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M AU 1. Ly do chon e tai: Xuat phat t muc tieu ao tao cua trng pho thong va vai tro cua hoa hoc trong s nghiep cong nghiep hoa hien ai hoa at nc, ta co the khang nh rang mon hoa hoc trong trng pho thong la mot bo mon het sc quan trong. No cung cap cho hoc sinh nhng tri thc hoa hoc pho thong tng oi hoan chnh cac moi quan he qua lai gia cong nghe hoa hoc, moi trng va con ngi. Nhng tri thc nay rat quan trong giup hoc sinh co nhan thc khoa hoc ve the gii vat chat, gop phan phat trien nang lc nhan thc khoa hoc ve the gii vat chat, gop phan phat trien nang lc nhan thc va nang lc hanh ong, hnh thanh nhan cach ngi lao ong mi nang ong sang tao. bac THCS mon hoa hoc cung cap cho hoc sinh nhng kien thc pho thong c ban ve tnh chat va ng dung cac loai chat quan trong nhat. Trong giai oan khoa hoc phat trien nh ngay nay, chng trnh hoa hoc cung c xay dng vi noi dung kien thc mi. Nhieu van e khoa hoc trong sach giao khoa mi, c trnh bay theo phng phap nghien cu tm toi tng phan. ac biet oi vi chng trnh THCS viec nghien cu cac hoc thuyet hoa hoc c ban tang cng mc o ly thuyet chu ao la van e het sc quan trong. Cac kien thc nay se lam c s ly thuyet chu ao cho viec nghien cu cac chat va bien oi chung trong chng tnh hoa hoc sau nay. Do o viec Nghien cu s hnh thanh cac khai niem hoa hoc c ban trong chng trnh hoa hoc THCSse gop phan rat ln vao cong tac giang day cua GV. Giup GV co nhng phng phap va hnh thc giang day tch cc am bao phat huy cao o tnh t giac cua HS phat trien tnh hng thu hoc tap, hnh thanh niem tin va pham chat ao c cho hoc sinh. o la ly do toi chon e tai nay.

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2. Muc tieu cua e tai: He thong cac khai niem c ban trong chng trnh hoa hoc THCS. 3. Nhiem vu nghien cu : - Tm hieu noi dung SGK hoa hoc lp 8,9. - Nghien cu c s ly luan cua s phat trien cac khai niem hoa hoc. - Nghien cu s hnh thanh va phat trien cac khai niem hoa hoc. 4. Phng phap ngien cu : Phng phap nghien cu ly thuyet: nghien cu SGK lp 8,9. 5. Khach the, oi tng nghien cu : - Cac khai niem hoa hoc. - Chng trnh SGK hoa hoc pho thong. 6. Gia thuyet khoa hoc : Viec nghien cu s hnh thanh cac khai niem hoa hoc c ban trong chng trnh hoa hoc THCS se giup giao vien co nhng nh hng ung an trong cong tac giang day, lam tang tnh hng thu hoc tap, nham phat huy toi a tnh tch cc chu ong, sang tao cua hoc sinh. 7. Lch s van e : Viec nghien cu S hnh thanh khai niem hoa hoc c ban trong chng trnh THCS c cac soan gia: GS TSKH.Nguyen Cng, TS.Nguyen Manh Dung e cap en trong cac giao trnh: Phng phap day hoc hoa hoc(tap 2).

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Chng 1 C S LY LUAN CUA VIEC HNH THANH KHAI NIEM HOA HOC C BAN
1.1. Khai quat va he thong kien thc hoa hoc pho thong: 1.1.1. Nhiem vu mon hoc trong trng pho thong: 1.1.1.1. Nhiem vu giang day hoa hoc trong trng pho thong: - Tm hieu nhng c s khoa hoc: nhng khai niem, nh luat, hoc thuyet hoa hoc, nhng s kien hoa hoc quan trong can thiet e nhan thc the gii vat chat. - Trang b nhng kien thc ky thuat tong hp: phng phap phan tch, so sanh, khai quat hoa, he thong hoa. - Hnh thanh phng phap nghien cu khoa hoc: phng phap phan tch, so sanh, khai quat hoa, he thong hoa, - Hnh thanh ky nang lam viec: s dung thiet b, dung cu hoa hoc, giao duc y thc an toan trong th nghiem, 1.1.1.2. Giao duc ao c cach mang, pham chat cong dan: - Giao duc y thc san sang tham gia lao ong san xuat co ky thuat, nang suat, co ch hng, tinh than trach nhiem lao ong sang tao. - Coi trong thc hanh th nghiem hoa hoc trong giang day. - To chc tham gia san xuat, thc tap trong nha may x nghiep, cong trng, 1.1.2. He thong kien thc c ban cua hoa hoc pho thong: - He thong cac kien thc ve nguyen to hoa hoc: nguyen t, phan t, - He thong cac kien thc ve phan ng hoa hoc: phan ng toa nhiet, phan ng hoa hp, phan ng phan huy, phan ng oxi hoa kh, phan ng the, phan ng trung hoa,

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- He thong cac kien thc ve chat: n chat, hp chat, kim loai, phi kim, chp chat vo c, hp chat hu c, - He thong cac kien thc ve cau tao cac chat va nh luat hoa hoc: thuyet nguyen t - phan t, thuyet cau tao chat, thuyet ien li, thuyet electron, nh luat bao toan khoi lng, nh luat bao toan electron, - He thong cac kien thc co phng phap nghien cu khoa hoc: tnh chat hoa hoc chung cua cac chat vo c hu c, mot so chat vo c hu c cu the, khai quat hoa thanh tnh chat hoa hoc chung cua moi chat. - He thong cac kien thc ve ky thuat tong hp: phan bon hoa hoc, dau mo kh thien nhien, nhien lieu, cong nghiep silicat, - He thong cac kien thc co tnh chat the gii quan: hoa hoc va van e phat trien kinh te, van e xa hoi, van e moi trng, 1.1.3. S o qua trnh hnh thanh he thong khai niem c ban ve hoa hoc : - Nhom 1: S phat trien cua nhng quan iem ly thuyet v cu to cht t mc n gin nht n thuyt cu to nguyen t va thuyt cu to hoa hc. - Nhom 2: Qua trnh hnh thanh nhng khai niem c ban ve chat va nguyen to hoa hoc. - Nhom 3: Qua trnh hnh thanh nhng khai niem ve phan ng hoa hoc.

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S o qua trnh hnh thanh he thong khai niem c ban ve hoa hoc: Nhom 1 Nhom 2 Nhom 3 Chat Chat tinh khiet- Hon hp
Thuyet nguyen t Hien tng hoa hoc

(Phan ng hoa hoc) Nguyen t Nguyen to hoa hoc Kim loai n chat Hp chat
Phi kim

Thuyet nguyen t Phan t nh luat bao toan khoi lng

Phan t Cong thc hoa hoc. Hoa tr Phng trnh hoa hoc Oxit- Oxi- Khong kh Hiro Nc Dung dch S phan loai cac hp chat hu c
Oxit Axit- Baz - Muoi Phan ng trao oi Phan ng trung hoa Phan ng oxi hoa kh S oxi hoa Phan ng hoa hp Phan ng phan huy Phan ng the Phan ng oxi hoa kh

Thuyet cau tao nguyen t nh luat tuan hoan Thuyet cau tao phan t (lien ket hoa hoc). nh luat Avogaro

Kim loai - Phi kim Nhom VII - Halogen Nhom VI - Oxi - Lu huynh Nhom V - Nit - Photpho Nhom I - Kim loai kiem Nhom II - Kiem tho Nhom III - Nhom
Toc o phan ng. Can bang hoa hoc

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Nhom VIII Sat


Phan ng cong, the, este hoa, Thuyet cau tao hoa hoc

Hoa hoc hu c

trung hp, trung ngng

1.2. He thong ly thuyet trong chng trnh hoa hoc pho thong: 1.2.1. Cac thuyet quan trong cua chng trnh hoa hoc pho thong: 1.2.1.1. Thuyet nguyen t phan t: - La c s ly thuyet cua giai oan au nghien cu hoa hoc. - Cac khai niem nen tang c ban cua hoc thuyet nay eu da tren c s thc nghiem khoa hoc tao tien e cho viec trnh bay ly thuyet chu ao cua chng trnh THPT. 1.2.1.2. Thuyet electron: - Nghien cu hoc thuyet cau tao nguyen t lien ket hoa hoc. - Noi dung c ban cua hoc thuyet electron e nghien cu s phu thuoc cua tnh chat cac chat vao cac n chat va hp chat hoa hoc. 1.2.1.3. Ly thuyet ve phan ng hoa hoc: Noi dung ban chat cua phan ng hoa hoc c nghien cu sau va c giai thch bang s pha v lien ket gia cac nguyen t trong phan t cac chat tham gia phan ng e tao thanh lien ket mi e tao ra phan t mi. 1.2.1.4. Thuyet cau tao cac hp chat hu c: - Noi dung bat au t cac noi dung c ban cua thuyet Butlerop, m rong quan iem cua thuyet electron va cau truc khong gian. - Nghien cu cau truc cua cac loai hp chat hu c, la c s giai thch cac chat hu c, anh hng gia cac chat nguyen t trong phan t. 1.2.1.5. Thuyet ien ly: - Noi dung nghien cu ve c che, quy luat phan ng cac chat ien ly. - Thuyet nay a ra kha nang giai thch s phu thuoc tnh chat cua cac ien ly vao thanh phan va cau tao cua chung theo quan iem cua thuyet proton. 1.2.2. Cac nh luat hoa hoc c ban:

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1.2.2.1. nh luat thanh phan khong oi: - Nghien cu thanh phan nh lng ve cau truc phan t cac chat la c s e xac nh cac nguyen to hoa hoc tao nen phan t cac chat. - So nguyen t cua cac nguyen to co trong thanh phan cac chat la c s e bieu dien mo ta cac chat bang ky hieu, cong thc hoa hoc cac chat. 1.2.2.2. nh luat bao toan khoi lng: - Nghien cu quy luat bao toan khoi lng cac chat trong phan ng hoa hoc, qua trnh bien oi van ong cua vat chat. - Lam c s cho viec tnh toan nh lng cac chat trong phan ng hoa hoc, khoi lng cac chat c bao toan ch thay oi cau tao, sap xep lai cac nguyen t e tao chat mi. 1.2.2.3. nh luat Avogadro: - Xac nh the tch mot phan t chat kh trong ieu kien chuan. - nh luat giup nghien cu nh lng qua trnh bien oi chat kh trong ieu kien chuan va trong ieu kien khac theo phng trnh trang thai cua chat kh. I.2.2.4. nh luat tuan hoan cac nguyen to hoa hoc: - Nghien cu qui luat bien oi tuan hoan tnh chat cac nguyen to, cac hp chat trong chu ky, nhom cua cac nguyen to hoa hoc. - nh hng cao s nghien cu thc nghiem cac chat va hnh thanh ky nang d oan khoa hoc trong hoc tap hoa hoc. - Cac thuyet nh luat hoa hoc gi vai tro c s ly thuyet cho toan bo chng trnh s nghien cu ly thuyet nh luat co gia tr phng phap luan va quan trong tat ca cac giai oan cua s tong ket, khai quat hoa kien thc tao ieu kien phat trien t duy ly thuyet, mot phng phap nhan thc hoc tap c ban cua bo mon hoa hoc. 1.3. Cau truc cua chng trnh hoa hoc trng pho thong: 1.3.1. Cau truc chung: 1.3.1.1. Cau truc chng trnh hoa hoc pho thong: - Chat. Nguyen t. Phan t

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- Phan ng hoa hoc - Mol va tnh toan hoa hoc. - Oxi. Khong kh. - Hiro. Nc. - Dung dch va nong o dung dch. - Cac loai hp chat vo c: oxit, axit, baz, muoi. - Kim loai va phi kim: sat, nhom, clo, cacbon, silic. S lc ve he thong tuan hoan cac nguyen to hoa hoc. - Hp chat hu c: cau tao phan t hp chat hu c, nhng hp chat hu c quan trong nhat trong i song va san xuat. - Cau tao nguyen t. He thong tuan hoan cac nguyen to hoa hoc. - Lien ket hoa hoc. nh luat tuan hoan Meneleep. - Phan ng oxi hoa - kh - Nhom halogen. - Oxi, lu huynh. L thuyet ve phan ng hoa hoc. - S ien li. - Nit. Photpho. - Hoa hoc hu c. ai cng ve hoa hoc hu c. Hirocacbon no. Hirocacbon khong no. Hirocacbon thm. Nguon hirocacbon trong thien nhien. RuPhenol- Amin. Anehit-Axit cacbonxilic- Este. Glixerin -Lipit. Gluxit. Aminoaxit va protit. Hp chat cao phan t va vat lieu polime. - ai cng ve kim loai. - Sat. Hp kim sat. Hoac: Crom, sat, ong. - Phan tch hoa hoc. - Hoa hoc va cac van e kinh te, xa hoi, moi trng. 1.3.1.1. Phan loai cau truc chng trnh hoa hoc pho thong a) Hoa hoc ai cng:

