xn n nepcon noome ner nocroxnnoro nocxa cne-
yer oxcnnrt nesnaunrentnocrtm nonncxnx xonrnnrenron, cymecrnonanmnx y nnx na perynxpno
ocnone, no cpannennm c orpomno no uncnennocrn pnmcxo npo]eccnonantno apmne. Bnpouem,
xorx n nap]xncxym +noxy n Hpane n n camom ene ne tno perynxpno nocxono oprannsannn n o-
menpnnxrom cmtcne, ee orentnte +nemenrt cymecrnonann yxe rora. 3ro tnn ynomxnyrte ntme
(c. 142) napcxn orpx n nocxa no nauanom napcxnx namecrnnxon ontmnx onacre apmaxncxoro
rocyapcrna, raxnx xax carpant Meconoramnn Cnnnax n Opnocna. Kpome roro, n crparernuecxn nax-
ntx mecrax, npexe ncero, na npnrpannuntx semnxx Hap]xncxo epxant pacnonarannct xpenocrn n
]oprt (: Dio Cass. XL, 13, 1; 14, 1; LXXIX, 26, 3; cp.: ibid. XLIX, 25, 1; : ibid. XL, 12, 2;
14, 1; oppidum munitum: Plin. NH VI, 119; Parthica oppida: Tac. Ann. VI, 41, 2; castellum: ibid. XII, 13,
2), cropoxente nocrt (: Philostr. VA I, 21) n yxpennennte nocenennx (rpeu. , nap]. diz) no
rnane c xomenanramn rpeu. (Dio Cass. LXVIII, 22, 3) [Rostovtzeff, Welles 1931 4, 6, 7,
5455; Welles 1959: 111, 115], (= napeno oxo
36
: Philostr. VA I, 21)
n nap]. dyzpty (= dizpat/dizpet) [txxonon, Hnnmnn 1960: 18, 22, 80, 101, 108; Hnnmnn 1999: 115]
37
,
xomanonanmnmn croxnmnmn ram nocroxnntmn rapnnsonamn
38
.
Touno raxax xe xaprnna nanmanact n n cacanncxom Hpane, re roxe ne tno perynxpno
apmnn n sananom (pnmcxom) cmtcne +roro repmnna
39
, onaxo nmennct re xe camte +nemenrt nocro-
xnno noenno oprannsannn, uro n y nap]xn: 1) napcxn xonnt orpx
40
; 2) nocxa no nauanom

35
Cm. raxxe saxnnenne nona Kaccnx o rom, uro nap]xne ne moryr necrn nocroxnnte nont ns-sa roro, uro y
nnx, n rom uncne, ne ntnnaunnaercx nonncxoe xanonante (: Dio Cass. XL, 15, 6)
36
nx axemenncxoro n nocneymmero npemenn +ro snanne sacnnerentcrnonano n pennerpeuecxnx ncrounn-
xax [cm.: Hirsch 1985: 101139], a raxxe ncrpeuaercx n nnreparypntx namxrnnxax, nocxoxmnx x nexnenncxo rpa-
nnnn cacanncxoro nepnoa (HTanc.: 4951). Ero yxnantnoe snauenne xax yro t namexaer na rnany (?) napcxo
cexperno cnyxt [cp.: Frye 1972: 89; 1983a: 248249; 1984: 108109]. Ho-nnnmomy, n nap]xncxn nepno n
onxnocrn napena oxa npetnan, ntpaxaxct conpemenntm xstxom, o]nnep rocesonacnocrn, nosrnannxnmn npn-
rpannunt cropoxeno nocr n orneuanmn sa npnnerammym x nemy reppnropnm.
37
B nap]xncxnx oxymenrax I n. o n. +. ns Crapo Hnct onxnocrt nsnar ynomxnyra 127 pas [cm.:
Diakonoff, Livshits 2001: 190].
38
B nap]xno-cacanncxo mpoxparnuecxo nomenxnarype cymecrnonan rnryn argbed (hargbed), xoropt n
nayuno nnreparype nonnmaercx noxxo: xax nauantnnx xpenocrn [Nldeke 1879: 5, Anm. 1, 3; Christensen 1944: 107;
Chaumont 1962; 1987a; cp.: Tafazzoli 2000: 1112] n xax rnana nanoronoro neomcrna [Hnnmnn 1999].
39
Vrnepxenne o rom, uro nocroxnnax apmnx n Hpane tna cosana yxe nepntm cacanncxnm monapxom Apra-
mnpom I [Shahbazi 1987a: 496], ne rontxo npornnopeunr cneennxm Ieponana, no n ne naxonr noepxxn n xaxom-
nno pyrom ncrounnxe. Fonee roro, axe n cepenne VI n. nnsanrncxn nncarent Hoann Hn yrnepxan, uro nepct,
n ornnune or pnmnxn, ne coepxar nnxaxnx cnennantntx nocx, naxoxmnxcx n nonno roronnocrn nx ncrynnennx n
nony (Lyd. De mag. III, 34). Hpana, xax n n cnyuae c Ieponanom, noonoe saxnnenne ne cneyer nocnpnnnmart
yxnantno [cm. raxxe: Greatrex 1998: 5657]. Onpeenennym nontrxy cosannx n Hpane apmnn na perynxpno ocnone
npenpnnxn Xocpon I (531579), noennax pe]opma xoroporo tna nanpannena, n nepnym ouepet, na ynyumenne
oprannsannn n oeno nororonxn nocx. Cornacno ero yxasannxm, nyxammnecx ns uncna ncannxon-ptnape
nonyuann sa cnom cnyxy xone, cnapxxenne n enexnoe coepxanne or rocyapcrna, a nce nonncrno, xonnoe n nemee,
onxno tno npoxonrt perynxpnte cmorpt, xnnxxct rya n nonnom noopyxennn, nxnmuax, xcrarn, n camoro maxan-
maxa. Hpn +rom nonnt n uncne pyrnx npnnnnernponanntx cocnonn tnn ocnooxent or noymnoro nanora
(Taapn: 156, 164, 246, 248249 [N] = 150, 157, 259, 262263 [B]; Fanamn: 600; BH: VI/crx. 18912036; KnAnym.:
20/p. VII) [Christensen 1944: 367372; Frye 1983b: 154; 1984: 326; Shahbazi 1987a: 498; Whitby 1994: 254255;
Rubin 1995; Greatrex 1998: 54]. Bnpouem, y nac ner ocrarountx ocnonann yrnepxart, uro n pesyntrare nononne-
enn Xocpona I nepcncxax apmnx n cnoem ontmnncrne npenparnnact n perynxpnym.
40
Regius equitatus: Amm. Marc. XXV, 5, 9; regis auxilia: ibid. XXIV, 7, 7; cm. raxxe: uancroc IV, 31. Cp.: Amm.
Marc. XXIV, 4, 31, re ronopnrcx o mnorouncnennom nepcncxom xonnom xonrnnrenre, nmecre c naroponemnmn
(optimates) n no nauanom napcxoro ctna ntmemem nancrpeuy nacrynammnm na Krecn]on pnmnxnam. Bosmoxno, uro
n +rom naccaxe peut raxxe ner o napcxom orpxe. Hocnenn no nasnannem und ahnah n uncnennocrtm n 4000
nonnon ]nrypnpyer n apacxnx ncrounnxax [Tafazzoli 2000: 5]. Crontxo xe ncannxon, cornacno nexnenncxo rpan-
nnn, nacunrtnano n nnunoe nocxo Apamnpa I (KnAp. IX, 1; XIII, 9; 15; 16). Cacanncxax napcxax xonnnna, no nce
nnnmocrn, ynomnnaercx y apmxncxoro nncarenx V n. Ernm+ no nasnannem ocnonnoro nonxa (gund matean: Ernm+
V, 115; 117; cp.: uancroc III, 8, re ror xe repmnn cpenenpancxoro nponcxoxennx n ]opme matenik gund npnxnat-
naercx x xpy apmxncxoro nocxa) [Nyberg 1974: 129; Chaumont 1987b: 430; Garsoan 1989: 544545, 574]. C pyro
cropont, rpeuecxne n cnpncxne ncrounnxn, ocnemammne cotrnx V n VI nn., ormeuamr nannune n cocrane nocx
Cacannon 10-rtcxunoro xopnyca eccmeprntx (P: Socr. Schol. VII, 20, 5; 6; 11; Theophan. Chron. A. M.
5918; Procop. Bell. I, 14, 31; 44; 45; 49; XMC VIII, 3) [Christensen 1944: 208; Frye 1983a: 247248; Shahbazi 1987a: 497;
153
onacrenauantnnxon
41
; 3) rapnnsont
42
, ooponxnmne xpenocrn
43
, ropoa n ropocxne nnraenn
44
n
nosrnannxnmnecx xomenanramn
45
.
Cacannt nonnocrtm nepenxnn or cnonx nap]xncxnx npemecrnennnxon n oprannsannonnym
crpyxrypy noopyxenntx cnn. B cocran nepcncxo apmnn, nomnmo ee xpa napcxo xonnnnt,
nxonnn nocxa xpynnemnx apncroxparon, nastnaemtx n ncrounnxax rnannemnmn nonxonona-
mn (potissimi duces: Amm. Marc. XXIV, 6, 12; XXV, 3, 13)
46
. uro xacaercx uncnennocrn nocx npe-
crannrene ntcme snarn, ro, x npnmepy, nsnecrno, uro Kapen xnann, tnmn n VI n. namecrnn-
xom Xopacana, pacnonaran 30 000 xonntmn n nemnmn cnoero nocxa (nnanapn: 126).
Inannym pont na none nrpana xananepnx: no cnonam Ammnana Mapnennnna, nepct ontme

Sekunda 1990: 70]. Cnoe nasnanne cacanncxne eccmeprnte nonyunnn or snamennro 10-rtcxuno napcxo rnapnn
Axemennon, xoropax, onaxo, cocroxna ncxnmunrentno ns nemnx onon (Hdt. VII, 31; 41; 83; 211; VIII, 113; cp.: ibid.
VII, 215218; 225; Diod. XI, 7, 4; Athen. XII, 8 [= 514 B]) [anamaen, Hyxonnn 1980: 233234; Shahbazi 1987a:
492493; Sekunda 1989: 84; 1990: 6970; 1992: 69; Barkworth 1992: 151, 154155; Head 1992: 1012], rora xax
nepnte, eccnopno, tnn xananepncramn. Oroxecrnnenne eccmeprntx cacanncxo apmnn c ocnonntm nonxom
apmxncxo rpannnn [cm.: Frye 1983a: 248; Chaumont 1987b: 430; Greatrex 1998: 53] nnonne nosmoxno, nocxontxy onn
]opmnponann xpo napcxoro xonnoro nocxa na nocroxnno ocnone [Greatrex 1998: 57]. Ecrt mnenne, uro napnanr
cacanncxoro oosnauennx nonxa eccmeprntx, nsnecrnoro rontxo no ynomxnyrtm ntme apmxncxnm ncrounn-
xam, mdiyn-razm npncyrcrnyer n nocrcacanncxom nexnenncxom Fynaxnmne [Henning 1942: 233, 241;
Tafazzoli 2000: 17]; cornacno pyro rouxe spennx, on nmenonancx Vartragnikan [cm.: Fukai, Horiuchi, Tanabe, Domyo
1984: 74]. Kpome xopnyca eccmeprntx, n cocran cacanncxoro napcxoro nocxa onxna tna raxxe nxonrt nnunax
oxpana monapxa, ynomxnyrax n cpenenepcncxo rpannnn no nanmenonannem putbn (KnAp. XV, 9) [Tafazzoli
2000: 12], n apmxncxo rnapecxoro orpxa ns asaron (uancroc IV, 53), a n rpeuecxo napcxnx renoxpa-
nnrene n npou. ( : Theophyl. Sim. III, 18, 10; IV, 3, 1; 11; 15; V, 13, 1; : ibid. IV,
9, 11; 10, 7; x : ibid. IV, 15, 12; :V, 10, 7; : ibid. V, 3, 7:). Kax n y Apmaxnon (cm.
c. 142), cacanncxax napcxax rnapnx renoxpannrene cocroxna ns npancxo snarno monoexn n uyxesemnen-naemnn-
xon. uro xacaercx nocnennx, ro xopomo nsnecrno, uro na cnyxe Xocpona II naxonnnct renoxpannrenn, npeocran-
nennte emy nnsanrncxnm nmneparopom Manpnxnem, n rom uncne orpx n xonnuecrne 1000 uenonex (Theophyl. Sim.
V, 3, 7; 11, 9; 13, 1). Bnpouem, +ro tn +xcrpaopnnapnt cnyua, n otunax uncnennocrt renoxpannrene nepcncxnx
nape axe no npemx oentx ecrnn ne npentmana 500 uenonex (Ibid. V, 10, 7). Cneyer ormernrt, uro nonx npn nap-
cxo ocoe cymecrnonan raxxe n n Apmennn, re on sacnnerentcrnonan xax nx nap]xncxoro (cm. npnmeu. 7), rax n
cacanncxoro (uancroc V, 37; cp.: III, 8) nepnoon.
41
Vitaxae (= magistri equitum: Amm. Marc. XXIII, 6, 14), satrapae/ (Amm. Marc. XIX, 6, 13; XXIII, 6,
14; XXV, 3, 13; Zosim. III, 27, 4; 29, 2; cp.: Theophyl. Sim. I, 15, 1; IV, 3, 15; 8, 2; 12, 1; V, 13, 7); duces (Amm. Marc.
XVI, 9, 3; XIX, 9, 5).
42
Lecta manus et copiosa (Amm. Marc. X XIV, 4, 11); (Procop. Bell. I, 7, 33; II, 19, 3; 48);
(ibid. II, 30, 7; 15; VIII, 12, 17; 21); (Procop. Bell. VIII, 16, 16);
(Theophyl. Sim. II, 5, 7); (Theophyl. Sim. II, 8, 7); cm. raxxe: Zosim. III, 14, 2; 29, 2; Theophyl. Sim. IV, 12, 6;
9; 15, 10; cp.: Amm. Marc. XXIV, 4, 26; Zosim. III, 22, 6.
