Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 61

- 1 -

PHN I. M U
I.1. L do chn ti.
Hin nay, vic i mi ni dung v phng php dy hc l mt trong nhng vn
c rt nhiu ngi quan tm. Mt nhim v c bn ca dy hc nh trng l m
bo cho hc sinh nm vng c kin thc, lm cho hc sinh hiu ng bn cht ca
mt vn . iu ny i hi ngi gio vin cn phi c mt phng php s phm
vng chc, kin thc chuyn mn cao. Bn cnh i hi hc sinh phi tch cc hn
trong hc tp t mnh c th chim ly tri thc khoa hc.
in ha hc l phn ni dung kin thc rt quan trng trong ni dung chng trnh
ha hc ph thng hin nay. c manh nha lp 9 bc trung hc c s, v trnh by
rt rng bc trung hc ph thng. Ch yu nm phn i cng v kim loi ca lp
12. y l phn l thuyt c s rt quan trng nghin cu tm hiu tnh cht ca kim
loi v ion kim loi trong dung dch.
V vy, trong qu trnh truyn t cn phi pht huy tnh tch cc, nng lc t duy,
sng to ca hc sinh.
in ha hc c nhng ng dng g? Chng tun theo qui lut nh th no? c bit
vic dy v hc chng chng trnh trung hc ph thng ra sao? L mt gio vin
tng lai bn cn chun b nhng g? Cch trnh by ca bn i vi hc sinh ra sao?.
Vi nhng l do c bn , ti quyt nh chn ti nghin cu: Ging dy mt
s ni dung in ha hc trng trung hc ph thng.
I.2. Mc ch nghin cu.
Tm hiu ni dung in ha hc v phng php ging dy ni dung trong chng
trnh trung hc ph thng.


- 2 -


I.3. Nhim v ca ti.
- Nghin cu nhng c s xy dng v nhng yu t nh hng n hot ng ha
hc ca kim loi theo in ha hc
- Tm hiu ni dung, cu trc chng trnh in ha hc trng trung hc ph
thng.
- Thit k mt s gio n ging dy phn in ha hc trng trung hc ph thng.
- Tm hiu thc trng.
I.4.Khch th, i tng v phm vi nghin cu.
- Khch th. Cc ti liu c lin quan.
- i tng. Gio vin hc sinh trung hc ph thng
- Phm vi nghin cu: Trng THPT, Gio vin, Hc sinh, V cc ti liu c lin
quan.
I.5. Phng php nghin cu.
- Nghin cu l thuyt.
- Nghin cu thc tin.
- Thc tp ging dy.
- Thng k ton hc












- 3 -

PHN II. NI DUNG

CHNG I. MT S C S
I.1. C s l lun ca s hnh thnh khi nim in Ha Hc.
I.1.1. Tm quan trng ca vic hnh thnh khi nim in ha hc trng
THPT.
Trong qu trnh khi qut ha nhng kin thc v cc cht ring bit v v nhng bin
ha ca chng, nhng khi nim c bn v ha hc dn dn xut hin. Nhng khi
nim tr thnh im ta, l v kh cho vic tip tc nghin cu cc nguyn t v cc
hp cht ha hc. Lc , nhng khi nim c bn dn dn c c th ha thm, o
su thm v ngy cng phn nh ng ng hn cc mt phc tp ca vn .
in ha hc l phn kin thc c s quan trng c c u chng i Cng
Kim Loi sch gio khoa ha hc 12. Lm tin c s, v l l thuyt ch o cho
vic tm hiu tnh cht ha hc ca kim loi, ion kim loi trong dung dch.
V th trong vic ging dy ha hc, ngi gio vin cn ch rn luyn cho hc sinh
thi quen nhn thc cc s kin thc nghim v phn ng ha hc di nh sng ca
ca cc l thuyt khc nhau, trong c l thuyt in ha hc.
Vic vn dng l thuyt in ha hc trong dy hc ha hc khng nhng c ngha
ht sc to ln i vi vic nghin cu tnh cht ha hc ca cc cht, hp cht m cn
c i vi vic h thng chng cng vi nhng l thuyt ha hc khc.
I.1.2. Ni dung nghin cu in Ha Hc chng trnh trung hc ph thng
Mun hnh thnh c hiu qu cho hc sinh mt khi nim hoc h thng khi nim no
, ngi gio vin cn xt k nhiu mt ca khi nim trc khi tin hnh ging dy.
Mun xt vn ny cn phi xut pht t mc tiu o to ca cp hc v nhim v
c tr dc ca mn hc tc l phi da chc chn vo ni dung chng trnh ca b
mn . Ni chung vic nghin cu s hnh thnh ca ni dung kin thc in ha hc
cn tri qua cc bc sau.
- 4 -

- Xt v tr v tm quan trng ca ni dung in ha hc trong chng trnh b mn.
- Xt cu trc ca ni dung in ha hc: in ha hc bao gm nhng ni dung no
m ta phi hnh thnh cho hc sinh.
Cn da vo trnh pht trin chung ca hc sinh m xt k khi lng, mc nng
hay su ca nhng kin thc . Nh vy y c hai bc phi thc hin.
+ Xt cu trc ca ni dung in ha hc theo quan im hin i ca khoa hc
(da vo chng trnh ha hc bc i hc)
+ La chn kin thc v k nng, k xo cn truyn th cho hc sinh ph thng cn
c vo trnh pht trin ca h.
- Phn tch s hnh thnh ni dung in ha hc trong sut chng trnh c THCS v
THPT.
Trong tng giai on, ni dung kin thc in ha hc c hnh thnh v pht trin ra
sao, c nhng yu cu g v c kin thc ln k nng k xo. y cn phi xem xt
tng kha cnh ca khi nim, tc l nhng kin thc c bn l thnh phn cu trc ca
ni dung in ha hc c hnh thnh v pht trin nh th no?
- Tm ra nhng bin php s phm hiu nghim nht thch hp vi tng giai on,
nhm thc hin c yu cu ring ca tng giai on cng nh yu cu chung v
vic hnh thnh ni dung in ha hc
I.2. C s l thuyt ca khi nim in ha hc.
I.2.1. Phn ng oxi ha - kh.
Phn ng oxi ha - kh l loi phn ng trong c s chuyn electron hon ton
(hoc mt phn) t nguyn t (hay ion) ny sang nguyn t (hay ion) khc. Kt qu l
trong phn ng c s thay i s oxi ha ca mt hoc vi nguyn t.
- Cht oxi ha l cht cha nguyn t nhn electron.
- Cht kh l cht cha nguyn t cho electron
- Qu trnh cho electron ca cht kh c gi l s oxi ha.
- Qu trnh nhn electron ca cht oxi ha c gi l s kh.
- 5 -

V d:
+ + + +
+ +
2 4 3 2
2 2 Fe Sn Fe Sn
[ ] Kh
Sn e Sn
+ +

4 2
2
(s oxi ha) ;
[ ]
3 2
1 Fe e Fe
Ox
+ +
+
(s kh)
I.2.2. Cp oxi ha kh.
Hai ion
+ 3
Fe v
+ 2
Fe c gi l mt cp oxi ha kh lin hp, trong
+ 3
Fe l dng
oxi ha ,
+ 2
Fe l dng kh lin hp ca
+ 3
Fe .
Tng qut:
- Dng oxi ha nhn electron dng kh lin hp.
- Dng kh cho electron dng oxi ha kh lin hp.
Vi mt phn ng oxi ha kh bt k, ta lun c:
Kh (2) Ox(2) + ne s oxi ha
Ox(1) + ne Kh(1) s kh

Ox(1) + Kh(2) Kh(1) + Ox(2)
Ta nhn thy tnh oxi ha ca dng oxi ha cp th nht Ox(1) mnh hn tnh oxi ha
ca dng oxi ha cp oxi ha th hai Ox(2). nh gi mnh ca mt cp oxi ha
kh lin hp, ngi ta s dng i lng th in cc.
I.2.3. Th in cc Phn loi in cc Cch xc nh.
I.2.3.1.Th in cc
Mt thanh kim loi nhng vo dung dch mui ca n to thnh mt in cc
V d: Thanh Zn nhng vo dung dch ZnSO
4
to thnh in cc Zn.
Gia kim loi v dung dch bao quanh n pht sinh mt hiu s in th gi l th in
cc




ne
- 6 -

I.2.3.2. Phn loi in cc
1. in cc kim loi.
Khi nhng mt thanh kim loi M vo nc th do tc dng ca cc phn t c cc ca
nc, cc ion kim loi
n
M
+
b tch ra khi b mt kim loi to thnh cc ion kim loi
hirat, cn cc electron li trong thanh kim loai. Kt qu l thanh kim loi tch in
m, cn dung dch tch in dng, to nn cn bng ng sau:
. ( ) ( )
n
M aq ne trong thanhkimloai M tt aq
+
+ +
2. in cc oxi ha kh.
in cc oxi ha kh l mt in cc gm mt kim loi tr nhng trong dung dch
cha mt cp oxi ha kh. Kim loi tr l kim loi m ion ca n khng chuyn vo
trong dung dch, thng dng platin hoc vng.
V d: Platin nhng trong dung dch cha cp oxi ha kh
3
2
Fe
Fe
+
+
(c th dng dung
dch FeCl
3
v FeCl
2

).. Kt qu l tn ti cn bng ng sau:

3 2
Fe e Fe
+ +
+
Vy ranh gii gia kim loi v dung dch tn ti mt lp in tch kp v sinh ra mt
hiu s in th tng t nh in cc kim loi.
Th in cc ca in cc loi ny ph thuc vo bn cht ca cp oxi ha kh, vo
t s nng ca dng oxi ha v dng kh v vo nhit .
3. in cc hiro chun.
Gi tr tuyt i ca hiu s in th sinh ra gia kim loi lm in cc v dung dch
in cc khng th xc nh c mt cch trc tip, nn phi quy c ly mt in
cc no lm chun v gn cho n mt gi tr hiu s in th so snh vi cc
in cc khc.
in cc c chn lm chun l in cc hiro chun. y l loi in cc oxi ha
kh gm dy platin c kh nng hp ph tt hiro (dng kh), c nhng trong dung
dch H
2
SO
4
l dung dch cha dng oxi ha H
3
O
+

- 7 -


Hnh I.1. Cu to in cc hiddro chun.
Khi tn ti cn bng sau:
3 2( ) 2
2 2
k
H O e H H O
+
+ +
in cc hiro chun phi c iu kin chun sau:
- p sut (chnh xc hn l hot p) ca kh hiro bng 1atm.
- Nng (chnh xc hn l hot ) ca H
3
O
+
bng 1mol/l
- Th in cc ca in cc hiro tiu chun nhit bt k c quy c bng
0,00V v c k hiu nh sau:
0
3
2
0, 00
H O
V
H

+
| |
=
|
\

Gi tr ny c gi l th in cc hiro chun hoc th oxi ha kh chun hoc th
kh chun ca cp oxi ha kh
3
2
H O
H
+
| |
|
\
.
I.2.3.3. Cch xc nh th in cc chun ca mt cp oxi ha kh
so snh c th in cc ca cc loi in cc khc nhau cn phi c nhng quy
c thng nht cho cc loi in cc. Nhng quy c ny nh sau:
- iu kin chun ca cc in cc: Mt in cc c coi l iu kin chun khi
nng (chnh xc hn l hot ) ca cu t tham gia phn ng in cc bng 1mol/l,
nu l cht kh th p sut (chnh xc hn l hot p) ring phn ca n bng 1atm.
- Chiu ca phn ng in cc l chiu ca qu trnh kh.
ox + ne kh
y: ox dng oxi ha; kh dng kh.
- mt nhit xc nh .
xc nh th in cc chun ca mt in cc no , ngi ta thit lp mt pin
gm in cc chun cn xc nh th in cc v in cc hiro tiu chun ri o hiu
- 8 -

s in th ln nht gia hai in cc. Hiu s in th ln nht ny l th in cc
chun ca in cc xc nh hay cn gi l th kh chun ca cp oxi ha kh xc
nh (v th ca in cc hiro chun c quy c bng 0,00V). Th kh chun ca
cp oxi ha kh nhit xc nh c k hiu l
( )
0
ox
kh