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He thong cac khai niem c ban, hoc thuyet, nh luat hoa hoc: Cau tao nguyen t, nh luat tuan hoan cac nguyen to hoa hoc, lien ket hoa hoc, phan ng hoa hoc, toc o phan ng, can bang hoa hoc, thuyet ien ly, thuyet cau tao hoa hoc, ly thuyet ve axit baz, ai cng ve kim loai, ai cng ve hoa hoc hu c. b) Hoa hoc vo c: Nghien cu cac nhom nguyen to, nguyen to ien hnh va cac hp chat co nhieu ng dung quan trong bao gom cac nhom : nhom halogen, nhom oxi, nhom nit, nhom cacbon, nhom kim loai kiem, kim loai kiem tho, nhom, crom, sat, ong, khai quat ve nhom, cac nguyen to trong nhom, mot so hp chat cua chung. c) Hoa hoc hu c: Nghien cu cac hp chat hu c cu the, mot so day ong ang hoac loai hp chat hu c tieu bieu bao gom cac hidro cacbon, nhom chc, nhng hp chat tieu bieu nh: - Ankan, anken, ankin, ankadien, aren. - Ancol, phenol, amin, andehit, xeton, axit cacboxylic, este, lipit. - Glucoz, saccaroz, tinh bot, xenluloz, protein, polime, vat lieu polyme. 1.3.2. Nhng khai niem c bn ca hoa hoc pho thong: 1.3.2.1. Nhng nhom khai niem trong chng trnh THPT: - Khai niem ve cau tao nguyen t, nguyen to hoa hoc, nh luat tuan hoan va he thong tuan hoan. - Nhng khai niem chung va tru tng phan anh ac tnh cua cac nguyen to nh: o am ien, hoa tr, so oxi hoa, - Nhng khai niem ve cau tao chat: lien ket hoa hoc, cau tao mang tinh the, - Nhng khai niem ve chat cu the: cac loai chat, nhng tnh chat cua no, - Nhng khai niem ve phan ng hoa hoc, ve tng phan ng rieng re ve phan loai phan ng, ve nhng nh luat hoa hoc chi phoi s tac dung tng ho va nhng bien hoa cua cac chat trong cac phan ng hoa hoc ve ly thuyet phan ng.

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- Nhng khai niem ve ng dung thc tien quan trong co tnh chat ky thuat tong hp cua hoa hoc phuc vu cho cuoc song, san xuat va trong khoa hoc ky thuat. - Nhng khai niem ve day ong ang chat hu c. - Nhng khai niem ve hp chat hu c co nhom chc va nhng moi lien quan dan xuat cua cac chat. - Nhng khai niem ve phng phap nghien cu khoa hoc ac trng cho hoa hoc : viec th nghiem, phan tch, nhan biet cac chat, tach chat, 1.3.2.2. Nhng khai niem hoa hoc c ban cua chng trnh THCS: - Mot so khai niem c ban va nh luat hoa hoc c ban : + Chat, nguyen t, phan t, cong thc hoa hoc, phng trnh hoa hoc, mol, phan ng hoa hoc, dung dch, nong o dung dch, o tan. + nh luat bao toan khoi lng. + Mot so khai niem m au ve chat hu c, hoa hoc hu c, cau tao phan t cac hp chat hu c. - Mot so nguyen to va chat hoa hoc cu the. + Cac loai hp chat vo c : oxit, axt, baz, muoi. + Cac n chat kim loai (nhom, sat ), cac n chat phi kim ( clo, cacbon, silic). + Tm hieu ve bang tuan hoan cac nguyen to hoa hoc . + Tm hieu ve mot so hidrocacbon tieu bieu nhat: Metan, etilen, axetilen, benzen. - Nghien cu ve mot so dan xuat cua hidrocacbon: Ru etylic, axit axetic, chat beo, glucoz, saccaroz, tinh bot, xenluloz, protein va polime. 1.3.2.3. ac iem noi dung kien thc cua giao trnh hoa hoc THCS: - Cac khai niem hoa hoc c hnh thanh t nhng hien tng cu the va c phat trien dan trong qua trnh nghien cu ve cac chat hoa hoc cu the. - Chng trnh co nhieu khai niem m au kho tru tng nh nguyen t, phan t, nguyen to, hoa tr, mol oi hoi HS phai tng tng.

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- C s l thuyet cua chng trnh la thuyet nguyen t phan t va thuyet cau tao cac chat hu c, mot so nh luat hoa hoc c ban (nh luat bao toan khoi lng, thanh phan khong oi, the tch mol ca cac chat kh ). 1.3.2.4. Phan tch cau truc chng trnh hoa hoc pho thong: - Chng trnh hoa hoc pho thong c xay dng theo mot logic chac che, cac kien thc, khai niem hoa hoc c hnh thanh va phat trien mot cach lien tuc, ngay cang hoan thien dan. - Chng trnh hoa hoc pho thong c xay dng t hai he thong kien thc ve chat va phan ng hoa hoc, chung phat trien song song va ho tr lan nhau da tren c s cac kien thc ly thuyet chu ao cua chng trnh. - Chng trnh xay dng chu yeu theo nguyen tac ng thang, cac kien thc, khai niem c hnh thanh mot lan khong trnh bai lap lai, nhng c phat trien bo sung dan qua nhieu s kien khac. 1.3.3. Nhiem vu cua chng trnh hoa hoc pho thong: - Cung cap cho hoc sinh nhng kien thc pho thong s ang ve tnh chat va ng dung cac loai chat quan trong nhat oi vi hoat ong thc tien, nhng c s cua ly thuyet ve cac nguyen to hoa hoc. - Giup hoc sinh lnh hoi chnh xac ve he thong nhng s kien, khai niem c ban, nh luat va hoc thuyet hoa hoc, ng dung cua no vao lao ong san xuat. - Nghien cu ngon ng hoc va co ky nang, ky xao, biet van dung ngon ng hoa hoc vao viec lap cong thc va phng trnh hoa hoc. - Lnh hoi nhng nguyen tac khoa hoc cua nen san xuat hoa hoc, ng dung cua hoa hoc trong nganh san xuat quoc phong. - Hnh thanh the gii quan duy vat bien chng. - Phat trien nang lc nhan thc t duy sang tao, ren luyen thoi quen t hoc, t giao duc cho hoc sinh. - Ren luyen thoi quen quan sat, thc nghiem biet t duy gia ly thuyet va thc nghiem giai quyet nhng van e thc tien trong lao ong.

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Chng 2 NGHIEN CU S HNH THANH KHAI NIEM HOA HOC C BAN TRONG CHNG TRNH HOA HOC THCS
2.1. Chng trnh hoa hoc Trung hoc c s: 2.1.1. Noi dung chng trnh hoa hoc lp 8: - Mot so khai niem va nh luat hoa hoc c ban: chat, nguyen t, phan t, cong thc hoa hoc, phng trnh hoa hoc, mol, phan ng hoa hoc, dung dch, nong o dung dch, o tan, - Mot so nguyen to va hp chat hoa hoc: oxi, hidro, nc, oxit, axt, baz, muoi. 2.1.2. Noi dung chng trnh hoa hoc lp 9: - Cac loai hp chat vo c: oxit, axt, baz, muoi. - Cac n chat kim loai- phi kim, s lc bang tuan hoan cac nguyen to hoa ho. - Mot so khai niem m au ve chat hu c, hoa hoc hu c, cau tao phan t cac hp chat hu c. - Mot so hidrocacbon cu the va tieu bieu nhat: metan, etilen, axetilen, benzen. - Nghien cu ve mot so dan xuat cua hidrocacbon: ru etylic, axit axetic, chat beo, glucoz, saccaroz, tinh bot, xenluloz, protein va polime.

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2.2. Qua trnh hnh thanh khai niem hoa hoc c ban trong chng trnh hoa hoc THCS: Cac khai niem m au hoa hoc THCS bao gom khai niem ve: chat, nguyen t, phan t, n chat, hp chat, hon hp, nguyen to hoa hoc, cong thc hoa hoc, hoa tr, nh luat bao toan khoi lng cac chat, phng trnh hoa hoc, mol. Sau ay se nghien cu ve s hnh thanh va phat trien cua cac khai niem ve chat, phan ng hoa hoc. 2.2.1. Nghien cu s phat trien khai niem chat: 2.2.1.1. Hnh thanh khai niem m au ve chat: a) Khai niem chat c hnh thanh da vao khai niem vat the, vat lieu: - Bc au hnh thanh khai niem: bai 2 SGK HH lp 8 a ra cac vat the t nhien, cac vat the nhan tao gan gui trong cuoc song e ch ra s phong phu a dang cua chat. V du: Chat co khap ni, au co vat the o co vat chat, - Hnh thanh khai niem vat the: Vat the la nhng vat cu the ma ta thay va cam nhan c o la nhng vat quanh ta, ca c the chung ta. - Sau o phan loai vat the thanh 2 loai: Vat the t nhien (ngi, ong vat, cay co, song suoi, at a,) va vat the nhan tao (nha o dung, quan ao, sach v,) - Hnh thanh khai niem vat lieu: + Khai niem vat lieu c hnh thanh ngay sau khi hnh thanh khai niem vat the nhan tao: Vat lieu la nhng vat dung e lam ra vat the + Tm hieu ve thanh phan co trong vat the t nhien e phan biet chat o4n hp V du :( Bai2, SGK hoa hoc lp 8), trong o: - Cay ma - Kh quyen - ng, nc, xen luloz,... - Kh nit, kh oxi - Ncng, - Kh quyen

- Hnh thanh khai niem chat:

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Co the phan biet chat va vat the qua s o sau: Vat the T nhien (gom co ) 1 so chat Nhan tao (c lam t) Vat lieu

+ T s o rut ra ket luan: au co vat the o co chat, moi vat lieu eu la chat hay hon hp 1 so chat + nh ngha ve chat: Chat la mot dang cau truc vat chat co khoi lng xac nh va cho mot the tch nhat nh. Chat la mot dang vat chat, co thanh phan hoa hoc xac nh cung mot so tnh chat nhat nh khong oi.(sach giao vien hoa hoc 8) + Ve ten chat: HS phan biet ten thong thng va ten hoa hoc V du: Phan biet ten thong thng va ten hoa hoc qua cac v du Ten thong thng Muoi an a voi ng Ten hoa hoc Natri clorua Canxi cacbonat Saccaroz

b) Tm hieu tnh chat vat ly va tnh chat hoa hoc cua chat: - Bc au tm hieu: Qua tnh chat cua chat (muc II bai 2, SGK hoa hoc lp 8 ) HS biet c moi chat co nhng tnh chat nhat nh, phan biet c nhng tnh chat nao la tnh chat vat ly, tnh chat nao la tnh chat hoa hoc. - Hoan chnh khai niem chat thong qua cac th nghiem hoa hoc: + Th nghiem ot nong lu huynh, th tnh chat dan ien cua lu huynh va nhom ket hp vi nhng kinh nghiem thc te (ng, muoi an tan trong nc; tha nhom, soong noi bang kim loai dan nhiet; nha la chat cach nhiet, ) t cac kien thc a nghien cu vat ly lp 7 (a biet kim loai dan c ien), s dung lam nen tang cho viec hnh thanh khai niem ve tnh chat cua chat.