43
Munimentum (Amm. Marc. XXIV, 1, 6; 9; 2, 2; 5, 7); castra (ibid. XXIV, 2, 1; 2); castellum (ibid. XXIV, 5, 6; 11;
XXV, 3, 14); (Zosim. III, 14, 2; 3; 20, 2; 21, 1; 3; 22, 57; 23, 1; 3; 29, 2; 4; 30, 2; Liban. Or. XVIII, 218; 219;
235; 236; 241; 243; Socr. Schol. III, 21, 3; Procop. Bell. I, 23, 2021; II, 19, 4; 24; 47; 28, 33; Theophyl. Sim. II, 7, 6; 8, 7);
(Malal. XIII, p. 330, 67; XVIII p. 435, 15; 469, 13) = (Malal. XVIII, p. 469, 78;
1618).
44
(Theophyl. Sim. II, 5, 7; IV, 15, 10); arx (Amm. Marc. XXIV, 2, 3; 12; 13; 22); P (Zosim.
III, 18, 3; Procop. Bell. VIII, 11, 63; 12, 1; 1517).
45
Vnomxnyrt n nanncn Banypa I na Kaae-n 3apymr (cpenenepc. dzpty, nap]. dyzpty, rpeu. )
[Huyse 1999: Bd. 1, 59, 141142; Bd. 2, 160; Hnnmnn 1999: 116; Tafazzoli 2000: 1011] n n nosneanrnuno
napparnnno rpannnn (praefectus: Amm. Marc. XXIV, 1, 9; 2, 21; praesidiorum magister: ibid. XXIV, 4, 26; :
Zosim. III, 14, 4; P: ibid. III, 22, 6; : ibid. III, 23, 4; T: Procop. Bell. I, 7, 33; cp.
: ibid. II, 30, 7; : Theophyl. Sim. IV, 15, 7).
46
Hs nnx n cnxsn c xamnanne nmneparopa Rnnana (363 r.) ynomnnamrcx Cypena (Amm. Marc. XXIV, 2, 4; 3, 1;
4, 7; 6, 12; Zosim. III, 15, 5; 19, 1; 20, 4; 25, 5; 31, 1), Horoap (Amm. Marc. XIV, 3, 1; XVIII, 6, 16; 8, 3; XXV, 3, 13),
Mepena (Ibid. XXV, 1, 11; 3, 13), Hapce (Ibid. XXIV, 6, 12), Hnrpan (Hnrpaxc) (Amm. Marc. XXIV, 6, 12; Zosim. III, 25,
5) n Anape (Zosim. III, 25, 5). Kax npannno, n rpeuecxnx ncrounnxax rnannoxomanymmne nepcon nmenymrcx
(Zosim. III, 25, 5; Socr. Schol. VII, 18, 10; Theophan. Chron. A. M. 5918; Procop. Bell. I, 12, 10; 13, 16; 21, 27;
23, 21; II, 17, 4; 10; 18, 9; Agath. III, 2, 1; IV, 30, 10; Men. Fr. 20, 3; 26, 1; Theophyl. Sim. I, 12, 3; 14, 7; II, 4, 11; 9, 10;
III, 4, 1; 3; 6, 3; 7; 8, 2; 10, 7; 18, 11; IV, 3, 1; 2; 8, 5; V, 1, 1; 12; 13; 15; 2, 1), (Procop. Bell. I, 5, 4; 21, 4; 15;
23, 16; 21), (Theophyl. Sim. I, 9, 56; 12, 3; 14, 6; II, 2, 1; 2, 6; 3, 3; 4, 4; 1314; 5, 78; 10; 8, 7),
(Theophyl. Sim. I, 12, 1; II, 2, 2; 3, 3), (Theophyl. Sim. II, 4, 14) (Malal. XVIII,
p. 461, 10) n h (Malal. XVIII, p. 452, 22), a noenauantnnxn panrom nnxe T (Procop. Bell.
I, 13, 16; II, 8, 30; 17, 9; 12; 26, 44; 27, 5; 29; 46; 28, 32; 30, 32; 43; VIII, 8, 34; 14, 43), (Theophyl. Sim.
IV, 9, 2), h (Malal. XVIII, p. 452, 23; 453, 8; 464, 20; 465, 19; 468, 20; 469, 2; 19 = : Malal. XVIII,
p. 442, 56; 468, 12).
154
ncero nonaramrcx na xpapocrt xonnnnt, n xoropo ycepno cnyxnr ncx [nx] snart n +nnra (maximis
equitatus virtute confisi, ubi desudat nobilitas omnis et splendor: Amm. Marc. XXIII, 6, 83; cp. optimates:
ibid. XXV, 1, 11; 3, 13). Peut sect ner o rxxenonoopyxenntx ncannxax, nmenyemtx n anrnuno
rpannnn xara]paxramn
47
, nsopaxennx xoroptx npecrannent na cacanncxnx nacxantntx pente-
]ax n ynnax
48
(pnc. 1, 6; 2, 17).
Homnmo rxxenonoopyxenno xonnnnt, apmnx nepcon nxnmuana n cex mnorouncnenntx xon-
ntx crpenxon n nerxom cnapxxennn
49
. Kax n n nap]xncxoe npemx, n nerxonoopyxennym xananepnm
nanpannct nonnt nesnarnoro nponcxoxennx; n ee cocran raxxe nxonnn xonrnnrenrt ns uncna co-
msntx n nonnacrntx nepcam napoon
50
. B xopne nenepno yrnepxenne, uro Cacannt ne nmenn

47
Catafracti: Amm. Marc. XVIII, 8, 7; XIX, 7, 4; XX, 7, 2; XXIV, 6, 8; [7, 8]; XXV, [1, 1213]; 3, 4; 6, 2; XXIX,
1, 1; : Eunap. Fr. 27, 8; Heliod. IX, 14, 3; [15, 16]; 16, 3; 17, 2; 18, 2; 20, 1; cp.: Iul. Or. II, 63 B: js j
; Liban. Or. XVIII, 265 [cm. raxxe: Michalak 1987; Mielczarek 1993: 6467]. pyroe nanmenonanne rxxe-
nonoopyxenno xonnnnt, npnnonmoe n rpexo-narnncxnx ncrounnxax, xnnanapnn (/clibanarii)
nonpexn pacnpocrpanennomy mnennm, noome ne npnnaraercx pennnmn anropamn x cocrnenno cacanncxo pone-
nocno xananepnn. Hpana, ecrt ono ncxnmuenne nectma comnnrentnt naccax ns xnsneonncannx nmneparopa
Anexcanpa Cenepa, npnnnctnaemoro 3nnm Hamnpnnm, n xoropom yrnepxaercx, uro pnmnxne no npemx nont c
Hpanom n 232233 rr. ynnn 10 000 (sic!) nepcncxnx xara]paxrapnen, xoroptx onn (nepct. B. H.) nastnamr
xnnanapnxmn (catafractarios, quos illi [sc. Persae] clibanarios vocant: SHA XVIII, 56, 5). Onaxo sect oxsarentno
cneyer nmert n nny, uro npnnonmoe n +ro norpa]nn onncanne nepcncxo xamnannn Anexcanpa Cenepa (SHA
XVIII, 5557), n ornnune or coornercrnymmero paccxasa Ieponana (Hdn. VI, 4, 56, 3), neocronepno xax n nenom,
rax n no mnornx eranxx [Rawlinson 1876: 4445, n. 4; Jard 1925: 7685; Rsger 1978; Syme 1968: 41, 4547]. uro
xe xacaercx nponnrnponanno ntme ]past, ro ona xnno tna sanmcrnonana norpa]om Anexcanpa ns rpya Ammnana
Mapnennnna, n xoropom ronopnrcx, uro ncannxon-xara]paxron nastnamr xnnanapnxmn (catafracti equites, quos
clibanarios dictitant: Amm. Marc. XVI, 10, 8) [Syme 1968: 3941]. B ro xe camoe npemx, npn cpannennn +rnx nnrar
xopomo nnnt na cymecrnenntx pasnnunx mexy nnmn: 1) Ammnan ncnontsyer repmnn xara]paxrt, a Hamnpn-
n xara]paxrapnn, rora xax +rn nanmenonannx rontxo na nepnt nsrnx xaxyrcx cnnonnmamn, no na camom
ene osnauamr pasnte nnt nannnpno xonnnnt coornercrnenno nocrounoro n pnmcxoro opasnon [Nikonorov
1998b: 137]; 2) Ammnan n +ro ocoenno naxno nonce ne yrnepxaer, uro xara]paxron nastnamr xnnanapnxmn
nmenno nepct: on ynorpenxer esnnunym ]opmy rnarona n rpertem nnne mnoxecrnennoro uncna (dictitant), nmex n
nny, cxopee ncero, camnx pnmnxn. Mexy npounm, ]pasa Hamnpnnx o roxecrne repmnnon pnmcxoro xara]pax-
rapn n xxot nepcncxoro no nponcxoxennm xnnanapn noponna reopnn o rom, uro nropo xnnxncx rpexo-
narnncxo xantxo co cpenenepcncxoro n ]opmax tanrg [[Nldeke 1879: 164165, Anm. 5; Christensen 1944: 207,
n. 4] nnn grwbnwar [Rundgren 1958: 3152; Michalak 1987: 7677; Huyse 2002: 219; cp.: Bivar 1972: 277278,
n. 28]. Cneyer ormernrt, uro oa +rnx oosnauennx cxoncrpynponant nnmt rnnorernuecxn. Tax, tanrg opasonan or
cnona tanr, xoropoe, noono cnpncx. tannr() (a raxxe rpeu. n nar. clibanus), morno nmert na snauennx
1) neut; 2) ocnex [cm.: Michalak 1987: 76]. Grwbnwar (ror, xro nocnr samnry nx men) nmeer n
cnoe ocnone cnono grwbn (samnra nx men), nsnecrnom no Hexnenncxomy xommenrapnm x Bennay (14, 9)
[Jackson 1894: 118; Malandra 1973: 272; Tafazzoli 1994: 188189] (ro xe camoe apm. grivpan uacrt nannnpx,
xoropax samnmaer mem [Benveniste 1966: 63]). Orcyrcrnne repmnnon tanrg n grwbnwar n xaxom-nno ns
omemnx o nac cpenenepcncxnx rexcron ceptesno ocnanxer aprymenrannm ntmenasnanntx rnnores, ne ronopx
yxe o rom, uro nexamax n nx ocnone cenrennnx ns norpa]nn Anexcanpa Cenepa noome ne ntstnaer onepnx.
Ho+romy npancxax +rnmonornx repmnna xnnanapn onxna trt nocrannena no comnenne. Bepoxrnee ncero, no
cnoemy nponcxoxennm on cnxsan c narnncxnm cnonom clibanus (cliuanus), no ne n ero nepnonauantnom snauennn
neut (xax nepenonrcx ero rpeuecxn nporornn /), a n onee nosnem, naunnax c IV n. n. +.,
onee nonnt nannnpnt ocnex, no cpannennm c otuntm narnncxnm oosnauennem nannnpx lorica (n
pannennsanrncxo noenno nexcnxe n +rom xe cmtcne ynorpenxnnct cnona , n ) [cm.:
Nikonorov 1998b: 132].
48
1) Pente]t: Gall 1990b: 2047, Abb. 36a, Taf. 516; Herrmann 1977: 69, fig. 1, pl. 17; Fukai, Horiuchi
1972: pl. XXXIVLVI; Fukai, Horiuchi, Tanabe, Domyo 1984: 6879; 2) ynnt: Gyselen 2001: 78, 3545; Gignoux
1991: 6869, pl. XXI.
49
Sagittarii (Amm. Marc. XXV, 1, 13); js j (Iul. Or. II, 63 B); j (Men. Fr. 23, 1).
50
Hepct axrnnno ncnontsonann n noenntx meponpnxrnxx xonnte xonrnnrenrt naccantntx nm rocyapcrn
3axanxastx Apmennn, Hepnn n Kanxascxo Anannn [Xypmyxn 2003: 99], a raxxe rex nonncrnenntx nnemen,
xoropte co ncex cropon oxpyxann Cacanncxym nmnepnm, xnonnron, cerecranon, apaon, +]rannron, xancnnon,
cannpon n p. [Greatrex 1998: 5556]. 3a ncxnmuennem apmxn (uancroc IV, 20; cp.: IV, 55) [cm. raxxe: Garsoan 1989:
573574] n cannpon (Agath. III, 17, 5; cp.: ibid. III, 18, 4), pacnonaranmnx snaunrentntmn xonrnnrenramn xonntx nar-
nnxon, nocxa pyrnx napoon n cnoem ontmnncrne cocroxnn ns nerxonoopyxenntx ncannxon. Ocoennocrn noen-
noro ena nocrountx cocee Cacannon xnonnron, xnapnron n +]rannron n nsnecrno crenenn xapaxrepnsymr
cnent oxort na cepepxntx uamax nropo nononnnt IVV nn., naenntx n Bepenno [Tpenep 1940: ran. 2224;
Hnanon, Hyxonnn, Cmecona 1984: 24, nn. 42, 43; Nikonorov 1997: vol. 2, fig. 46] n n onnne Cnara [Dalton 1964: 5355,
pl. XXIXXXXI; Mapmax, Kpnxnc 1969: 6771, pnc. 9, 10; Bivar 1972: 282, fig. 2022; Harper, Meyers 1981: 129,
fig. 44; Nikonorov 1997: vol. 2, fig. 47, bd; Grenet 2002: 211212, pl. Va, VI]: ram nsopaxent xonnnxn n nerxom
cnapxxennn, ecrnymmne cnoxnococranntmn nyxamn, xontxmn n nnnntmn meuamn. Kpome roro, ns nnctmenntx
ncrounnxon nsnecrno, uro n oeno +xnnnponxe +]rannron nyx sannman ouent naxnoe mecro (Procop. Bell. I, 7, 8)
155
cnoe nerxo xananepnn, a n xauecrne raxono ncnontsonann xonnte orpxt nonncrnenntx nnemen
(xnonnron, cerecranon, +]rannron n p.), cpaxanmnecx na npanax comsnnxon nnn naemnnxon no
nauanom cnonx noxe [Shahbazi 1987a: 497]. He ronopx yxe o rom, uro noxnnenne camtx nepntx ns
+rnx xonrnnrenron na nepcncxo cnyxe ornocnrcx xo npemenn ne panee nropo nononnnt 350-x rr.