Th kh chun o c s c gi tr dng nu in cc cn o cao hn th in cc
hiro chun, ngha l in cc cn o th in cc l in cc dng (catot) ca pin v
ngc li n c gi tr m.
I.2.4. Th in cc chun ca kim loi.
L th ca bn phn ng khi tt c cc thnh phn ca ngn in cc u iu kin
tiu chun. Ghp in cc kim loi tiu chun vi in cc hydro tiu chun thnh mt
nguyn t Galvani, o sut in ng ca nguyn t v xc nh chiu ca dng
in.
V d: o th in cc tiu chun ca in cc Zn. Lp pin gm in cc km tiu
chun v in cc hyro tiu chun ([H
+
] = [Zn
2+
] = 1M)
(-) Zn Zn
2+
H
+
H
2
(Pt) (+)
Thc nghim cho thy phi kim hot ng th in cc hyro tiu chun l cc dng
v in cc km tiu chun l cc m. Sut in ng ca pin: E
0
= 0,763V
E
0

pin
=
0

2H+/ H2
-
0
Zn2+/ Zn
= 0,763V
Vy
0
Zn2+/ Zn
=
0

2H+/ H2
- E
0
pin = 0 0,763 = -0,763V
Bng cch tng t ngi ta xc nh c th in cc tiu chun ca cc in cc
kim loi v cc cp oxi ha kh ri xp thnh bng th in cc tiu chun ca cc cp
oxi ha kh ( Xem ph lc 1 )




- 9 -

I.2.5. Cc yu t nh hng n th in cc.
I.2.5.1. Phng trnh Nerst.
Trong cc phn trn, ta nhiu ln nhn mnh rng,
0
E l th ca cc phn ng trong
nng dung dch v p sut ca cc kh tham gia phn ng oxi ha kh u bng
n v.
Khi thay i nng dung dch v p sut ca cc kh th tr s th E s khc vi tr s
0
E chun.
Nhng nh hng trn c nh ha hc v vt l hc ngi c l Walter Nerst tm
ra v khi qut n nh sau:
Q
nF
RT
E E ln
0
=
25
0
C, hay T= 298K ta c.
Q
n
E E lg
059 , 0
0
=
Vi phn ng tng qut sau: aA + bB = cC + dD
th ta c:
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
b a
d c
B A
D C
Q =
E c th l th ca in cc hoc th ca phn ng.
I.2.5.2. nh hng ca nng hay hot .
T phng trnh Nerst :
[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
0
0, 059
lg
c d
a b
C D
E E
n
A B
=
Ta thy E ph thuc vo nng ca cc cht A,B,C,D
1/ Xt trng hp E l th in cc.
Ta c: aOxh + ne bKh
Phng trnh Nerst:
[ ]
[ ]
a
b
Oxh
Kh
n
lg
059 , 0
0
=
2/ E l th ca phn ng.
- 10 -

Xt phn ng: aOx
2
+ bKh
1
= cKh
2
+ dOx
1


[ ] [ ]
[ ] [ ]
b a
d c
Kh Ox
Ox Kh
n
E E
1 2
1 2 0
lg
059 , 0
= ; Vi
0 0 0
1
1
2
2
Kh
Ox
Kh
Ox
E =
Kt lun: T hai biu thc trn ta thy nng dng oxi ha v dng kh nh
hng rt ln n gi tr , E

I.2.5.3. nh hng ca p sut
Xt phn ng sau 25
0
C.
2
0
2( ) ( )
2
2 2 ; 1, 36
k aq
Cl
Cl
Cl e Cl V

+ =
iu kin trn ta c:
[ ] ( )
V
p
Cl
Cl
567 , 1
10
10
lg
2
059 , 0
36 , 1 lg
2
059 , 0
3
2
0
2
= = =


Kt lun: p sut nh hng kh mnh n th in cc ca phn ng.
I.2.5.4. nh hng ca pH.
Nu trong qu trnh oxi ha kh, c ion H
+
hoc OH
-
tham gia th th ca phn ng
cng ph thuc vo pH ca chng.
Trung hp tng qut: Khi tt c cc cht tham gia phn ng oxi ha kh (tr H
+
)
u c nng v p sut bng n v, ta c biu thc.
0
0, 059
m
pH
n
=
m, S ion H
+
hoc OH
-
trong phng trnh chung
n; S electron trao i trong phng trnh chung
Kt Lun: pH nh hng ln n th ca phn ng.
I.2.5.5. nh hng ca nhit .
mt nhit bt k ta c:
) 1 (
p
T
G
H G
|

\
|


+ = v ) 2 ( nFE G =
T (1) v (2) ta c:
T
E
T
nF
E

= hoc
dT
dE
T
nF
E +

=
- 11 -

Vi
dT
dE
l h s nhit ,
Kt lun: Nhit nh hng ln n th ca phn ng.
I.2.5.6. nh hng ca s to kt ta.
Xt phn ng sau 25
0
C: V Fe e Fe
aq aq
77 , 0 ; 1
0 2
) (
3
) (
+ = +
+ +

Tnh ca bn phn ng khi cho vo dung dch trn nng [OH
-
] = 1M
- iu kin trn ta c:

[ ][ ]
[ ][ ]
36
3
3
3
) (
14
2
2
2
) (
10
10
+
+
= =
= =
OH Fe T
OH Fe T
OH Fe
OH Fe

Khi ta c:
[ ]
[ ]
V
Fe
Fe
528 , 0
10
10
lg
1
059 , 0
77 , 0 lg
1
059 , 0
36
14
3
2
0
= = =

+
+

Kt lun: Do c s to kt ta lm cho kh nng kh ca ion Fe
2+
tng ln rt
nhanh.
I.2.5.7. nh hng ca s to phc
Xt phn ng sau: V Fe e Fe 77 , 0 ; 1
0 2 3
= +
+ +

Nu khi thm vo h trn mt phi t c kh nng to phc cht bn vi c dng oxi
ha v dng kh th ta c. ( ) [ ] ( ) [ ]

+
4
6
3
6
1 CN Fe e CN Fe
Ta c cn bng:
( ) [ ]
( ) [ ]
37 2 4
6
44 3 3
6
10 . 25 , 1 ; 6
10 . 25 , 1 ; 6
2
3
+
+
= +
= +
+
+
Fe
Cb
Fe
Cb
K CN Fe CN Fe
K CN Fe CN Fe

Khi ta c:
( ) [ ]
( ) [ ]
[ ]
[ ]
+
+
+ =
+
+

2
3
0 0
lg 059 , 0
3
2
4
6
3
6
Fe
Fe
Fe
Fe
CN Fe
CN Fe

V ( ) [ ] ( ) [ ]

=
4
6
3
6
CN Fe CN Fe iu kin chun.
( )
( )
3
6
4
6
0, 36
Fe CN
Fe CN
V

(

(

=
Vy: Th chun ca phn ng ny gim t 0,77V xun cn 0,36V v
( ) [ ]
3
6
CN Fe bn hn ( ) [ ]
4
6
CN Fe

- 12 -

I.2.6. Chiu ca phn ng oxi ha - kh
Trong dung dch nc, chiu ca phn ng oxi ha kh c xc nh da vo cng
thc sau:
G nFE = (1)
E c tnh nh sau: ( ) ( )
1 1 2 2
ox kh ox kh E =
Trong ( )
1 1
ox kh l th kh ca cp oxi ha kh c dng ox
1
v bn phi ca
phn ng, cn ( )
2 2
ox kh l th kh ca cp oxi ha kh c dng kh
2
v bn tri
ca phn ng, ngha l ng vi phn ng sau:
1 2 1 2
ox ox kh kh + +
Nu ( ) ( )
1 1 2 2
ox kh ox kh > th E > 0 v theo cng thc (1) ta c 0 G < ngha l
phn ng i theo chiu thun. Ngc li nu ( ) ( )
1 1 2 2
ox kh ox kh < th phn ng i
theo chiu nghch.
Khi thc hin phn ng iu kin chun th:
0 0
G nFE = (2)
Vi ( ) ( )
0 0 0
1 1 2 2
ox kh ox kh E =
I.2.7. Hng s cn bng ca phn ng oxi ha kh
T cng thc:
0 0
ln G nFE RT K = = . Ta c:
0
ln
RT
nE K
F
=
25
0
C biu thc tr thnh:
0
lg
0,059
nE
K = , K l hng s cn bng ca phn ng.
I.2.8. Ha hc v dng in
I.2.8.1. Pin
Pin l mt loi ngun in ha ph bin dng cho nhiu mc ch. Trong pin, nng
lng phn ng ha hc bin thnh in nng.
1. Sc in ng ca pin
nh ngha. Sut in ng ca pin l gi tr (tr s tuyt i) ca hiu s
- 13 -

in th ln nht gia hai in cc ca pin. N c tnh bng cng thc.
0 E
+
= >
y: E sut in ng ca pin(V);
+
- th kh ca in cc dng(V);

- th
kh ca in cc m (V),
Nu pin c cu to bi hai in cc iu kin chun th sut in ng chun l:

0 0 0
0 E
+
= >
2. Pin in ha
Pin Lclngse
- in cc m (anot) ca pin l Zn (ng thi l v bc pin).
- in cc dng (catot) ca pin l mt thanh ch c bao bc bi mt hn hp MnO
4

v bt than.
- Cht in li y l
4 2
, NH Cl ZnCl dng bt nho. Cc qu trnh xy ra trong pin
nh sau: in cc Zn cung cp ngun electron.
Qu trnh oxi ha :
2 0
2 ; 0, 76 Zn Zn e V
+
+ = +
Electron chuyn ng ra mch ngoi t in cc m (Zn) n in cc dng, to ra
dng in. Qu trnh kh :
0
4 2 3 2
2 2 2 ; 1, 04 MnO H e Mn O H O V
+
+ + + =
Sc in ng ca pin l.
2 0
0
4 2 3 2
2 0
4 2 3 2
2 ; 0, 76
2 2 2 ; 1, 04
2 2 ; 1,80
pu
Zn Zn e V
MnO H e Mn O H O V
Zn MnO H Zn Mn O H O E V

+
+
+ +
+ =
+ + + =
+ + + + =

S ca pin nh sau: ( ) ( )
4 2 2
, , Zn NH Cl ZnCl MnO C +
I.2.9. S in phn
I.2.9.1 nh ngha
S in phn l qu trnh oxi ha - kh xy ra b mt cc in cc khi cho dng in
mt chiu i qua hp cht nng chy hoc dung dch cht in li.
- 14 -

Vy : S in phn l qu trnh bin in nng thnh ha nng.

Hnh I.2. S in phn.
- Phn ng oxi ha - kh xy ra in cc khi in phn.
+ Cc cation (ion dng) v catot (cc m), ti xy ra qu trnh nhn electron to
ra sn phm (cht oxi ha)
+ Cc Anion (ion m) v anot (in cc dng), ti anion nhng electron to ra
sn phm (cht kh).
I.2.9.2. Cc dng in phn
1. in phn nng chy
- in phn cc cht nng chy (mui, Al
2
O
3
)
catot ion dng kim loi nhn electron.
anot ion m nhng electron.
Trong in phn mui nng chy, bn thn mui nng chy l cht in li, cc ion b
ht v cc in cc tri du: Cation b ht v catot (cc m) v anion v anot (cc
dng)
2. in phn dung dch
Khi in phn dung dch cht in phn c nhiu cht oxi ha v cht kh th x xy ra
oxi ha kh ln lt cc in cc theo th t u tin.
a/ Qu trnh xy ra Catot
xt xem cation kim loi M
n+
hay H
2
O b kh catot, trc ht cn so snh th kh
ca hai cp
n
M
M
+
v
2
H
H
+

- 15 -

Trong mi trng trung tnh (pH = 7) ta c:
7
2
0, 059lg10 0, 423
H
V
H

+
| |
= =
|
\

Nu cation kim loi c
( )
n
M
M

+
ln hn nhiu so vi -0,413V th trong dung dch
trung tnh ion M
n+
b kh catot khi in phn thnh kim loi: ( )
n
M ne M tt
+
+
Nu cation kim loi c
( )
n
M
M

+
nh hn nhiu so vi -0,413V th ion M
n+
s khng
b kh m H
+
ca nc b kh thot ra H
2
.
2( )
2 2 2
k
HOH e H OH

+ +
Cui cng nhng kim loi c
( )
n
M
M

+
gn vi gi tr -0,413V nh Zn, Cr, Fe, Cd,
Ni ty thuc vo nng ca dung dch v iu kin in phn m kim loi hay H
2

thot ra catot.
b/ Qu trnh xy ra Anot tr.
Trong mi trng kim xy ra qu trnh oxi ha cc anion OH
-

2 2
4 4 2 OH O e H O

+ +
Trong mi trng axit hoc trung tnh xy ra s oxi ha H
2
O
2 2
2 4 4 H O O e H
+
+ +
Cc anion c cha oxi ca axit khng c kh nng b oxi ha hoc s oxi ha chng
xy ra th rt cao. Khi in phn dung dch ca axit khng cha oxi v mui ca n
(tr HF v mui florua) th anion ca axit b oxi ha anot tr.
c/ Qu trnh xy ra anot tan.
Khi in phn vi anot tan c ba qu trnh oxi ha cnh tranh nhau anot. l s oxi
ha nc to ra oxi, s phng in ca anion cht in li v s oxi ha kim loi lm
anot. Nu kim loi lm anot c th kh nh hn hai cp oxi ha kh kia th s quan
st thy s oxi ha kim loi :
( )
n
tt
M M ne
+
+
- 16 -