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+ T th nghiem biet c: Moi chat co nhng tnh chat nhat nh, co 2 loai: Tnh chat vat ly: Trang thai, tnh tan, mau sac, mui v, tnh dan ien, dan nhiet, nhiet o soi, Tnh chat hoa hoc: Chat co kha nang lam bien oi chat khac nh khai niem b phan huy, tnh chay, - Phat trien khai niem thong qua viec tm hieu tnh chat cua chat co li cua chat, giup hoc sinh nhan biet c cac chat, biet cach s dung va ng dung cac chat thch hp cho i song va san xuat. Nh vay khai niem m au cua chat c hnh thanh da vao vat the vi tnh chat n gian, gan gui e hoc sinh hnh thanh khai niem m au ve chat. Khai niem nay se c phat trien va m rong da vao cac chat cu the c nghien cu nhng bai sau. c) Khai niem chat tinh khiet c hnh thanh da vao tnh chat vat ly: - Hnh thanh khai niem hon hp e lam c s nhan biet chat tinh khiet hon hp la do hai hay nhieu chat tron lan vao nhau. Tnh chat cua hon hp phu thuoc vao thanh phan cua cac chat trong hon hp. - Hnh thanh khai niem chat tinh khiet: + Bat au cho HS quan sat th nghiem chai nc khoang va ong nc cat phan tch s giong nhau va khac nhau t viec s dung da vao yeu to nay. + Hnh thanh khai niem chat tinh khiet: Chat tinh khiet la chat khong lan chat nao khac va co tnh chat nhat nh. - Cung co khai niem: GV khang nh lai chat tinh khiet va dan dat HS hieu chat tinh khiet la phai co tnh chat nhat nh. V du: Hay ch ra au la chat tinh khiet au la hon hp trong so cac chat sau: Khong kh, nc t nhien, oxi, hidro, nit. (Chat tinh khiet: oxi, hiro, nit; hon hp: khong kh, nc t nhien).

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- Tiep tuc phat trien khai niem hon hp thong qua viec hnh thanh ky nang tach chat ra khoi hon hp. trnh o THCS khai niem chat c hnh thanh da tren vat the rat gan gui. Khai niem chat se tiep tuc phat trien da tren thuyet nguyen t - phan t se c nghien cu nhng bai sau. Sang chng trnh THPT HS se c nghien cu ky khai niem nay da vao thuyet electron, thuyet ien li, 2.2.1.2. Hnh thanh khai niem chat da vao khai niem m au ve nguyen t nguyen to hoa hoc, n chat - hp chat va phan t: a) Chat c cau tao t cac nguyen t: - GV at ra nhng cau hoi e HS nh lai moi vat the t nhien eu gom co chat, moi vat the nhan tao eu lam ra t cac chat - Neu van e e HS t suy luan sau o hnh thanh khai niem nguyen t: Nguyen t la hat vo cung nho, trung hoa ve ien va t o tao ra moi chat (bai 4 SGK HH lp 8). - HS biet c khai niem, ac iem cau tao cua nguyen t la khac nhau va c cau tao bi hai thanh phan (hat nhan va lp electron). Biet c s o ve cau tao nguyen t ac iem cua hat electron, da vao khai niem nay ma hoan chnh khai niem chat. V du: Da vao s o nguyen t hidro, oxi, natri (trang 14, SGK HH lp 8) e hnh thanh kien thc ve nguyen t cho hoc sinh. GV phan tch: cac nguyen t lien ket nhau la do nhng electron ngoai cung. S dung cac bai tap ap dung, hnh thanh va ren luyen ky nang ngay khi hnh thanh khai niem trong thi gian o. b) Hnh thanh khai niem m au cua nguyen to hoa hoc: - Tm hieu cac khai niem ve nguyen to hoa hoc da vao khai niem nguyen t. - Hnh thanh khai niem nguyen to hoa hoc: Nguyen to hoa hoc la tap hp nhng nguyen t cung loai, co cung so proton trong hat nhan (bai 5 SGK HH lp 8).

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- Tiep tuc phan tch khai niem HS biet c hat nhan tao bi proton va ntron, proton mi quyet nh ac trng cua mot nguyen to hoa hoc. - Sau o tm hieu khai niem ky heu hoa hoc: Ky hieu hoa hoc dung e bieu dien nguyen to, moi ky hieu con ch mot nguyen t cua nguyen to bai 5 SGK HH lp 8). V du: Ky hieu cua nguyen to hidro la H. - Phat trien khai niem nguyen to qua viec tm hieu ve khai niem nguyen t khoi, moi quan he gia nguyen t khoi va nguyen to. Ch ra moi nguyen to co mot nguyen t khoi rieng biet, t ay biet c ten nguyen to khi biet nguyen t khoi. - Sau o HS tra cu bang 1 (trang 42, SGK lp 8) biet ten mot vai nguyen to, k hieu hoa hoc va nguyen t khoi. Len lp 9 HS se tm hieu s lc he thong bang tuan hoan he thong hoa ve v tr, k hieu, ten goi, cac nguyen to hoa hoc, va sang chng trnh THPT se hoan chnh kien thc nay chng 2 SGK lp 10. - M rong khai niem nguyen to qua viec gii thieu mot so nguyen to thiet yeu nhat cho sinh vat la C, H, O, N (trong o oxi la nguyen to pho bien nhat).Cac khai niem hoa hoc c nghien cu nhng noi dung c ban nhat. c) T khai niem nguyen to hnh thanh khai niem ban au n chat va hp chat: Hnh thanh khai niem n chat: - Hnh thanh khai niem n chat thong qua mot so th du, GV phan tch c: cac n chat c coi la dang ton tai t do cua nguyen to, chat co c tao nen ch t mot nguyen to co chat tao nen t 2 hay 3, nguyen to. - Sau o i en nh ngha ve n chat: n chat la nhng chat tao nen t mot nguyen to hoa hoc (bai 6 SGK HH lp 8) - Khai niem n chat phat trien thanh hai khai niem mi la: n chat kim loai ( co tnh dan ien va nhiet) va n chat phi kim (khong dan ien va nhiet).

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- M rong khai niem n chat qua viec tm hieu: khai niem t do cua nguyen to hoa hoc, khai niem lien ket kim loai, ac iem cau tao (muc I.2 bai 6 SGK HH lp8). Cac hnh ve trong SGK the hien s lien ket gia cac nguyen t trong moi chat au. Hnh thanh khai niem hp chat: - T cac v du trong SGK HH lp 8 (trang 23) a dan dat HS i en khai niem : Hp chat la nhng chat tao nen t hai hay nhieu nguyen to hoa hoc tr len - Khai niem hp chat a giup HS phan loai c khai niem chat. Luc nay HS biet trong hp chat ch co nguyen to ch khong the la n chat. V du: Tm hieu hp chat nc trong bang sau : Hp chat Nc Thanh phan Tao t hai nguyen to: H, O

- Tm hieu ve ac iem cau tao cua hp chat: HS biet c trong mot chat cac nguyen t khong tach ri ma co lien ket vi nhau hay sap xep lien sat nhau (hnh 1.12, 1.13 SGK HH lp 8). Gii thieu s lc ve hp chat vo c va hp chat hu c: - en ay HS a bat au phan biet c au la hp chat vo c au la hp chat hu c t nhng v du minh hoa V du: ( Bai 6 SGK HH lp 8) Hp chat vo c Hp chat Cau tao NaCl Gom 2 nguyen to: Na, Cl CH4 Gom 2 nguyen to: C, H Hp chat hu c

- Moi quan he gia phan t n chat va hp chat c at trong moi lien he vi cac chat khac theo s bien oi qua lai vi nhau, khong tach biet chung v cac chat ch the hien tnh chat cua mnh thong qua s bien oi tng tac vi cac chat khac.

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- lp 8 ch cho biet co 2 loai hp chat (vo c va hu c), sang lp 9 se nghien cu mot so hp chat vo, hp chat hu c cu the va m rong chng trnh THPT d) Hnh thanh khai niem phan t, the hien cau tao hat cua chat: Hnh thanh khai niem phan t, phan t khoi : - Tm hieu khai niem hat: trc tien HS nhan ra hat hp thanh, thong qua cac mo hnh (bai 6 SGK HH lp 8) HS biet c hat hp thanh cua kh H2 , kh O2 va cua H2O, ac biet muoi an c 1 Na gan vi 1 Cl lap i lap lai eu an. Qua o HS biet c cac hat hp thanh cua mot chat th ong nhat nh nhau. - Bat au lien he vi tnh chat hoa hoc cua hat dan en nh ngha: Phan t la hat ai dien cho chat, gom mot nguyen t lien ket vi nhau the hien ay u tnh chat hoa hoc cua chat( bai 6 SGK HH lp 8). - M rong khai niem qua viec nghien cu khai niem phan t khoi : Phan t khoi la khoi lng cua 1 phan t tnh bang n v C. Gia tr nay se c bat gap nhieu khi giai toan, luon i kem vi nguyen to the hien bang he thong tuan hoan c hoc lp 9 va c cung co lp 10. Bat au tm hieu ve trang thai ran, long, kh cua chat: Da vao hnh 1.14 (SGK HH lp 8) HS nhan biet s khac nhau gia ba trang thai cua chat ve chuyen ong va khoang cach gia cac hat. T o dan HS en nhng khai niem m au ve trang thai cac chat: + Trang thai ran: Cac hat nguyen t(phan t) sap xep kht nhau, dao ong tai cho. + Trang thai long: Cac hat nguyen t (phan t) gan chuyen ong trt len nhau. + Trang thai kh: Cac hat rat xa nhau co chuyen ong nhanh hn ve nhieu pha. V du: S tong hp nc
t 2H2 (k) + O2 (k) H2O(l)
o

Hiro ket hp vi oxi tao ra hp chat H2O, trong o co hai trang thai (kh, long). e) Cung co khai niem c ban ve chat: n chat, hp chat, nguyen t, nguyen to hoa hoc va phan t:

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- Sau khi hoc xong Bai thc hanh 1 (SGK HH lp 8 ) qua cac th nghiem ve s lan toa cua chat kh, s lan toa cua chat ran tan trong nc HS se nhan biet c phan t la hat hp thanh cua hp chat va n chat phi kim. - Chieu hng phat trien cac khai niem c ban ve chat c the hien qua s o 1 S o 2.1: S chuyen hoa khai niem chat Chat (tao nen t nguyen to hoa hoc) n chat Hp chat (tao bi nguyen to hoa hoc) Kim loai Phi kim Chat vo c Chat hu c (1 nguyen to hoa hoc) (2 nguyen to hoa hoc tr len) - Qua s o thay c moi quan he t vat the en chat, t chat en n chat va hp chat (chat c tao bi nguyen to hoa hoc, nguyen t co nhieu loai, moi loai la mot nguyen to hoa hoc con chat c tao nen t nguyen to hoa hoc). Nhng bai tap trong SGK a cung co lai toan bo kien thc a hoc va ong thi ren luyen mot so ky nang cho HS. f) Tiep tuc cung co khai nem chat qua viec tm hieu cong thc hoa hoc va phng trnh hoa hoc va tnh toan hoa hoc: Cong thc hoa hoc bieu dien cong thc cho chat: - dang n chat, cac nguyen t cua nguyen to khong rieng re ma eu co moi lien ket vi nhau chung c bieu dien bi CTHH. Khi hoc bai 9 (SGK HH lp 8) HS biet c CTHH dung e bieu dien cu the cong thc n chat, hp chat mot cach n gian. - Bat au phan biet c cau tao cua kim loai va phi kim: Da vao cau tao hat cua chat e hnh thanh khai niem m au ve kim loai va phi kim (hat hp thanh cua n chat kim loai la nguyen t, hat hp thanh cua n chat phi kim la phan t). Cac khai niem nay se c tm hieu cu the hn chng 2 va chng 3 cua SGK HH lp 9.