(Amm. Marc. XVIII, 4, 1; 6, 22; XIX, 1, 711; 2, 1; 3; 6) [Felix 1992], noome c rpyom moxno cee
npecrannrt, urot cacanncxoe noennoe pyxonocrno, npexpacno ocosnanax naxnocrt nerxo xanane-
pnn n ero raxrnuecxnx samtcnax, nonaranoct n +rom nonpoce ncxnmunrentno na uyxesemnte nocxa.
B anno cnxsn ouent naxno cneymmee cnnerentcrno Menanpa Hpornxropa: n 578 r. Xocpon I noc-
nan n Meconoramnm xonnym apmnm (N j) uncnennocrtm npnmepno n 20 000 onon, ns
xoroptx oxono 12 000 tnn nepcamn, +xnnnponantmn xax mnronocnt ()
51
n xonnte nyu-
nnxn (j), a ocrantnte 8000 capannnamn (apaamn) n cannpamn (Men. Fr. 23, 1).
uro xacaercx cacanncxo nexort, ro pnmcxn nmneparop Rnnan yrnepxan, uro ona, no cyrn,
ecnonesna c rouxn spennx meroon neennx oentx ecrnn, xoropte ncnontsymrcx nepcamn, n no
+ro npnunne onn camn nnsxo ee onennnamr, n rom uncne n n cnonx saxonax (Iul. Or. II, 63 C). pyrne
nosneanrnunte anropt ocoo nouepxnnamr ynnxennoe nonoxenne nexort n cocrane nepcncxnx
nocx. Ho cnonam Ammnana Mapnennnna, nepcncxne nexornnnt, noopyxennte nanoone mnpmnn-
nonon
52
, ntnonnxmr npnxasannx n xauecrne oosntx (calones). 3ra [nx] ronna ncera cneyer [sa xon-
nnne], cnonno opeuennax na neunoe pacrno n nnxora ne noepxnnaemax nn xanonantem, nn
noauxamn (Amm. Marc. XXIII, 6, 83). He menee ntpasnrentna coornercrnymmax xapaxrepncrnxa y
Hpoxonnx Kecapncxoro: Bet ncx nx [nepcon] nexora ne uro nnoe, xax ronna ocrontx coxa-
nennx myxnxon ( P d k), xoropte ncrynamr n oeno crpo rontxo nx roro,
urot noxantnart crent, a raxxe rpanrt ynrtx n n ocrantnom npncnyxnnart nonnam [xananepnn]
(s s). Ho+romy onn ne nmemr nnxaxoro opyxnx, xoroptm mornn t nanocnrt
npe npary; onn ntcrannxmr ntcoxne mnrt rontxo nx roro, urot mentme nopaxartcx nenpnxre-
nem (Procop. Bell. I, 14, 2526; cp.: I, 14, 52). Menanp Hpornxrop raxxe nennnenpnxrno orstnaercx
o nepcncxnx nexornnnax, nastnax nx myxnnxo ronno ( P) n espontm mno-
xecrnom (y P), conepmenno ecnonesntm na none ox, n npornnonocrannxx nx camtm
nonncrnenntm n nannyumnm opasom noopyxenntm ( r ), r. e. xonntm
onam (Men. Fr. 20, 3)
53
. H xorx ne nosnee npemenn npannennx Xocpona I (531579) conart nep-
cncxo nexort tnn nxnmuent n cocran nonncxoro cocnonnx (HTanc.: 38) [Tafazzoli 2000: 1213],
nx ncxpnmnnannx, rem ne menee, npoonxanact, no xananepncr n sanncnmocrn or cnonx npo]ec-

[Altheim 1960: 269; Litvinsky 1996: 139]. Kax npannno, n ocnexax cpaxanact rontxo nnemennax snart, ocnamennax nx
nnxnero ox xontxmn raxoe cnapxxenne sacnnerentcrnonano nx xnonnron (Amm. Marc. XIX, 1, 7; XIX, 2, 6) n
+]rannron (Taapn: 126 [N] = 116 [B]; cm. raxxe: Ceeoc XXVI o xymanax, r. e. +]rannrax [Tpenep 1954: 142,
143; Tep-Mxprnuxn 1979: 61]).
51
Bnronocnax nepcncxax xonnnna n coomennn Menanpa, necomnenno, npecrannxna coo oertx n nart
nonnon, samnrnoe cnapxxenne xoroptx ononnxn mnr. Pannecacanncxne xara]paxrt ero ne nmenn, no ne nosnee
VI n. mnr cranonnrcx oxsarentntm npemerom +xnnnponxn rxxenonoopyxennoro ncannxa, uro sa]nxcnponano n
nnctmenno rpannnn (Taapn: 249 [N] = 263 [B]; Fanamn: 600; cp.: Agath. III, 25, 5; 7; 9; 28, 5; Theophyl. Sim. II, 6,
11; XK 62) [Bivar 1972: 275276, 291] n narnxno nnnmcrpnpyercx snamennro crarye xonnoro nnxemnxa ns
Fontmoro anana n Tax-n Fycrane [Fukai, Horiuchi 1972: pl. XXXIVLVI; Fukai, Horiuchi, Tanabe, Domyo 1984:
6879; Gall 1990b: 3847, Taf. 15, 16], xoropym ontmnncrno nccneonarene arpnyrnpyer Xocpony II (591628)
[cm.: Harper 1987: 588]. Hnrepecno, uro n Crparernxone Hceno-Manpnxnx yrnepxaercx, uro y nepcncxnx nca-
nnxon ner mnron (Mauric. XI, 1, 12). Ecnn +ra nn]opmannx nocxonr x Vpnxnm, cnyxnnmemy mexy 498 n 503 rr.
noenntm marncrpom Bocroxa [cm.: Bynanon 2002: 85], ro noxnnenne +roro nna ocnexon y nepcncxnx xara]paxron
onxno ornocnrtcx xo npemenn yxe nocne 503 r. Bnpouem, cneyer oronopnrtcx, uro anexo ne nce annte anropa
Crparernxona o nepcax ntrnxxr ocronepntmn: rax, n onom mecre on oexrnnno yxastnaer, uro nepcncxne
xananepncrt onauent n nannnpn n noopyxent meuamn n nyxamn (Mauric. XI, 1, 6), onaxo n pyrom oannxer, uro y
nnx ner ne rontxo mnron, no n nnx, n uro onn noome ne nmxr cpaxartcx na orxptro mecrnocrn n x romy xe ne
nnaemr raxo naxno raxrnuecxo ynonxo, xax npnrnopnoe orcrynnenne c nocneymmnm nosnpamennem n o (Ibid.
XI, 1, 1213). Hoonte saxnnennx xnno npornnopeuar romy, uro nsnecrno o noennom ene nepcon n +noxy Cacannon
ns naexntx ncrounnxon, no+romy cneennx Crparernxona no +romy nonpocy cneyer paccmarpnnart c pasymno
crenentm ocropoxnocrn [no cp.: Bivar 1972: 287291].
52
Myrmillones pnmcxne rnanaropt, nnmt uacrnuno samnmennte ocnexamn, ns xoroptx camtm naxntm
tn ontmo npxmoyrontnt mnr rnna scutum, mnpoxo ncnontsonanmncx pnmcxo nernonapno nexoro [cm.:
Daszewski 2001: 7679].
53
oannm, uro Ara]n Mnpnnecxn ynomnnaer npncyrcrnne n nepcncxnx nocxax paounx (d),
cnyr () n nocnntmnxon rxxecre (P), xoropte, ne nmex nnxaxnx nantxon n noennom ene n ne
yuacrnyx nenocpecrnenno n oxx, sannmannct saroronxo penecnnt nx nyx apmnn (Agath. III, 24, 6; 28, 13;
IV, 30, 7).
156
cnonantntx xauecrn mor nonyuart n nne xanonantx o 4000 npxemon, rora xax nexornnny tn
rapanrnponan mnnnmym ncero n 100 npxemon (Taapn: 249 [N] = 263 [B]; Fanamn: 600) [Tafazzoli
2000: 15]. pyrnmn cnonamn, pasnnna n onenxe n onnare nx parnoro rpya onee uem nneuarnxmmax!
Baxno nouepxnyrt, uro +rn cneennx nepexnnxamrcx c npnneennte ntme anntmn o nesna-
unrentno raxrnuecxo ponn n nnsxom connantnom craryce nexort n apmnn nap]xn. 3ro ocrox-
rentcrno, n cnom ouepet, pesxo xonrpacrnpyer c ro naxno pontm, xoropym nrpann nemne xonrnn-
renrt, nxnmuax naemntx rpeuecxnx ronnnron, n noennom ene Axemennon [cm.: Shahbazi 1987a:
491494; Sekunda 1989; 1992; Head 1992; Barkworth 1992]
54
. pyrnmn cnonamn, nannno eme ono
cnnerentcrno roro, uro Cacannt cneonann n noenno c]epe nmenno nap]xncxo moenn. Ho+romy
ner nnxaxnx ocnonann yrnepxart, xax +ro enaer A. B. Baxasn, uro nepnt cacanncxn maxan-
max, Apamnp I xxot noccranonnn noennym oprannsannm Axemennon [Shahbazi 1987a: 496].
Tem ne menee, xax n n cnyuae c nap]xnamn, ne cronr aconmrno sannxart snauenne nexort n
noennom ene Cacannon. Fonee roro, y nepcon ona nrpana axe ntmym pont, nocxontxy onn camoe
ceptesnoe nnnmanne yenxnn pasnnrnm nantxon ocano nont, ycnex n xoropo tn nemtcnnm es
npnnneuennx ontmnx macc nemnx nocx. B rex cnyuaxx, xora ncxo xamnannn pemancx ne n none-
nom cpaxennn, a y cren npaxecxnx xpenocre, cacanncxax nexora ntxonna na nepnt nnan [cm.:
Apsymanxn 1971]. B xpyr ee oxsannocre nxonnn nnxenepno-rexnnuecxne paort coopyxenne
ocantx nanon (Amm. Marc. XIX, 6, 6), noxon cren (Procop. Bell. I, 14, 25) n r. ., a raxxe npnxptrne
araxn na pnmcxne yxpennennx npn nomomn ontmnx sarpanrentntx mnron (Amm. Marc. XIX, 7, 4;
cp.: Procop. Bell. I, 14, 26; cp.: I, 14, 52). Baxnoe mecro n nexorntx nopxxax cacanncxnx nocx
npnnanexano nnosemnam, n uacrnocrn, enemnram, ornnuno npncnoconenntm x none n ropax n
npornn npaxecxnx yxpennenn (cm. c. 145). B nonenom cpaxennn nemne orpxt nepcon, npnxptnaxct
npoonronartmn n ntnyxntmn mnramn, cnnerenntmn ns npyrten n noxptrtmn ctpo xoxe, nacry-
nann n nnorno comxnyrom crpom (manipuli peditum contecti scutis olbongis et curvis, quae texta
vimine et coriis crudis gestantes densius se commovebant) nroptm +menonom, ncne sa xonnnne
xara]paxron, no nnepen oentx cnonon (Amm. Marc. XXIV, 6, 8). Bpx nn +rn nexornnnt tnn nyu-
nnxamn, xax +ro nopo yrnepxaercx [Shahbazi 1987a: 497]: xapaxrep nx oenoro nopxxa n nannune y
nnx mnron ne ronopxr n nontsy raxoro npenonoxennx; nx crpo, cxopee, cnyxnn npnxptrnem nemnm
crpenxam, xoropte, nosmoxno, npecrannxnn pyrne naponocrn n cacanncxom nocxe.
Apmnx Cacannon tna oprannsonana n coornercrnnn c r. n. ecxrnuno cncremo, r. e. ee
crpyxrypntmn ennnnamn tnn nopasenennx, nocneonarentno nacunrtnanmne ecxrxn, cornn,
rtcxun n ecxrxn rtcxu nonnon. Ha +ro xnno yxastnaer coomenne o nepcncxom xnnnapxe (-
: xomannp rtcxunoro orpxa), nornmem n cpaxennn c nnsanrnnamn y En]para n 531 r.
(Malal. XVIII, p. 463, 21). Hecmorpx na ro, uro ecxrnunax cncrema npnmenxnact yxe n axemenncxom
nocxe [Shahbazi 1987a: 492], ee sanmcrnonanne Cacannamn ns +roro ncrounnxa manonepoxrno. O-
pasnom nx nnx onxnt tnn nocnyxnrt nocxonte coennennx nap]xn, uncno onon n xoroptx
ncera tno xparntm 10 (cm. ntme, c. 143), npnuem xaxt nap]xncxn orpx uncnennocrtm n 1000
nonnon nmen cno oeno mranapr n nne paxona (Lucian. Quom. hist. 29). B cnom ouepet, noxnne-
nne +ro cncremt y nap]xn tno cnxsano c nnnxnnem ns crene Henrpantno Asnn, re ee ne nosnee
III n. o n. +. nauann npnmenxrt xouennnxn-xynny (cmnny), ynyumnn rem camtm oprannsannonno-rax-
rnuecxym crpyxrypy n ncnnnnnny cnonx xonntx op [cm.: Hnxonopon 2002a: 239, npnmeu. 16].
Kax yxe ormeuanoct ntme, n apmaxncxoe npemx n noennom ene Hpana yrnepnncx npnnnnn
crpororo raxrnuecxoro nsanmoecrnnx mexy nerxonoopyxenno n xara]paxrno xonnnne, peman-
mnx cnon oente saaun na none ox n oprannuecxom enncrne. 3rn xe crporo cxoopnnnponannte
ecrnnx nannnpno xananepnn n xonntx crpenxon nexann n ocnone n cacanncxo raxrnxn (Amm.