Trong trng hp ngc li s xy ra s thot ra kh oxi hoc s oxi ha anion cht
in li nh trn xt trn.
cc dng c cc anion v nhng electron theo th t.
2 - 2
3 4
OO .... Cl Br S CH C OH SO

> > > > >
3. nh lut Faraday.
T kt qu nghin cu Faraday thit lp c nh lut in phn sau y.
Khi lng cc cht to thnh in cc khi in phn t l vi lng in i qua cht
in phn v tun theo cng thc sau:
AQ AIt
m
nF nF
= =
I.2.10. S n mn kim loi.
I.2.10.1. Khi nim. S ph hy vt liu kim loi gy nn bi cc cht mi trng
xung quanh gi l s n mn kim loi.
I.2.10.2. Phn loi.
1. n mn ha hc
c im ca n mn ha hc l khng pht sinh dng in ( khng c cc in cc )
v nhit cng cao th tc n mn cng nhanh.
Th d:
2 2 3 2
3 4 4 Fe H O Fe O H + = +
Bn cht ca n mn ha hc l qu trnh oxi ha kh, trong cc electron ca kim
loi c chuyn trc tip sang mi trng tc dng.
2. n mn in ha hc
Qu trnh ha tan kim loi lin quan n s xut hin cc dng in vi m, n cc qu
trnh Anot v Catot gi l hin tng n mn in ha.
Kim loi lun cha cc tp cht. Kim loi v cc tp cht trong kim loi cng nh mi
trng to thnh cc cp in cc vi th in cc khc nhau.
Trong cc qu trnh Anot, kim loi b oxi ha tr thnh cc ion dng:
n
M M ne
+
+
- 17 -

Trong cc qu trnh Catot, cc tc nhn oxi ha nhn cc in t ny to nn phn ng
kh: Chng hn:
2
2 2
2 2
4 4 2
H e H
O H e H O
+
+
+
+ +

Kt qu l cc kim loi b ha tan, b n mn.
I.2.10.3. Cc phng php bo v.
1. Phng php to lp ph.
Cht ph c dng c th l kim loi bn i vi mi trng nh; Ni, Zn, Cr, Sn, Cd,
Al, Ag, Au.., Nhng cht ph khng phi l kim loi, thng l sn, men, nha.
2. Bo v bng phng php in ha
S dng phng php catot. Nu ngi ta ni Fe vi Zn chng hn bng mt dy dn
th hin tng n mn Fe s c hn ch v i vi cp kim loi Fe Zn th Fe gi vai
tr l mt Catot.
2 2
0 0
0, 44 ; 0, 76
Fe Zn
Fe Zn
V V
+ +
= =
Trong khi Zn gi vai tr ca mt anot, b oxi ha theo phn ng
2
2 Zn Zn e
+
+
Ngc li phn ng :
2
2 Fe Fe e
+
+ s khng xy ra.













- 18 -

CHNG II. NHNG NI DUNG IN HA HC TRONG
CHNG TRNH HA HC PH THNG.

II.1. Phn tch s hnh thnh v pht trin khi nim in ha hc trong
chng trnh ha hc trng THPT.
Khi nim in ha hc c xy dng trn nn tng ca kh nhiu l thuyt. Tuy
nhin mc ph thng ngi ta ch a ra mt s l thuyt lin quan nh: Thuyt
in li, Phn ng oxi ha kh L thuyt in ha hc c dng nghin cu cc
tnh cht ca cc cht, gii thch v tin on v tnh cht ha hc v tnh cht vt l.
Qu trnh pht trin khi nim in ha hc chng trnh ph thng c th chia thnh
cc bc nh sau:
Bc 1: Lp 10: Hc sinh c hc v l thuyt phn ng oxi ha kh Phn ng oxi
ha kh l phn ng trong c s chuyn electron gia cc cht phn ng. Vn
dng l thuyt ny gii thch s xut hin dng in trong pin in ha, v qu trnh
trao i electron trong phn ng.
Bc 2. Lp 11: Pht trin khi nim in ha hc
Hc sinh c hc v thuyt in li: Tnh dn in ca cc dung dch axit baz v
mui l do trong dung dch ca chng c cc tiu phn mang in tch, chuyn ng t
do c gi l cc ion hay Qu trnh phn li cc cht trong nc ra ion l s in li.
Nhng cht tan trong nc phn li ra ion c gi l cht in li
Vn dng l thuyt ny gii thch s xut hin th trn cc in cc, s chnh lch
th gia cc in cc t xut hin dng in di chuyn trong dy dn ni hai in
cc.
Bc 3. Lp 12: Pht trin v hon thin khi nim in ha hc.
T cc phn ng ha hc c trng ca kim loi trong chng i Cng Kim Loi
nh: Fe + HCl FeCl
2
+ H
2

Cu FeSO l CuSO Fe + +
4 4
) (
- 19 -

Da vo phn ng kim loi chuyn ch cho nhau (kim loi ny c th y ion kim loi
khc ra khi mui ca chng) ngi ta xp xp c nhiu kim loi theo kh nng
phn ng ca chng
V d:
+ +
+ +
2
2 2 Cu Ag Ag Cu
Tuy nhin phng php trn cha tng qut v khng chnh xc. nh gi nh
lng kh nng oxi ha kh ca cc kim loi, ion kim loi trong dung dch, ngi ta p
dng l thuyt ca in ha hc chng minh. Da vo i lng th oxi ha kh
(hay th in cc) ca chng (
0
M
M
n+
).T gi tr th kh chun ngi ta c th so snh
c mnh yu ca cc kim loi v ion kim trong dung dch.V vy ngi ta xp
xp c dy in ha sau:
+
K
+
Na
+ 2
Mg
+ 3
Al
+ 2
Zn
+ 2
Fe
+ 2
Ni
+ 2
Sn
+ 2
Pb
+
H
+ 2
Cu
+
Ag
+
Au


K Na Mg Al Zn Fe Ni Sn Pb
2
H Cu Ag Au



II.2. Cu trc ni dung in ha hc trong chng trnh ha hc ph thng
lp12, ban c bn, ban nng cao

Ha hc lp 12 nng cao Ha hc lp 12 c bn
Khi nim in ha hc, tp trung ch yu chng 5: i cng v kim loi.
Bi 20 Dy in ha ca kim loi
1. Khi nim cp oxi ha
kh
2. Pin in (sut in ng,
th in cc)
3. Th in cc chun (in
cc hiro chun,th in
cc ca cc kim loi)
4. Dy th in cc ca
Bi 18 Tnh cht ca kim loi dy in
ha ca kim loi.
1. Dy in ha ca kim
loi.
Tnh oxi ha ca ion kim loi tng
Tnh kh kim loi gim
- 20 -

kim loi.
5. ngha ca th in cc.
Bi 21 Luyn tp: Tnh Cht Ca kim
loi
Bi 19 Hp kim
1. Khi nim
2. Tnh cht
3. ng dng
Bi 22 S in phn.
1. Khi nim.
2. S in phn cc cht
in li
2.1. in phn cht in li
nng chy
2.2. in phn dung dch
cht in li trong
nc.
3. ng dng ca s in
phn
Bi 20 S n mn kim loi
1. Khi nim
2. Cc dng n mn
3. Chng n mn kim loi
3.1. Phng php bo v
b mt
3.2. Phng php in
ha
Bi 23 S n mn kim loi
1. Khi nim.
2. Hai dng n mn kim
loi
2.1. n mn ha hc
2.2. n mn in ha
3. Chng n mn kim loi.
Bi 21 iu ch kim loi
1. Nguyn tc.
2. Phng php.
2.1. Phng php nhit
luyn
2.2. Phng php thy
luyn
2.3. Phng php in
phn
Bi 24 iu ch kim loi.
1. Nguyn tc iu ch.
2. Phng php iu
2.1. Phng php thy
luyn
2.2. Phng php nhit
luyn
2.3. Phng php in
phn
3. nh lut faraday
Bi 22 Luyn tp: Tnh cht ca kim
loi
Bi 25 Luyn tp: S in phn s n
mn kim loi iu ch kim
loi
Bi 23 Luyn tp: iu ch kim loi
v s n mn kim loi.
- 21 -

Bi 26 Bi thc hnh s 3. Dy in
ha ca kim loi iu ch
kim loi
Bi 24 Thc hnh: Tnh cht, iu ch
kim loi, s n mn kim loi.
Bi 27 Bi thc hnh s 4: n mn
kim loi v chng n mn kim
loi.


II.3. Mt s kin thc c bn hc sinh cn nm vng khi hc v phn in
ha hc trng Trung Hc Ph Thng.
Ha hc lp 12 nng cao Ha hc lp 12 c bn
Bi 20 Dy in ha ca kim loi
Mt s kin thc trng tm hc
sinh cn nm vng:
1. Hc sinh phi bit c khi
nin cp oxi ha kh, pin in
ha, sut in ng v th in
cc l g?
2. Hc sinh phi bit c cu
to ca pin in ha, s chuyn
ng ca cc phn t mang
in khi pin in ha hot
ng?
3. Cc phn ng ha hc no
xy ra cc in cc ca pin
in ha?
4. Bit c th in cc chun
Bi 18 Tnh cht ca kim loi dy
in ha ca kim loi.
Phn kin thc c s hc sinh
phi nm vng.
1. Th no l cp oxi ha kh?
V d:
Cu
Cu
Ag
Ag
+
+
2
;
2. Th no l dy in ha ca
kim loi?
l dy sp xp cc cp oxi
ha kh theo chiu tng dn
tnh oxi ha ca ion kim loi v
gim dn ca tnh kh kim loi
3. ngha ca dy in ha hc
l g?
D on chiu ca phn ng
gia hai cp oxi ha kh theo
- 22 -

l g? Chiu ca phn ng oxi
ha kh , tnh th in cc
chun ca cp oxi ha kh
trong pin in ha?
5. Dy th in cc chun ca
kim loi v ngha ca n?
quy tc

Cu
Cu
Fe
Fe
+
+
2
2

( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) r aq r aq
Cu Fe Fe Cu + +
+ + 2 2


Bi 22 S in phn.
1. Hc sinh phi bit c s
in phn l g?
2. Bit nhng ng dng ca s
in phn trong cng nghip l
g?
3. Hiu s chuyn dch ca cc
ion trong qu trnh in phn:
Mui NaCl nng chy, dung
dch CuSO
4
vi in cc tr v
in cc tan (anot tan).
4. Hiu nhng phn ng ha
hc xy ra trn cc in cc
trong qu trnh in phn v
vit c phng trnh in
phn
Khng tch thnh bi ring
Bi 23 S n mn kim loi
1. Hiu cc khi nim th no
l n mn kim loi, n mn ha
hc v n mn in ha hc?
2. Hc sinh phi bit c cc
Bi 20 S n mn kim loi
1. Hc sinh phi bit c n
mn kim loi l g?
2. Hc sinh phi bit c c
cc dng n mn no trong t
- 23 -






iu kin v bn cht ca n
mn ha hc v n mn in
ha hc.
3. Hiu c nguyn tc v cc
bin php chng n mn in
ha hc?
nhin?
3. Hc sinh phi bit cch
chng n mn kim loi l g?

Bi 24 iu ch kim loi.
Phn kin thc trng tm.
1. Hc sinh phi bit c
nguyn tc chung iu ch
kim loi l g?
2. Hiu cc phng php c
vn dng iu ch kim loi.
Mi phng php thch hp
vi s iu ch nhng kim loi
no. Dn ra c nhng phn
ng ha hc v iu kin ca
phn ng u ch nhng kim
loi c th.

Bi 21 iu ch kim loi
Kin thc trng tm hc sinh
cn nm bt c l:
1. Nguyn tc iu ch kim loi
l g?
Nguyn tc iu ch kim loi
l kh ion kim loi thnh kim
loi nguyn t
M
n+
+ ne M
2. Cc phng php iu ch
kim loi l g?

