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TheDEAMProject ETEC510FinalProjectReport Submittedasrequiredfor 2013W2ETEC51065ADesignofTechnologySupportedLearningEnvironments byCourseCoordinatorMaryBryson TeamMembers ElizabethJensen AimeeKaraul GurpreetKoonar TaChiLee ChristopherWard

KeyFrameworks OuracronymDEAMstandsforDropEverythingAndMoveandreflectsourfocus ondevelopingwithinPhysicalEducation(PE)studentsanenthusiasmforphysicalactivity. PEisaveryimportantcomponentofthecurrenteducationalcurriculum.Whileitmayoften flyundertheradarasmoreofamereelective,itisactuallyintegraltotheconstructof society.Physicalactivityisanimportantpartofmaintaininggoodhealthandwellbeing withoutit,allotheraspectsofourlivessuffer,notsimplythephysical,buttheemotionaland socialaswell.Thus,wecanseethatPEoftenplaysaninfluentialroledirectlyandindirectly inmaintainingahealthylifestyle.ThisunderscorestheimportanceofmotivatingPE studentstomaintainahealthylifestylethroughouttheirlives. Thedesignededucationalexperienceisintendedtohelpmotivatestudentstobe physicallyactive.Sincetechnologysometimeshinderschildrenfrombeingphysically active,wefeelthatusingitinapositivewaywillhelpstudentsenjoyplayagainratherthan shyawayfrombeingactive.Wehaveincludeddesignelementsthatwillleveragestudents intrinsicmotivationstogetthemtoengageinbehavioursthatwillhopefullybuildnew intrinsicmotivationtomaintainahealthylifestyle.Inparticular,weareguidedbytwo theories:SelfDeterminationTheoryandtheFoggMethodforchangingbehaviour (http://www.foggmethod.com/). WehavechosenSelfDeterminationTheory(SDT)asthetheoreticalbasisforour focusonmotivationbecauseofthemanyresearchpublicationsthatspecificallyaddress applicationofthistheoryofmotivationtosport,exerciseandphysicaleducation (Vansteenkiste&Deci,2003Ryanetal,1997Reeve&Deci,1996FrederickRecascino &Ryan,1993).SDTidentifiesthreefactorsthatcontributetomotivation: Autonomy:individualsaremorelikelytoengageandpersistintasksthatallows roomforindividualchoiceofhowtoproceed. Competence:individualsaremorelikelytoengageandpersistintasksthatbuilds masteryofsomedesiredskillorbodyofknowledge. Relatedness:Individualsaremorelikelytoengageandpersistintasksthatcreate opportunitiesforthemtointeractwithothers. SDTalsoidentifiestwotypesofmotivation: extrinsicmotivation intrinsicmotivation. Internalisationofmotivationtakesplacewhenanindividualcomestonolongerneed extrinsicmotivationasanimpetustoengageandpersist.

ThemainchallengewithapplyingSDTtosportisthatwinnersaremotivatedby differentfactorstolosers(Vansteenkiste,M.,&Deci,E.L.,2003).Also,individualsare intrinsicallymotivatedintheirchoiceofsport.ForexampleTaeKwonDoparticipantsare moremotivatedbyenjoymentandcompetence,incontrasttoaerobicparticipants,who havehigherbodyrelatedmotives(Ryan,R.M.,FrederickRecascino,C.M.,Lepes,D., Rubio,N.,&Sheldon,K.M.,1997).Sothereisaneedtoprofileindividualswithrespectto theirsourceofmotivation(e.g.enjoyment,competence,bodyrelatedmotives)aswellas theparticularoutcomeofcompetition(i.e.whetherornottheindividualisatopperformerin theircohort). TheFoggMethodforchangingbehaviouriscomprisedofthreesteps: 1. Bespecificaboutthebehaviouryouwant.Translatetargetgoalsandobjectivesinto contextdependentbehavioursthatwillbepursuanttothosegoalsandobjectives 2. Makethebehavioureasytodo. 3. Useanexistingintrinsicmotivationtotriggertheusertoengageinthebehaviour. WehaveincludedinthesectiononKeyConceptsandContextsanexampleofhow elementsofSDTandtheFoggMethodhavebeenincorporatedintothedesignofthe website. IntentionsandPositions Withthisdesignwehopetoencouragestudentstofindtheirownlevelofphysical fitnessandtosetgoalsbasedonthatlevel.Studentswillbeencouragedtochallenge themselvesandothersthroughthewebsite,theclassdojo,andalsotheclasstwitter account.Fortechnologytohaveapowerfulimpactonlearning,itneedstoengage studentsinthelearningprocess,encouragehigherorderthinkingskillsandbemeaningful tothestudent"(Harris,F.2009).Ourdesignprojectisatechnologyintegratedcoursethat usesatheorybasedapproachtomotivatingPEstudents,itistobeahybridenvironment consistingoffacetofaceandonlineinstruction(combinationofPEclassandwebsite).Itis assumedthattheultimateobjectiveofPEistomotivatelearnerstoadoptandmaintain healthylifestylesfortherestoftheirlives.Tothisend,physicaleducationstudentsare: taughtrelevantfactsaboutthehumanbodysubjectedtoaphysicalregimenintendedto getthemtoanacceptablestateoffitnessintrinsicallymotivatedtothinkofphysicalactivity asfun,andnotachoreandfinallytolearnskillsneededtomaintainanacceptablelevelof fitnessthroughouttheirlives. ThegoalsofourprojectcertainlyfitwiththepartofthecurriculumcalledDaily PhysicalActivity(DPA)(MinistryofEducationBCCanada,2011),wherestudentsare requiredtocomplete60minutesofphysicalactivityperday.AproblemwiththisDPA