Marc. XXV, 1, 1213) [Gabba 1974: 31]
55
. ocrarouno narnxno (xorx n xocnenno) +ry raxrnxy
emoncrpnpyer nauantnt nepno pnmcxo-nepcncxo nont 297298 rr., xora nesapt Ianepn,
nepenpannnmnct c apmne uepes En]par y Kannnnnxa, nnnyncx no nanpannennm x Kappam n ncxope
ncrpernncx ram c nocxom maxanmaxa Hapce. B rpertem no cuery cpaxennn nepct cymenn nanecrn
pnmnxnam coxpymnrentnoe nopaxenne, npnuem cam Ianepn ena cnaccx ercrnom (Eutrop. IX, 24;

54
Fontmoe mecro n oeno npaxrnxe Axemennon sannman n raxo cnenn]nuecxn po nocx, xax cepnonocnte
xonecnnnt, ntnonnxnmne na none ox ]ynxnnm yapnoro xynaxa [He]xnn 2001: 268358, 410448]. V nap]xn n
Cacannon oente xonecnnnt xax pas orcyrcrnonann, a coomenne 3nnx Hamnpnnx o cacanncxnx cepnonocntx xo-
necnnnax (falcati currus: SHA XVIII, 55, 2; 56, 4) xnnxercx necomnenntm ntmtcnom.
55
A. B. Baxasn nonaraer, uro ncxo nrn otuno pemancx araxo cacanncxo yapno xananepne, ocna-
menno rxxentmn nnxamn, npn noepxxe nyunnxon, opymnnanmnx na npara mnoxecrno crpen [Shahbazi 1987a: 498],
onaxo +ro ncero nnmt ynpomennt nsrnx na raxrnxy c ncnontsonannem xara]paxron (cm. ntme, c. 143).
157
Fest. Brev. XXV; Vict. Caes. XXXIX, 34; Iulian. Or. I, 18A; Oros. VII, 25, 9; Theophan. Chron. A. M.
5793; Zonar. XII, 31). Harnncxne anropt (Enrponn n uecr) oxcnxmr nopaxenne pnmcxo apmnn ee
manouncnennocrtm n cpannennn c nepcncxo, onaxo, xax xaxercx, naxnym pont n +rom ctrpann
raxrnuecxn n npnpont ]axropt: na rono meconoramcxo pannnne cacanncxax xananepnx nmena
neocnopnmoe npenmymecrno nepe pnmcxo nexoro (xax +ro tno n nrne nap]xn c pnmnxnamn n
ro xe mecrnocrn y Kapp n 53 r. o n. +.)
56
. Tontxo nocne roro, xax Ianepn nonen nacrynnenne
npornn nepcon n Apmennn, ue ropncrt pente] tn neyoen nx nenpnxrentcxo xonnnnt, pnm-
nxne cmornn oepxart noey [Rawlinson 1876: 119123].
Cacanncxax xananepnx cnannnact cnonmn cxopocrntmn xauecrnamn (Amm. Marc. XIX, 8, 10
11; Procop. Bell. I, VIII, 17). Hepct otuno nanaann na nenpnxrentcxne orpxt c rtna (Amm. Marc.
XIX, 8, 10; XXIV, 4, 7; Zosim. III, 27, 4; 28, 2; 4; Eunap. Fr. 27, 8; Liban. Or. XVIII, 265), a xora rem
npnxonnoct orcrynart, onn conponoxann nx noxonym xononny n nocroxnno rpenoxnnn ee cnonmn
araxamn, crpemxct no npemx ox oxpyxnrt npaxecxn oeno nopxox, no conmax npn +rom ocro-
poxnocrt na cnyua xonrparax npornnnnxa (Amm. Marc. XXV, 3, 14; 5, 1; Zosim. III, 30, 45;
Liban. Or. XVIII, 268; Theophyl. Sim. II, 9, 1013). Bce +rn ecrnnx no mnorom cxoxn c oneparnn-
ntmn meponpnxrnxmn nap]xncxnx nocx npn ananornuntx ocroxrentcrnax (Plut. Ant. 39, 3; 41, 68;
42, 5; 45, 17; 12; 47, 45; 49, 1; Dio Cass. XLIX, 28, 34; 29, 23; Frontin. Strat. II, 3, 15; 13, 7;
cp.: Flor. II, 20, 36; Vell. Pat. II, 82, 2).
Bnpoxo ncnontsonanact nepcncxnmn ncannxamn +noxn Cacannon n r. n. nap]xncxax crpe-
na crpenta ns nyxa nasa n npecneymmero nx npornnnnxa, uro namno cnoe orpaxenne n nnct-
menno rpannnn (Amm. Marc. XXV, 1, 18) n n oxornnutnx cnenax na npemerax r. n. cacanncxoro
cepepa (pnc. 3, 8)
57
. Ona npnmenxnact c ouent ontmo +]]exrnnnocrtm npanoxstuntmn xouennn-
xamn cxn]amn n caxamn, a raxxe recno cnxsanntmn c nnmn cnonm nponcxoxennem nap]xnamn
58
.
Hepct nosanmcrnonann +ror npnem cxopee or nocnennx, uem or conpemenntx nm ncannuecxnx na-
poon ns rypxecrancxnx crene, xax +ro npenonaran T. Cynnmnpcxn [Sulimirski 1952: 459]. Hpana,
eme Kceno]onr ormeuan ntcoxoe ncxyccrno crpentt c nonoporom nasa, xoropoe emoncrpnponann
xonnte nyunnxn n nocxax axemenncxnx carpanon Mano Asnn (Xen. Anab. III, 3, 10). Bnpouem,
ocraercx nexcntm, tnn nn onn +rnnuecxnmn nepcamn, no n yxasannom coomennn onn nmenymrcx
napnapamn, rora xax xopomo nsnecrno, uro n noopyxenntx cnnax Axemennon cnyxnnn npecra-
nnrenn mnorouncnenntx nonnacrntx n comsntx nepcam napoon, n rom uncne n re, xoropte cnann-
nnct cnonmn xonntmn crpenxamn (npexe ncero, cpeneasnarcxne caxn). Kax t ram nn tno, mornn
nap]xncxax crpena n ncnonnennn ncannxon npancxoro onnxa ncrpeuaercx na oexrax rnnnrnxn
r. n. rpexo-nepcncxoro crnnx, arnpyemtx n npeenax nropo nononnnt V nauana IV nn. o n. +.
[Boardman 1970: 316318, 326, pl. 904, 929]. Ecrecrnenno, ecnn nepct n n camom ene macrepcxn
nnaenn +rnm npnemom eme c axemenncxo +noxn, ro annoe ocroxrentcrno onxno tno rontxo
cnococrnonart nx nyumemy nocnpnxrnm nap]xncxo raxrnxn.
Hcrounnxn noome ronopxr o ouent ntcoxom yponne macrepcrna nepcon +noxn Cacannon n
crpente ns nyxa (Amm. Marc. XXV, 1, 13; cp.: ibid. XIX, 6, 9; XX, 11, 12; XXIV, 2, 5; 8; 13; 15; 17; 5,
6; XXV, 3, 11; Liban. Or. XVIII, 228; 266). Hsnecrno, nanpnmep, uro no npemx pnmcxo-nepcncxo
nont 231232 rr. [cm.: Rawlinson 1876: 4249] nocxo Apamnpa I oxpyxnno na pannnne mxnym
rpynnnponxy apmnn nmneparopa Anexcanpa Cenepa n paccrpenxno ee ns nyxon (Hdn. VI, 5, 910). B
xonne IV n. nepct cymenn nanecrn snaunrentnt ypon nroprmemycx n nx npeent rynncxomy nocxy,
sapocan ero mnoxecrnom crpen (Prisc. Fr. 11, 2). Bce +ro nanomnnaer upesntuano +]]exrnnnoe
neenne crpenxonoro ox nap]xnamn. B uacrnocrn, nx xonnte crpenxn nnecnn necomym nenry n noe-
y na apmne Mapxa Kpacca npn Kappax [Medinger 1933]. Ham ocnonno ncrounnx, Hnyrapx, cnenn-
antno ormeuaer, uro nyxn nap]xn tnn ontmnmn n momntmn ( r ), n nyunnxn,
xpyro narxrnnax nx, c orpomno cnno noctnann crpent n nent (Plut. Crass. 24, 4), nerxo nponnax
mnrt pnmcxo nernonapno nexort (Ibid. 25, 6; cp.: 18, 3). Hap]xncxoe crpenxonoe opyxne nmeno

56
B npecrannennn pennnx, nap]xne ncera npenounrann nrtcx na pannnne (Plut. Ant. 46, 67; Mauric.
VIII, 2, 75), uro tno cnocrnenno n nepcam +noxn Cacannon: no cnnerentcrny ouennna, nx xananepnx, cpaxanmaxcx
na orxptrom npocrpancrne, tna upesntuano onacna nx ncex napoon (Amm. Marc. XXIV, 4, 2).
57
Cctnxn na nnnmcrparnnnt marepnan cm. n npnmeu. 63. Cm. raxxe naccax ns onoro ns nncem sanano-
pnmcxoro anropa Cnonnx Anonnnnapa, xoropoe arnpyercx 461 r., re ynomnnaercx nap]xnnn (r. e. nepc), crpenxm-
mn n erymnx xnnorntx c ooporom nasa (Sidon. Epist. IX, 13, 2832 [Harper, Meyers 1981: 4849, n. 45].
58
Cxn]t n caxn: Plut. Crass. 24, 5; Clem. Alex. Strom. IV, 8, 62; nap]xne: Plut. Crass. 24, 5; Iust. XLI, 2, 7; Hor.
Carm. II, 13, 1718; Verg. Georg. III, 31; Serv. Comm. Georg. III, 31; Propert. IV, 3, 6667; Stat. Theb. VI, 596; Hdn.
III, 4, 8; cp.: Catull. 11, 6 [cm. raxxe: Rostovtzeff 1943; Sulimirski 1952: 455458; Hnxonopon 2002a: 262263].
158
cnoxnococrannym xoncrpyxnnm n nocxonno x opasnam ns nenrpantnoasnarcxo crenno rpannnn,
x xoropo npnnanexann n nyxn r. n. cacanncxoro (nnn xymano-cacanncxoro) rnna c nymx
ynpyrnmn nneuamn n xapaxrepntmn nnnntmn xonnamn-poramn
59
(pnc. 3, 1). Camte pannne nx
nsopaxennx moxno nnert na xocrxnom nsennn ns Kanant Itp 2 n Xopesme (Banepr n p. 2004:
185187, pnc. 5/24)
60
, na xymancxnx monerax nropo nononnnt II n. n. +. [Gardner 1886: pl. XXVIII,
7; Nikonorov 1997: vol. 2, fig. 43, d] (pnc. 3, 2) n na xocrxntx nnacrnnax ns Taxr-n Canrnna [Hnrnnn-
cxn 2002: pnc. 16; Nikonorov 1997: vol. 2, fig. 27] (pnc. 3, 3) n Opnara [Ilyasov, Rusanov 1998:
pl. IV, XIII; Hnxonopon, Xyxxon 1999: pnc. 36] (pnc. 3, 46)
61
. Hoxasant raxne nyxn n na mnornx
namxrnnxax nsopasnrentnoro ncxyccrna nosnenap]xncxoro n pannecacanncxoro npemenn ns ypa-
Enponoc, Xarpt n Xanann-3enonn
62
(pnc. 3, 912), no nanonee xopomo onn nsnecrnt no nsopa-
xennxm na npemerax cacanncxoro cepepa, naroapx xoroptm n nonyunnn cnoe ycnonnoe nanmeno-
nanne cacanncxne
63
(pnc. 3, 8). Kpome roro, nyxom paccmarpnnaemoro rnna noopyxen cacanncxn
npannrent na onom ns pente]on n Fnmanype [Herrmann 1981: 6, fig. 1, pl. 1, 4, b] (pnc. 3, 7). Vnomn-
nannx +roro rposnoro opyxnx, ns xoroporo nepct noctnann no npara rynrentnte crpent, ncrpeua-
mrcx n nosnepnmcxo nnreparype (Amm. Marc. XXII, 8, 37; XXIV, 2, 5; 13; XXV, 1, 13; Sidon. Carm.
II, 138140; cp.: Liban. Or. XVIII, 248) [Maenchen-Helfen 1973: 231]
64
.
Kpome nyxon cacanncxoro rnna, nepcncxn oeno apcenan ynacneonan or nap]xncxoro n
nexoropte pyrne npemert oenoro cnapxxennx. Hs nacrynarentnoro noopyxennx, n nepnym oue-
pet, cneyer nasnart nnnnym
65
n rxxenym nnxy (rpeu. , nar. contus) rnannoe
66
n upesnt-

59
O cacanncxnx nyxax nopono cm.: Brown 1937: 9, fig. 3, b; Paterson 1969; Xasanon 1971: 34; Maenchen-
Helfen 1973: 228232; Kamnncxn 1982; Coulston 1985: 240241; Nikonorov 1997: vol. 1, 5253; Hnxonopon 2002a:
279, npnmeu. 80; Hnrnnncxn 2001: 4245, 5058; Zimmer 2003.
60
B ntmeme concem neanno nonno nynnxannn marepnanon pacxonox na Kanant-rtp 2 mnennx ee anropon
ornocnrentno xpononornn +roro namxrnnxa pasennnnct: n ro npemx xax F. H. Banepr n C. F. Fonenon no cnonm
apxeonornuecxnm nanmennxm ornocxr ero x IVII nn. o n. +. [Banepr n p. 2004: 9, 17, 93, 147, 241242], B. A.
Hnnmnn, ncxox, npexe ncero, ns anntx +nnrpa]nxn, npenaraer ary n npeenax or nropo nononnnt nnn xonna
III n. o n. +. o II n. n. +. [Tam xe: 188].
61
arnponxa nnacrnn ns Taxr-n Canrnna n Opnara xnnxercx npemerom oxnnnenno ncxyccnn, nanonee
axrnnntmn yuacrnnxamn xoropo n nocnenee npemx xnnxmrcx F. A. Hnrnnncxn n x. . Hntxcon. Hepnt, ocnont-
naxct na nanmennxx K. Tanae [cm.: Tanabe 1990: 5558], ornocnr +rn namxrnnxn ncxyccrna x III n. n. +. [Hnrnnn-
cxn 2002: 189201], rora xax nropo orcrannaer nx ary n npeenax III nn. n. +. [Ilyasov 2003: 274300].
