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13.

12.8
.

13.1.

ai

|ai |.

, .

13.2.

. k

ck

i=0

an

i=0

an

i=0

N
a0 bk

i=0

a1 bk1

bn | -

: : : ak b0 :

P
P i=0 cn

bn ,

b .
i=0 n

i=0

an

( 12.7), , , 12.8.

Ak

~
A
k

k
X

ai ;

Bk

i=0

i=0

k
X

k
X

ai ;

~
B
k

~ =
A

lim
k

lim
k

Ak ;

Ck

k
X

ci ;

i=0

bi ;

Ak ;

~
B

lim
k

, limk

AB

bi ;

i=0

i=0

k
X

lim
k

Ck

Bk ;
Bk :
AB ;

limk

Ak Bk

, ,

lim

|An Bn Cn | = 0:

(13.1)

, ,







X

X

|ai | |bj |;
ai bj 6
|An Bn Cn | =
i6n;j 6n
i6n;j 6n

i+j>n
i+j>n

(13.2)

, (13.2)

n .

j > [n=2]

( ).

i + j > n,

i > [n=2],

(13.1) :

|ai | |bj | 6

i>[n=2]

6n;j 6n

i+j>n

j>[n=2]

|ai | |bj |

06i6n
06j 6n

|ai | |bj | =

06i6[n=2]
06j 6[n=2]
~ B
~
= A
n
n

~
A~[n=2] B
[n=2] :
P
i=0

an

~ B
~ . lim
~ ~
| limn A
n
n
n (An Bn

, ,

b ,
i=0 n

~
~
limn A
n limn Bn ,

~
~
A
[n=2] B[n=2] )

= 0 . -

:
~ B
~
A
k
k

k >l >N
l l < ".
n > N1 n > [n=2] > N ,

">

~ B
~
A

N1 > 2 N

N,

+ 2,

~ A
~
~
~ ~
~
~
|A~n B
n
[n=2] B[n=2] | = An Bn A[n=2] B[n=2] < ":
13.2,
12.8.
.

13.3. a
lim

exp(a +

h) exp(a)
h

= exp(a):

,
:

C ( C\{0}) C.

, :
13.3 ,

>

0, 0

< |h| <  ,

" >



exp(a + h) exp(a)

exp(a) < ":




h
2

( , .)

.

.
exp(a +

h) exp(a)

exp(a) exp(h)

exp(a)

= exp(a)

exp(h)

, ,

lim

exp(h)

= 1:

,
exp(h)

h
(n + 1)!


h

2!

h2
3!

::: +

> 2n

= 1+

h
2!

n>

h2
3!

::: +

hn
(n + 1)!

1, ,


2

6 | |2! + |h|
h
(n + 1)!
3!
hn

|h|
2

|h| < 2,

::: +

|h|2
2
2

:::

|h|n
(n + 1)!

::: +

|h|n
2

|h|=2
1 |h|=2

(
). ,



exp(h) 1

1 6


h

|h|=2
|h|=2

|h| < 2:

0, .
.
,

xR

exp(x)

R.

13.4.
R, exp0 (x) = exp(x) x R.


, . .

13.5.

(2)

(1) exp(x)

(3) limx+ exp(x) = +

(4)

R.
R.

limx exp(x) = 0.

exp

>

exp

(1) , exp(x)

>

x>

).

(0; +

0, -

. , , exp(0) = 1, 12.8
, exp(
1= exp(

x) > 0,

x)

= 1= exp(x)

x <

x > 0.

(2) , exp(x)

x2 > x1 ,

exp(x2 )

0, exp(x) =

exp(x1 )

> 1 x >
exp(x1 )(exp(x2 x1 )

0.
1),

.
(3) , exp(x)

>

1 + x

x>

0,

x) = 1= exp(x).

exp(

(4) (2), (3) .

13.6. x
exp(1) =

exp(x)

ex . ,

e.

n N,

Q,

exp(1) =

e 4.

12.8
(exp(1=n))

= exp

exp(1=n) =
exp(m=n) =

m=n

:::

|n {z n}

= exp(1) =

e;

e1=n .
m Z, n N.
e

12.8 ,

exp(z )

ez

( ,

zQ

z ).

, 13.6,

e.

13.5. (2) (4) .

13.7.

a > 0 x R,
ex = a (: x = ln a). a > 0
. x 7 ln x -

(0; +

).

, | ,
| 12.4.
.

13.8.

(ln

x)0

= 1=x.

12.6

):
1

(ln) (a) =

(exp) (ln

a)

1
exp(ln

a)

f rac1a:

e.

13.9.

a>

0,

a 6=

x>

a>

0,

xR

0 loga

ln x
=
.
ln a

ax

ex ln a .

,
(. 1), . ,

x 7 ax

(a ) = (e
x

ln a

) =

ex ln a (x ln a)0

ex ln a ln a

ax ln a:

, .

13.10. f : [a; b]

R | .
6 f (x) 6 f ( )

[a; b]   , f ( )
x

[a; b] ( , , ,

).
5

, ,
. |

f (x)

(0; 1).

( ,

,
,

f ).

. ,

nN

xn [a; b],

f (xn ) > n.

| ( 9.9)

x X.

{xnk },

, limk

{f (xnk )}

. , ,

f (xnk )

f (x);

f (xnk ) > nk ,

{nk }

| -

{f (xnk )}.

f ([a; b]) R.

f.

X
c=
yn X ,

, ;
sup X .
limn

yn

c.

yn

{xnk },

f (xn ),

{xn }

, limk

f (xnk )

xn [a; b].

f ( );

 X.

, limk

f (xnk )

ynk = c. , f ( ) = c,
 f
 -

= limk

.
.

, .
.

13.11

f f 0 (c)

f : (a; b) R | (a; b) |

( ).

. c
= 0.

, ,

| -

. ,

f 0 ( c)

lim

f (c + hn ) f (c)
hn
6

lim

hn

= 0:

hn
n

= 1=n, -

( , -

); ,

hn

1=n,

f 0 ( c) 6

0.

( , ); ,
,
,

f 0 ( c)

f 0 ( c) >

0. ,

= 0.

, . .
| ,
.

13.12

( ).

f : [a; b]

[a; b] (a; b). f (a)


c
.

f (b),

(a; b), f 0 (c) = 0.

13.10

[a;

b]

f (a)

f (b),

f 0 ( c)

= 0

c (a; b);

, -

f 0 ( c)

c,

[a;

b],

= 0 .

13.13

( ).

f : [a; b]

R [a; b] (a; b).


(a; b),

f 0 ( c)

f (b) f (a)
ba

= px + q | ,
f (b)). g (x) = f (x) px q ,
g (a) = g (b) = 0, g 0
. , c (a; b), g (c) = 0.
0
0
0
g (x) = f (x) p, f (c) = p. ,

.
(a;

f (b)
b

f (a)
a

f (a))

(b;

13.14

).

f : (a; b) R | . f 0 (x) >


x (a; b), f (a; b); f 0 (x) <
x (a; b), f (a; b).
.

a < u < v < b; , f (v ) > f (u). , f [u; v ]


, c (p; q )

f 0 ( c)

f (q ) f (p)
qp

>

0;

, ,

f (q ) > f (p),