conceptisthatnotmanystudentsunderstandwhatbeingphysicallyactiveactuallyentails. Thiswebsitewillallowstudentstonotonlyentertheirgoalsandstatisticsbutitwillallow themtolearnnewexercises.Wehopethatbeingabletoseeotherstudentsscoreswill helptomotivatethemtodobetterandpushtoreachtheirgoals. Acounterargumenttothismightbethefactthatstudentsarenotnecessarily physicallyactivewhiletheyareusingourtechnology.Studentsareusingthetechnologyto logscoresandlearnaboutdifferentactivities,butarenotactiveatthetime.However, thesesessionsonthecomputerareonlymeaningfulifthestudentsregularlyengagein physicalactivityandthusservestokeepstudentsmotivatedtocontinueanactivelifestyle. KeyConceptsandContexts IncorporatingSelfDeterminationTheoryandtheFoggMethodintotheDesign Inthefollowingschemaforgettingthestudentstartedonoursite,wepromptthestudentto engageinthreesimplebehavioursinsequence.
Inordertogetusertopersonallyinvestinusingtheweeblysite Whenuserlogonforfirsttime Usermust Receiveawelcomemessageandintroductiontothesitethatpromptsthemtodothree things: ChooseClassDojoavatar(maywishtoseewhatothershavechosensotheycan personalise) Answerselfreflectionquestionsinapersonalspace Postintroductiononclassforum.

Makeiteasytoact(FoggMethod) Thethreeactivitiesaresimpleandengaging.Furthermore,theyeachpossessthe motivationalelementofautonomyinthesensethatthestudentshavechoiceonhowto personalizetheirresponses. Useexistingintrinsicmotivation(Triggers,FoggMethod) Theresponsestotheselfreflectionquestionsmaybeusedtosurveythecompositionof theparticularcohortofstudentsandidentifyexistingintrinsicmotivationalfactorsthatmay beusedtoinitiatesubsequentbehaviours.Theymayalsoservetopromptselfreflectionas anecessaryprerequisiteforinternalizationofmotivationfornewbehaviours.Thefollowing aresomeexamplequestions:

SelfAssessmentQuestions Studentshouldbewarnedifthisinformationisgoingtobeseenbyhis/herpeers, parents,teachers.Parentsshouldoverseewhattheirchildrenpost. 1.Tellmeaboutyourhobbies. Whatareyourhobbies? Whydoyoulikethem? 2.IfyouhadtopickthreesportsthatyouhadtowatchonTVatleastonceeveryweek oneteamsport,onesportwheretwopeopleplayagainstoneanother,onesportwhere contestantstrytoperformattheirpersonalbestandthepersonwiththebestrecordwins: Whatwouldthosethreesportsbe? Doyouknowtherulesforthosesports?Wheredidyoulearntherules? Ifyouhadtochooseonetoplay,whichwouldyouchoose?Why? 3.Wouldyouconsiderhikingasport?Ifyouansweredyes,explainwhatmakesitasport. Ifyouansweredno,thendoyouthinkthatthismakesitlessenjoyablethanasport? <...similarquestions,informallyphrased,designedtoelicitinsightintothe studentscurrentdispositiontowardssportingactivities>