62
Cumont, Rostovtzeff 1939: pl. XIV, XV; Rostovtzeff 1933: pl. XXI, 3; 1935: fig. 63, 64, 71, 79, 85; 1936: fig. 23;
Hopkins 1934: pl. XXXV, 4; 1939: LVI, 1, 2; Goldman 1999: 24/A.6, 30, 36, 37/B.3, 8587, fig. 3, 6, 8, 12, 16; Ricciardi
1998: fig. 4, 5, 7.
63
Tpenep, Hyxonnn 1987: nn. 69, 13, 17, 1929, 31, 34, 35; Harper, Meyers 1981: X, XII, XIII, XVI, pl. 810,
14, 15, 1719, 22, 27, 28, 31, 32, 35, 37, 38; Harper 1978: 33, 39, 40, 48; Xannnon, Komxapnt 1985: pnc. 1.
64
C reopne A. Fnnapa o ynaxe oeno xonno crpentt ns nyxa n npancxom mnpe n nepno, naunnax npn-
mepno c 200 n nnnort o 350 rr. n. +., xora nepct nomnn n xonraxr c nnemenamn rynncxoro (nenrpantnoasnarcxoro)
nponcxoxennx, nonnt xoroptx tnn npenocxontmn ncannxamn-nyunnxamn [Bivar 1972: 278284], xareropnuecxn
nentsx cornacnrtcx. Vxe ona xamnannx Apamnpa I npornn Anexcanpa Cenepa narnxno noxastnaer, xaxym naxnym
pont n pannecacanncxom noennom ene nrpann nyunnxn. Kpome roro, Banyp I npecraer n cnonx nanncxx-nnnnrnax
ns Xaxnaaa n Tanr-n Fypaxa xax yment crpenox ns nyxa [Mackenzie 1978], a ero oren Apamnp I nsopaxen raxo-
ntm n rpeuecxo nepcnn Hcropnn apmxn Ara]anrena [Widengren 1971: 781], uro cnnerentcrnyer o rom ontmom
snauennn, xaxoe nepnte Cacannt npnanann +romy nny nonncxoro ncxyccrna. H npn nosnnx Cacannax nepcncxne
nonnt npoonxann nanonrt yxac na nparon cnonm ouent +]]exrnnntm, maccnponanntm n nnorntm ocrpenom ns
nyxon (Procop. Bell. I, 14, 35; 18, 31; II, 8, 10; 15; 17, 15; 13, 19; VIII, 14, 11; Agath. III, 22, 2; 24, 925, 1; 26, 8;
Theophyl. Sim. I, 12, 45; II, 9, 1112; III, 14, 67). Hpana, rpeuecxne anropt VI n. ntcoxo onennnann rontxo cxo-
pocrpentnocrt nepcon, rora xax camn nx nyxn cunrann cnatmn no cpannennm c nnsanrncxnmn (Procop. Bell. I, 18,
3234; Mauric. XI, 1, 6; cp.: Procop. Bell. I, 14, 36; VIII, 8, 34). Ho-nnnmomy, nepcncxne nyxn cacanncxoro rnna
ycrynann rora n nponnno cnne onee rxxentm nyxam r. n. rynncxoro rnna, xoropte no nosecrnnem enpone-
cxnx rynnon npnnxnn na noopyxenne nocrounte pnmnxne [Hnxonopon 2002a: 279, npnmeu. 80]. Hnrepecno, uro cam xe
A. Fnnap ormeuaer ceptesnoe ornnune mexy nepcamn, c ono cropont, n rynnamn, nnsanrnnamn n apaamn, c
pyro, n cnocoax narxrnnannx rernnt [Bivar 1972: 284286; cp.: Hnocrpannen 1909: 6871]. Taxnm opasom, nepct
oxasannct menee nocnpnnmunntmn, uem nnsanrnnt, x ncxoxmnm ns nenrpantnoasnarcxnx crene noenntm nnnxnnxm
n npoonxann nonarartcx na cnoe rpannnonnoe crpenxonoe opyxne, n rnasax nx nnsanrncxnx conpemennnxon renept
yxe ne cront rposnoe. K romy xe, na xauecrno nepcncxnx nyxon oxastnann nnnxnne n xnnmarnuecxne ycnonnx
snmo onn ntxonnn ns crpox no npnunne ntcoxo nnaxnocrn nosyxa (Mauric. XI, 1, 12; X3P VII, 3).
65
Cornacno nnctmenno rpannnn, xara]paxr tn noopyxen nnxo, onee nnnno, uem otxnonennoe xonte
( : Heliod. IX, 15, 1); cunraercx, uro ona ocrnrana n nnny 34 m [Cnmonenxo 2002: 116119].
66
Pemapxy Hnyrapxa o rom, uro enncrnennax cnna xara]paxron +ro nnxa ( N Px -
: Plut. Lucull. 28, 3 ), nonce ne cneyer nonnmart yxnantno. Ee npannntnee nnrepnpernponart xax
yxasanne na nepnocrenennym naxnocrt +roro nacrynarentnoro opyxnx n cnapxxennn xara]paxron, xoropoe nnxora ne
159
uano rposnoe opyxne onon xara]paxrno xonnnnt, xoroptm onn na nonnom cxaxy mornn c onoro
yapa nponsnrt cpasy nyx nenpnxrentcxnx nonnon (Plut. Crass. 27, 2; Heliod. IX, 15, 6; cp.: Dio Cass.
XL, 22, 3). Texnnxy nnaennx +rnm opyxnem y nepcncxnx xonntx narnnxon npnnonr Iennoop
67
, a
nsopaxennx camnx nnx xopomo npecrannent n nxonorpa]nn nosnenap]xncxoro n cacanncxoro
npemenn c reppnropnn Hpana n Meconoramnn
68
(pnc. 1, 14, 6; 2).
B nocnenne nexa o name +pt na Cpenem n Fnnxnem Bocroxe noxnnnnct cxot-nponnsxn,
nsrorannnnanmnecx ns ne]pnra, xamnx, meranna n pyrnx marepnanon, xoropte xpennnnct x nnoc-
xocrn noxen nnnnoro meua nx ero nonemnnannx x noxcy nocpecrnom npoeroro cxnost nnx nop-
rynenoro pemnx (pnc. 4, 14)
69
. Camax pannxx naxoxa raxo cxot-nponnsxn (anrn. scabbard-slide)
n npeenax nasnannoro pernona (ns Rxno Faxrpnn, r. e. conp. Cenepnoro A]ranncrana) nmeer ary
ne nosnee I n. o n. +. [Trousdale 1988] (pnc. 4, 1). Hpn nomomn raxoro xe npncnoconennx none-
men meu onoro ns nepconaxe, nsopaxenntx na napno sonoro sacrexxe roro xe npemenn ns
norpeennx 3 nexpononx Tnnnx-rene n Rxno Faxrpnn [Sarianidi 1985: il. 8184; Capnannn
1989: 7377, pnc. 28; Nikonorov 1997: vol. 2, fig. 24, f] (pnc. 4, 5)
70
. Oe naxoxn ns A]ranncrana, ra-
xnm opasom, npecrannxmr coo neocrammee sneno n rnnorese, cornacno xoropo cxot-nponnsxn
nx nonecxn meua noxnnnnct na sanae Asnn nmecre c m+uxamn [Trousdale 1975: 70, 71, 118119;
cp.: Maenchen-Helfen 1957]. 3ra erant nonncxo amynnnnn tna mnpoxo pacnpocrpanena na reppn-
ropnn cosanno m+uxamn Kymancxo nmnepnn: ee nemecrnennte naxoxn, arnpyemte nropo
nononnno I n. n. +., nponcxoxr c roponma Cnpxan n Taxcnne (conp. Haxncran) [Trousdale 1975:
7173, 230232, pl. 17, d] (pnc. 4, 2, 3), a nsopaxennx npncyrcrnymr na cxyntnrypntx namxrnnxax
ns Faxrpnn n Cenepo-3anano Hnnn, a raxxe na monerax Bennxnx Kyman [Trousdale 1975: 7185;
Nikonorov 1997: vol. 2, fig. 38, e, f, 39, c, 40, b, 42, b, d, e, g] (pnc. 4, 6).
B xonne II n. o n. +. nepno nononnne I n. n. +. n sanano uacrn Faxrpnn tno ouent snaun-
rentntm nonnrnuecxoe nnnxnne nap]xn [cm.: Rtveladze 1995: 187190; Olbrycht 1998: 99100, 105,
125128], onn yxe n ror nepno mornn nepenxrt y ocenmnx n axrpncxom pernone nomaon cnoco
npnxpennennx noxen meua x noprynee npn nocpecrne cxot-nponnsxn. Kocnenno +ro nornepxaer-
cx nnnecrnrypntm pente]om napx manoasncxoro rocyapcrna Kommarent Anrnoxa I (ox. 6931 rr.
o n. +.) na sanano reppace xomnnexca n Hnmpy are: ram meu camoro Anrnoxa nonemen na nenom
oxy npn nomomn raxo cxot [Humann, Puchstein 1890: 315 ff., Taf. XXXVI, 2; Gall 1990a: 108
109, fig. 6; Jacobs 1997: 173, Taf. 17, 1] (pnc. 4, 7). Hocxontxy n +ro cnene, cxopee ncero, noxasana

tno y nnx enncrnenntm [no cp.: Mielczarek 1993: 6162, 90; Bopearachchi, Sachs 2003: 333]. Kara]paxrt,
necomnenno, ncnontsonann nyxn (cm., x npnmepy, pnc. 1, 2, 6, re xcno nnnt xonuant), a raxxe meun (Heliod. IX, 15,
1: ; cm. pnc. 1, 4, 6, re nnonne pasnnunmt ntcrynammne ns-sa cnnn ncannxon pyxoxrn meue). Honyrno cneyer
ormernrt, uro meun (P) onpeenenno nmena n nap]xncxax nerxax xananepnx nyunnxon (Dio Cass. XLIX, 29, 3
4). Bo npemx araxn nnxa yxe c nepnoro yapa morna sacrpxrt n rene nenpnxrenx, cnomartcx n r. n., nocne uero
ponnponannt ncannx n nycxan n xo cno xnnnox. He nmex xe meua n norepxn no ro nnn nno npnunne nnxy, on
]axrnuecxn oxastnancx esopyxntm n ne mor necrn nnxnn o. Ho+romy nentsx cornacnrtcx c yrnepxennem [cm.:
Mielczarek 1993: 6162], uro meu tn oannen n xomnnexc noopyxennx xara]paxron rontxo n nosnn nepno
+nonmnnn +roro poa xananepnn.
67
On yxastnaer, uro nnxa xpennnact x mee n xpyny xonx, n ncannxy no npemx nnxennx na nenpnxrenx rontxo
ocrananoct nanpannxrt ee ocrpne nx nanecennx crpamnoro rapannoro yapa (Heliod. IX, 15, 6). Bnpouem, raxax rex-
nnxa ynpannennx nnxo tna anexo ne enncrnenno n, onee roro, nxonorpa]nuecxn ona ne sacnnerentcrnonana.
Hocxontxy crpemxn n anrnunym +noxy ne tno nonce, xara]paxrt araxonann c onopo na ceno xecrxo xoncrpyxnnn,
cnaxennoe ynopamn n nne ntcrynon-poron no ero yrnam nnn nepene n sane nyx, xoropte naexno ]nxcnpona-
nn nocaxy ceoxon n npenxrcrnonann nx naennm n momenr nanecennx nenpnxrenm yapa nnxo [cm.: Hnxonopon
2003; 2002a: 295296, npnmeu. 102; 2002]. Heannmm nontrxy C. M. Hepenanona oocnonart resnc o cymecrnonannn
n pennocrn ocoo, r. n. capmarcxo nocaxn, xxot nosnonxnme (no cyrn, nonpexn ncem saxonam ]nsnxn) nca-
nnxy n ocnexax ecrnonart nnxo es onopt na crpemena nnn ceno (nocnenemy, xax +ro nn crpanno, on noome ne
yenxer nnxaxoro nnnmannx) [Hepenanon 1999], cneyer npnsnart neyauno [cm.: Cnmonenxo 2002: 110121].
68
Gall 1990b: Abb. 1, 35, 10, Taf. 118; Little 1933: pl. XVII, XVIII; Goldman, Little 1980: fig. 2, pl. IVII;
Rostovtzeff 1935: fig. 82, 83; Kraeling 1956: pl. LV; Ricciardi 1996: fig. 7.
69
O +rom +nemenre xpenexa noxen x noprynenomy pemnm cm.: Maenchen-Helfen 1957; Xasanon 1971: 2527;
Trousdale 1975; 1988; Hnrnnncxn 2002: 191193; James 2004: 151153.
70
3ro saxoponenne no naenno n nem sonoro monere pnmcxoro nmneparopa Tnepnx, uexanenno n 16
21 rr. n Iannnn [Capnannn, Komenenxo 1982: 313315, pnc. 1, 4], cneyer arnponart nropo uerneprtm I n. n. +.,
rora xax paccmarpnnaemoe mnennpnoe nsenne tno nsroronneno xnno pantme. Ero exop, cxn]o-+nnnnncrnuecxn
no cnoemy coepxannm, r. e. couerammn n cee ueprt rpexo-axrpncxoro ncxyccrna n +nemenrt cxn]o-anracxoro
(nastptxcxoro) crnnx, cnoxnncx n Faxrpnn no nnnxnnem nenrpantnoasnarcxnx xouennnxon-m+uxe, xoropte n noc-
nene rpern II n. o n. +. npnnxnn yuacrne n pasrpome rocyapcrna axrpncxnx rpexon

[Capnannn 1988: 104; 1989:
77], uro, n cnom ouepet, namexaer na ary sacrexxn ena nn nosnee xonna I n o n. +.
160
nepeaua Anrnoxom cnmnona nnacrn cnoemy ctny, annt pente] (ocranmncx x romy xe eme n nesa-
nepmenntm) onxen arnponartcx nocnennmn roamn ero napcrnonannx [Young 1964: 34]. nx
name remt naxno ormernrt cneymmee ocroxrentcrno: Anrnox Kommarencxn tn ouent recno
cnxsan c apmaxncxnm Hpanom n xyntrypnom n nonnrnuecxom ornomennxx [Widengren 1987; Weiskoff
1993], n, nepoxrno, nmenno or nap]xn on n nosanmcrnonan nont +nemenr nopryneno rapnnrypt.