- 24 -

II. 4 . Mt s vn gio vin cn ch khi dy phn in ha hc trng
THPT
II.4.1. Ni dung kin thc v in ha hc cc lp c bn, nng cao
II.4.1.1. Lp 12 c bn
1. Bi 18: Tnh cht ca kim loi. Dy in ha kim loi
a/ Dy in ha ca kim loi.
Nm tht chc v khi nim cp oxh kh ca kim loi: Dng oxi ha v dng kh
ca cng mt kim loi to thnh cp oxi ha kh ca kim loi.
- lm r vn ny cn so snh mc hot ng ca cp oxi ha kh khng
nh u trnh bi:
2
Zn
Zn
+
v
2
Cu
Cu
+

T ta suy ra:
2 2
Zn Cu Zn Cu
+ +
+ +
- Lin h cc phn ng gia kim loi v dung dch mui (da vo th), so snh c
kh nng hot ng ca cc kim loi, sau trnh bi dy in ha
b/ ngha dy in ha kim loi .
Lm r quy tc xt chiu ca phn ng oxh - kh

2 2
Cu Fe Fe Cu
+ +
+ +
Cht oxi ha mnh cht kh mnh cht oxh yu hn cht kh yu hn
2. Bi 20. n mn kim loi. Cc vn cn lu .
- Cn lm cho hc sinh thy r s khc nhau gia hin tng n mn ha hc v n
mn in ha hc. S n mn in ha hc xy ra ph bin hn trong thc t so vi n
mn ha hc.
- Vn dng nhng hiu bit v pin in lm r s n mn in ha hc
- Tm hiu iu kin xy ra n mn in ha hc
3. Bi 21. iu ch kim loi. Nhng vn gio vin cn lu :
- Cn lm r mi quan h gia mt hot ng ha hc ca cc kim loi v phng
php iu ch da vo dy in ho.
- 25 -

- Nguyn tc iu ch kim loi : Kh ion kim loi:
n
M ne M
+
+
II.4.1.2. Lp 12 nng cao.
Cc vn gio vin cn ch y c lit k trong tng bi c th.
1. Bi 20: Dy in ha ca kim loi.
a/ Khi nim cp oxi ha kh ca kim loi.
Tm hiu khi nim v khi qut theo s .
n
M ne M
+
+
Dng oxh Dng kh
b/ Pin in ha.
Cn cho hc sinh c nhng bc nhn thc nh sau:
- Quan st th nghim (th nghim hnh 5.3 SGK) pin in ha Zn Cu
- Gii thch cc hin tng quan st c trong qu trnh hot ng ca pin in ha
Zn Cu v vit phng trnh ha hc xy ra.
c/ Th in cc chun ca kim loi. Dy th in cc chun ca kim loi
Cn c nhng bc hot ng sau.
- Thng bo v th in cc hiro tiu chun.
+ Quy c v th in cc hiro chun:
( ) 2
0
2
0,00
H H
V
+
=
- Tm hiu cch xc nh th in cc chun ca kim loi. V d ca Zn.
+ Nhng phn ng ha hc xy ra in cc khi pin Zn H hot ng
+ Lm r trng hp no th th in cc chun ca cp
n
M
M
+
c gi tr dng, m.
- Da vo th in cc chun nu nguyn tc sp xp cc cp oxi ha kh ca kim
loi trong dy in ha hc.
d/ ngha ca dy th in cc chun ca kim loi.
Hot ng tm hiu v ngha ca th in cc chun ca kim loi, nn chia thnh
nhng hot ng nh sau:
- Hot ng tm hiu v chiu ca phn ng gia hai cp oxi ha kh ca kim loi.
- 26 -

- Phn tch phn ng gia hai cp oxi ha kh.

2
0
( 0, 34 )
Cu
V
Cu

+
=+ v
0
( 0,80 )
Ag
V
Ag

+
=+
Kt lun v chiu ca phn ng ha hc: C ba kt lun tng ng v mt ngha:
- Kim loi c cp oxi ha kh c th in cc chun nh kh c kim loi ca cp
oxi ha kh c th in cc chun ln hn trong dung dch mui.
- Cation kim loi trong cp oxi ha kh c th in cc ln hn oxi ha c kim
loi trong cp oxi ha kh c th in cc nh hn.
- Cht oxi ha mnh hn s oxi ha cht kh mnh hn, sinh ra cht oxi ha yu hn
v cht kh yu hn. (quy tc )
2. Bi 22. S in phn. Cc vn cn ch khi dy bi 22.
a/ Khi nim v s in phn.
- Lin h n th ca cc cp oxi ha kh xc nh: Tn cc in cc, du ca cc
in cc v phn ng xy ra cc in cc.
b/ in phn dung dch CuSO
4
vi in cc graphit. dung dch CuSO
4
vi Anot tan
Cn lm r th t in phn ca cc ion, phn t cc in cc da vo dy th in
cc.
3. Bi 23. S n mn kim loi. Cc vn cn lu khi dy bi 23.
- Cn lm r nguyn nhn no dn n n mn in ha, lin h li bi dy in ha.
- iu kin xy ra s n mn ha hc?
4. Bi 24: iu ch kim loi. Cc vn cn lu .
a/ Phng php thy luyn.
- C s ca vic iu ch kim loi bng phng php thy luyn
- Phng php thy luyn c dng iu ch nhng kim loi no
b/ Phng php in phn.
- C s ca phng php in phn iu ch kim loi. Nhng kim loi no c th
iu ch c bng phng php in, lin h dy in ha.
- 27 -

II.4.2. Phng php dy hc v cc vn in ha hc
Nhm t c kt qu tt nht v vic hc sinh c th hiu, nm vng cc kin
thc c bn v in ha hc th i hi khng ch ngi gio vin nm vng v ni
dung kin thc m cn phi c phng php s phm kho lo. Phng php ng vai
tr kh quan trng trong qu trnh hc sinh tip thu kin thc. Mt s phng php dy
hc ha hc chung c th th p dng cho phn in ha hc nh:
- S dng thit b th nghim, m hnh ha hc theo nh hng ch yu l ngun
hc sinh nghin cu, khai thc tm ti kin thc ha hc.
- S cu hi v bi tp ha hc hc sinh ch ng nhn kin thc, hnh thnh k
nng v vn dng tch cc cc kin thc, k nng hc.
- Ty vo tnh cht ca cc bi hc trong chng, ta c th phn chia thnh hai phng
php hnh thnh kin thc cho hc sinh nh sau.
+ i vi loi bi hc nhm xy dng v hnh thnh khi nim mi cho hc sinh, nh
bi: Dy in ha ca kim loi, in phn, S n mn kim loi,phng php dy
nn thit k theo m hnh dy nh sau:




+ i vi nhng loi bi hc i hi s vn dng l thuyt tm hiu tnh cht ca
cht, nh tm hiu tnh cht vt l, tnh cht ha hc chung ca kim loi, iu ch kim
loi,.th phng php dy hc nn thit k theo m hnh sau:





Th nghim nghin
cu, quan st cc
hin tng th
nghim.
Vn dng l thuyt
ch o gii thch
cc hin tng quan
st c
Kt lun hoc hnh
thnh khi nim
mi
Vn dng l thuyt
ch o bit
D on cu to v
tnh cht ca cht
Khng nh nhng
iu d on bng
th nghim.
- 28 -

II.5. Vn dng mt s kin thc v in ha hc ging dy ni
dung in ha hc trong chng trnh ha hc trng THPT
II.5.1. S dng Th in Cc tnh Sc in ng v d on xem mt phn
ng oxi ha kh cho trc c kh nng xy ra hay khng.
C s l da vo biu thc: G nFE = . 25
0
C th ta c:
0 0
G nFE =
Trong : n- s electron trao i. F- hng s Faraday. E
0
sut in ng ca phn
ng.
- Nu
0
0 0 E G > < Phn ng t din bin.
- Nu
0
0 0 E G < > Phn ng xy ra theo chiu nghch.
- Nu
0
0 0 E G = = Phn ng t cn bng.
V d: Tnh sut in ng v d on xem phn ng sau c xy ra khng 25
0
C?
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
aq r r aq
Cd Cu Cd Cu
+ +
+ + ; bit
2 2
0 0
0, 40 ; 0, 34
Cd Cu
Cd Cu
V V
+ +
= =
Ta c:
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
2 0
2 0
2 2 0
2 ; 0, 40
2 ; 0, 34
; 0, 74
aq Cd
Cd
Cu
Cu
aq r r aq
Cd e Cd V
Cu Cu e V
Cd Cu Cd Cu E V

+
+
+
+
+ +
+ =
+ =
+ + =

Vy sut in ng
0
0, 76 0 0
pin
E V G = < > phn ng khng c kh nng xy
ra theo chiu nh trn.
II.5.2. Tnh th ca mt bn phn ng khi bn phn ng l t hp ca hai hay
nhiu bn phn ng khc.
Tnh th ca bn phn ng:
( ) ( )
? , 3
0
3
3
= +
+

r aq
Tl e Tl bit:

( )
+ 3
aq
Tl
( )
+
aq
Tl Tl

0
3
? =
V 336 , 0
0
2
= V 250 , 1
0
1
=
- 29 -

p dng biu thc :
2 1
0
2 2
0
1 1 0
3
n n
n n
+
+
=

. Ta c :
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
V Tl e Tl
V Tl e Tl
V Tl e Tl
r aq
aq
r aq
? , 3
250 , 1 , 2
336 , 0 ,
0
3
3
0
2
3
0
1
= +
= +
= +
+
+ +
+


Trong : n
1
; n
2
; l s electron trao i trong bn phn ng (2),(3).
0
2
0
1
; l th chun ca bn phn ng (2), (3).
Khi ta c:
( ) ( )
V
n n
n n
721 , 0
3
250 , 1 2 336 , 0 1
2 1
0
2 2
0
1 1 0
3
=
+
=
+
+
=


Vy th ca bn phn ng:
( ) ( )
V Tl e Tl
r aq
721 , 0 , 3
0
3
3
= +
+

II.5.3. D on bn ca cc trng thi oxi ha ca mt nguyn t.
Xt bn phn ng:
( ) ( ) ( )
+ +
+
3
2 3
aq r aq
Au Au Au bit:


( )
3
aq
Au
+

( ) aq
Au
+
Au
Nu Au
+
t oxi ha kh th phng trnh phn ng trn c th 0
0
>
pu
E , v khi
0
0
< G , phn ng t din bin.
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
V E Au Au Au
V Au e Au
V e Au Au
pu aq r aq
r aq
aq aq
27 , 0 , 3
68 , 1 , ( 2
41 , 1 , 2
0 3
0
2
0
1
3
= +
= +
= +
+ +
+
+ +


Do > 0
0
pu
E 0
0
< G : Vy iu kin chun, vng trng thi oxi ha +1, c kh
nng t phn hy thnh vng kim loi v vng trng thi oxi ha +3.
II.5.4. Dy in ha ca kim loi





Li
+
K
+
Ba
+
Ca
2+
Na
+
Mg
2+
Al
3+
Zn
2+
Cr
3+
Fe
2+
Ni
2+
Sn
2+
Pb
2+
2H
+
Cu
2+
Fe
3+
Ag
+
Hg
2+
Pt
2+
Au
3+
Li K Ba

Ca Na Mg Al Zn Cr Fe Ni Sn Pb H
2
Cu Fe
2+
Ag Hg Pt Au

Tnh oxi ha kim loi M
n+
tng
dn
Tnh kh ca kim loi M gim dn
0
2
1, 68V =
0
1
1, 41V =
- 30 -

II.5.4.1. D on c chiu xy ra ca phn ng.
Phn ng oxi ha kh lun xy ra theo chiu to ra cht oxi ha v cht kh yu hn,
ngha l cht oxi ha mnh nht s oxi ha cht kh mnh nht.
Bi tp vn dng.
Bi tp 1. a/ Hy cho bit v tr ca cp
Mn
Mn
+ 2
trong dy in ha. Bit rng H
+
oxi
ha c Mn. Vit phng trnh ion thu gn.
b/ C th d on iu g xy ra khi nhng l kim loi Mn vo cc dung dch mui:
AgNO
3
,MnSO
4
, CuSO
4
? Hy vit phn ng di dng phng trnh ion rt gn nu c
Li gii.
a/ H
+
oxi ha c Mn, ngha l Mn c kh nng kh c H
+
:
+ +
+ +
2
2
2 H Mn H Mn
2
Mn
Mn
+
xp trc
2
2
H
H
+
trong dy in ha.
b/ Trong dy in ha ta c: Mn xp trc Cu , Ag Mn c tnh kh mnh hn. V
th xy ra c cc phn ng:
+ +
+ +
Cu Mn Cu Mn
2 2
( Cu bm trn l Mn)
+ +
+ +
Ag Mn Ag Mn 2
2
( Ag bm trn l Mn)
II.5.4.2. Xc nh tn kim loi.
1. c cng thc tng qut hp cht cha kim loi l:
( ( ) ( ) ( )
2 4 3 2 3
, , , , .....
x y n
m a b
M O RCl A SO B NO X CO ) sau tm khi lng nguyn t
ca kim loi (M, R, A, B, X,) ri suy ra kim loi .Thng gp hai trng hp:
- Trng hp 1: Bit ha tr kim loi cn tm, da vo d kin bi tp lp phng
trnh ton hc, tm khi lng nguyn t ca kim loi, suy ra tn kim loi .
- Trng hp 2: Khng bit ha tr kim loi cn tm, da vo d kin bi lp biu
thc lin h gia nguyn t khi (M) ca kim loi vi ha tr (n) ca kim loi .
Sau , bin lun M theo n (hay ngc li), tm cp nghim M, n hp l, suy ra tn kim
loi.
- 31 -

2. Bi tp vn dng. Nhng mt thanh kim loi M vo dung dch NiSO
4
sau mt thi
gian thy khi lng thanh kim loi gm 0,12g. Xc nh tn kim loi M. Bit M ha
tr II v s mol NiSO
4
hao ht 0,02mol. Tnh s gam kim loi tham gia phn ng.
Li gii
Phn ng: ( )
4 4
iSO 1 M N MSO Ni + +
mol 0,02 0,02 0,02 0,02
Theo bi, ta c:
0,12
0, 02 65:
59
M
M
= =

km (Zn)
Vy : m
Zn tham gia phn ng
= 65
II.5.4.3. Tng gim khi lng thanh kim loi
Nhng mt thanh kim loi A v dung dch mui ca kim loi B (cha ion B
n+
). Sau
mt thi gian ly thanh kim loi ra, ra nh, sy kh, cn th thy khi lng thanh kim
loi c th tng hoc gim.
1. Khi lng thanh kim loi tng: Th ta p dng phng trnh i s sau.


