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Did the materials help you: visualize an atom? understand better the revolution around the sun?

n? with a clearer picture of the earth? Is there a more interesting way of showing the rotation of the revolution of planets around the sun? Why?

Do you think the school election would give the students a feeling of what it means to conduct or participate in an election process?


Can you think a better way of seeing planet earth other than the globe? Why?

What good do students get when they are made to participate in an election process very similar to what take place in a democratic country like ours? Wasnt making students observe the conduct of local and national election process enough for them to learn about elections? Why or why not?

Teaching with Contrived Experiences

Presented by: Ms. Emelyn T. Aborot Submitted to: Ms. Rommelyn T. Dacanay

What are contrived experiences? What are varied types of contrived experiences? Focus Why do we use contrived experiences? Questions What standards can be use to evaluate : contrived experiences?

Contrived Experiences

- These are edited copies of reality and are used as substitute for real things when it is not practical or not possible to bring or do the real thing in the classroom. - Designed to simulate to real-life situations.

Varied types of contrived experiences

1.Model is a reproduction of a real thing in a small scale, or large scale, or exact size-but made of synthetic materials. It is a substitute for a real thing which may or may not be operational (Brown et al, 1969)

2. Mock-up is an arrangement of real device or associated devices, displayed in such a way that presentation of reality. The mock up may be simplified in order to emphasize certain features. It may be an economical reproduction of a complicated or costly device, to be observed for learning process. (Brown 1969). - Is a special model where the parts of a model are singled out, heightened and magnified in order to focus on that part or process under study.

3. Specimen and objects a. Specimen any individual or item considered typical of group, class or a whole.

b. Object may also include artifacts displayed in a museum or objects displayed in exhibits or insect specimen in science.

4. Simulation
is a presentation of a manageable real event in which the learner is an active participant engaged in behavior or in applying previously acquired skills or knowledge (Orlich, et al, 1994)

5. Game games are played to win unlike simulations it to have a winner. Competence is learning how to learn throughout ones life in this changing world entails the secure attainment of functional literacy, which includes essential abilities such as linguistic fluency and scientific numerical competence.

We use models, mock-up, specimens and objects to:

1. Overcome limitation of space and time. 2. To edit reality for us to be able to focus on parts or a process of a system that we intend to study. 3. To overcome difficulties of size. 4. Understand the inaccessible. 5. Help the learners understand abstractions.

We use simulations and games to make our classes interactive and develop the decision-making skills and knowledge construction skills of our students. Orlich, et al (1994) enumerates ten (10) general purposes of simulations and games in education:

1. To develop changes attitudes. 2. To change specific behaviors. 3. To prepare participants for assuming new roles in the future. 4. To help individuals understand their current roles. 5. To increase the students ability to apply principles .


6. To reduce complex problems or situations to manageable elements. 7. To illustrate roles that may affect ones life but that one may never assume. 8. To motivate learners. 9. To develop analytical processes 10. To sanitize individuals to another persons life role.

Games are used for any of these purposes:

1.To practice and/or to refine knowledge/skills already acquired. 2.To identify gaps or weaknesses in knowledge/skills. 3.To serve as a summation or review 4.To develop new relationships among concepts and principles.

Examples of games using Multiple Intelligence Tasks in the classroom by Thomas Armstrong (1994) Find someone who can: Whistle a few songs notes of any Filipino song Stand on one foot with her eye closed for at least five seconds Recite at least four lines from any poem he has learned. Draw a stick figure of a man and woman. Briefly share a dream he/she had in the past month Complete this numerical sequence: 36, 30, 24, 18 ____ and explain logic behind it. - Honestly say he is relaxed and comfortable relating to other people during the exercise - Easily derive lesson from nature - Share his philosophy of life.

Guide Questions in Evaluating Contrived Experiences Edgar Dale (1969) enumerates the following question to evaluate contrives experiences:
Is the model or mock-up necessary or can you make use the original? Could some other device such as a photograph or chart portray the idea more effectively? Is the idea appropriate for representation in a model?(is it too elementary? Too complicated? Are the important details of construction correct?

Could wrong impressions of size, color and shape result from using this model? Does the model oversimplify the idea? If it is workable, will it stand up under frequent use? If it is purchased, will the model be used often enough to justify its cost? Will the model act as a stimulus to further learning? Does the simulated procedure reduce the amount of instruction required to master the desired skills, attitudes and information?

Group 1 Present contrived experiences and their various forms by means of a graphic organizer Group 3 Illustrate with examples the five reasons why we make use of models, mock ups, specimens and objects given above

Group 1 Present contrived experiences and their various forms by means of a graphic organizer Group 4 Go over K to 12 Curriculum Guide. Identify objectives and topics which can be taught with contrived experiences models, mock ups, specimens and objects, simulation and games

Thank You for Listening