Cxoa-nponnsxa xopomo pasnnunma na noxnax meua rnanno ]nrypt npano uacrn pente]a n
Xynr-n Axap (Xynr-n Hanpysn) n 3nnmane, xoropt tn ntceuen n xonne II nauane III n. n. +.
[Kawami 1987: 119125, 209213, fig. 25, pl. 5760; Mathiesen 1992: 119121, fig. 1; Invernizzi
1998] (pnc. 4, 8). Hpn nomomn +ro erann nonemen meu saneuarnennoro n reppaxore snarnoro
nap]xnxna ns Ammypa, ute nsopaxenne arnpyercx rem xe npemenem [Mathiesen 1992: 194, fig. 47].
Hecomnenno, uepes nocpecrno nap]xn cxot-nponnsxn n nepnte nexa name +pt nonann n pnmcxym
Cnpnm, orxya nponcxoxr nx nemecrnennte naxoxn n nsopaxennx [Trousdale 1975: 8587, 91,
236237, pl. 18, c, d, 19, ab; Seyrig 1937: fig. 6, pl. IV, V; 1971: 118120, fig. 4], ne ronopx yxe o
nx noxnnennn n sanncnmtx or Apmaxnon onacrxx Ocpoene [Jacobs, Schtte-Maischatz 1999: Taf.
4042, 2], Xarpe [Homs-Fredericq 1963: pl. IV, 1; Winkelmann 2003: Abb. 11] n Hapce. Ha ponne
nncnponeprarene nap]xncxo reremonnn camte pannne nsopaxennx cxo-nponnsox sa]nxcnpona-
nt na rpa]]nrn ns rapema n Hepcenone (nauano III n. n. +.), re noxasant nepnte npecrannrenn
poa Cacannon [Overlaet 1989: 742, fig. 2] (pnc. 4, 9). 3arem +rn erann noxen ouent uacro ncrpeua-
mrcx na npancxnx namxrnnxax marepnantno xyntrypt yxe cocrnenno cacanncxo +noxn
71
(pnc. 4,
1013). Cyx no +rnm marepnanam, meu, nonemennt x noxcy paccmarpnnaemtm cnocoom, xnnxncx
ouent naxntm npecrannrentcxnm arpnyrom nepcncxo snarn. 3nauenne meua ne rontxo n noenno,
no n n noncenenno xyntrype nepcon nouepxnnaercx Ammnanom Mapnennnnom: no ero cnonam, ncex
es ncxnmuennx nepcon axe na nnpax n n npasnnunte nn moxno nnert onoxcanntmn meuamn
(omnes tamen promisce vel inter epulas festosque dies gladiis cincti cernuntur: Amm. Marc. XXIII, 6, 75).
pyro nn xnnnxonoro opyxnx xnnxant nap]xne otuno nocnnn n noxnax, npnxpen-
nenntx nce cnoe nnocxocrtm x epy [Seyrig 1939: 178, fig. 1; Goldman 1993: fig. 39, a; Curtis 1993:
63, 65; Vogelsang-Eastwood 2000: 43, fig. 13] (pnc. 4, 15), uro xnno orpaxaer rpannnm, nymym ns
mnpa xouennnxon Henrpantno Asnn [Goldman 1993: 212213]. Or nap]xn +ror cnoco nomennx
xnnxanon tn sanmcrnonan n Kommarene, Hantmnpe, Ocpoene n Xarpe [Goldman 1993: 212, fig. 40, f
h; Seyrig 1937: fig. 10, pl. I; Jacobs, Schtte-Maischatz 1999: Taf. 4041]. Ecrecrnenntm opasom on
tn ynacneonan n nx npeemnnxamn, Cacannamn [Goldman 1993: 211212, fig. 40, ac; Masia 2000:
219220, fig. 1, o, y, 5, pl. 2] (pnc. 4, 16, 17).
Cacanncxne nonnt nocnpnnxnn or nap]xn n nexoropte nnt samnrntx merannnuecxnx oc-
nexon. B uacrnocrn, +ro tnn mnemt c npnnnmcnyro c oxon rynte. Hpnnanexanmee nepcn-
cxomy conary xenesnoe oenoe narononte raxo ]opmt tno onapyxeno n xpenocrn ypa-Enponoc
n Cnpnn, n apxeonornuecxom xonrexcre 250-x rr. n. +. Ono cocroxno ns nyx cxopnynoopasntx nono-
nnn, coennenntx pyr c pyrom npn nomomn npoontno nonoct, cnoero poa xontxa (anrn.
ridge); mnemt +roro rnna nmenn nocrounoe nponcxoxenne n nocnyxnnn opasnom nx nosnepnm-
cxnx xontxontx mnemon [James 1986: 120128; 2004: 101, 104105] (pnc. 4, 1821). Hpecran-
nen raxo rononno ocnex n na marpnne (ra.ne) nx rnpaxnponannx reppaxorontx crary+rox, nso-

71
1) Pente]t: Herrmann 1981: fig. 13, pl. 1, 5,8, 12, 17, 18, 25, 27; Herrmann, Mackenzie 1983: fig. 24, pl. 9,
10, 1316, 18, 19, 25, 27, 30, 31, 33, 3640a; 1989: text fig. 2, 4, 6, fig. 1, 2, pl. 1, 79; Trousdale 1975: fig. 6773, 78;
Harper, Meyers 1981: fig. 9, 18, 25, 27, 43; Masia 2000: fig. 3; 79, pl. 2, 413, 15; 2) nsennx xyoxecrnennoro
meranna: Tnpanxn 1960: 479482, pnc. 4, 5; Trousdale 1975: fig. 76, 77; Tpenep, Hyxonnn 1987: nn. 8, 9, 1821; Harper,
Meyers 1981: XIII, pl. 14, 18, 19, 33, 34, 36, 37; Harper 1978: 39, 80, 88, 89; Overlaet 1989: fig. 4, df; Masia 2000:
fig. 1, ik, v; 3) monert: Trousdale 1975: 90, fig. 74; Gbl 1983: pl. 25, 9, 12; 4) pesnte xamnn: Trousdale 1975: 90,
fig. 75; Gall 1990b: 5659, Taf. 19; Harper 1978: 147. 3ror xe cnoco nomennx meua noxasan na nponsneennxx
xoponnacrnxn, emoncrpnpymmnx eccnopnym sanncnmocrt or pannecacanncxo nxonorpa]nn, xoropte tnn
naent n mxntx onacrxx Cpene Asnn, nxonnmnx n opnry cnntnoro nonnrnuecxoro n xyntrypnoro nnnxnnx
rocyapcrna Cacannon, n Faxrpnn [Hnnnnxo 1977; 1985: 9597, 213214 (xar. 113), pnc. 23, ran. XXXII, 113]
(pnc. 4, 14), Maprnane [Hyrauenxona 1962: 156, pnc. 24, 25; Hnnnnxo 1977: 18, pnc. na c. 17; Gajbov, Koelenko,
Novikov 1991: 94, pl. XXXIX, fig. 25] n Core [Kaanon 1981: 100101, pnc. 51; Cynemanon, Hcamnnnon 1990;
Isamiddinov 1991: 174175, pl. LXXI, LXXII, fig. 5; Hyrauenxona, Pemnent 1965: nn. 61, 62; Trousdale 1975: 8283,
fig. 59, 60]. Kpome roro, onomox ne]pnrono cxot nx nonecxn meua tn naen n xymano-cacanncxom cnoe
(IVV nn.) na nocenennn Ax-rene II n Koanane (Cenepo-Bocrounax Faxrpnx) [Ceon 1987: 5960, ran. I, 5]. Camte
xe pannne nx reppnropnn Cpene Asnn cxot-nponnsxn, no-nnnmomy, npecrannent naxoxamn ns xyprana 2
Opnarcxoro mornntnnxa [Ilyasov, Rusanov 1998: 117, 121123, pl. III, IV, 1; XIV, 3; Hnxonopon, Xyxxon 1999: 142,
145, pnc. 1, 19, 3, 2, 5, 2] (pnc. 3, 5; 4, 4), xoropte arnpymrcx nepntmn nexamn name +pt (cm. npnmeu. 61) n
nanpxmym cnxsant ne c cacanncxo, a co crenno rpannne.
161
paxammnx nentmoxy pannecacanncxoro onnxa, xoropax tna naena re-ro na noepexte Cpe-
ne Amyaptn [Hnnnnxo 1977; 1985: 9597, 213214 (xar. 113), pnc. 23, ran. XXXII, 113] (pnc.
4, 14). Fonee nosnne cacanncxne mnemt paccmarpnnaemo ]opmt nponcxoxr ns Hnnennn-Kymn-
xnxa n Meconoramnn, no xoncrpyxnnx nx xynonon necxontxo nnax [Werner 1950: 184, 188, Taf. 47;
Grancsay 1963: 256, 258, fig. 5, 7, 8; Overlaet 1981: 192, 193, pl. V; James 1986: 117118, fig. 10].
Camoe xe pannee nsopaxenne nap]xncxnx mnemon c npnnnmcnyro rynte ncrpeuaercx ne nos-
nee II n. n. +., a nmenno na reppaxorono crary+rxe ns Cenenxnn na Tnrpe [Dollfus 1968: 6364, 68,
fig. 13] (pnc. 4, 24). Bce nepeuncnennte oente naronontx xnno nopaxamr ]opme rononntx yo-
pon, nsnecrntx no noprperam apmaxncxnx nape Bonoresa III (105147) n Bonoresa IV (147191)
[Ghirshman 1954: pl. 33, a; Sellwood 1971: no. 79/51, 84/105] (pnc. 4, 22, 23). Hpana, cymecrnyer mne-
nne, uro xax +rn, rax n noxoxne manxn pyrnx napcrnenntx oco na nap]xncxnx monerax n pente]ax,
nmenyemte n nnreparype rnapamn
72
, ne tnn mnemamn [Sellwood 1983: 297; Olbrycht 1997: 4142];
no, xax t ram nn tno, nx ]opma onpeenenno nocnyxnna opasnom nx rononntx ocnexon, xoro-
pte npecrannent na nosnenap]xncxo reppaxore ns Cenenxnn na Tnrpe n n nemecrnenntx naxo-
xax cacanncxoro nponcxoxennx ns ypa-Enponoc n Hnnennn
73
.
Eme n apmaxncxym +noxy n Hpane noxnnnnct nexoropte naxnte +nemenrt oenoro xoncxoro
cnapxxennx. Hap]xncxne xara]paxrt nnnct na xonxx, samnmenntx merannnuecxnmn nononamn
(Plut. Crass. 24, 1; Arr. Parth. fr. 20 = Suid. s. v. ; Iust. XLI, 2, 10), ananorn xoroptm nsnecrnt n
nxonorpa]nuecxnx n apxeonornuecxnx marepnanax [Brown 1936: 440449; James 2004: 113114,
129134; Hnxonopon 1985: 3233] (pnc. 1, 2, 4). Taxo xe ocnex ncnontsonancx n n xananepnn
Cacannon (Heliod. IX, 15, 4). B ne npnmenxnnct n xoxante nonont (Amm. Marc. XXIV, 6, 8; pnc. 2,
14), n rom uncne apmnponannte naxnantmn merannnuecxnmn +mnemamn, xax na pente]e n unpy-
saae (pnc. 1, 6) [Robinson 1967: 22], re, nnpouem, nmn yxptrt xonn ne rontxo nepcon, no n Apra-
ana IV (xpann cnpana), uro, n cnom ouepet, ronopnr n nontsy nx nap]xncxoro nponcxoxennx.
pyrnm nononneennem tno xecrxoe ceno c uertptmx ynopamn n nne poron, xoropte
pacnonarannct no ero yrnam n oecneunnann ncannxy npounym nocaxy, uro tno ocoenno naxno
npn nanecennn nm yapa nnxo (cm. npnmeu. 67). Cena +roro nna tnn narnxno pexoncrpynponant
H. Konnonnn na ocnone pnmcxoro nemecrnennoro n nxonorpa]nuecxoro marepnana [Connolly 1987;
cm. raxxe: Herrmann 1989: 763764, 768769, fig. 6, 7, a, d, pl. XV, a; 1980: 13, 43, fig. 1, pl. 8b10]
(pnc. 5, 2, 3). Btxnnent onn n na nsopaxennxx nosnenap]xncxoro n pannecacanncxoro npemenn ns
Hpana n Cnpnn [Herrmann 1989: 763769, fig. 7, b, c, e, pl. III, a, VVIII, X, b, XIIXIV, XV, b; cm.
raxxe: Bivar 1959: 12, fig. 3; Ghirshman 1973: 103, 106, fig. 5, 6; pl. XLVIII, 3, LI; Harper, Meyers 1981:
50, 51, pl. 8, 9] (pnc. 5, 46; 4, 10). K +romy cneyer oannrt, uro poronoe ceno yratnaercx na
rpa]]nrn I n. o n. +. ns 3annx c xnaparntm sanom na roponme Crapax Hnca n Cenepno
Hap]nene [Hnnnnxo 1996: 69, ran. 45/1, 46/A; Hnxonopon 2002] (pnc. 5, 1). Cneyer cornacnrtcx c
ntnoom, uro nmnyntcom x pasnnrnm cena paccmarpnnaemo xoncrpyxnnn crano, nepoxrnee ncero,
noxnnenne rxxeno xananepnn x nauany nap]xncxoro nepnoa [Herrmann 1989: 764].
Hpn nap]xnax nauann ncnontsonartcx n crporne ynna mynmryunoro rnna, ynyumnnmne
xonrpont ncannxon na cnonmn cxaxynamn. Onn cocroxnn ns xstuxa, noopoounoro crepxnx n
nyx oxontx nsornyrtx ptuaron, oxonte ptuarn na oonx xonnax tnn cnaxent xontnamn.