2. Khi lng thnh kim loi gim : Th ta p dng phng trnh i s sau:


3. Bi tp vn dng:Thanh km nng 5,2 gam c cho vo 100ml dung dch
CuSO
4
1M, sau mt thi gian, ly thanh km ra cn c 5,18 gam.Tnh khi lng Cu
bm vo thanh Zn.
Ta c: mol n
dau ban CuSO
1 , 0 1 1 , 0
4
= =
Phn ng:
a a a a mol
Cu ZnSO CuSO Zn + +
4 4

Ta c: 65a 64a = 5,2 - 5,18 a = 0,02 mol
Khi lng thanh Cu = 0,02 . 64 = 1,28 gam
M
kim loi tng
= m
kim loi gii phng
- m
kim loi tan
M
kim loi gim
= m
kim loi tan
- m
kim loi gii phng
- 32 -

II.5.5. Kim loi lin quan n s in phn.
Dng 1: in phn dung dch cc mui, Axit, baz
- Catot: Nu cation (
+ +
H M
n
; ) ng sau Al
3+
trong dy in ha ca kim loi, s kh
cho ra kim loi hoc H
2
.
Nu cation l Al
3+
hoc mt kim loi ng trc Al trong dy in ha ca kim loi
( .... ; ;
2+ + +
Ba Na K ) th nc s b kh cho ra H
2
v ion OH

+ + OH H e O H 2 2
2 2

- Anot: Nu ion l

X (X l halogen nh Cl, Br, I.) hoc OH


-
th s oxi ha cho ra
X
2
hoc O
2
:
2 2 2
1
2 2 2 2
2
Cl Cl e hay OH O H O e

+ + +
Nu anion l .... ; ;
2
4
2
4 3

PO SO NO th lc ny nc s b oxi ha cho ra O
2
v H
+

e H O O H 2 2
2
1
2 2
+ +
+

Dng 2: Trng hp c nhiu cation c th b kh bn catot
Cc cation ion b kh theo th t tnh oxi ha gim dn, ion bn phi (c tnh oxi ha
mnh nht) b kh trc ri n ion bn tri trong dy in ha ca kim loi.
Dng 3: Trng hp c nhiu anion b oxi ha bn anot:
Cht c tnh kh mnh nht s b oxi ha trc.
Dng 4: Dng cng thc Faraday tnh khi lng cc cht thot ra cc in cc:
n
AIt
m
96500
=
Bi tp vn dng: in phn c mng ngn in cc tr 100ml dung dch MgCl
2
0,5M vi cng dng in I = 0,1A vi thi gian 9650s. Tnh nng mol/l dung
dch mui sau phn ng.
Ta c: mol n
MgCl
015 , 0 15 , 0 1 , 0
2
= =
2 2
2 0.1 9650 0, 01
0, 01 0, 005
96500 2 96500 2
H H
AIt
m g n mol
n

= = = = =


- 33 -

Phn ng:
005 , 0 005 , 0
) ( ) ( 2
2 2 2 2 2
mol
dpdd H Cl OH Mg O H MgCl + + +

S mol MgCl
2
d = 0,015 0,005 = 0,01mol ; Vy: M C
MgCl M
1 , 0
1 , 0
01 , 0
) (
2
= =
II.5.6. Kim loi phn ng vi dung dch mui.
Dng 1: Mt kim loi y mt ion kim loi khc.
iu kin kim loi X y kim loi Y ra khi dung dch mui ca Y
- X phi ng trc Y trong dy in ha.
- Mui ca kim loi Y phi tan trong nc.
Dng 2: Cho mt kim loi X vo dung dch cha hai mui ca hai kim loi Y
n+
, v Z
m+
.
- n gin trong tnh ton, ta ch xt trng hp X ng trc Y v Z, ngha l kh
c c hai ion Y
n+
, v Z
m+
(Y ng trc Z)
- Do Z
m+
c tnh oxi ha mnh hn Y
n+
nn X phn ng vi Z
m+
trc:
+ +
+ +
qZ mX qZ mX
q m
(1) q l ha tr ca X.
Nu sau phn ng (1) cn d X th c phn ng: + +
+ +
qY nX qY nX
q n
(2)
Vy, cc trng hp xy ra sau khi phn ng kt thc:
+ Nu dung dch cha 3 ion kim loi (X
q+
;Y
n+
; Z
m+
) th khng c phn ng (2) xy ra,
tc l kim loi X ht v ion Z
m+
cn d:
+ Nu dung dch cha hai ion kim loi (X
q+
;Y
n+
) th phn ng (1) xy ra xong (tc ht
Z
m+
), phn ng (2) xy ra cha xong (d Y
n+
) tc X ht.
Bi tp p dng: Cho 0,387 gam hn hp (A) gm Zn v Cu vo dung dch c cha
0,005 mol Ag
2
SO
4
, khuy iu, ti phn ng hon ton thu c 1,144gam cht rn.
Tnh khi lng mi kim loi.
Li gii
Phn ng:
+ = +
+ = +
Ag CuSO SO Ag Cu
Ag ZnSO SO Ag Zn
2
2
4 4 2
4 4 2

- V tng s mol Zn v Cu nm trong gii hn.
- 34 -

0, 387 0, 387
0, 0059 0, 00604
65 64
hh hh
n n < < < <

hh
n ln hn 0,005mol, chng t Ag
2
SO
4
ht.
- Gi s Zn phn ng mt phn, Cu cha tham gia phn ng.Gi s mol Zn ban u l
x, s mol Zn phn ng l x

. Gi s mol Cu ban u l y. Khi lng thanh kim


loi tng.
108.2x

65.x

= 1,144 0,387 = 0,757 (g) 151x

= 0,757 x = 0,00501
S mol ny l hn 0,005mol, iu ny khng ph hp vi bi, do Zn phn ng
ht v x = x

.
- Zn phn ng ht, Cu tham gia phn ng mt phn.Gi s mol Cu tham gia phn ng
l y. Ta c phng trnh khi lng kim loi tng
108.2x 65x + 108.2y 64.y = 0,757 (1). Gii phng trnh (1) kt hp vi phng
trnh: x + y = 0,005 .Ta c:

=
=
002 , 0
003 , 0
y
x
: Vy m
Zn
= 0,003. 65 = 0,195 (gam)
m
Cu
= 0,387 0,195 = 0,192 (gam)
II.5.7. Kim loi tc dng vi dung dch axit.
II.5.7.1.Tc nhn oxi ha l ion H
+
trong axit.
Cc axit HCl, H
2
SO
4
long,anion gc axit ca chng khng c tnh oxi ha.
) 1 (
2
2
+ +
+ +
H
n
M nH M
n

Ch : Phn ng (1) xy ra khi kim loi M ng trc hiro trong dy hot ng ha
hc ca kim loi.
II.5.7.2. Tc nhn oxi ha l anion gc axit.
Anion ca cc axit (HNO
3
, H
2
SO
4(c, nng)
) oxi ha kim loi ch khng phi H
+
l tc
nhn oxi ha nn kh to thnh khng phi l kh hiro, m l sn phm kh ca anion.
- H
2
SO
4(c, nng)
c th b kh cho ra: SO
2
, S, H
2
S
- HNO
3
c th b kh cho ra : NO
2
, NO, N
2
, N
2
O, NH
4
NO
3

- 35 -

II.5.7.3. Bi tp vn dng.
Bi tp: Ha tan 62,1gam kim loi M trong HNO
3
long, cho 16,8 lt hn hp kh X
(ktc) gm hai kh khng mu, khng ha nu ngoi khng kh. C t khi hi so vi
khi H
2
l 17,2. Xc nh tn M? Tnh th tch dung dch HNO
3
2M, bit axit dng d
25% so vi lng cn thit.
Li gii
Hai kh khng mu do HNO
3
long sinh ra l N
2
v N
2
O.
Gi x,y ln lc l s mol ca N
2
v N
2
O. Theo bi ta c:

= = +
= =
+
+
75 , 0
4 , 22
8 , 16
4 , 34 2 2 , 17
44 28
y x
y x
y x

= +
= +

75 , 0
8 , 25 44 28
y x
y x

=
=

3 , 0
45 , 0
y
x

Phn ng: 10M + 12xHNO
3
= 10M(NO
3
)
x
+ xN
2
+ 6xH
2
O
Mol 4,5/x 5,4 0,45
8M + 10xHNO
3
= 8M(NO
3
)
x
+ xN
2
O + 5xH
2
O
Mol 2,4/x 3 0,3
x
x
M 9
69
1 , 62
= = nghim hp l l: x = 3, M = 27: Nhm (Al)
S mol HNO
3
dng d: 8,4 .25% = 2,1mol
tng s mol HNO
3
: 8,4 +2,1 = 10,5 mol
Vy th tch dung dch HNO
3
= ) ( 25 , 5
2
5 , 10
l =






- 36 -


CHNG III. MT S KT QU BAN U

III.1.Thc trng nm vng khi nim in Ha Hc trng Trung
Hc Ph Thng
III.1.1. iu Tra Thc Trng
Chng ti tin hnh iu tra 1 khi lp gm 2 lp 12 nng cao 12A
1
,12A
3
v 2
lp 12 ban c bn gm 12C
1
,12C
2
. trng THPT Lai Vung II.
III.1.1.1. Mc ch.
nh gi cht lng nm kin thc in ha hc ca hc sinh ph thng khi lp 12.
III.1.1.2. Tin Hnh.
1. Lp 12 nng cao.
Chng ti pht phiu iu tra xem xt tnh hnh nm kin thc phn in ha hc
ca hc sinh cc lp 12A
1
,12A
3
trng THPT Lai Vung II.
S lng phiu pht ra: 87 phiu, thu v 87 phiu, phiu gm 10 cu hi trc nghim,
mi cu c nhiu kin la chn.
a. Kt Qu.
Sau khi thng k s liu, kt qu thu c nh sau.( Xem ph lc 2)
Ngoi x l kt qu tng cu mt, chng ti cn cho im tng bi mt.Cch cho im
nh sau: Bi gm 10 cu hi trc nghim 10 im. Mi cu ng c 1 im.
Sau y l kt qu tng lp.
X
i
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
f
Xi
0 0 2 0 1 2 3 8 15 9 2 12A
1
% 0 0 4,76 0 2,4 4,76 7,14 19,05 35,7 21,43 4,76
f
Xi
0 0 0 0 1 3 8 10 11 10 2 12A
3

% 0 0 0 0 2,22 6,67 17,78 22,22 24,44 22,22 4,45


- 37 -

Trong : X
i
l im s.
f
Xi
l s ln xut hin ca im s.
Biu th hin t l hc sinh t cc mc im t
1 - 10 ca hc sinh hai lp 12A1 v 12A3
0
10
20
30
40
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
im
%
T l % hc sinh t im
lp 12A1
T l % hc sinh t im
lp 12A3

Hnh III.1. Biu din t l hc sinh t im ca hai lp 12A1 v 12A3
Sau khi thng k kt qu, t l xp loi nh sau:
- Loi yu : (0 4) : 4,59%
- Loi trung bnh : (5 6) : 18,39%
- Loi kh : (7 8) : 50,57%
- Loi gii : (9 10) : 26,45%
Biu din cc kt qu di dng biu .
Biu th hin t l xp loi hc lc ca hai lp
12A1 v 12A3
4.59
18.39
50.57
26.45
Loi yu
Trung bnh
Loi kh
Loi gii