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- Thong thng moi hp chat ch co mot CTHH nhat nh, chung cho biet nguyen to tao ra chat, so nguyen t cua moi nguyen to trong mot phan t, phan t khoi cua no. - T ay HS co the rut ra c nhan xet ve cach phan biet CTHH cua n chat va hp chat. ong thi tm hieu them ve moi quan he gia cac chat cu the vi nguyen t va nguyen to cau thanh thong qua cong thc hoa hoc. V du : CTHH cua canxicacbonat la CaCO3, trong o : + Co 3 nguyen to Ca, C, O tao ra. + Co 1 nguyen t Ca, 1 nguyen t C va 3 nguyen t O trong 1 phan t. + Phan t khoi : 40 + 12 + 3 x16 = 100 vC - Hoc sinh tiep tuc tm hieu hoa tr cua nguyen to la so bieu th kha nang kien ket cua nguyen t. en ay HS biet chnh xac hoa tr cua H la mot n v va hoa tr cua O la 2 n v. Hieu c van e nay hoc sinh co the biet c cong thc hoa hoc cua hp chat va hoa tr cua nguyen t kia, biet cach lap cong thc hoa hoc va xac nh c cong thc cua chung. T hoa tr cua nguyen to m rong en hoa tr cua nhom nguyen t cua vai nguyen to khong tach ri nhau khi chuyen t hp chat nay en hp chat khac. Phan biet n chat va hp chat da vao phng trnh hoa hoc: - Sau khi hoc chng Phan ng hoa hoc (SGK HH lp 8) a ren luyen cho hoc sinh thoi quen s dung ngon ng hoa hoc mot cach chnh xac nh: cach goi ten, viet ky hieu, CTHH, can bang phng trnh, ... Cac khai niem n chat va hp chat a c xac nh chnh xac, ong thi chung c tm hieu them ve s bien oi qua lai theo mot trat t t n gian en phc tap. - Hnh thanh khai niem tnh chat vat ly, tnh chat hoa hoc thong qua cac hien tng vat l va hien tng hoa hoc (bai 12 SGK HH lp 8 trang 45):

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+ Hien tng vat ly: la hien tng chat bien oi ma van gi nguyen chat ban au. V du: Nc a chay nc long un soi hi nc

+ Hien tng hoa hoc : la hien tng chat bien oi tao ra chat khac. V du:
t 2H2 (k)+ O2(k) H2O(l)
o

ay la s bien oi 2 n chat thanh 1 hp chat - HS c lam quen mot so n chat va hp chat mi nh : Al, Na2CO3, Ca(OH)2, CaCO3, ...di dang CTHH qua o HS thay c moi quan he gia chung. Mot so khai niem mi lien quan nham hoan chnh khai niem chat: - Thong qua chng: Mol va tnh toan hoa hoc (SGK HH lp 8) HS biet c nhng khai niem mi quan trong, biet cach chuyen oi qua lai gia cac khai niem t o co the van dung mot cach de dang trong tnh toan hoa hoc. - Thong qua bai T khoi cua chat kh HS co the so sanh c o nang, nhe cua chat kh nay so vi chat kh khac, da vao cong thc tnh t khoi. Nh vay en ay HS a co c mot he thong kien thc pho thong c ban va thiet thc au tien ve hoa hoc no bao gom cac khai niem ve chat, m au ve cau tao chat, nguyen t, phan t, phan t, nguyen to hoa hoc, n chat va hp chat, ve phan ng hoa hoa hoc, cac khai niem ve nh tnh, nh lng cua chat, ... Nhn chung cac khai niem nay c hnh thanh da tren c s thuyet nguyen t phan t nen ch hnh thanh dang c ban, chung se c phat trien hoan chnh hn nhng bai sau. 2.2.1.3. Tm hieu mot so n chat, hp chat cu the qua chng 4 Oxi- khong kh va chng 5 Hiro- nc: a) Hnh thanh khai nien n chat O2, tm hieu hp chat oxit: Tm hieu cu the ve tnh chat vat ly, tnh chat hoa hoc, ng dung cach ieu che cua chat kh O2 :

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- en chng Oxi - khong kh (SGK HH lp 8) HS nam vng cac khai niem ve nguyen to va n chat oxi, la nguyen to hoa hoc au tien c nghien cu ve: + Tnh chat vat ly, tnh chat hoa hoc (bai 24, SGK HH lp 8). + ng dung, trang thai thien nhien (bai 25, SGK HH lp 8). + Cach ieu che oxi trong PTN va trong cong nghiep (bai 27, SGK HH lp 8). - Thong qua cac th du phan tch tnh chat vat ly cua oxi, HS quan sat va rut ra tnh chat hoa hoc cua O2. Ngoai ra HS con c tm hieu mot so khai niem mi : s oxi hoa, s chay, s oxi hoa cham, phan ng hoa hp, phan ng phan huy Nh vay en ay HS a biet c n chat nao la phi kim, n chat nao la kim loai nhng ch mc o tm hieu cha phan biet ro gia hai khai niem phi kim va kim loai. Chng trnh THPT se tiep tuc cung co cac tnh chat cua oxi, nghien cu khai quat ve nhom oxi, cau tao phan t oxi da vao thuyet electron (chng 6, SGK HH lp 10) M rong khai niem n chat oxi thanh khai niem hp chat oxit: - e hnh thanh khai niem oxit trc het cho HS tra li cau hoi, sau o nhan xet va cuoi cung dan en khai niem: Oxit la hp chat tao bi hai nguyen to trong o co mot nguyen to la oxi( bai 26, SGK HH lp 8) Co the khai quat thanh s o sau : Hp chat Oxit Tao bi 2 nguyen to 1 nguyen to la oxi - Khi tm hieu en muc II (bai 26 SGK HH lp 8) HS a phan biet c au la kim loai, au la phi kim sau o dan dat en khai niem: oxit baz, oxit axit. V du: Phan biet oxit baz va oxit axit qua v du Oxit baz Oxit axit

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La oxit kim loai va tng ng vi 1 baz V du : Na2O CaO NaOH Ca(OH)2

La oxit phi kim va tng ng vi 1 axt V du : SO3 P 2 O5 H2SO4 H3PO4

- Sau o HS tiep tuc lam quen vi mot so oxit vi cach goi ten cua chung. Hoc xong phan nay HS thay ro hoa tr cua nguyen to la a dang, moi nguyen to co the co mot hoac nhieu hoa tr. V du: Cu2O : ong (I) oxit CuO : ong (II) oxit - Khi tm hieu en muc I (bai 27, SGK HH lp 8) a hoan chnh mot so khai niem tnh chat vat l va tnh chat hoa hoc cua hp chat V du: Hp chat Kalipemanganat(KMnO4 ) Kaliclorat (KClO3) Tnh chat vat l Chat ran, mau tm Chat ran, mau trang - en ay mc o hieu biet ve tnh chat vat l, tnh chat hoa hoc khong con n gian ma c nghien cu vi nhng tnh chat ac trng cho tng chat. Cac khai niem oxit se tiep tuc c nghien cu lp 9 (Bai1, SGK HH ), HS se hnh thanh ay u kien thc chung ve oxit, va van dung no rat nhieu vao nhng bai hoc sau. b) Hnh thanh khai niem nguyen to H2, tm hieu hp chat H2O: Tm hieu cu the ve tnh chat vat ly, tnh chat hoa hoc, ng dung cach ieu che cua chat kh H2: - Khi nghien cu chng 5 (SGK HH lp 8) HS biet ve tnh chat vat l, tnh chat hoa hoc, ng dung va cach ieu che H2. a so n chat ton tai trong phan t eu la phi kim khai niem se c khang nh bai 9. Tnh chat hoa hoc eu thc hien phan ng phan huy e tao ra chat khac ong co hoa tr I, II

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V du: O2 va H2 eu la chat kh, la nhng phi kim nhng co tnh chat gan nh khac nhau hoan toan, c chng minh qua tnh chat, ng dung va cach ieu che. - chng trnh THCS khong e cap en nhieu, ch biet s lc ve s khac nhau o da vao thuyet nguyen t- phan t cua chung. Sang chng trnh THPT cac khai niem nay se c giai thch ro hn da vao thuyet electron. - Bai 32 (SGK HH lp 8 )HS a bat au lam quen vi kim loai Cu, Zn, Fe, ... nhng o la kim loai thong thng ton tai dang n chat. HS se biet c tnh chat hoa hoc cua chung khi hoc tnh chat hoa hoc cua axit. n chat H2 phat trien thanh hp chat H2O, s xuat hien khai niem m au cua baz va axit: - Khi tm hieu en bai Nc (SGK HH lp 8) HS hieu sau sac hn ve thanh phan nh tnh va nh lng cua nc cac tnh chat vat ly va hoa hoc cua nc. - Qua cac phan ng cu the cac oxit xuat hien la nhng chat phan ng nham tao baz va tao axit tng ng. Da vao PTHH a hnh thanh cac khai niem: + Hp chat tao ra do oxit baz hoa hp vi nc thuoc loai baz. Dung dch baz lam oi mau qu tm thanh mau xanh. + Hp chat tao ra do nc hoa hp vi oxit axit thuoc loai axit. Dung dch axit lam oi mau qu tm thanh o. - Cac khai nem axit, baz se c hnh thanh cu the hn bai tiep theo c) Phat trien khai niem hp chat, hnh thanh khai axit, baz, muoi: Tm hieu s lc khai niem axit va phan loai cua axit: - Khai niem axit c hnh thanh da vao thanh phan cau tao, HS nh lai mot so axit quen thuoc nhan xet ve thanh phan phan t cua axit e dan en khai niem: Phan t axit gom co 1 hay nhieu nguyen t H lien ket vi goc axit, cac nguyen t H nay co the thay the bang cac nguyen t kim loai(bai 37, SGK HH lp 8).

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- Tiep tuc gii thieu CTHH cua axit e HS nhan biet c mot so nguyen t H lien ket vi goc axit, biet c hoa tr cua goc axit trong phan t axit hoa tr cua goc axit bang so nguyen t H. - Da vao thanh phan phan t phan axit thanh 2 loai la : + Axit khong co oxi: HCl, H2S, ... + Axit co cha oxi: H2SO4, HNO3, ... - Khai niem axit se hnh thanh hoan chnh bai 3 SGK HH lp 9 va c nghien cu cu the mot so axit thong dung e cung co va hoan thien kien thc ve axit. Tm hieu s lc khai niem baz: - Da vao cong thc phan t e hnh thanh khai niem, HS tm hieu mot so baz a biet nhan xet ve cau tao cua chung sau o dan en khai niem: Phan t baz gom co 1 nguyen t kim loai lien ket vi mot hay nhieu nhom hiroxit(bai 37, SGK HH lp 8) - Tm hieu ve CTHH, ten goi, phan loai baz da vao tnh chat tan, co 2 loai: + Baz tan c trong nc goi la kiem: NaOH, KOH, ... + Baz khong tan trong nc: Cu(OH)2, Mg(OH)2, ... - Viec nghien cu ve tnh chat hoa hoc cua baz se c nghien cu lp 9, cac tnh chat nay s dung rat nhieu trong giai toan nen chung luon c nhac en thong qua cac PTHH. Len chng trnh THPT khai niem baz phat trien hn va pham vi s dung m rong hn. Tm hieu s lc ve khai niem muoi : - Khai niem muoi c hnh thanh ngay sau khi tm hieu hai khai niem axit va baz, da tren thanh phan phan t cua chung: Phan t muoi co mot hay nhieu nguyen t kim loai lien ket vi mot hay nhieu goc axit (bai 37 SGK HH lp 8).

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- Tiep tuc hoan chnh khai niem nay thong qua viec tm hieu CTHH, ten goi va phan loai chung. ay HS se lam quen vi hai khai niem muoi mi la muoi trung hoa va muoi axit, trong o: + Muoi trung hoa la muoi ma trong goc axit khong co cha nguyen t H co the thay the bang nguyen t kim loai. V du: Na2SO4, CaCO3, ... + Muoi axit la muoi ma trong o goc axit con nguyen t H cha c thay the bang nguyen t kim loai. V du: NaHSO4, Ca(HCO3)2, ... - Tnh chat cua muoi se c nghien cu chng trnh SGK lp 9 va c van dung rat nhieu nhng bai hoc sau. Thong qua bai tap cung co, cac hp chat vo c quan he mat thiet vi nhau: - Cac khai niem axt, baz, muoi c hnh thanh mot cach t nhien khi nghien cu ieu che hidro va tnh chat hoa hoc cua nc, nhng mc o rat n gian. - Sau khi nghien cu xong bai 37 (SGK HH lp 8) HS a hnh thanh c nhng khai niem mi nh: phan ng the, s kh, chat kh, phan ng oxi hoa kh, axt, baz, muoi. Nhan biet chnh xac chat nao la axit chat nao la baz, la muoi thong qua CTHH, ten goi cua chung, len lp 9 HS se c nghien cu tiep ve tnh chat hoa hoc cua cac hp chat vo c o. - Nhng kien thc ve axit, baz, muoi cung vi kien thc oxit hp thanh he thong kien thc ve cac loai hp chat vo c la noi dung quan trong bac THCS. Tiep tuc phat trien khai niem hp chat qua bai dung dch: - Hoc sinh tm hieu c cac khai niem: dung moi, chat tan, dung dch, dung dch cha bao hoa va bao hoa, o tan cua mot chat trong nc, nong o phan tram, nong o mol/lt cua dung dch.