Bepxnne xontna xpennnnct x nameuntm pemnxm, nnxnne x nonoy. Mynmryunte ynna, n cpan-
nennn c npocrtmn, anann nosmoxnocrt onee crpororo ynpannennx xonem: npn narxrnnannn nonoa
oxonte ptuarn nepennrannct n nanpannennn naesnnxa n nnns, oxastnax nocpecrnom xstuxa an-
nenne na ncm nnxnmm uenmcrt n xstx noman, uro snaunrentno ycnnnnano onente omymennx n
sacrannxno xnnornoe tcrpee pearnponart na nono n nounnxrtcx ceoxy. Cornacno nemecrnenntm
naxoxam (ns norpeennx B-IV mornntnnxa Hopysmaxane n enamane n ns Cys
74
) n nsopasnrent-

72
O nnx cm.: Mathiesen 1992: 81; Peck 1993: 410412; Olbrycht 1997; Curtis 1998. Hap]xncxne n cacanncxne
rnapt () ynomnnamrcx n rpeuecxnx ncrounnxax (coorn.: Anacr. 27 [26
b
] n Theophyl. Sim. III, 6, 4). Hsopaxennx
rnap npnnnmcnyro c oxon ]opmt nsnecrnt n cxyntnrype nosnenap]xncxoro npemenn ns Xarpt [Homs-Fredericq
1963: pl. VI, 1; Mathiesen 1992: 210, fig. 80; Curtis 1998: pl. IV, a; 2001: pl. X, c, XI, b].
73
B xauecrne xoncrpyxrnnnoro nporornna cacanncxoro mnema ns ypa-Enponoc (n nsopaxennoro na reppa-
xore ns Cenenxnn na Tnrpe?) moxno paccmarpnnart oente naronontx ncannxon-xara]paxron na pente]nom nanno ns
nopna n Xanuaxne (Cenepo-3ananax Faxrpnx) [Hyrauenxona 1971: 67, 34, 55, nn. 77, 80; 1966: 40, pnc. 11;
Nikonorov 1997: vol. 1, 5354, vol. 2, fig. 28, d, 30, a], xoropoe arnpyercx xonnom nepno nononnnt I n. n. +. [Ipene
2000]. Hx mnemt npecrannxmr coo nycocranno xynon c npoontno nonoco-xontxom, uro n nosnonxer nnert
nsnauantnoe cpeneasnarcxoe (xymano-axrpncxoe?) nnnxnne na npancxne rononnte ocnexn rnna naennoro n
ypa-Enponoc n uepes nnx na pnmcxne mnemt xontxonoro rnna [cm.: Hnxonopon 2002a: 291, npnmeu. 96].
74
Hexponont Hopysmaxane ornocnrcx x nosnenap]xncxomy npemenn [Egami, Fukai, Masuda 1966: 1418; Hori
162
ntm anntm, onncannte crporne ynna noxnnnnct n Hpane n nosnenap]xncxn nepno n npoonxa-
nn npnmenxrtcx ram (nosmoxno, c nepeptnom npnmepno n 100 ner or cepennt III o cepennt
IV n. n. +.) o nosnecacanncxoro npemenn nxnmunrentno [Herrmann 1989: 758763, fig. 13, 4, d,
e, pl. IIII, VI, VII, XVI, XVII, XX; Keal 1989: pl. 18; Egami, Fukai, Masuda 1966: 11, pl. VII, 1, XVII,
11, XL, 18, Ghirshman 1977: fig. 1, G. S. 2426, pl. I, 2, 3] (pnc. 5, 7, 8, 1012; 1, 4, 6). Otuno onn nc-
nontsonannct n couerannn c merannnuecxnmn naxpannnxamn/namopnnxamn (anrn. noseband/muzzle),
uro mt n nanmaem n nap]xno-cacanncxo nxonorpa]nn; apxeonornuecxn xe onn sacnnerentcrno-
nant nx IV n. n. +. (ponsont n xenesnt +xsemnnxpt, naennte n Cysax) [Ghirshman 1977: fig. 1,
G. S. 2425, G. S. 2428, pl. I, 1; Herrmann 1989: 760, fig. 4, c] (pnc. 5, 912).
Bnepenne n xoncxoe cnapxxenne xecrxoro poronoro cena n xomnnexra ns mynmryuntx
ynn n naxpannnxa/namopnnxa nosnonnno nap]xncxnm n cacanncxnm xananepncram ouent +]]ex-
rnnno necrn o n xara]paxrnom n nerxom crpenxonom noopyxennn. uro xe xacaercx crpemxn, ro onn
noxnnnnct n Hpane yxe n nocrcacanncxoe npemx
75
.
Cacanncxoe nonncrno nocnpnnxno or nap]xn n nx merot ncnxonornuecxoro nosecrnnx na
npornnnnxa, nepenxn raxo nneuarnxmmn nncrpymenr noenno mystxn, xax nnranpt, noxnonnxn-
mn na none ox cnonx nonnon n ycrpamanmn nepyron. Hepcncxne nnranpt (rpeu. ) yno-
mnnamrcx n paccxase Ara]nx Mnpnnecxoro o ocae cacanncxnmn nocxamn xpenocrn uacnc n
555 r. (Agath. III, 25, 7), a nx nsopaxennx npocnexnnamrcx na onom ns pente]on oxornnutero nnxna
n Tax-n Fycrane (nauano VII n.), noxastnammem, cxopee ncero, noennt opxecrp Xocpona II [Farmer
1938: 404405; fig. 8, 10; Fukai, Horiuchi 1969: pl. LXXXVII, XCI; Fukai, Horiuchi, Tanabe, Domyo
1984: 189]. Xorx +rn annte ornocxrcx x nosnecacanncxomy nepnoy, noxnnenne nnranp y nepcon,
necomnenno, nponsomno mnoro pantme, nocxontxy o nnx na none ox +ror yapnt nncrpymenr nc-
nontsonann nap]xne. Anrnunte anropt nmenymr nap]xncxne nnranpt tympana/ (Iust. XLI, 2,
8; Plut. Crass. 26, 4; Hdn. IV,11, 3)
76
n (Plut. Crass. 23, 9)
77
, camn xe nap]xne, cornacno
Iesnxnm, nastnann nx raana (, y: Hesych. s. v.) [Huyse 2002: 206; Schmitt 2004]. Ho
nce nnnmocrn, nnranpt
78
, nensnecrnte n Hpane n oapmaxncxym +noxy, npnnecnn rya co cnoe
crenno ponnt eme anapnt-axn [nopono cm.: Hnxonopon 2000; Nikonorov 2000].
Hpnneennte ntme npnmept co nce onpeenennocrtm ronopxr o rom, uro nap]xncxoe nnnx-
nne na noennoe eno Hpana npn Cacannax tno pasnocroponnnm n nectma omyrnmtm, npoxnnnmnct
n sanmcrnonannn nepcamn oprannsannn, raxrnuecxnx npnnnnnon n oenoro cnapxxennx apmaxncxoro
nonncrna. Koneuno xe, peut ne ner o rom, uro noenno-rexnnuecxoe ocnamenne n noennoe ncxyccrno
nap]xn npn Apmaxnax n nepcon npn Cacannax tnn conepmenno nenrnuntmn. Mexy nnmn cy-
mecrnonann onpeenennte pasnnunx, nxryemte, npexe ncero, antnemnm pasnnrnem noenno rex-
nonornn xax n camom Hpane, rax n sa ero npeenamn. Ho necomnenntm nosecrnnem pnmnxn nepct

1981: 4548]. 3nemenrt xoncxo cpyn ns Cys arnpymrcx cepenno IV n. n. +. [Ghirshman 1977: 1].
75
Camoe pannee ynomnnanne n nnctmenntx ncrounnxax o npnmenennn crpemxn n Hpane ornocnrcx rontxo x
xonny VII n. n. +. [White 1966: 1819], ner n nx nsopaxenn n cacanncxo (ne ronopx yxe o nap]xncxo) nxonorpa-
]nn [Hnxonopon 2003: 265]. Ho+romy mnenne o rom, uro cacanncxoe nonncrno ncnontsonano crpemena [Overlaet 1993:
93; Nicolle 1996: 30], onxno trt orneprnyro. Hpana, n nononepcncxo nepcnn ncropnuecxoro rpya Taapn, nann-
canno Fanamn, cpen npemeron +xnnnponxn nosnecacanncxoro nonna ]nrypnpymr raxxe n crpemena (Fanamn:
600), onaxo onn orcyrcrnymr n ananornunom cnncxe apacxoro opnrnnana (Taapn: 248249 [N] = 262263 [B])
[Bivar 1972: 291], r. e. +ror +nemenr ncannuecxoro cnapxxennx tn oannen yxe camnm Fanamn, npnuem nx ero
oosnauennx on ncnontsonan sanmcrnonannt ns apacxoro repmnn rakb [Bivar 1972: 291].
76
Hnranpt-rnmnant ncnontsonann na none raxxe nnnnt (Arr. Ind. 5, 9; 7, 8; 9; Curt. VIII, 14, 10; Strabo
XV, 1, 8; 58; 62; cp.: XV, 1, 52: ; Suid. s. v. ; ), +]nont (Heliod. IX, 17, 1), anapt (Men. Fr.
12, 3) n nnsanrnnt (Leo Diac. III, 1; VI, 13; VIII, 4; IX, 9).
77
B xonrexcre nont pnmcxoro nmneparopa Tpaxna npornn Hap]nn (114117) nncarent VI n. Hoann Manana
npnnonr eme ono rpeuecxoe oosnauenne yapntx mystxantntx nncrpymenron rnna nnranp nnn apaana
(yxn. orxnyrt tute xoxe: Malal. XI, p. 272, 17; 22). B ero coomennn n nnx nnn xnrenn Anrnoxnn n Cnpnn,
xenax raxnm opasom nsrnart ns cnoero ropoa sntx yxon nornmnx or nx pyx conar nepcncxoro (r. e. nap-
]xncxoro) rapnnsona. Hocxontxy cneennx Manant o saxnare nap]xnamn Anrnoxnn n nauantnt nepno nx nont c
Tpaxnom, xax n ero paccxas oo nce +ro xamnannn n nenom, xnno neocronepnt [Lepper 1993: 1922, 5483;
Jeffreys 1990: 56], rpyno nonepnrt n n peantnocrt yxasannoro +nnsoa c apaanntm oem no npemx noxoa Tpaxna.
Tem ne menee, anrnoxnnam nanepnxxa tnn snaxomt xax camn apaant, rax n onncannt pnryan c nx ncnont-
sonannem, xoropt, nnnmo, tn sanmcrnonan ns nepcncxoro opxa ounmennx [cm.: Jeffreys 1990: 60, n. 7]. Ho nce
nepoxrnocrn, ynomxnyrte yapnte nncrpymenrt raxxe nonann n Anrnoxnm ns Hpana.
78
nx nonnort xaprnnt neoxonmo oannrt, uro nnranpt n apaant (cpenenepc. tumbag, nononepc. ks,
tabra) ]nrypnpymr n noennom xonrexcre n +nnuecxnx namxrnnxax cpenenexono nepcncxo nnreparypt, raxnx xax
Hpeanne o ctne 3apepa, Baxname unpoycn n Bnc n Pamnn Iyprann, cmxert n nexoropte ns peann xoroptx
nocxoxr, n rom uncne, n x nap]xncxomy npemenn [cm.: Hnxonopon 2000: 173; Nikonorov 2000: 75].
163
onaann xnno ntmnmn, uem nap]xne
79
, nantxamn n ncxyccrne ocat ropoon (nonnopxernxe),
nxnmuax ncnontsonanne raxnx opyn n ycrpocrn, xax rapant, annncrt, nepennxnte amnn n p.,
n n crponrentcrne ]oprn]nxannonntx coopyxenn [Christensen 1944: 212213; Garsoan 1983:
580581; Shahbazi 1990: 592]. Cacannt n ontmem oeme ncnontsonann nexory, a raxxe oentx
cnonon [Rance 2003; Coulston 1986: 61], uro raxxe ornnuano nx or nap]xn. 3anmcrnonan y cnonx npe-
mecrnennnxon nnranpt, nepct na nonxx cpaxenn, xpome roro, ynn n rpyt (Amm. Marc. XIX, 7, 3;
cp.: XX, 7, 6; 11, 21; XXIV, 4, 15; Heliod. IX, 17, 1; Agath. III, 25, 7; Theophyl. Sim. I, 8, 8; III, 14, 3; V,
10, 7), xoroptmn nap]xne xax pas ne nontsonannct (Iust. XLI, 2, 8; Hesych. s. v. y)
80
.
Cornacno ouent cnopno rouxe spennx x. Koyncrona, xonraxrt co crentm cnococrnonann no-
xnnennm na noopyxennn cacanncxnx nonnon cxo-nponnsox nx nonemnnannx meua n orentntx
+nemenron crpenxonoro n samnrnoro cnapxxennx, a xnonnrt n +]rannrt, x romy xe, ceptsno nonnnx-
nn na nepcncxoe ncxyccrno crpentt ns nyxa [Coulston 1996: 61, 70]. Onaxo ropaso ontme ocno-
nann yrnepxart, uro xoueno mnp Henrpantno Asnn oxasan nosecrnne na noennoe eno rocyap-
crna Cacannon, ocoenno na panne crann ero cymecrnonannx, n nepnym ouepet, naroapx nap]x-
nam. Kax mt nnenn ntme, cxot-nponnsxn crann nsnecrnt n Hpane n nap]xncxn nepno, rora
xe rya nponnxnn n ontmne cnoxnococrannte nyxn, a pannecacanncxne mnemt rnna naennoro n
ypa-Enponoc, nmemmne, cxopee ncero, cpeneasnarcxoe nponcxoxenne (cm. npnmeu. 73), raxxe
oxasannct na Hpancxom nnaro eme npn nap]xnax. Ecnn xe ronopnrt o nenocpecrnennom nnnxnnn
crennxxon na nepcon, ro cneyer nmert n nny, uro n npxmoe conpnxocnonenne c camtmn pannnmn ns
nnx (xnonnramn) na cnoe nocrouno rpannne nepct npnmnn rontxo npn Banype II, n 356358 rr.