Hnh III.2. T l xp loi hc lc ca hai lp 12A1 v 12A3
b. Nhn xt
Sau khi chm im tng cu, tng bi v thng k cc s liu, chng ti nhn thy a
s hc sinh lp 12 ban nng cao nm c mt s kin thc c bn v vn in ha
hc. Tuy nhin phn ln cc em cha nm su kin thc. T l hc sinh loi gii ch
- 38 -

chim 26,44%. Bn cnh vn cn mt s hc sinh mt cn bn v phn kin thc
ny. T l hc sinh loi yu chim 9,84%
Qua thng thng k kt qu tng cu hi chng ti rt ra nhng nhn xt sau :
- Hc sinh tr li kh tt cc cu 1(93,1%) ; cu 2 (88,5%); cu 5 (93,1%); cu 7
(77%); cu 9 (91,95%); cu 10 (94,25%) l cc cu hi lin quan n phn ng oxi ha
kh, dy hot ng ha hc ca kim loi, th ca pin.Tuy nhin vn cn mt s hc
sinh cha nm vng kin thc c bn ny, s hc sinh tr li sai cc cu 7, cu 9 t
(10% - 20%).
- Cc cu 4, cu 6, cu 8, hc sinh ch tr li c mc trn trung bnh (50% -
70%). Nh vy vn cn trn 30% hc sinh tr li sai, do cc em cha nm vng kin
thc v in phn, n mn kim loi v th ca pin.
- Khi vn dng l thuyt in ha vo vic gii cc bi tp tp th a s hc sinh lm
kh tt, tuy nhin mt s t hc sinh vn cn t ra lng tng.
2. Lp 12 Ban C Bn.
Chng ti cng pht phiu iu tra kin thc v in ha hc dnh ring cho hc
sinh lp 12 ban c bn. Phiu iu tra c pht cho 2 lp 12C
1
v 12C
2.
trng THPT
Lai Vung II.
S lng phiu pht ra l: 78 phiu, thu v 78 phiu, gm 10 cu hi trc nghim, mi
cu c nhiu kin la chn.
a. Kt qu.
Sau khi thng k s liu kt qu nh sau . (Xem ph lc 3)
Ngoi x l kt qu tng cu mt, chng ti cn cho im tng bi mt, cch cho im
nh sau: Bi 10 cu hi trc nghim 10 im. Mi cu ng c 1 im. Sau y
l kt qu tng lp:


- 39 -

X
i
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
f
Xi
0 0 5 5 6 8 9 4 2 12C
1
% 0 0 12,82 12,82 15,38 20,51 23,08 10,26 5,13
f
Xi
0 0 0 6 11 13 4 2 1 2 12C
2

% 0 0 0 15,38 28,21 33,33 10,26 5,13 2,56 5,13

Trong : X
i
l im s.
f
Xi
l s ln xut hin ca im s.
Biu din cc kt qu di dng biu .

Hnh III.3. Biu din t l hc sinh t im ca hai lp 12C1 v 12C2
Sau khi thng k kt qu, t l xp loi nh sau :
- Loi yu : (0 4) : 42,31%
- Loi trung bnh : (5 6) : 43,59%
- Loi kh : (7 8) : 11,54%
- Loi gii : (9 10) : 2,56%
Biu din cc kt qu di dng biu
- 40 -

Biu th hin t l xp loi hc lc ca hai lp
12C1 v 12C2
42.31
43.59
11.54
2.56
Loi yu
Trung bnh
Loi kh
Loi gii

Hnh III.4. T l xp loi hc lc ca hai lp 12C1 v 12C2
b. Nhn Xt.
Sau khi x l tng t nh lp 12 ban nng cao chng ti nhn thy hc sinh lp 12
ban c bn ca trng nm kin thc v in ha hc cha vng, t l hc sinh loi yu
chim ti 43,31%, cn t l hc sinh t loi kh 11,54%, gii 2,56%.
- Cc cu hc sinh tr li tng i tt l Cu 1(87,18%), Cu 2 (83,33%), Cu 4
(50%), Cu 6 (73,08%), Cu 8 (52,56%) l nhng cu c lin quan n cc vn nh:
Phn ng oxi ha kh, dy in ha, n mn kim loi, iu l nhng phn kin thc
cc em va hc.
- a s hc sinh tr li cha tt cc cu 3 (33,33%), cu 5(2,56%), cu 7(20,51%), cu
9 (20,51%), cu 10 (15,54%) l cc cu c lin quan n cc dng ton p dng phn
in ha hc nh: in phn, dy in ha, cc kin thc l thuyt v in phn....ng
thi qua kt qu ca cc cu ny chng ti nhn thy a s hc sinh cha nm vng
bn cht ca kin thc in ha hc, cc em ch nm c mt cch s si v ch bit
p dng vi nhng dng bi tp quen thuc cn nhng bi c tnh nh hu nh cc
em u khng lm c.




- 41 -

III.1.2. Nhn xt, nguyn nhn v gii php.
III.1.2.1. Nhn xt chung.
- a s hc sinh phn no nm c nhng kin thc c bn v in ha hc. Tuy
nhin, phn ln cc em cha nm tht chc v su kin thc, cc em thng ch ch
hiu bit vn mt cch s si.
- a s cc em ch tr li ng nhng vn lin quan n cc kin thc m cc em
gp thng xuyn.
lp 12 ban nng cao, hu ht hc sinh tr li rt tt cc vn v dy in ha, phn
ng oxi ha - kh. lp 12 ban c bn l cc vn v dy in ha, phn ng oxi
ha kh.
- i vi nhng cu hi c lin quan n phn kin thc v in phn, n mn kim
loi, hay vn dng cc kin thc in ha vo gii cc bi tp nh lng, th a s cc
hc sinh tr li vi t l ng rt thp, c bit l ban c bn. Do khi dy bi mi
gio vin cn phi ch thng xuyn n li nhng kin thc c c lin quan n bi
hc hc sinh khc su kin thc.
- lp 12 ban nng cao, vi chng trnh ci cch hin nay th kin thc in ha hc
c cp nht rt nhiu, a s l nhng vn mi do hc sinh t ra lng tng khi
gp phn kin thc ny. V d nh: Pin in ha, sc in ng, th in cc, in
phn....bn cnh mt s gio vin ch dy thong qua cha th khc su c kin
thc.
- Chng ti nhn thy mc nm vng kin thc in ha hc c s chnh lch gia
cc lp. c bit l ban c bn.
III.1.2. 2. Nguyn nhn v gii php.
1/ Nguyn nhn khch quan v nguyn nhn ch quan.
- Nguyn nhn khch quan.
in ha hc l phn kin thc kh kh, mang tnh khi qut, tru tng nn hc sinh
hiu mt cch cha y , mt khc y l khi nim c manh nha hc cui nm
- 42 -

lp 9 bc THCS (dy hot ng ha hc ca kim loi ), v n phn cui ca lp 12 n
mi c trnh bi mt cch y , v vy hc sinh mt ln khng th hiu ht c.
- Nguyn nhn ch quan.
Khi dy v phn kin thc in ha hc a s gio vin thng cha ch n vic s
dng cc phng tin trc quan nh: m hnh, hnh v, m hnh ha cc kin thc
gip hc sinh d hiu, d nh v nh lu. ng thi phn ln gio vin cng cha ch
n vic phi hp, s dng linh hot cc phng php ging dy, cha thng xuyn
n tp, cng c khc su kin thc cho hc sinh.
2/ Gii php.
- Trc ht gio vin phi nm tht chc kin thc chuyn mn. ng thi cng phi
s dng, phi hp linh hot cc phng php dy hc khc nhau nng cao hiu qu
ging dy, gip hc sinh hng th hc tp, khng b nhm chn khi phi hc mt s
lng ln kin thc nh hin nay.
- Gio vin phi cho hc sinh xem xt cc vn ca cc cht trn c s vn dng kin
thc in ha hc gii quyt.
- Khi dy phn l thuyt c s in ha gio vin cn ch ging tht k, nhn mnh
phn trng tm v khc su cc kin thc. Cho hc sinh gii thch r mu cht ca vn
lm c s lnh hi cc kin thc lin quan sau ny.
- Gio vin phi ch hnh thnh cho hc sinh cc kin thc hin i, va sc v ty
theo trnh ca mi hc sinh.
- Gio vin phi hng dn rn luyn cho hc sinh lm cc bi tp v vn lin quan
n kin thc in ha nh: Dy in ha, in Phn, n mn kim loi, Pin in ha.
- Trong qu trnh ging dy cc ban khc nhau gio vin cn ch trnh ca mi
hc sinh, kin thc in ha mi ban c trnh bi nhng mc khc nhau. T
iu chnh dy cho ph hp.

- 43 -

III.2. Thit k mt s gio n dy v phn in ha trng trung hc
ph thng
Da trn tnh hnh cc trng ph thng theo kt qu iu tra, chng ti thit k
mt s gio n khi ging dy cc bi v in ha hc. son cc gio n ny ti
da trn dn bi sch gio khoa, cc sch tham kho, sch bi tp v cc ti liu c lin
quan, ng thi ti cng tham kho kin ca gio vin ph thng, tham kho cc
gio n mu ca cc gio vin lu nm, nhiu kinh nghim.

GIO N HA HC 12 NNG CAO
BI:
DY IN HA CHUN CA KIM LOI

I. MC TIU BI HC:
1. Kin thc:
Bit :
Cc khi nim: cp oxi ha-kh ca kim loi, pin in ha, sut in ng v
th in cc.
Cu to ca pin in ha, s chuyn ng ca cc phn t mang in khi pin
in ha hot ng.
Cc phn ng ha hc xy ra catot v anot ca pin in ha.
Th in cc chun ca kim loi.
Hiu: Dy th in cc chun ca kim loi v ngha ca n.
2. K nng:
So snh tnh oxi ha ca cc ion kim loi, tnh kh ca cc kim loi gia cc
cp oxi ha kh.
Xc nh tn v du ca cc in cc trong pin in ha, tnh c sut in
ng ca pin in ha.
- 44 -

Tnh c th in cc chun ca mt s cp oxi hakh trong pin in ha
II. CHUN B:
Lp rp mt s pin in ha ZnCu, PbCu, ZnPb theo hnh 5.3 SGK.
Mt s tranh nh c v trc:
* S chuyn dch ca cc ion trong pin in ha ZnCu, hnh 5.6 SGK
* S cu to in cc hidro chun, hnh 5.7 SGK
* Th nghim xc nh th in cc chun ca cp Zn
2+
/Zn hnh 5.8 SGK.
* Th nghim xc nh th in cc chun ca cp Ag
+
/Ag, hnh 5.9 SGK
* Bng dy in ha chun ca kim loi (SGK). Tranh v mt s pin in ha.
III. Hot ng:
1. n nh lp:
2. K hoch ging dy : Tit 1: Phn I v II.
Tit 2: Phn III.
Tit 3: Phn IV v V.

HOT NG CA GV HOT NG CA HS
I. Khi nim v cp oxi ho kh
Hot ng 1.
Cu hi 1: Hon thnh phng trnh
ho hc v vit s qu trnh oxi
ho - kh ca phn ng:
a) Cu + AgNO
3

b) Fe + CuSO
4

* GV nu vn . C th biu din
cc qu trnh oxi ho kh theo cch
khc c khng?
Cp oxi ha kh l mt cp gm
I. Khi nim v cp oxi ho kh
Hc sinh ghi chp
Hon thnh phng trnh ho hc.
a) Cu + 2AgNO
3
Cu(NO
3
)
2
+ 2Ag
Cu Cu
2+
+ 2e
Ag
+
+ 1e Ag
b) Fe + CuSO
4
FeSO
4
+ Cu
Fe Fe
2+
+ 2e
Cu
2+
+ 2e Cu
hoc vit gp : Fe
2+
+ 2e Fe
Cu
2+
+ 2e Cu
- 45 -

cht oxiha v mt cht kh ca
cng 1 nguyn t ha hc
Cu hi 2: Xc nh cht oxi ho -
kh t rt ra nhn xt.
* GV a ra s tng qut v gii
thiu cp oxi ho - kh.


II. Pin in ho
Hot ng 2.
1. Khi nim v pin in ha, sut
in ng v th in cc:
GV tin hnh th nghim nh SGK
hoc m t th nghim (s dng s
pin in ho Zn-Cu) hnh 5.3. Nu c
iu kin dng phn mm m phng
pin in ho cho HS xem.