Question1oftheselfassessmentsurveystherangeofhobbiesinthecurrentcohortof students.ThisprovidesusefulinsightthatthePEinstructormayleveragewhenchoosing learningactivitiesforaparticularcohortofstudents. Question2oftheselfassessmentabovequeriestheindividualstudentsintrinsic motivations.Ifanindividualchoseastheirthreesports,football,tennisandswimmingthen choseswimmingastheonetheyprefer,thismayindicatesomeonewhoismotivatedby performanceratherthanbycompetition.Achoiceoffootballmayindicatesomeonewho enjoysthecamaraderieofbeingpartofateam.Achoiceoftennismayindicatesomeone forwhomthedesiretowinistheprimemotivator.Knowingthecompositionoftheclassin termsofalreadyexistingintrinsicmotivatingfactorscanhelptheinstructorcustomisethe classforoptimalengagement.Forinstance,itcanguidestructuringofactivitiesduringgym sessions. Question3oftheselfassessmentisalsomeanttosurveymotivationaltriggersamongthe cohortofstudents.Forinstance,ifthepersonwhochoseswimmingthinksthathikingisa sportbecauseitchallengesendurance,thenthiscorroboratestheconclusionthattheyare motivatedbyperformance.If,ontheotherhand,thepersonwhochoseswimmingthinks

thathikingisnotasportandlessenjoyableasaresult,thenperhapstheyaremotivatedby competitionafterall. Havingpromptedthestudentstoengageinselfreflectionandanalysedtheresponses,the instructormaythenusethisinformationtochoosetriggersforsubsequentbehaviours.The ideaistousealreadyexistingintrinsicmotivationalfactorstopromptthestudentsto engageinhealthylifestyle. AselfassessmentquestionnaireappearsonthemodelwebsiteontheDEAMHomepage aspartofthefirststepstakenonthesite. MattersofImplementation


Toimplementtheabovescenario,itwillbenecessarytomanuallyorautomaticallykeep dataonwhatactivitiesthestudenthasalreadydone(selfreflection,classprofile).Itispossible toautomatethecollectionofdatafromuserresponsesaswellastheconditionalpresentationof webcontenttotheuser.However,iftheinstructordoesnothaveaccesstothisfunctionality,this scenariocanstillbeexecutedwithsomemanualorchestration.

InterActivities Asaproofofconceptforourdesigncoices,aninteractivewebsitewascreated (http://thedeamproject.weebly.com/).ThewebsiteisnamedDEAM(DropEverythingand Move)anditprovidesopportunitiesforstudentstoreflectontheirpersonalfitnesslevelas wellastheireatinghabits.ThewebsitewascreatedusingtheWeeblyplatform.Itincludes componentssuchas:


Personalstudentblogs Criteriaandrubricsforactivities Onlinegameswhichfocusonphysicalactivityandhealth Linkstoinformationalcontent Motivationalvideos Socialnetworkingoptions(Twitter)

Duringtheinitialdesignphaseofthewebsite,aunitplanwascreatedtoprovide teacherswithanoutlineoflessonsandactivitiestobeperformedduringinstructionaltime. StudentswillreceiveaPEReviewbookletwhichwillcontainmaterialtosupplementthe classlessonsandactivities.Additionalhandoutsandcriteriawerecreatedbythedesign teamtostructurePElessonsandblogpostings http://thedeamproject.weebly.com/assignmentscriteria.html.