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- Cung co va hoan thien khai niem chat thong qua viec nghien cu khai niem cac kien thc nh tnh, nh lng co ly thuyet va thc nghiem, co nghien cu tm toi va van dung ly thuyet. 2.2.1.4. Tiep tuc hnh thanh cac khai niem hp chat vo c, m rong khai niem n chat va hp chat thong qua viec tm hieu khai niem kim loai va phi kim: a) Phan loai hp chat vo c qua nghien cu cac hp chat oxt, axt, baz, muoi: Tm hieu ve nhng tnh chat hoa hoc chung cua moi loai hp chat vo c: - M au la viec tm hieu ve thanh phan cau tao, tnh chat vat ly, tnh chat hoa hoc, cach nhan biet hp chat, moi quan he gia n chat va hp chat. - HS biet s lc ve hai loai hp chat oxit : Oxit baz va oxit axit. - Hnh thanh khai niem oxit trc tien HS tm hieu mot so th ngiem n gian, sau o dan dat en khai niem. HS ch tm hieu mot so oxit thng gap nh, gii thieu s lc ve 4 loai oxit quan trong la: oxit axit, oxit baz, oxit lng tnh, oxit trung tnh - Cung co khai niem oxit thong qua viec tm hieu nhng tnh chat cua CaO, SO2, nhng ng dung cua chung trong i song va san xuat, phng phap ieu che - Tiep tuc phat trien khai niem axit, baz, phan loai axit thanh hai loai axit manh va axit yeu nhng ch gii thieu mot so axit nh: axit manh (HCl, HNO3, H2SO4), axit yeu (H2S, H2CO3, ). - mc o THCS ch yeu cau HS biet c tnh chat hoa hoc chung cua axit va dan ra nhng PTHH tng ng moi tnh chat. Sau o tm hieu tnh chat hoa hoc cua hai axit tieu bieu: HCl, H2SO4 (bai 4, SGK lp 9). - Tiep tuc hoan chnh khai niem baz chng trnh lp 8 HS a biet s lc ve baz, sau o HS se c nghien cu them ve tnh chat hoa hoc (bai7, SGK lp9). - Cung co khai niem baz thong qua viec nghien cu mot so baz cu the nh: NaOH, Ca(OH)2, chung co ay u tnh chat cua baz.

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- muc II.B bai 8 a gii thieu thang pH, da vao ay co the xac nh c dung dch nao o la axit hay baz, hay trung tnh. Sang chng trnh THPT HS se c nghien cu them ve khai niem ve pH, chat ch th axit baz bai 3 SGK lp 11. - Viec nghien cu tnh chat cua NaOH va Ca(OH)2 se giup HS de dang hnh thanh kien thc mi ve tnh chat hoa hoc cua muoi c hoc bai sau - Tiep tuc hoan chnh khai niem muoi c hoc bai 37 lp 8, sau o cung co e hoan thien kien thc nay thong qua tm hieu mot so muoi quan trong nh: NaCl, KNO3. Nghien cu them ve cac loai phan bon hoa hoc e thay c tam quan trong cua hp chat vo c. Cung co va hoan thien khai niem chat thong qua viec nghien cu moi quan he gia cac loi hp ch t vo c: - Sau khi a hnh thanh mot so kien thc ve oxit, axit, baz, muoi HS se tm hieu ve moi quan he gia chung thong qua s o sau: Oxit baz Muoi Baz Axit oxit axit

- Chng trnh THCS a co the phan loai hp chat vo c theo s o sau: CAC HP CHAT VO C

OXIT Oxit Oxit Axit

AXIT Axit khong co oxi Baz tan

BAZ Baz khong tan

MUOI Muoi axit Muoi trunghoa

baz axit

co oxi

- HS van dung c nhng kien thc, ky nang cua mnh e giai thch mot hien tng nao o, giai bai tap ly thuyet, nham khac sau kien thc. Cac kien thc ve hp chat vo c se c tiep tuc nghien cu ao sau va m rong hoa hoc THPT .

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b) M rong khai niem n chat qua viec nghien cu s lc ve kim loai va mot so hp chat tng ng: Hnh thanh khai niem kim loai: - Trc tien la tm hieu khai niem kim loai da vao kien thc a hoc lp 8, en lp 9 HS se tiep tuc hnh thanh khai niem kim loai qua viec tm hieu ve tnh chat chung. - Bc au anh gia kha nang hoat ong cua kim loai va phi kim qua day hoat ong hoa hoc. Tiep theo la tm hieu ve mc o hoat ong cua kim loai, en ay HS co the d oan c phan ng cua kim loai vi chat khac (Bai17,SGK HH lp 9). Day hoat ong hoa hoc cua kim loai cho biet cac kim loai hoat ong manh, yeu khac nhau, c sap xep thanh day theo chieu hoat ong hoa hoc giam dan. - Tm hieu ve tnh chat vat ly, tnh chat hoa hoc cua kim loai nhng ch tm hieu chung mc o tnh kh cua chung. Ch xac nh vai tro cua kim loai trong phan ng vi oxi, con phan ng cua kim loai vi chat khac hoc sinh c hoc cap trung hoc pho thong. M rong khai niem kim loai thong qua viec nghien cu mot so kim loai cu the va tm hieu hp chat quan trong cua chung: - Nghien cu tnh chat, ng dung cua cu the cua kim loai nh: nhom va sat Sau o tiep tuc tm hieu ve hp chat cua sat la gang va thep (bai 20 SGK HH lp 9) va ong thi m rong nhng tnh chat cua kim loai thong qua bai 21 S an mom kim loai va bao ve kim loai khong b an mon - Tiep theo u3ng co khai niem kim loai qua bai on tap cuoi chng e khac sau kien thc cho HS. - Nhn chung cac kien thc ve kim loai bac THCS c nghien cu mc o n gian khong i sau vao nghien cu cau tao cua kim loai. Len chng trnh THPT cau tao cua kim loai c giai thch rat cu the da vao thuyet electron

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c) Hnh thanh khai niem phi kim qua viec nghien cu mot so phi kim cu the,tm hieu s lc bang he thong tuan hoan: Tm hieu khai niem phi kim: - Da vao kien thc ve phi kim co c lp 8 dan en viec tm hieu ve tnh chat chung, o hoat ong manh yeu cua chung trong day hoat ong hoa hoc. - Phan biet kim loai vi phi kim va tm hieu moi quan he gia n chat va hp chat qua cac phan ng hoa hoc, thanh phan cau tao cua chung. - muc II.4 bai 25 HS bat au biet c mc o hoat ong cua cac phi kim khac nhau nhng ch gii thieu ve o hoat ong cua nhom halogen. M rong khai niem phi kim thong qua viec tm hieu mot so phi kim cu the va tm hieu mot so oxt cua chung: - Tm hieu s lc ve tnh chat cua nguyen to clo, la phi kim ai dien cho nhom halogen co ay u tnh chat cua phi kim, sang chng trnh THPT SGK lp 10 danh ca chng e nghien cu sau ve van e nay. - Nghien cu ve cacbon la tm hieu s lc ve cac dang thu hnh, tnh chat va ng dung cua cacbon. Sau o m rong kien thc ve cacbon qua viec tm hieu s lc ve hai oxit c ban la CO (cacbonoxit), CO2 (cacbonioxit) - Tm hieu ve moi quan he cua phi kim va axit tng ng vi chung c the hien bai 29. Qua o HS co the phan loai chat qua viec tm hieu cac kim loai va phi kim cu the da vao tnh chat ac trng cua chung Nghien cu s lc ve bang he thong tuan hoan cac nguyen to hoa hoc nham phat trien kha nang nhan biet mc o hoat ong cua kim loai va phi kim: - Khi hoc xong kien thc ve kim loai va phi kim HS c tm hieu s lc bang he thong tuan hoan nham khac sau kien thc cho hoc sinh ong thi bo sung them kien thc chung ve kim loai va phi kim t o de dang phan biet chung. - Qua bang tuan hoan hoc sinh biet c :

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+ O nguyen to: Cho biet so hieu nguyen t, k hieu hoa hoc, ten nguyen to, nguyen t khoi cua nguyen to o. + So hieu nguyen t co so tr bang so n v dien tch hat nhan va bang so electron trong nguyen t. + So hieu nguyen t cung la so th t nguyen to trong bang tuan hoan. V du: O nguyen to Mg co: So hieu nguyen t K hieu hoa hoc Ten nguyen to Nguyen t khoi
12

Mg
Magie 24

+ Chu ky: La day cac nguyen to ma nguyen t cua chung co cung so lp electron va c xep theo chieu ien tch hat nhan tang dan. V du: Mg co chu ky 3 v co 3 lp electron - Nhom: Gom cac nguyen to ma nguyen t cua chung co so lp e lp ngoai cung bang nhau, nen co tnh chat tng t nhau c xep thanh cot theo chieu tang cua ien tch hat nhan nguyen t. V du: Mg thuoc nhom 2 v co 2 e lp ngoai cung + Nguyen tac sap xep cau tao bang tuan hoan (o nguyen to, chu ky, nhom) s bien thien tuan hoan tnh chat cac nguyen to trong chu ky nhom. Bang 2.1 : Cac nguyen to hoa hoc cua chu ky 3 11 Na 12 Mg 13 AL Nhom 27 14 Si Silic 28 15 P Photpho 31 16 S Lu huynh 32 17 Cl Clo 35,5 18 Ar Agon 40

Natri Magie 23 24

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So lp e ngoai cung: tang dan t Na en Ar Tnh kim loai giam dan, tnh phi kim tang dan Na la kim loai manh, cuoi chu ky la mot phi kim manh Qua bai nay HS biet s lc ve trat t, v tr: o nhom, chu ky cua cac nguyen to hoa hoc. Tuy nhien cha tm hieu ve kha nang hoat ong cua moi nhom cu the, van e nay se c nghien cu chng trnh THPT. 2.2.1.5. M rong kien thc ve hp chat thong qua tm hieu mot so hp chat hu c cu the: a) Hnh thanh khai niem c ban cua hp chat hu c qua viec tm hieu cong thc cau tao cua chung: Tm hieu mot so hp chat hu c c ban: - e tm hieu ve khai niem HS phai tra li cau hoi: Hp chat hu c la g? Sau o thong qua v du dan en khai niem: Hp chat hu c la hp chat cua cacbon (SGK HH lp 9) - en ay hp chat hu c c phan chia thanh hai loai nh sau: Hp chat hu c Hidrocacbon Phan t ch co hai nguyen to: C va H Dan xuat cua Hirocacbon Ngoai C va H, trong phan t con co cac nguyen to:O, N, Cl

- Tm hieu ve CTPT cua hp chat hu c, HS hieu c cac nguyen t lien ket vi nhau theo ung v tr, moi chat co mot CTCT lien ket theo mot trat t nhat nh. bac THCS ch tm hieu hai loai hidrocacbon (hidrocacbon dang mach thang, dang vong thm) sang THPT se c nghien cu da vao thuyet electron. Nghien cu mot so hp chat hu c cu the, phan loai hidrocacbon da vao cong thc cau tao cua chung:

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chng 4 (SGK HH lp 9) HS lan lt biet c cac khai niem ve ankan, anken, ankin, aren. Cu the la tm hieu: CH4(metan), C2H4(anken), C2H2 (axetilen), C6H6 (benzen) ac trng mang ay u tnh chat cua chung. - Xuat hien cac khai niem m au ve lien ket n (CH4), lien ket oi (C2H4), lien ket ba( C2H2), lien ket n oi xen ke (C6H6), kha nang hoat ong cua chung khac biet nhau do cau tao khac nhau. + Lien ket n: la lien ket gia hai nguyen t C va nguyen t H. + Lien ket oi: la lien ket gia hai nguyen t C co hai lien ket, trong lien ket oi co mot lien ket kem ben, lien ket nay de b t trong cac phan ng hoa hoc + Lien ket ba: trong CTCT cua C2H2 gia hai nguyen t C co ba lien ket, trong o co hai lien ket kem ben de b t lan lt trong cac phan ng hoa hoc - Tm hieu them ve mot dang hidrocacbon mach vong thm cua benzen bai 39 (SGK HH lp 9), ay HS lam quen vi dang cau tao ac biet la vong thm co sau nguyen t C lien ket vi nhau tao thanh vong sau canh eu, co ba lien kiet n xen ke ba lien ket oi. - Ba loai lien ket tren lan lt ac trng cho cac hirocacbon mach thang (CH4, C2H4, C2H2 )va lien ket n-oi xen ke mach vong cua C6H6 c gii thieu khai quat. Sang chng trnh THPT se nghien cu ve cau tao va phan loai cua chung. b) M rong hp chat hu c qua viec tm hieu dan xuat hidrocacbon, polime: Tm hieu mot so hidrocacbon co mot nhom chc: - chng 5 (SGK HH lp 9) HS tm hieu s lc ve CTPT, CTCT, tnh chat, ng dung cua: C2H5OH( ru etylic), CH3COOH (axit axetic). HS biet c nhom hidroxi (OH) la nhom nguyen t gay ra tnh chat hoa hoc ac trng cua ru va nhom cacboxyl (-COOH) gay ra tnh chat hoa hoc ac trng cua axit. - T ay HS bat au hnh thanh khai niem mi la khai niem este qua phan ng este hoa, ong thi thay c moi quan he gia ru va axit Tm hieu hidrocacbon a chc, mot so polime quan trong:

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- Trc tien la tm hieu ve CTCT hidrocacbon co hai loai nhom chc hiroxi (OH) va cacboxyl (COOH ) la chat beo (trong o co 3 nhom OH va 1 nhom COOH). Tm hieu ve mot so polime thong dung qua CTPT cua chung nh: glucoz (C6H12O6), saccaroz (C12H22O11), tinh bot va xenluloz. - Sau o phan loai polime thanh hai loai: + Polime thien nhien: co san trong t nhien nh tinh bot, xenluloz, protein, cao su thien nhien, ... + Polime tong hp: do con ngi tong hp t cac chat n gian nh polietilen, poli(vinyl clorua), t nilon, caosu buna, ... - Nhn chung cac polime nay c tm hieu nhng tnh chat c ban, lien he thc tien ve ng dung cua chung HS de hnh dung, len THPT se c nghien cu them ve CTCT, tnh chat cu the cua tng hp chat. Tnh chat cua cac hp chat hu c khong ch phu thuoc vao thanh phan phan t ma con phu thuoc vao cong thc cau tao cua chung, da vao o phan biet c chat hu c vi chat vo c, hidrocacbon vi dan xuat cua hidrocacbon. Cung co va phat tren khai niem tng ng vi viec tm hieu tnh chat vat ly, tnh chat hoa hoc, ng dung phng phap ieu che, trang thai ton tai cua chat: - Nam c cong thc cau tao cua metan, etilen, axetilen, benzen va cac tnh chat hoa hoc cua chung. HS biet c moi quan he gia hp chat nay vi hp chat khac, ong thi ren luyen ky nang nhan biet cac chat. Nhan xet: nh vay khai niem chat THCS phat trien da vao thuyet nguyen t - phan t i t mc o n gian en phc tap, t khai quat en cu the. Nhn chung cac khai niem nay ch gii thieu cho HS biet nhng chat gan gui thc te e HS de hnh dung cha i sau vao giai thch cu the, len THPT chung se c nghien cu cu the va c m rong e hoan chnh hn. 2.2.2. Tm hieu s phat trien khai niem phan ng hoa hoc:

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2.2.2.1. Khai niem phan ng hoa hoc bat au hnh thanh thong qua viec tm hieu s bien oi cua chat: a. Phan biet hien tng vat ly, hien tng hoa hoc: Tm hieu hien tng vat ly: - Luc au giup hoc sinh nh lai ve cac hien tng vat ly: Cho hoc sinh ke mot vai hien tng vat ly sau o ch ra thanh phan phan t cua cac chat xem co thay oi hay khong. V du: Th nghiem hnh 2.1, bai 12 (SGK HH lp 9) a the hien cu the hien tng bay hi, hay ong ac cua nc la hien tng vat ly - Sau o hnh thanh khai niem: Hien tng vat ly la hien tng trong o khong co s chuyen hoa chat nay thanh chat khac - ay HS biet c hien tng vat ly khong phai la s thay oi hnh dang cua vat the. S thay oi tnh chat la do s chuyen ong khac nhau cua cac phan t. So lng phan t khong thay oi. Tm hieu hien tng hoa hoc: - Th nghiem 1, 2 (Bai 12, SGK HH lp 9) HS a lam quen vi nhng bien oi xay ra trong cac hien tng hoa hoc. Muc ch chnh cua th nghiem la nhan ra s bien oi chat nay thanh chat khac. - Nh th nghiem 1: Tron hon hp bot sat vi lu huynh. Hien tng: Sau khi e nguoi lay chat ran ra a nam cham lai gan th khong co sat e hut. em ot th khong chay c nh lu huynh ma san pham nong sang oi sang mau xam. S khac nhau gia hon hp va hp chat the hien bang 2.2 Bang 2.2: S khac nhau gia hon hp va hp chat Hon hp (lu huynh va sat) Gom 2 n chat S va Fe Hp chat ((lu huynh va sat) Gom 2 nguyen to S va Fe

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Trong hon hp moi chat con gi Mang tnh chat chung cua hp chat Fe nguyen tnh chat hon hp bang phng phap vat ly
Qua bang 2.2 thay c s thay oi tnh chat cua xay ra phan ng hoa hoc

(II) sunfua

Co the tach rieng tng chat ra khoi Khong the tach rieng

- Qua cac th nhiem cu the dan en khai niem: Hien tng hoa hoc la hien tng co s bien oi chat nay thanh chat khac. Phan biet hien tng vat ly va hien tng hoa hoc: - Sau khi hoc xong bai 12 SGK HH lp 8 HS co the phan biet c hien tng vat ly va hien tng hoa hoc. V du : th nghiem 2 bai 12 SGK HH lp 8 (trang 46) : - Hoa tan ng vao nc tao thanh dung dch ng o la s thay oi tnh chat vat ly - Khi un nong ng th ng chay en thanh than do thay oi tnh chat hoa hoc - Co the phan hien tng vat l va hien tng hoa hoc thong qua bang 2.3: Bang 2.3: Phan biet hien tng vat l va hien tung hoa hoc Hien tng vat ly - eu co nhng tnh chat mi xuat hien cac chat - Co s bien oi ve trang thai, hnh - Co s bien oi chat nay thanh chat khac dang cua chat, cac chat van khong b co tnh chat khac han chat ban au. bien oi. - Khong xuat hien chat mi Bien oi vat ly la hien tng vat ly. - Co sinh ra chat mi Bien oi hoa hoc la hien tng hoa hoc. Hien tng hoa hoc

Qua bang 2.3 hoc sinh co the phan biet c hien tng vat ly va hien tng

hoa hoc, hieu ro hn hien tng hoa hoc co xay ra phan ng hoa hoc.

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b) Hnh thanh khai niem phan ng hoa hoc qua s tao thanh chat mi: Hnh thanh khai niem phan ng hoa hoc da vao hien tng hoa hoc: - Da vao cac hien tng hoa hoc dan en khai niem: Phan ng hoa hoc la qua trnh bien oi chat nay thanh chat khac trong o chat phan ng la chat ban au b bien oi trong phan ng va san pham la chat c tao ra (bai13, SGK HH lp 8) V du:
phanhuy ng nc + than

- Trong phan ng hoa hoc lng chat phan ng giam, lng san pham tang. Dien bien cua phan ng hoa hoc, tm hieu mot so ieu kien e phan ng hoa hoc xay ra: - Hnh 2.5 (SGK HH lp 8) HS biet c qua trnh xay ra cua phan ng hoa hoc ch co lien ket gia cac nguyen t thay oi lam cho phan t nay bien oi thanh phan t khac. T ay ly giai cho HS biet c qua trnh phan ng xay co s tham gia hoat ong cua nguyen t phan t. HS hieu nom na ve dien bien cua cua phan ng hoa hoc la phan ng xay ra vi tng phan t. - HS tiep tuc tm hieu mot so ieu kien au tien e phan ng hoa hoc xay khi : + Cac chat tac dung tiep xuc vi nhau. V du: Th nghiem 1b bai 12 + Can un nong. V du: Phan ng phan huy ng + Co mat chat xuc tac. V du: Phan ng tao thanh axit axetic t ru nhat can cho men lam chat xuc tac Tuy theo tng phan ng hoa hoc ma co cung cap ieu kien cho phan ng phu hp Nh vay chng trnh THCS HS ch co the giai thch c moi van e da vao thuyet nguyen t - phan t, sang chng trnh THPT se da vao thuyet electron, thuyet ien li, e giai quyet van e. Dau hieu at trng ben ngoai e nhan biet phan ng hoa hoc:

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+ T chat ban au va chat tao thanh co the biet dau hieu cua phan ng hoa hoc. muc IV bai 13 (SGK HH lp 8) HS biet cach nhan biet phan ng hoa hoc da vao dau hieu c ban: co chat mi xuat hien, co tnh chat khac vi chat phan ng. V du: Th nghiem 1 (SGK trang 45), phan ng lu huynh vi sat - Dau hieu nhan biet co phan ng xay ra can c vao hai mat bien oi cua chat: + Mat tieu phan: S thay oi mau sac, trang thai, mui v, cua cac chat. V du: ng b phan huy thanh than mau en va nc + Mat nang lng: S toa nhet va phat sang. V du: Cay nen chay bai tap 39 (trang 47, SGK HH lp 8) - Chu y cho hoc sinh ro: Khong phai co dau hieu xuat hien th o la hien tng hoa hoc hoan toan ma phai can c vao ac iem cua san pham tao thanh. Nhn chung cac dau hieu e nhan biet ay ch mc o n gian da vao hien tng hoa hoc e giai thch them cho vao khai niem cha nhan biet c toan bo hien tng cua cac phan ng hoa hoc. HS se c nghien cu cu the van e nay nhng bai sau. Tm hieu nh luat bao toan khoi lng, lap Phng trnh hoa hoc e bieu dien cho phan ng hoa hoc: - Da vao th nghiem hnh 2.7 (bai 15 SGK HH lp 8) dan en khai niem LBTKL: Trong mot phan ng hoa hoc, tong khoi lng cua chat san pham bang tong khoi lng cua chat tham gia. - Noi dung nh luat c bieu dien cu the bang th nghiem va c minh hoa bang hnh anh. Tuy nhien khi giai bai tap HS ch s dung cong thc ve khoi lng e giai, cha s dung phng trnh hoa hoc. V du: Hay cho biet khoi lng cua natri sunfat Na2SO4 la 14,2 g, khoi lng cua cac san pham bari sunfat BaSO4 va natri clorua NaCl theo th t la 23,3g va 11,7 g. Hay tnh khoi lng cua bari clorua BaCl2 a phan ng (SGK lp 8 trang 54)

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Giai: Theo LBTKL ta co: mBaCl2 + mNa2SO4 = m BaSO4+ mNaCl Khoi lng cua BaCl2 la: mBaCl2 = 23,3 + 11,7 -14,2 = 20,8g. LBTKL a ly giai cho s dien bien cua phan ng hoa hoc, giup HS lam quen vi moi lien quan tng tr gia khoi lng cac chat tac dung vi khoi lng cac san pham cua phan ng. - Tiep tuc hnh thanh khai niem phng trnh cua phan ng hoa hoc biet c phng trnh dung e bieu dien phan ng hoa hoc. Bao gom cong thc hoa hoc, san pham, vi cac he so thch hp. - Phng trnh hoa hoc con cho biet t le ve so nguyen t so phan t gia cac chat cung nh tng cap chat trong phan ng - Da vao phng trnh HS de dang kiem tra so lng cac chat trc va sau phan ng sau khi lap he so. en ay HS lam quen vi he so phng trnh hoa hoc. - HS tiep tuc nghien cu cu the cac bc lap phng trnh biet c moi phng trnh hoa hoc ch bieu th mot phan ng hay mot hien tng cu the ma thc te co the xay ra. V du: Cho s o cac phan ng sau: (trang 57, SGK HH lp 8) a) Na + O2 Na2O H3PO4

b) P2O5 + H2O

Lap phng trnh hoa hoc va cho biet t le so nguyen t, so mphan t cua cac chat trong moi phan ng. - Nh vay phan ng hoa hoc luc nay khong con s dung ch e bieu dien ma dung phng trnh vi cac cong thc cu the e bieu dien s phan ng cua cac chat. HS nhan biet c phng trnh phan ng, cac he so c can bang eu la a4n khong s dung so le, nh vay se de van dung hn khi lam toan tranh s phc tap cua van e.