2. C ch pht sinh dng in:
- M t cu to ca pin, hot ng
ca pin, nhn xt v gii thch?


* GV dng s hnh 5.4, 5.5, 5.6
hoc dng phn mm m phng cho
HS xem v yu cu HS nhn xt, gii
thch s chuyn dch e in cc Zn,
Ag
+
+ 1e Ag
Cht oxi ha cht kh
Tng qut : M
n+
+ ne M
Dng oxi ha v dng kh ca cng mt
nguyn t to thnh cp oxi ha kh. Cc cp
oxi ha kh trn c vit nh sau:
Fe
2+
/Fe ; Cu
2+
/Cu ; Ag
+
/Ag.
Tng qut: M
n+
/M
II. Pin in ho
1. Khi nim v pin in ha, sut in
ng v th in cc
Hc sinh quan st hin tng th nghim
+ Kim loi tan vo dung dch
+ Sut in ng ca pin ha hc
E
pin
= 1,10 V
+ Mu ca cc dung dch cha CuSO
4
?
/v pin in ha Zn/Cu hnh 5.3 ta c:
) / ( ) / (
2 2
Zn Zn
o
Cu Cu
o
pin
o
E E E
+ +
=
2. C ch pht sinh dng in
Gii thch.
* in cc Zn (cc m) l ngun cung cp e,
Zn b oxi ho thnh Zn
2+
tan vo dung dch:
Zn Zn
2+
+ 2e
* in cc Cu (cc dng) cc e n cc Cu,
y cc ion Cu
2+
b kh thnh kim loi Cu
bm trn b mt l ng.
- 46 -

in cc Cu, cu mui tri, cu mui
phi.






- Vit phng trnh ion rt gn.


* GV yu cu HS vit cc cp oxi
ho-kh


* GV gii thiu quy tc


(3) Nhn xt
- GV yu cu HS nhn xt nng
ca cc ion trong dung dch mui
CuSO
4
v ZnSO
4
s tng gim nh
th no trong qu trnh in phn ?
Sut in ng E ca pin in ho
ph thuc vo yu t no?

Cu
2+
+ 2e Cu
* Cu mui tri: Cation NH
4
+
( hoc K
+
) di
chuyn sang cc ng dung dch CuSO
4

* Cu mui phi: Cc cation NO
3

di chuyn
sang cc ng dung dch ZnSO
4
. S di
chuyn ca cc ion ny lm cho cc dung
dch mui lun trung ho in.
* Phng trnh ion rt gn biu din qu
trnh oxi ho-kh xy ra trn b mt cc in
cc ca pin in ho:
Cu
2+
+ Zn Cu + Zn
2+
Ox Kh Kh. yu Ox yu
Zn Cu
Zn Cu
2+ 2+




3. Kt lun:
C s bin i nng cc ion Cu
2+
v
Zn
2+
trong
qu trnh hot ng ca pin. Cu
2+
gim, Zn
2+

tng
Nng lng ca phn ng oxi ha kh
trong pin in ha sinh ra dng in mt
chiu.
- 47 -

- GV yu cu HS cn c vo cc cp
pin cho trong SGK cho bit qu
trnh oxi ho kh din ra trong pin
Cu-Ag; Pb-Cu; Zn-Pb nh th no ?

III. Th in cc chun ca kim
loi
Hot ng 3 :
1. in cc hidro chun
- V sao cn phi xc nh th in
cc chun cho mi cp oxihakh?
- thng bo th in cc chun:
Dng hnh 5.7 xc nh

Cn phi xc nh th in cc cho
mi loi cp oxi ho- kh v vy dng
in cc chun so snh l in
cc hiro chun.








Nhng yu t nh hng n sut in
ng ca pin in ha nh:
* Nhit .
* Nng ca ion kim loi.
* bn cht ca kim loi lm in cc.
III. Th in cc chun ca kim loi
1. in cc hidro chun
HS xem hnh 5.7 v ghi
Ngi ta chp nhn mt cch quy c rng
th in cc ca in cc hidro chun bng
0,00V mi nhit
H
2
2H
+
+ 2e
V E H H
o
00 , 0
2
/ 2 =
+

HS tho lun theo nhm c i din trnh
by.
a. Cu to ca in cc hiro chun.
- in cc platin.
- in cc nhng vo dd axit H
+
1 M.
b. Cch xc nh th in cc chun hiro
chun.
- Cho dng kh H
2
c p =1 atm lin tc i qua
dd axit bt Pt hp th kh H
2
.
- Qui c th in cc hiro chun cp oxi
ho kh H
+
/H
2
l 0,00 V ; E
0
(H
+
/H
2
)= 0,00
V

- 48 -

2. Th in cc chun ca kim loi:
- HS dng hnh 5.8 trnh by nhng
ni dung ca th nghim xc nh th
in cc chun ca cp Zn
2+
/Zn ?
- Cch lp thit b xc nh th
in cc chun ca Zn?
Nhng phn ng ha hc xy ra
cc in cc khi pin ZnH hot ng?
Th in cc chun ca cp
Zn
2+
/Zn l 0,76V
Th in cc chun ca kim loi cn
o c c xc nh t bng sut
in ng ca pin to bi in cc
hidro chun v in cc chun ca
kim loi cn o.




Dng hnh 5.9 trnh by ni dung
th nghim xc nh th in cc
chun ca cp Ag
+
/Ag. Hot ng
dy v hc tng t trn.



2. Th in cc chun ca kim loi
Cch xc nh th in cc chun ca kim
loi
- Thit lp pin in ho gm: in cc chun
ca kim loi bn phi, in cc chun ca
hiro bn tri vn k hiu s in th ln
nht gia hai in cc chun. Nu in cc
kim loi l cc m E
0
<0, nu in cc kim
loi l cc dng E
0
>0.
* HS tr li:
- Hiro l in cc (+): 2H
+
+ 2e H
2

- Km l in cc ( ) : Zn Zn
2+
+2e
Zn + 2H Zn + H
2
2+ +
2e

* Vn k ch s 0,76 V.
Cho bit hiu s in th ln nht gia 2 in
cc chun ca cp Zn
2+
/Zn v H
+
/H
2
.
K hiu: E
0
(Zn
2+
/Zn)= 0,76 V.
* Xc nh th in cc chun cp Ag
+
/Ag
Cc phn ng xy ra:
Ag l cc dng (catot): Ag
+
+ e Ag
Hidro l cc m (anot) : H
2
2H
+
+ 2e
Phn ng xy ra trong pin:2Ag
+
+ H
2
2Ag
+ 2H
+




- 49 -

IV. Dy th in cc chun ca kim
loi: Nguyn tc sp xp cc cp
oxihakh ca kim loi trong dy
nh th no?
IV. Dy th in cc chun ca kim loi:
Dy th in cc chun ca kim loi l dy
sp xp cc kim loi theo th t tng dn th
in cc chun .


V. ngha ca dy th in cc
chun ca kim loi:
Hot ng 4:
1. So snh tnh oxihakh:
Quy lut ca dy?




2. Xc nh chiu ca phn ng
oxiha kh:
HS phn tch cc chi tit trong th
nghim xc nh chiu ca phn ng
gia 2 cp oxihakh Cu
2+
/Cu v
Ag
+
/Ag




Kt lun: Quy tc
V. ngha ca dy th in cc chun ca
kim loi:
1. So snh tnh oxihakh
M M
n
E /
0
+
cng ln th tnh oxiha ca cation
M
n+
cng mnh v tnh kh ca kim loi M
cng yu.
Ngc li th in cc chun ca kim loi
cng nh th tnh oxiha ca cation cng yu
v tnh kh ca kim loi cng mnh.
2. Xc nh chiu ca phn ng oxiha
kh
Hc sinh phn tch phn ng gia 2 cp
oxihakh :
Cu
2+
/Cu (E
0
= +0,34V) v Ag
+
/Ag ( E
0
=
+0,80V) thy:
Ion Cu
2+
c tnh oxi ha yu hn ion Ag
+
.
Kim loi Cu c tnh kh mnh hn Ag.
Cp oxihakh Cu
2+
/Cu c th in cc
chun nh hn ca cp oxiha kh Ag
+
/Ag.
Kt lun: Cation kim loi trong cp oxiha
K
+
/K
2,93
Na
+
/Na
2,71
Mg
2+
/Mg
2,37
Al
3+
/Al
1,66
Zn
2+
/Zn
0,76
Fe
2+
/Fe
0,44
Ni
2+
/Ni
0,26
Sn
2+
/Sn
0,14
Pb
2+
/Pb
0,13
2H
+
/H
2

0,00
Cu
2+
/Cu
+0,34
Ag
+
/Ag
+0,80
Au
3+
/Au
+1,50
- 50 -

Hc sinh tm hiu thm phn ng
gia 2 cp oxihakh : Mg
2+
/Mg v
2H
+
/H
2

Kt lun tng t trn.

3. Xc nh sut in ng chun
ca pin in ha: Hng dn HS
tnh sut in ng chun ca pin
in ha.
Th d: Sut in ng chun ca
pin in ha ZnCu:
E
0
pin
=
0
/
/
0
2
2
Zn Zn
Cu Cu E E
+
+

= 0,34V (0,76V)
= 1,10V
4. Xc nh th in cc chun ca
cp oxihakh:
Bit:
0
( )
0, 59
pin Ni Cu
E V

=
V V E
Cu Cu
34 , 0
0
/
2
+ =
+

Cc dng l cc Cu.
Th : =
+
0
/
2
Ni Ni
E +0,34V0,59V = 0,25V
kh c th in cc chun ln hn c th
oxiha c kim loi trong cp c th in
cc chun nh hn.
2Ag
+
+ Cu Cu
2+
+ 2Ag
Mg + 2H
+
Mg
2+
+ H
2

3. Xc nh sut in ng chun ca pin
in ha
Sut in ng chun ca pin in ha (E
0
pin
)
bng th in cc chun ca cc dng tr
i th in cc chun ca cc m. Sc in
ng ca pin in ha lun l s dng.



4. Xc nh th in cc chun ca cp
oxihakh
Ta c th xc nh c th in cc chun
ca cp oxi hakh khi bit sut in ng
chun ca pin in ha (E
0
pin
) v th in cc
chun ca cp oxi hakh cn li . Th d:
vi pin (Ni-Cu) ta c:
0 0
/
0
/
2 2
pin
Cu Cu Ni Ni
E E E =
+ +








GIO N 12 NNG CAO
- 51 -


BI:
S IN PHN.

I. MC TIU BI HC:
1. Kin thc: Bit s in phn l g?
Bit nhng ng dng ca s in phn trong cng nghip.
Hiu s chuyn dch ca cc ion trong qu trnh in phn: NaCl
nng chy, dung dch CuSO
4
vi in cc tr v in cc tan.
Hiu nhng phn ng ha hc xy ra trn cc in cc trong qu
trnh in phn v vit c phng trnh in phn.
2. K nng: Thc hin c mt s th nghim in phn n gin: pdd CuSO
4

vi anot tr v anot tan.
Bit xc nh tn cc in cc trong bnh in phn.
Vit c phng trnh ha hc ca phn ng xy ra trn cc in cc
v vit c phng trnh in phn.
Gii c cc bi ton lin quan n s in phn.
II. CHUN B: * Th nghim trc quan: Ha cht: dung dch CuSO
4
0,5M
Dng c: ng hnh ch U, nt cc in cc, ngun in mt chiu
cng vi bin tr, dy ni cc in cc.
* Mt s tranh v v s in phn.
III. HOT NG GING DY:
1. n nh lp:




- 52 -

2. Dy bi mi:
HOT NG CA GV HOT NG CA HS
I. KHI NIM :
Hot ng 1.
Cho HS xem s hnh 5.10 yu
cu HS m t bnh in phn, hot
ng ca bnh in phn?
Pt phn li: NaCl Na
+
+ Cl


Cc dng: 2Cl

(l) Cl
2
(k) + 2e
Cc m: 2Na
+
(l) + 2e 2Na
Phng trnh in phn:
2NaCl 2Na + Cl
2

Ch phn bit cc ca pin in
ho v cc ca bnh in phn.
GV b sung cc thng tin.
T yu cu HS rt ra kt lun v
s in phn.

I. KHI NIM
* Thit b in phn gm c:
- Bnh in phn
- 2 in cc.
Cc m v cc dng; ant c ni vi cc (+)
ca ngun in mt chiu; catot c ni vi
cc (-) ca ngun in mt chiu.
* Hot ng ca bnh in phn:
Khi c dng in mt chiu chy qua trn in
cc dng (anot) xy ra s oxi ho, trn in
cc m (catot) xy ra s kh.
Nu khi nim.
S in phn l qu trnh oxi ha kh xy ra trn
b mt cc in cc khi c dng in mt chiu
i qua cht in li nng chy hoc dung dch
cht in li.
II. S IN PHN CC CHT
IN LI
Hot ng 2.
S dng phng php m thoi.
GV yu cu HS.
- Cho bit cc ion di chuyn trong
dd nh th no ?
- Phng trnh in phn v s
in phn c biu din nh th
II. S IN PHN CC CHT IN LI
1. S in phn NaCl nng chy.
Khi c dng in mt chiu chy qua.
Cc dng (anot) din ra s oxi ha.
Cc m (catot) din ra s kh.
Qu trnh oxi ho-kh c biu din

pnc
- 53 -

no ?
- p MgCl
2
nng chy tng t
NaCl nng chy
Hot ng 5
2. S in phn dd CuSO
4
:
a) in phn dd CuSO
4
vi cc
in cc tr ( graphit)
Tho lun phiu hc tp s 4
Cu hi 1: Cu to ca bnh in
phn.
Cu hi 2: Hot ng ca bnh in
phn v hin tng xy ra trong
qu trnh in phn.