(Amm. Marc. XVI, 9, 34; XVII, 5, 1) [Felix 1992]. C +roro momenra n nnnort o xonna cymecrnona-
nnx nnacrnn Cacannon noopyxenne n xoncxoe cnapxxenne crennoro nponcxoxennx ecrnnrentno
nexoroptm opasom nnnxnn na Hpan [cm.: Blint 1978; cp.: Bivar 1972: 281284; Overlaet 1993: 92],
onaxo +ro nnnxnne ne cronr nepeonennnart. Boennoe ncxyccrno npnmntx c cenepo-nocroxa napoon
crponnoct na raxrnxe npenmymecrnenno ncrannnonnoro xonnoro ox n nerxom cnapxxennn, ocno-
nanno na ncnontsonannn momntx n antnoontx cnoxnococranntx nyxon, rora xax ocnexn t-
nn nnmt y cpannnrentno neontmoro uncna nonnon snarnoro nponcxoxennx
81
. 3ra nonax raxrnxa,
npnnnnnnantno ornnunax or crporo cxoopnnnponannoro nsanmoecrnnx nyunnxon n xara]paxron,
ne oxasana cxontxo-nnyt ceptesnoro nosecrnnx na noennoe ncxyccrno Hpana, re n n nosnecaca-
nncxoe npemx ponenocnax xananepnx, nanpanmaxcx ns npecrannrene cnyxnno snarn (ncann-
xon), npoonxana coxpanxrt cnoe snauenne n cocrane nepcncxnx nocx: +ro naexno sacnnerentcr-
nonano n pasnnuntx nnctmenntx rpannnxx nnsanrncxo (Mauric. XI, 1, 6; Procop. Bell. I, 5, 5; 13,
36; Theophyl. Sim. III, 14, 2; cp.: Agath. III, 25, 5; 7; 28, 5)
82
, cnpncxo (XHC 62; X3P IX, 5) n

79
Ho cnonam Rcrnna, nap]xne ne ymemr part ropoon nyrem ocat (Iust. XLI, 2, 7; cm. raxxe: Dio Cass.
XL, 29, 12; Tac. Ann. XI, 9, 4; XV, 4, 3). Hpana, rpyno oxcnnrt, xaxnm xe opasom, ne ymex mrypmonart yxpen-
nennte nynxrt, nap]xne cymenn cosart cnom nennxym nmnepnm. Ouennno, sect mt nmeem eno co cpannennem
pnmcxo n napnapcxo npaxrnx ocanoro ncxyccrna c rouxn spennx camnx pnmnxn, xoropte (n ne es ocnonannx) pac-
cmarpnnann cnom cocrnennym xax rexnonornuecxn ropaso onee pasnnrym. Hap]xne, necomnenno, onaann onpee-
nenntmn nantxamn n +ro orpacnn noennoro ena: rax, Cypena noenrent Kpacca no npemx mrypma Cenenxnn
nepntm nsomen na ee creny (Plut. Crass. 21, 8). pyroe eno, uro ocanax rexnnxa apmaxncxo apmnn (nepnee, coms-
ntx orpxon n ee cocrane, camn xe nap]xne ns-sa neoxonmocrn noepxannx monntnocrn cnonx nopasenenn,
cxopee ncero, raxono ne pacnonarann) ne rontxo ne coornercrnonana nyumnm opasnam cnoe +noxn, no n ne ncera
ncnontsonanact c ocrarouno +]]exrnnnocrtm (Tac. Ann. XV, 4, 3).
80
Ormeuy, onaxo, uro nccneonarenn uacro nouepxnnamr ceptesnte pasnnunx n nosnenap]xncxom n panne-
cacanncxom xomnnexcax ooponnrentnoro noopyxennx na npnmepe pente]a n unpysaae (pnc. 1, 6), re cacanncxne
n nap]xncxne nnrxsn oert n nannnpn-xnpact, no nepct nocxr nx nonepx xontuyr c nnnntmn pyxanamn, rora xax y
nx npornnnnxon raxontx ner, a n mnemt nepntx xnno ornnuamrcx or rononntx ocnexon nroptx [Hyrauenxona 1966:
36; Bivar 1972: 275, 278; Shahbazi 1987a: 496; Mielczarek 1993: 64; Overlaet 1993: 91]. Kax xaxercx, +ror nxonorpa]n-
uecxn ]axr nce xe npx nn osnauaer, uro n xontuyrn na camom ene onauannct onn nnmt nepct, a nap]xne nx nonce
ne nmenn, n uro xaxt ns +rnx napoon nocnn rontxo cnenn]nuecxne nx nero rnnt mnemon. Hao nonarart, uro
anrop ]npysaacxoro pente]a, no-nnnmomy, xoren ocotm opasom nouepxnyrt pasnnny mexy noenrenxmn n
noexenntmn, n rom uncne n sa cuer pasnnunx n nx oeno +xnnnponxe, n no+romy nsopasnn nepcon n onee
nporpeccnnntx n naexntx, no ero mnennm, ocnexax, xoropte na npaxrnxe ncnontsonann xax re, rax n pyrne.
81
3ro raxrnuecxoe nonmecrno n nocnenne nexa o name +pt tno nnepeno n npaxrnxy noennoro ena Hen-
rpantno Asnn napoom xynny n ne nosnee IVV nn. n. +. pacnpocrpaneno pocrnenntmn nm rynnamn n sanano
uacrn crennoro noxca Enpasnn [cm.: Hnxonopon, Xyxxon 2004; Hnxonopon 2002a]. Hocnrenxmn +ro raxrnxn nanep-
nxxa tnn +]rannrt, n oenom cnapxxennn xoroptx nyxy npnnanexano naxnoe mecro (cm. npnmeu. 50).
82
Cm. raxxe: Agath. III, 28, 5, re cpen cnapxxennx, cnxroro nnsanrnnamn c ynrtx snarntx nepcncxnx
nonnon, ]nrypnpymr ocnexn (mnrt n nannnpn); cp.: Theophyl. Sim. II, 6, 11 ram peut ner o pasaue narpa nnsan-
rncxnm nonxononem cnonm nonnam, n n uncne +rnx narpa (nsxrtx, no nce nepoxrnocrn, ns saxnauenno y nepcon
164
apao-nepcncxo (Taapn: 248249 [N] = 262263 [B]; nnanapn: 121, 123, 124, 127, 129; A3 28;
Bu 32; Fanamn: 600; BH: VI/crx. 19151918, 19371945) [Jackson 1894: 107108; Hnocrpannen
1909: 78; Bivar 1972: 275276, 291; Shahbazi 1987a: 497; Tafazzoli 1994: 194195; Bosworth 1987:
706]. Kpome roro, ouent ntpasnrentnte nsopaxennx nonnocrtm saxonanntx n ocnexn nepcncxnx
ncannxon-nnxemnxon nepeamr ynnt VI n. [Gyselen 2001: 78, 3545; Gignoux 1991: 6869, pl.
XXI] n snamennrax xonnax craryx maxanmaxa xonna VI n. (?) ns Fontmoro anana n Tax-n Fycrane
(cm. npnmeu. 51), a ns Karn]cxoro oasnca na cenepo-nocroxe Cayoncxo Apannn nponcxonr uacrt
cnnnnono crary+rxn xonx, yxptroro nannnpno nonono nosnecacanncxoro (?) rnna [Potts 1993].
uparmenrt merannnuecxo nannnpno ponn tnn naent n cacanncxo xpenocrn Kacp-n Ay
Hacp nns Bnpasa, n cnoe, arnponannom nocne 500 r. [Whitcomb 1985: 101, 169, fig. 63/ee, pl. 47 (o
are: 103104); Grancsay 1963: 260, fig. 13], a raxxe cpen marepnanon nosnecacanncxoro npemenn,
onapyxenntx na nocenennn Toronox-ene n Rxnom Typxmenncrane [Bonnn, Hnxonopon 1991] n n
norpeennn I n xaan an-3manaxe na Omancxom nonyocrpone [Potts 1997: 133, 135, fig. 8]. Kax yxe
yxastnanoct ntme, crpenta ns nyxa na nonxx cpaxenn coxpanxna cnoe naxnemee snauenne y nep-
con n npn nosnnx Cacannax, npn +rom nnemnn ]axrop n nnne nenrpantnoasnarcxnx crenntx napo-
on ne oxasan na nee cxontxo-nnyt onpeenxmmero nosecrnnx (cm. npnmeu. 64).
Camo coo pasymeercx, uro nacroxmax crartx nnxonm opasom ne nperenyer na erantnoe
paccmorpenne noennoro ena cacanncxoro Hpana, xoropoe eme xer cnoero ncecroponnero nccneo-
nannx. Tem ne menee, nponeennt ntme conocrannrentnt ananns nnctmenntx, nsopasnrentntx n
nemecrnenntx anntx nosnonxer ee anropy yrnepxart, uro nap]xncxoe nacnene no mnorom onpee-
nxno noennoe pasnnrne rocyapcrna Cacannon, npnuem ne rontxo n pannn, no n n nosnn nepno
ero cymecrnonannx.
a
A. soauu epe:ecrux u .amuucrux ucmo:uuroe
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CHHCOK COKPHHH
A Anrope]epar oxropcxo ncceprannn.
AK Anrope]epar xannarcxo ncceprannn.
AH Axaemnx nayx.
AO Apxeonornuecxne orxptrnx. M.
APT Apxeonornuecxne paort n Taxnxncrane. ymane.
ACI3 Apxeonornuecxn copnnx Iocyapcrnennoro 3pmnraxa. H.
FCAIV Fmnnerent Cpeneasnarcxoro rocyapcrnennoro ynnnepcnrera. Tam-
xenr.
BAH Becrnnx AH CCCP. M.
BB Bnsanrncxn npemennnx. M.
BH Becrnnx penne ncropnn. M.
BHIV Becrnnx Hennnrpacxoro rocyapcrnennoro ynnnepcnrera. H.
BOH Becrnnx omecrnenntx nayx.
AH oxnat Axaemnn nayx.
HP pennocrn Hononxtx n pyrnx pernonon. Hnxnn Honropo.
3BOPAO 3anncxn Bocrounoro Orenennx Poccncxoro Apxeonornuecxoro O-
mecrna. CH.
3HOPAO 3anncxn Hymnsmarnuecxoro Orenennx Hmneparopcxoro Pyccxoro Ap-
xeonornuecxoro omecrna. CH.
HAH Hsnecrnx Axaemnn nayx.
HF MAHKHA Hn]opmannonnt mnnerent Mexynapono acconnannn no nsyuennm
xyntryp Henrpantno Asnn. M.
HHA Hncrnryr ncropnn n apxeonornn.
HHA3 Hncrnryr ncropnn, apxeonornn n +rnorpa]nn.
HMKV Hcropnx marepnantno xyntrypt Vsexncrana. Tamxenr.
HOOHAs Hsnecrnx omecrna ocneonannx n nsyuennx Asepaxana. Faxy.
HOOH Hsnecrnx Orenennx omecrnenntx nayx.
K Kapaxymcxne pennocrn. Amxaa.
KCHA Kparxne coomennx Hncrnryra apxeonornn AH CCCP. M.
KCHBAH Kparxne coomennx Hncrnryra nocroxoneennx AH CCCP. M.
KCHHMK Kparxne coomennx o oxnaax n nonentx nccneonannxx Hncrnryra nc-
ropnn marepnantno xyntrypt AH CCCP. M.
KCHHA Kparxne coomennx Hncrnryra napoon Asnn. M.
MHA Marepnant n nccneonannx no apxeonornn CCCP. M.; H.
MKT Marepnantnax xyntrypa Taxnxncrana. ymane.
MT3 Marepnant Toxapncrancxo +xcnennnn. Tamxenr.
MX3 Marepnant Xopesmcxo +xcnennnn. M.
HAA Hapot Asnn n A]pnxn. M.
HC Honax cepnx.
HHA Hymnsmarnxa Henrpantno Asnn. Tamxenr.
H3 Hymnsmarnxa n +nnrpa]nxa. M.
OHV Omecrnennte nayxn n Vsexncrane. Tamxenr.
OOH Orenenne omecrnenntx nayx.
HHO Hponemt ncropnn oxannranncrnuecxnx omecrn. H.
HK Hamxrnnxn Knprnscrana. upynse.
HT Hamxrnnxn Typxmenncrana. Amxaa.
PA Poccncxax apxeonornx. M.
CA Conercxax apxeonornx. M.
CB Conercxoe nocroxoneenne. M.
CIAHMK Coomennx Iocyapcrnenno Axaemnn ncropnn marepnantno xyntry-
pt. H.
CIH Cepnx rymannrapntx nayx.
CI3 Coomennx Iocyapcrnennoro 3pmnraxa. H.
CHB Crpant n napot Bocroxa. M.
COH Cepnx omecrnenntx nayx.
CT Conercxax rmpxonornx. M.
C3 Conercxax +rnorpa]nx. M.


TAH Tpyt Axaemnn nayx.
TBOPAO Tpyt Bocrounoro Orenennx Hmneparopcxoro Pyccxoro Apxeonornuec-
xoro omecrna. CH.
TIHM Tpyt Iocyapcrnennoro Hcropnuecxoro mysex. M.
TI3 Tpyt Iocyapcrnennoro 3pmnraxa. H.
T Tesnct oxnaon.
THH Tpyt Hncrnryra ncropnn.
THHA Tpyt Hncrnryra ncropnn n apxeonornn.
TKKA33 Tpyt Knprnscxo xomnnexcno apxeonoro-+rnorpa]nuecxo +xcne-
nnnn. M.
TOB3 Tpyt Orena Bocroxa Iocyapcrnennoro 3pmnraxa. H.
TCAIV Tpyt Cpeneasnarcxoro rocyapcrnennoro ynnnepcnrera. Tamxenr.
TXA33 Tpyt Xopesmcxo apxeonoro-+rnorpa]nuecxo +xcnennnn. M.
TRTAK3 Tpyt Rxno-Typxmenncrancxo apxeonornuecxo xomnnexcno +xcne-
nnnn. Amxaa.
V3 HIV Vuente sanncxn Hennnrpacxoro rocyapcrnennoro ynnnepcnrera. H.
3B 3nnrpa]nxa Bocroxa. M.; H.
3O 3rnorpa]nuecxoe oospenne. M.
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