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Cung co khai niem, nhan biet dau hieu phan ng hoa hoc qua mot so bai tap: - Tm hieu ve LBTKL va phng trnh bieu dien phan ng hoa hoc. - Can c vao nhng dau hieu, nhng thay oi ve tnh chat cua chat e khang nh phan ng hoa hoc a xay ra, mot so th nghiem bai thc hanh cho ta thay ro van e nay. Bang 2.4: Dau hieu nhan biet cua th nghiem 2 (bai 14 , SGK HH lp 8) Th nghiem Hien tng Dau hieu Mau sac

Thoi kh CO2 vao dung dch Nc voi trong b van uc nc voi trong Ca(OH)2 (CaCO3 c tao thanh)

- Thong qua bai luyen tap 3 (SGK HH lp 8) cung co lai kien thc, HS co the de dang d oan dau hieu cua phan ng hoa hoc thong qua tnh chat a biet cua chat tham gia va chat tao thanh. - He thong hoa cac kien thc ve dau hieu cua phan ng hoa hoc phai xac nh c moi lien he gia nhng kien thc o vi cac khai niem ve phan ng hoa hoc. ong thi HS co giai mot so bai toan da vao phng trnh hoa hoc (bai 22, SGK HH lp 8) Nh vay can c vao ket qua lnh hoi khai niem dau hieu ve un nong can m rong them ve hieu ng nhiet, kha nang phu thuoc vao nhiet o cua phan ng. Nhn chung mc o phat trien kien thc cho hoc sinh i t n gian en phc tap. 2.2.2.2. Phan loai cac phan ng hoa hoc thong qua viec tm hieu tnh chat hoa hoc cua cac chat cu the: a. Tm hieu khai niem m au ve toc o phan ng hoa hoc: - Khi hoc en chng Oxi- khong kh cac ieu kien phan ng c nhac en cu the hn, bat au tm hieu toc o phan ng hoa hoc. - Nghien cu ve tnh chat hoa hoc cua oxi HS co the biet s lc ve dau hieu cua phan ng hoa hoc. (Bang2.5)

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Bang 2.5 : Th nghiem S chay vi O2 Dau hieu Mau sac anh sang ieu kien t0 Trang thai - Ran : S - Kh : O2, SO2 Lu huynh chay trong khong kh vi ngon la nho mau xanh nhat, va chay trong kh oxi manh liet hn. V du: Th nghiem ot oan day sat (Hnh 4.3, bai 24, SGK HH lp 8) cho thay: + Nhiet toa ra ot nong Fe en nhiet o can thiet e chay trong oxi. + Phan ng trong phan ng co the lam chat xuc tac cho nhau nh co phan ng nay xay ra a kch thch phan ng hoa hoc xay ra nhanh hn. - Nhiet o anh hng rat ln en toc o phan ng. Cac trang thai ton tai cua cac chat c viet kem theo. Tuy luc nay khai niem toc o phan ng xuat hien kem theo ieu kien phan ng nhng ch mi mc o n gian. Nh vay ay co s so sanh toc o phan ng nhanh hay cham. b) Trnh t xuat hien cac loai phan ng hoa hoc trong chng trnh THCS: Khai niem phan ng hoa hoc c cu the hoa bang phan ng hoa hp: - Trc tien hoc sinh tm hieu ve s oxi hoa e hnh thanh khai niem phan ng hoa hp: Phan ng hoa hp la phan ng hoa hoc trong o ch co mot chat mi c tao thanh t hai hay nhieu chat ban au (bai 25, SGK HH lp 8) - T ay HS tm ra moi quan he gia cac thanh phan trong phan ng hoa hoc, biet c so lng chat tham gia phan ng va so lng san pham tao thanh trong phan ng la co nh (qua bang 2.6 ) Bang 2.6 : Mot so phan ng hoa hp Phan ng hoa hoc So chat phan ng So chat san pham Phng trnh phan ng
to S(r) + O2(k) SO2(k)

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4P(r) + 5O2(k) CaO(r) + H2O(l) 3Fe + 2O2

P2O5(r) Ca(OH)2(l) Fe3O4

2 2 2

1 1 1

- Khai niem phan ng tuy khong e cap en ieu kien xay ra nhng co dau hieu e nhan biet da vao so lng cua chat tham gia va san pham tao thanh . - Da vao mot so v du cu the e hnh thanh khai niem phan ng toa nhiet : Phan ng xay ra kem theo s toa nhiet hay thu nhiet la phan ng toa nhiet hay thu nhiet. - Khai niem nay c gii thieu s lc, khi nghien cu cac chng tiep theo th se tm hieu ky hn. Hnh thanh khai niem phan ng phan huy, tm hieu s lc ve chat xuc tac: - T nhng th nghiem (Bai 27, SGK HH lp 8) HS biet c tam quan trong cua chat xuc tac va yeu to nhiet o, nong o la ieu kien anh hng en toc o phan ng. Khi ha thap nhiet o hay tang nong o cua cac chat phan ng th toc o phan ng co s thay oi. Bang 2.7: Tm hieu ieu kien, trang thai cua mot phan ng phan huy Phan ng hoa boc 2KClO3(r) + 3O2(k) Tron KClO3 vi MnO2 th phan ng xay ra nhanh hn vay MnO2 la chat xuc tac. - T ay co the hnh thanh khai nem chat xuc tac nh sau: Chat xuc tac la chat lam tang toc o phan ng. - bac THCS HS ch the hieu mot cach n gian sang Bac THPT th khai niem nay c nh ngha nh sau: Chat xuc tac la chat lam tang toc o phan ng, nhng con lai sau phan ng ket thuc
to 2KCl(r) MnO2

Loai phan ng Phan ng phan huy

ieu kien to, chat xuc tac (MnO2)

Trang thai Ran:KClO3, KCl Kh : O2

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- Tiep tuc phat trien khai niem phan ng phan huy trong ieu kien co s un nong biet c so lng chat tham gia ch co mot chat (Bang 2.8) - Da vao bang 2.8 HS co the phan biet phan ng phan huy vi phan ng hoa hp qua so lng chat tham gia va san pham tao thanh, dan en khai niem: Phan ng phan huy la phan ng hoa hoc trong o co hai hay nhieu chat mi c tao thanh t mot chat ban au( bai 27, SGK HH lp 8) Bang 2.8: So lng chat phan ng va chat tham gia cua mot so phan ng phan huy Phan ng hoa hoc
to 2KMnO4 K2MnO4(r) + MnO2(r) + O2(k)

So chat phan ng 1 1

So chat san pham 3 2

2KClO3(r)

to MnO2

2KCl(r) + 3O2(k)

M rong khai niem phan ng hoa hoc qua viec tm hieu cac khai niem s chay: - bai 28 (SGK HH lp 8) a hnh thanh cho HS mot so khai niem mi nh : + S chay: La s oxi hoa co toa nhiet va phat sang + S oxi hoa cham: La s oxi hoa co s toa nhiet nhng khong phat sang + S t boc chay va cac ieu kien phat sinh s chay nham bo sung kien thc ve ieu kien e phan ng hoa hoc xay ra - Chat chay en nhiet o chay phai co u kh oxi cho s chay. Chu y en s tang toc o phan ng nhanh hn khi nang cao nong o. Neu so phan t lng chat nao ln th toc o phan ng cang nhanh, thi gian phan ng thu ngan lai. c) Hnh thanh khai niem phan ng oxi hoa-kh, phan ng the, moi lien he gia cac phan ng hoa hoc: Nhng ieu kien xuc tien phan ng c s dung nhieu trong chng Hironc, hnh thanh khai niem phan ng oxi hoa- kh: - Chng nay HS c hnh thanh nhng khai niem mi: s kh, chat kh, phan ng oxi hoa kh, phan ng the,... cung co nhng khai niem a hoc trc.

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- Khi hoc en tnh chat hoa hoc cua H2 toc o phan ng c trnh bai mot cach cu the hn, biet c tng tac cang nhieu th phan ng xay ra cang manh. nhiet o thch hp phan ng xay ra nhanh hn va cac phan ng toa nhiet ieu la phan ng oxi hoa kh. HS tiep tuc tm hieu cac khai niem: chat kh, chat oxi hoa, s kh, s oxi hoa. - Hnh thanh phan ng oxi hoa kh: Phan ng oxi hoa kh la phan ng hoa hoc trong o xay ra ong thi s oxi hoa va s kh( Bai 32, SGK HH lp 9) V du: Th nghiem SGK HH lp 9 (trang 105)
to 2H2(k) + O2(k) 2H2O(h)

- Khi ot H2 trong khong kh th phan ng ch xay ra mieng ong - Hon hp kh H2 va kh O2 la hon hp no Bang 2.9: Tm hieu phan ng hoa hoc cua th nghiem SGK HH lp 9( trang 106) Phan ng hoa hoc Loai phan ng ieu kien Dau hieu
C H2(k) + CuO(r) 400
o

Cu(r) + H2O(h)

Phan ng the Nhiet o 400 oC Bot ong co mau en mau o gach cua Cu

- Nh vay en khai niem nay th pham vi a dang hn co the la: phan ng phan huy, phan ng the, phan ng trao oi, ... V du: Th nghiem ieu che H2 trong PTN (bai 33, SGK HH lp 8) Zn(r) + 2HCl(l) ZnCl2(dd) + H2(k)

Phng trnh thuoc hai loai phan ng hoa hoc: + Phan ng the: Zn the v tr cua H2 trong phan t HCl + Phan ng oxi hoa- kh : Zn nhng 2e cho H2 e tao thanh Zn+2 2H+ nhan 2e cua Zn e tao H2 - Khai niem nay oi vi chng trnh THCS th ch c biet en vi mc o n gian. bac THPT th s oxi hoa va s kh gan lien vi s chuen dch electron:

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Phan ng oxi hoa - kh la phan ng hoa hoc trong o co s chuyen dch e gia cac chat phan ng (SGK HH lp 10) Hnh thanh khai niem phan ng the: - T nhng th nghiem ieu che kh hidro trong phong th nghiem hnh thanh khai niem: Phan ng the la phan ng hoa hoc gia n chat va hp chat, trong o nguyen t cua n chat thay the nguyen t cua nguyen to trong hp. V du: (SGK HH lp 8, trang 83) Phng trnh phan ng
to CH4(k) + O2(k) CO2(k)+ H2O(h)

Loai phan ng Phan ng oxi hoa

ieu kien to

- Phan ng gia n chat va hp chat nhng khong phai la phan ng the ma ay la phan ng oxi hoa-kh. Phan ng the xuat hien co nhng ac iem khac biet vi cac phan ng khac. Chu y vao s thay the cac chat khong phai la s nhng va nhan oxi. Nh vay tuy theo cac chat ma xac inh loai phan ng ma s dung ieu kien phan ng cho phu hp. S thay the v tr cua mot chat la dau hieu e phan loai phan ng. Mot so phan ng hoa hoc nhat thiet phai co ieu kien phan ng xay ra. Cung co cac khai niem phan ng khi nghien cu cac hp chat vo c: Nc axit- baz muoi: - Khai niem chuyen hoa ngc chieu nhau se c s dung khi hnh thanh khai niem ve tnh thuan nghch cua phan ng hoa hoc. Tuy nhien khai niem phan ng thuan nghch ch c gii thieu s lc cha c hnh thanh ay. Bang 2.10: Phan loai mot so phan ng hoa hoc Phng trnh phan ng Loai phan ng Chat ban au H2 , O2 H2 O San pham H2 O H2, O2

tialuadien H2(k) + O2(k) H2O(l) Phan ng hoa hp dienphandd H2O(h) H2(k) + O2(k) Phan ng phan huy

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- Nghien cu chng Dung dch (SGK HH lp 8) hoc sinh c biet mot so khai niem : dung moi, chat tan, dung dich, dung dch bao hoa, dung dch cha bao hoa, ... en ay HS lam quen vi mot so bien phap ky thuat lam tang toc o phan ng cua cac chat (ran, long, kh) da vao tnh chat hoa hoc cua cac chat nh : thay oi nhiet o, nong o, ap suat, ... V du: Nhiet o cang cao th qua trnh hoa tan chat kh vao trong nc cang giam nh NO2, O2, N2 ,khong tan trong nc 100oC - Cac phan ng hoa hoc c phat trien theo trnh t nhat nh, i t mc o n gian en phc tap. Nhng ch mc o lam quen nen cha c dan chng cu the, ch da vao mot so dau hieu c ban. Nhn chung cac phan ng eu co dau hieu nhan biet phu hp e HS de dang phan biet. - Nh vay di thuyet nguyen t - phan t th phan ng hoa hoc la s tao thanh phan t cac chat mi t nhng nguyen t co trong thanh phan phan t cac chat ban au. Qua trnh phan ng hoa hoc se tm hieu sau hn ve s chuyen hoa cac chat da vao thuyet electron c hoc THPT. 2.2.2.3. Phat trien va m rong cac khai niem phan ng hoa hoc khi nghien cu cac hp chat vo c quan trong: a) Tiep tuc phat trien cac loai phan ng hoa hoc thanh cac phan ng ac trng cho cac hp chat vo c cu the: Hoc sinh nghien cu cac phan ng hoa hoc lp 9 mc o c ban, va cung co va m rong: - Sang chng trnh hoa hoc lp 9 HS se nghien cu cac tnh chat cua cac hp chat vo c cu the, do o cac phan ng hoa hoc cung phat trien e minh hoa cho tnh chat hoa hoc cua chung. Bang 2.11: Phng trnh phan ng cua oxit axit tac dung vi baz Phng trnh phan ng
to CO2(k)+Ca(OH)2(dd)

Loai phan ng Phan ng oxihoa-kh, phan ng trao oi

ieu kien to

Dau hieu Ket tua trang

CaCO3(r)+ H2O(l)

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- en ay cac loai phan ng (phan ng trung hoa, phan ng phan huy, phan ng oxi hoa kh, phan ng the, phan ng toa nhiet) c s dung a dang va phong phu hn, e minh hoa cho tnh chat hoa hoc cho hp chat vo c. Cac ieu kien lam tang toc o phan ng c s dung cu the hn nh : chat xuc tac, nhiet o... V du: (SGK HH lp 9, trang 18) Phng trnh phan ng 2SO2(k)+O2(k)
C 450

Loai phan ng

ieu kien

V 2 O5

2SO3(k)

Phan ng hoa hp, 450oC, chat xuc tac phan ng oxi hoa- kh la V2O5 .