StudentswillvisittheDEAMpageonadailybasistocheckforannouncements, assignments,andparticipateinblogsandgames.Linkstofitnessandnutritiongames havebeenprovidedonthewebsite,aswellasmotivatingvideosforthestudentstoview. Thestudentswillbeginbyassessingtheirownfitnesslevelsbyparticipatingina questionnaire.Gymclasswilltakeplacetwiceaweek,duringwhichtimestudentswill participateinfitnesscircuitexercisestoimprovetheiroverallhealth. Thepersonalstudentblogwillprovideaplatformwherestudentscanreflectontheir progress.Theywillfollowtheguidelinesinarubricthatoutlinesthenecessarycomponents toasuccessfulblog.Medalswillbeawarded(bronze,silver,gold,orallstar)toincrease motivationwithineachstudentastheyreachdesiredlevelsoffitness.Studentswillbeable tocommentoneachothersblogsbyprovidingfeedbackorencouragement.Inaddition, studentsmaywishtousesocialmedia,twitter,toencouragehigherlevelsoffitness (#deam).Ofcourse,studentswillneedtohaveamediareleaseformsignedbytheir parentstohaveanyinformationpostedinapublicspace. Toimplementaninteractiveandengagingexperienceinthisdesignproject, teachersandstudentswillalsobeusingtheClassDojoplatform.Thistoolallowsstudents tocreatetheirownavatars,andeducatorstoawardstudentswithpointsforpositiveand negativebehaviours.Thesebehaviorscorrelatewiththerequirementsofthepersonal studentblog.Theavatarsarepersonalizedbythestudentsandrepresentunique characteristics.Theavatarsformacommunitybybuildingknowledgetogetherthrough commentposts.ClassDojowillbeusedonaregularbasisandpointswillbeupdated automaticallysothatstudentscanlogintotheirpersonalstudentblogandreflectontheir progress.Otherstudents,teachersandevenparentswillbeabletoseethesestatistics, allowingforeasiermarkingandalsotrackingofthechildrenandtheirphysicalactivitylevel. Asampleofwhattheavatarlookslikecanbefoundonthewebsitehomepage.
Positivebehavioursforwhichpointscanberewarded:http://thedeamproject.weebly.com/ Negativebehavioursforwhichpointscanbededucted:http://thedeamproject.weebly.com/ Thetechnologyallowsustoextendstudentsparticipationinphysicalactivitytobothinsideand outsideofschool.Wehopethatthedesignchoiceswevemadewillmotivatestudentsbysetting enticinggoalstobeachieved,givingthemfeedbackontheirprogressandallowingthemtobe involvedinsomehealthycompetitionwithotherstudents.

Verifications Averificationactivitywhichwouldentailwhetherthedesignwasworkingeffectivelywould bethestatisticschartontheWeeblyplatform.Thedesignerswouldbeabletomonitorhow manyviewsthepagewouldbereceivingandwhichstudentswerepostingtotheirblogs. Thegoalistointrinsicallymotivatestudentstobemoreactiveandanindicationofany formofparticipationwouldresultinsomesuccess.Thedesignallowsforaspacefor studentstoreflectandsharetheirlearningwithpeers.Studentswillbeabletoreachtheir goalsandreachtheleveloffitnesstheydesire.

ReflectionsandConnections GroupReflection Oneofthethingsthatresonatedwiththeentiregroupistheopportunityprovidedbythesite forgatheringdataonacohortofstudentsforthepurposeofcustomisingactivitiesto appealtotheclassortoindividualusers.Theweebly.comsiteprovidesameanstobuild webpageswithouthavingtolearnallthetechnicaldetailsunderthehoodwhichisagood thingforbusyteachersbuttechnicalsupportmaybeneededtoaccessthemorepowerful featuresofthetechnologythatareneededtomakethesitemoreflexibleintermsof personalisation. PersonalReflection ChristopherWardsPersonalReflection Ifounditusefultoreflectontheevolutionofthesiteinthecontextofthecommitmentswe madeintheDesignProposal.Wewerefortunatetohavechosenafocusforwhichthere wasalotofliteraturethatcouldreadilybeexploitedinapracticalway.SelfDetermination Theory(SDT)seemstobealmostdesignedforourpurpose. InconjunctiontoSDT,theFoggMethodforgettingpeopletoengageinspecified behaviourssoundsabitmanipulative,butitworks.ReadingabouttheFoggMethodtook awaysomeofthemystiquesurroundingtheappealofaddictiveappsthatarereadily available,fun,andeasytouse. Ialsosawlinksbetweenwhatwewouldhavelikedtodowithdataandstatisticsaswellas thepotentialforhavingasitethatadaptstotheparticularinterestsoftheuser,andthe backendtechnologiesneededtoimplementthesefunctionalities.Assomeonewitha