Cu hi 3: Gii thch
* Khi c dng in mt chiu chy
qua cc ion trong dd dch chuyn
nh th no ?
* Cc qu trnh oxi ho-kh din ra
cc in cc nh th no ? (xt
th in cc chun).






Na
+
+ 1e Na 2Cl
-
-2e Cl
2

Phng trnh in phn

2
2 2
dpnc
NaCl Na Cl +
2. S in phn dd CuSO
4
:
a) in phn dd CuSO
4
vi cc in cc tr
( graphit)
* Bnh in phn l ng ch U, 2 in cc bng
graphit, mt in cc m v mt in cc
dng, dd cht in phn l CuSO
4
.
* Khi cho dng in mt chiu i qua (c hiu
in th 1,3 V) c hin tng:
- catot: kim loi Cu bm vo in cc.( cc
m)
- anot: Bt kh O
2
thot ra. ( cc dng )
* Khi to nn mt in th gia hai in cc,
cc ion SO
4
2-
di chuyn v anot. Cc ion Cu
2+
di
chuyn v catot.
* Catot c th xy ra s kh ion Cu
2+
hoc
H
2
O.
Xt th in cc chun:
E
0
(Cu
2+
/Cu) = 0,34 V; E
0
(H
2
O/H
2
)= - 0,83 V.
Nh vy ion Cu
2+
c tnh oxi ho mnh hn cc
phn t H
2
O. V vy y xy ra s kh cc ion
Cu
2+
thnh Cu bm trn catot:
Cu
2+
+ 2e Cu
* anot: C th xy ra s oxi ho cc ion SO
4
2-

hoc H
2
O.
- 54 -








* Vit s in phn.



* Vit phng trnh in phn.

b/ in phn dd CuSO
4
vi anot
ng (anot tan) :
Th nghim c m t nh hnh
5.12. Hng dn hc sinh gii thch
hin tng.








Xt th in cc chun
E
0
(H
2
O/ O
2
) = -0,83 V; E
0
(SO
4
2-
/H
2
O) = 1,70
V.
Nh vy H
2
O c tnh kh mnh hn cc ion
SO
4
2-
nn H
2
O d b oxi ha sinh ra kh O
2

anot:
2H
2
O O
2
+ 4 H
+
+ 4e
* Cc (-) CuSO
4
Cc (+)
(H
2
O)
Cu
2+
, H
2
O H
2
O, SO
4
2-

Cu
2+
+ 2e Cu 2H
2
O O
2
+ 4 H
+
+ 4e
Phng trnh in phn
dd
4 2 2 2 4
2 uSO 2 2 2
dp
C H O Cu O H SO + + +
b/ in phn dd CuSO
4
vi anot ng (anot
tan)
Hc sinh quan st th nghim v nhn xt:
Anot tan ht, catot kh kim loi Cu bm vo
anot (+) Nguyn t Cu b oxi ha thnh ion
Cu
2+
i vo dung dch: Cu
(r)
Cu
2+

(dd)
+ 2e.
Anot dn dn b ha tan.
catot ( ) ion Cu
2+
bi kh thnh Cu bm trn
b mt catot: Cu
2+

(dd)
+ 2e Cu
(r)
Phng trnh in phn:
Cu
(r)
+ Cu
2+

(dd)
Cu
2+

(dd)
+ Cu (r)

Anot Catot
- 55 -

III. NG DNG CA S IN
PHN
Hot ng 6
GV cho HS nghin cu SGK trnh
by ng dng ca s in phn.

Hot ng 7
Tng kt bi hc, ra bi tp v nh.
III. NG DNG CA S IN PHN
1. iu ch kim loi.
2. iu ch mt s phi kim (H
2
; O
2
...)
3. iu ch mt s loi hp cht (KMnO
4
,
NaOH, H
2
O, nc giaven...)
4. Tinh ch mt s kim loi: Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Ag,
Au...
5. M in...























- 56 -

GIO N 12 C BN
BI:
IU CH KIM LOI
I. Mc tiu ca bi hc.
1. Kin thc.
Bit nguyn tc chung v iu ch kim loi.
Hiu cc phng php c vn dng iu ch kim loi. Mi phng php
thch hp vi s iu ch nhng kim loi no. Dn ra c nhng phn ng ho
hc v iu kin ca phn ng iu ch nhng kim loi c th.
2. K nng
Bit gii cc bi ton iu ch kim loi, trong c bi ton iu ch kim loi
bng phng php in phn khng hoc c s dng nh lut Faraay.
II. Chun b
Bng Dy in ho chun ca kim loi, Bng tun hon cc nguyn t ho hc.
HS xem li Bi 16 nh.
III. Hot ng dy hc

Hot ng ca gio vin Hot ng ca hc sinh
Hot ng 1
GV thng bo, trong t nhin ch c mt
s t kim loi tn ti trng thi t do,
nh Au, Pt, Hg ... Hu ht cc kim loi
khc u di dng cc hp cht ho hc
(oxit, mui)., kim loi tn ti dng ion
dng.
GV t cu hi, nguyn tc iu ch kim
I. NGUYN TC IU CH KIM
LOI.
Thc hin s kh :
M
n+
+ ne M



- 57 -

loi l g ? Bng cch no c th chuyn
nhng ion kim loi thnh kim loi t do ?
Hot ng 2.
C s khoa hc ca phng php nhit
luyn iu ch kim loi l g ?
- Dn ra mt s kim loi c iu ch
bng phng php nhit luyn, vit
phng trnh phn ng ho hc, iu
kin ca nhng phn ng ny l g ?
- Nhng kim loi no thng c iu
ch bng phng php nhit luyn ?
Hot ng 3. GV hng dn HS
nghin cu SGK :
- C s ca vic iu ch kim loi bng
phng php thu luyn l g ?





- Dn th d v vit phng trnh phn
ng ho hc.




II. PHNG PHP IU CH KIM
LOI
1. phng php nhit luyn
- C s: Kh nhng ion kim loi trong
oxit nhit cao bng cc cht kh
nh: C, CO, H
2
hoc Al, KL kim, KL
kim th
- V d:

0
0
2 3 2
2 2
3 2 3
t
t
Fe O CO Fe CO
PbO H Pb H O
+ +
+ +

- Dng trong CN, iu ch nhng kim
loi hot ng trung bnh.
2.Phng php thu luyn
- HS nu:
Dng ho cht thch hp nh H
2
SO
4
,
NaOH, NaCN tch hp cht ca kim
loi ra khi qung. Sau dng cht kh
kh ion kim loi thnh kim loi t do
- Th d:
Dng Fe kh ion Cu
2+
trong dd mui
ng
Fe + CuSO
4
FeSO
4
+ Cu

2 2
Fe Cu Fe Cu
+ +
+ +
- 58 -

- Phng php thu luyn c dng
iu ch nhng kim loi no ?
Hot ng 4.
- C s ca phng php in phn iu
ch kim loi l g ?
- Nhng kim loi no c th c iu
ch bng phng php in phn ?


C my loi in phn.?













- Phng php nydng iu ch kim
loi yu.
3. Phng php in phn.
HS tr li:
Phng php in phn dng nng lng
ca dng in gy ra s bin i ho
hc, l phn ng oxi ho - kh.
- Phng php in phn c th iu ch
c nhng kim loi hot ng mnh
nh: K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al..
a/ in phn nng chy
V d: in phn Al
2
O
3
nng chy
Catot (cc m):
3
3 Al e Al
+
+
Anot (cc dng):
2
2
2 4 O O e

+
Phng trnh in phn:
2 3 2
2 4 3
dpnc
Al O Al O +
b/ in phn dung dch
c th c dung iu ch kim loi
hot ng trung bnh hoc yu bng cch
in phn mui ca chng.
V d: in phn dung dch CuCl
2

iu ch Cu.
Catot:
2
2 Cu e Cu
+
+
Anot:
2
2 2 Cl Cl e

+
- 59 -



- Dn th d iu ch kim loi hot ng
trung bnh bng phng php in
phn,th d iu ch Zn (nguyn liu,
trng thi,s v phng trnh
in phn).



- Gio vin trnh bi nh lut Faraday
Hot ng 5. Cng c bi hc.
* GV cng c bi hc bng cch cho HS
lm mt s bi tp sau :
Bi tp 1 trong SGK.
Bi tp c dn lm th d trong
Phng trnh in phn:
dd
2 2
dp
CuCl Cu Cl +
- Th d: S in phn dung dch
ZnSO
4

Cc (-)
Zn
2+
, H
2
O
ZnSO
4

(dd)
Cc (+)
SO
4
2-
, H
2
O
Zn
2+
+2eZn
2H
2
O4H
+
+O
2
+ 4e
Phng trnh in phn:
2 ZnSO
4
+ H
2
O 2 Zn + 2 H
2
SO
4
+ O
2

III. NH LUT FARADAY
- Cng thc: Error! Objects
cannot be created from editing field
codes.







- 60 -

PHN III. KT LUN V XUT
I. KT LUN
Vic ging dy ni dung kin thc in ha hc cho hc sinh trng ph thng l ht
sc quan trng v cn thit. Sau mt thi gian nghin cu v thc hin, kha lun ny
hon thnh nhng vn sau:
- Nghin cu c s l lun cc vn in ha hc trong chng trnh ha hc ph
thng.
- Nghin cu h thng ha nhng kin thc v in ha hc trng trung hc ph
thng.
- Nghin cu cu trc chng trnh cc bi dy chng trnh trung hc ph thng.
- Phn tch s hnh thnh khi nim in ha hc t bc trung hc c s n trung hc
ph thng thy y l phn kin thc quan trng cn phi nm vng.
- Tin hnh iu tra mc nm kin thc in ha hc ca hc sinh khi lp 12,
gm 2 ban: ban nng cao v ban c bn vi 4 lp: 2 lp 12 ban nng cao v 2 lp 12
ban c bn trng THPT Lai Vung II. Sau khi x l kt qu v thng k s liu, ti
c nhn xt sau:
+ Hc sinh nm c phn no kin thc c bn v in ha hc tuy nhin cha nm
vng mt cch chc chn v nhng vn bn cht ca in ha hc.
+ Phn ln hc sinh cn t ra lng tng khi p dng l thuyt in ha hc vo phn
bi tp.
Sau khi tm hiu c s l lun v iu tra tnh hnh nm kin thc ca hc sinh v phn
kin thc in ha hc, ti mnh dng a ra mt s nhn xt v gii php nhm
nng cao hiu qu ging dy phn kin thc ny. ng thi ti cng thit k mt s
gio n c lin quan n kin thc v in ha ha hc trng THPT ca khi lp
12.

- 61 -

II. XUT V KIN NGH
gip cho vic ging dy mn ha hc, c bit l vic hnh thnh v pht trin kin
thc c bn m c th y l kin thc in ha hc t hiu qu cao ti xin c mt
s kin ngh sau:
- i vi ni dung chng trnh ha hc ph thng hin nay, khi lng kin thc a
vo chng trnh l kh nhiu nhng thi gian ln lp li qu t nn gio vin khng c
thi gian luyn tp, m rng kin thc cho hc sinh. V th, cn phi tng thm thi
gian ln lp (s tit).
- Gio vin cn nn cho hc sinh nghin cu, xem xt cc vn ca kin thc trn
nhiu kha cnh khc nhau, kt hp vi nhng l thuyt trc c hc.
- i vi lnh o nh trng i hc, em xin c mt s ngh sau:
+ Tng cng tit tp ging sinh vin c th ging dy tt c cc bi trong chng
trnh THPT. Trong cc tit , gio vin nn gp phng php ging dy ca tng
bi, tng phn cho sinh vin.
+ T chc cc bui nghe bo co kinh nghim ca cc gio vin trng trung hc ph
thng v phng php ging dy cc ni dung kh, tru tng chng hn nh: Pin in
ha, th in ha, sut in ng, in phn in cc tan..nhm gip cho sinh vin
c thm kinh nghim khi vo ngh.
- i vi gio vin ang ging dy trng trung hc ph thng hay cc sinh vin cn
ang ngi trong gh nh trng u cn phi lun lun trao di kin thc chuyn mn
ca mnh mt cch vng chc nht, t kt hp vi cc phng php dy hc thch
hp truyn t kin thc cho hc sinh mt cch tt nht.
- Trong thi gian gn y, ng dng cng ngh thng tin trong dy hc ha hc ang
c s dng mt cch rng ri. V th bn than mi gio vin, sinh vin u phi lun
tm ti, hc hi, m mang tri thc ca mnh, tip cn vi cng ngh hin i ca khoa
hc k thut phc v cho vic ging dy ca mnh c tt nht.