Vi phan ng nay neu khong am bao ieu kien th phan ng se khong xay ra V du: ien phan dung dch NaCl co mang ngan 2NaCl(dd) + 2H2O(l) - Phan ng oxi hoa - ieu kien: ien phan dung dch co mang ngan - Dau hieu: co kh thoat ra Neu ien phan khong co mang ngan th san pham tao thanh la NaCl va NaClO ( v NaOH se tao thanh nc Giaven) Cl2 + 2NaOH NaCl + NaClO + H2O
dienphan mangngan

2NaOH(dd) + H2(k) + Cl2(k)

V du: Phan ng quang hp ( bai 11 SGK HH lp 9) cung can co chat xuc tac. Neu khong co chat xuc tac la anh sang th phan ng khong xay ra . - Nhng v du tren cho thay chat xuc tac co vai tro rat quan trong, co tac ong manh en s va cham gia cac phan t tao nen chat mi. Yeu to nhiet o cung gop phan thuc ay qua trnh tao thanh chat mi xay ra nhanh hn. Tuy nhien phai theo tng phng trnh phan ng e s dung cho phu hp. - Nong o cua cac chat tham gia phan ng cung gop phan khong nho vao s tham gia chat mi. Dung dch axit t khong phan bet en mc o can xac nh ro dung dch loang hay ac

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V du: Tnh chat hoa hoc cua axit (SGK HH lp 9, trang 16) 2Al(r) +3H2SO4(ddloang) Al2(SO4)3(dd) + 3H2(k)

- Dung dich axit H2SO4 c xac inh la axit loang - Neu dung dch H2SO4 ac nong th phan ng se sinh ra chat khac Phan ng oxi hoa - kh khong n gian la s nhng nhan oxi ma c m rong mc o la s nhng va nhan electron. Da vao s thay oi so oxi hoa e xac nh phan ng. Cac ieu kien phan ng xuat hien t mc o n gian en phc tap dan nham cung cap kien thc cu the cho hoc sinh oi vi hoc sinh THCS phan ln cac kien thc ch c gii thieu mc o c ban cho hoc sinh lam quen. Ch mot so phng trnh co ng dung nhieu trong thc tien c xac. b) Khai niem phan ng hoa hoc c phat trien va cu the thanh phan ng trao oi: - Phan ng trao oi c bat gap hoa hoc lp 8, nhng ch c gii thieu s lc cha c nghien cu, HS bat au tm hieu khai niem cu the lp 9. - oi vi chng trnh lp 9 HS bat au tm hieu phan ng trao oi ngay bai 1, nhng cha hnh thanh khai niem. Sau o tiep tuc gap nhng bai sau, en bai 9 (SGK trang 31) th hnh thanh khai niem: Phan ng trao oi la phan ng hoa hoc trong o hai hp chat tham gia phan ng trao oi vi nhau nhng thanh phan cau tao cua chung e tao ra nhng hp chat mi V du: Ca(OH)2(dd) + Na2CO3(dd) CaCO3(r) + NaOH(dd)

- ieu kien e phan ng xay ra: Phan ng trao oi trong dung dch cua cac chat ch xay ra neu san pham tao thanh co chat khong tan hoac co chat kh tao thanh. - Cac phan ng trung hoa, phan ng the, phan ng oxi hoa kh,c m rong va viet di dang ay u: trang thai, ieu kien phan ng, cac dau hieu e nhan biet.

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- Gia cac hp chat vo c co moi quan he qua lai vi nhau, chung c minh hoa bi nhng phng trnh hoa hoc, co the tom tat tnh chat hoa hoc cua cac hp chat hu c s o 2. S o 2.2: Tom tat tnh chat hoa hoc cua cac hp chat hu c Oxitbaz
+ Axit, Oxit axit + Baz + Oxit baz

Oxit axit

+ H 2O

Nhiet Phan huy + Baz

Muoi
+ Oxit bazo + Kim loai + Axit + Oxit axit

+ H2O

Baz(dd)

+ Axit + Muoi

+ Baz + Muoi

Axit(dd)

- Loai phan ng hoa hp c dung rat nhieu cac lp tren vi mc o a dang hn. Mot phng trnh co the phan thanh nhieu loai phan ng hoa hoc. V du: 2NaOH(dd) + H2SO4(dd) Na2SO4(dd) + 2H2O(l)

- Loai phan ng: phan ng trung hoa, phan ng trao oi Nh vay phan ng trung hoa cung la phan ng trao oi - Hoan thien phan ng hoa hoc bang nhng bai tap cu the nh : Viet chuoi phan ng, nhan biet cac chat, bai toan da vao phng trnh hoa hoc. - Mc o kien thc c ao sau va m rong dan tao ieu kien cho HS phat huy tnh tch cc trong hoc tap. 2.2.2.4. M rong khai niem phan ng hoa hoc thong qua viec nghien cu cac hp chat hu c cu the: a) Phat trien khai niem cac phan ng hoa hoc cua hp chat vo c thanh cac phan ng cua hp chat hu c:

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Cac phan ng chay cua hp chat hu c: - en chng 4 (SGK HH lp 9) HS tm hieu cac hp chat hu c, tuy phc tap nhng phng trnh hoa hoc cua chung c trnh bai theo nguyen tac nhat nh. Hau nh tat ca cac hp chat hu c eu thc hien phan ng chay, con goi la phan ng oxi hoa hoan toan nh: Metan, etilen, axetilen, benzen, ru etylic, axit axetic, ... Bang 2.12 : Phan loai mot so phan ng hoa hoc hu c (SGK HH lp 9) Phng trnh phan ng CH4(k) + Loai phan ng ieu kien to Trang thai Kh, long

t0 2O2(k) Trao oi, oxi

CO2(k) + H2O(l)

hoa- kh Len men giam Kh, long

lenmengiam C2H5OH(l) + O2(k) Phan ng oxi

CH3COOH(l) + H2O(l)

hoa kh

- Nhn chung cac ieu kien phan ng: nhiet o, xuc tac, nong o, ... c s dung nhieu hn. Tm hieu khai niem phan ng the cua hp chat hu c: - chng trnh THCS cha a ra khai niem cu the ve phan ng the, HS biet phan ng ac trng cua ankan la phan ng the thong qua cac phan ng cu the. V du: (Bai 36, SGK HH lp 9) CH4(k) + HCl(k) anhsang CH3Cl(k) + HCl(k)

ay la phan ng the cua metan vi Cl2 - Hnh thanh khai niem: Trong phan ng tren, nguyen t H cua metan c thay the bi nguyen t clo, v vay phan ng tren c goi la phan ng the

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- Khai niem nay cung c ap dung the hien tnh chat hoa hoc cua benzen bai 39 Bezen phan ng the vi Br2 long (SGK HH lp 9) va tnh chat hoa hoc cua ru ru phan ng vi natri ( Bai 44, SGK HH lp 9 ). Hnh thanh khai niem phan ng cong, phan ng trung hp: - en bai 37 (SGK HH lp 9) HS bat au hieu c phan ng cong va phan ng trung hp la ac trng cho anken. Tuy nhien cha a ra khai niem cu the HS ch biet qua phan ng minh hoa. V du: ( Bai 45, SGK HH lp 9 ) CH2= CH2(k) + Br2(dd) Br CH2 CH2 Br(l)

- Qua phng trnh phan ng HS biet c: Lien ket kem ben trong lien ket oi b t ra va moi phan t etilen a ket hp them mot phan t brom th o c goi la phan ng cong. Cac phan ng cong c m rong khi HS hoc tiep bai 38, bai 39. ay chat hu c co lien ket ba, co vong thm eu thc hien phan ng cong - Hnh thanh khai niem phan ng trung hp da vao phan ng sau: + CH2= CH
2
, apsuat ,to + CH2= CH2 + CH2= CH2 + xuctac - CH2 CH2

CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 - Nhn chung cac phan ng cong, phan ng trung hp ay c s dung mc o rat n gian ch minh hoa cho tnh chat hoa hoc cua mot so chat, sang THPT HS co the nghien cu sau van e nay. b) M rong mot so khai niem phan ng hoa hoc mi cua hp chat hu c : - Khi hoc en bai 45 (SGK HH lp 9) HS hnh thanh c khai niem phan ng este hoa nhng HS ch biet: Phan ng este hoa la phan ng thuan nghch V du: Th nghiem SGK HH lp 9 (trang 141)
2 SO 4 dac,to CH3COOH(l) + CH3CH2OH H CH3COOCH2CH3(l) + H2O(l)

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( Axit axetic )

(Ru etylic )

( Etyl axetat)

- Tm hieu khai niem phan ng thuy phan cua : chat beo, gluxit, protein nhng bai tiep theo, o la phan ng cua dan xuat hirocacbon vi nc V du: ( Bai 47, SGK HH lp 9 ) (RCOO)3C3H5 + 3H2O
to

Axit

C3H5(OH)3 + 3RCOOH

ay la phan ng thuy phan - HS tiep tuc lam quen vi mot so phan ng hoa hoc gan vi ng dung cua chung nh: phan ng xa phong hoa, phan ng trang gng. V du: (SGK HH lp 9, trang 146)
to C3H5(OH)3 + 3RCOONa ( RCOO)3C3H5 + 3NaOH

- Hon hp muoi natri (axit chat beo) la thanh phan chnh cua xa phong v vay phan ng thuy phan chat3 moi trng kiem goi la phan ng xa phong hoa. V du: (SGK HH lp 9, trang 151)
C H O (dd) + 2Ag(r) C6H12O6(dd) + Ag2O(dd) 6 12 6 NH
3

Phan ng tren dung e trang gng nen goi la phan ng trang gng Nhan xet: nh vay cac phan ng hoa hoc rat a dang va phong phu , chung gan lien vi tnh chat hoa hoc cua cac chat. Cac khai niem c hnh thanh sau khi HS a c lam quen vi chung nen rat de tiep thu. Nhn chung cac dang phan ng hoa hoc c gii thieu chng trnh THCS cha u e minh hoa cho toan bo tnh chat hoa hoc cua chat. Len chng trnh THPT cac kien thc nay se tiep tuc cung co va m rong da vao thuyet electron, thuyet ion, ... KET LUAN VA E XUAT 1. Ket luan:

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Sau thi gian : Nghien cu s hnh thanh khai niem c ban trong chng trnh hoa hoc THCS, so vi muc tieu va nhiem vu nghien cu at ra, toi a thc hien c cac cong viec sau: - He thong c mot so khai niem c ban trong chng trnh hoa hoc THCS. - Qua nghien cu a tm hieu c c s ly luan cua s phat trien cac khai niem hoa hoc. - Nghien cu c s hnh thanh va phat trien cua cac khai niem chat, phan ng hoa hoc nh: v tr, noi dung, cac giai oan phat trien. Biet c cac khai niem hoa hoc THCS eu phat trien en mc o c ban, cha m rong, i sau vao van e. Trnh t phat trien cua noi dung chng trnh SGK HH theo mot logic t nhng van e a biet en van e cha biet, t mc o n gian en phc tap. Tuy nhien do thi gian nghien cu con han hep va cha co kinh nghiem nen noi dung e tai ch khai quat nhng van e c ban. Tuy a co he thong c cac giai oan phat trien cua khai niem hoa hoc nhng cha ay u, nhat la viec van dung vao bai hoc. 2. e xuat: Qua qua trnh nghien cu e tai toi co mot so y kien e xuat nh sau: - oi vi GV: Can nghien cu ky trnh t phat trien noi dung cua SGK trc khi tien hanh day hoc e co the van dung moi lien he gia nhng noi dung trc va sau bai hoc giup cho HS de chiem lnh kien thc. - oi vi HS: Can nghien cu SGK trc khi hoc bai mi, he thong nhng noi dung trc e tm moi quan he gia cac noi dung sau. Tch cc tham gia phat bieu y kien xay dng bai e at hieu qua cao trong hoc tap.

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