backgroundinComputerScience,Iamdrawntothechallengeofbringingthefullpowerof thesetechnologiestobearintheprovisionofeffectivelearningexperiences. DataanalyticsisabigpartofpersonalisationforcompanieslikeGoogleandAmazon,with theirhugecustomerbases.Itshouldberelativelyeasytoadaptthetechnologyformuch smallerusergroupslikeaPEclass.Thechallengewillthenbeforcoursedesignerstouse thetechnologyinapurposefulandeffectivewaytoimprovetheeducationalexperience. GurpreetKoonarsPersonalReflection Byparticipatinginthisdesignproject,Ihavelearnedhowmanyperspectivesadesigner needstobeawareofwhileconstructinganonlineenvironment.Intermsofourdesign, creatingawebsitewhichwouldsuittheneedsofdiverselearnerswasverychallenging.By researchingtheoriesanddifferentmodels,wewereabletofigureoutwhatwewantedour designtolooklike.Thatis,aninteractiveandengagingonlinespacewhichincreases studentmotivation.IfoundvalueinlearningmoreabouttheSelfDeterminationTheoryand howitappliedtoourdesign.Morespecifically,theelementsofautonomy,competenceand relatednessIfeelhavebeenmetwithourdesign.Iwasabletoapplymylearningtomyown professionalcontextandreflectwhetherIwasprovidingthesameopportunitiesformy students.Ilearnedthatthereareseveraltoolsouttheretodesignasuccessfulwebsite however,theimplementationandguidingprinciplesneedtobemetbeforedeliveringany content.Diligentplanningandcontinuousconversationamongthedesignersareimportant elementsofasuccessfuldesign. ThismademereflectontheclassroomwebsitesIhavecreatedinthepastformystudents. Atfirst,IthinkIfoundmyselfintriguedwiththeaspectoftechnologyandhowinterestingit wouldbetosharelearning.Isoonlearnedtheimportanceofstructuringcontentand materialonlineinawaywhichmadesensetostudentsandgavethemareasontovisitthe spaceagain.Workingonthisdesignprojectallowedmetoreflectonwhatelementswere importanttomeandhowIcouldcreatesomethingwhichwouldbebeneficialforlearning. Ibelievewecreatedadesignwhichwillreachouttotheagegroupweintendonteaching. Thedesignisvisuallyappealinganditincludeselementssuchasinformationalcontent, blogspaces,videos,games,recipes,andopportunitiesforstudentstostayconnectedwith peers. ElizabethJensen'sPersonalReflection ThiswasoneofmyfirstcoursesintheMastersofeducationaltechnologyprogram.Ifound thatIlearnedalotmoreaboutthetechnologiesyoucanuseintheclassroomthemselves ratherthanthelearningtheoriesassociatedwiththem.NotonlywasIintroducedtomany

usefultechnologiesbutIlearnedhowtoincorporatethemintomanyclassroomsettings.As aphysicaleducationinstructorIwasskepticalastowhetherIwasgoingtobeabletouse manyofthetheorieslearnedinthiscourse.Howeverifyoulookatthesubjectofourdesign projectIwasabletoincorporate,andlearn,aboutmanytechnologiesthatcanbeusedand beusefulinthephysicaleducationclassroom. Ifoundtheresearchonsocialmediatobeveryusefulintermsofhowitcanbeusedand besuccessfulintheclassroom.Manytimesasteacherswelookatsocialmediaasa negativeplatform,howevercurrentresearchhasshownthatitcanbeinapositivemanner inordertomotivatestudents.DuringthiscourseIwasintroducedtoclassdojowhichIwill certainlyincorporateintomyclassroominthefuture.Thefactofparents,teachersand studentscanaccessthistechnologyisincrediblyhelpfulandsimplifiestheevaluation process. TheuseofWeeblywassomethingIhaveneverencounteredbeforeandthiscoursehas openedmyeyestoanewandexcitingplatform.InthefutureIhopetousemanyofthe resourcesandresearchthatIhaveusedinthiscourseandIknowthatitwillbesuccessful intheclassroom. AimeeKaraulsPersonalReflection Thisexperienceofcreatingthedesignprojecthasbeenaveryhandsonopportunityto understandwhatittakestoimplementanewdesignmodel.Thisbeingmyfirsttime creatingadesignproject,Ilearnedthattherearemanydifferentaspectsoftechnologyand curriculumframeworksoneneedstoconsider.Inorderforasuccessfuldesigntolaunch, therearekeyfeaturesthatmustbeincludedsuchas:thestudent/teacherinteraction, motivation,assessmentandappropriatecontent.Beingabletocollaborateandbrainstorm differentideaswasagoodwaytolearnhowtoimplementthesekeyfeatures.Ourgroup consistsofveryuniqueindividualscomingfromvaryingbackgroundsandbecauseofthis wewereabletolookattheprojectfromdifferentavenuesanddrawoutthestrengthsfrom eachperson. Thedesignwecreatedbringstogetherrelativetheoriesandinformationinorderfor studentstoimplementhealthylivingintheireverydaylifestyle.OnethingthatIwilltakeaway fromthedesignintomyownclassroomistheuseofDOJO.Thistechnologytoolreally supportsstudentmotivationandprovidesmoreaccountabilitytowardstheirlearning. Parentsareabletoaccessthissitetoseetheprogressthattheirchildrenaremakingas well.Itsagreatcommunicationtooltosupportstudentsacademicprogress.

Attheend,thisdesignprojectreallyenhancedmyunderstandingofmediaandtechnology relatedplatforms.IlookforwardtoignitingmorepassionandsharingitthroughtheWEB 2.0world! MargaretLeesPersonalReflection Beingmoreofatraditionalstyleteacher,thisdesignprojecthasreallyreconfiguredmy thoughtstowardshowtechnologycanplayanintegralpartintheclassroomsetting.With theintroductionofclassroomdojofrommygroupmembers,Iwasshockedandawedby theutilitythatitprovidesforteacherswhodecidetouseitintheirclassrooms.Notonly doesitbenefittheirstudentswhocangetinstantaneouspositivereinforcementsfromtheir teachers,parentscanalsobenotifiedoftheirkids'progresswiththeclickofamouse.This hasreallychangedmyinitialreluctancetowardsacceptingtechnologyasamainstream formofeducationtool. AsIlearnthebenefitsthattechnologyhastooffer,I'mpleasedtocontinuelearningthe varioustoolslikeWeeblyandWikithatIcanintegrateintomywayofteaching.Ibelievethat withagoodblendoftraditionalandelearningstylelearningapproach,wecanmakethe classroomanenvironmentthatisnotonlyinformativebutalsoenjoyabletothestudents. Simply,thisdesignprojecthasopenedmyeyestosomanynewtoolsthatwillmakemyself abetterteacher.

References Bunker,D.,&Thorpe,R.(1982).Amodelfortheteachingofgamesinthesecondary school.BulletinofPhysicalEducation,10,916. Cummiskey,M.andLeight,J.SocialMediaandPhysicalEducation.(2012).Retrieved fromhttp://www.pelinks4u.org/articles/cummiskey&leight_2012.htm DKirk,AMacPhail.2002Teachinggamesforunderstandingandsituatedlearning: RethinkingtheBunkerThorpeModel FrederickRecascino,C.M.,&Ryan,R.M.(1993).Differencesinmotivationforsportand exerciseandtheirrelationswithparticipationandmentalhealth.JournalofSport Behavior,16,124146. Harris,F.(2009).Visualtechnologyinphysicaleducation.''PhysicalandHealthEducation Journal,''74(4),2427.Retrievedfrom

http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.library.ubc.ca/docview/214319009/abstract?accou ntid=14656 Jonassen,D.(1999).Designingconstructivistlearningenvironments.Instructionaldesign theoriesandmodels:VolumeII.pp.215239 Kirschner,P.A.Sweller,J.Clark,R.E(2006).Whyminimalguidanceduringinstruction doesnotwork:ananalysisofthefailureofconstructivist,discovery,problembased, experiential,andinquirybasedteaching.EducationalPsychologist,volume:41,issue: 2,pp.7586 MinistryofEducationBCCanada(2011).DailyPhysicalActivityK12ProgramGuide. http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/irp/pdfs/daily_physical_activity/program_guide.pdflast visited8thFebruary2014. Reeve,J.,&Deci,E.L.(1996).Elementswithinthecompetitivesituationthataffect intrinsicmotivation.PersonalityandSocialPsychologyBulletin,22,2433. Ryan,R.M.,FrederickRecascino,C.M.,Lepes,D.,Rubio,N.,&Sheldon,K.M.(1997). Intrinsicmotivationandexerciseadherence.InternationalJournalofSport Psychology,28,335354. Vansteenkiste,M.,&Deci,E.L.(2003).Competitivelycontingentrewardsandintrinsic motivation:Canlosersremainmotivated?MotivationandEmotion,27,273299.