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of hydrocarbons supplies. The partners are
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Oil&Gas Journal Russia

Astana plans to modernize its refining industry


by engaging foreign operators
In 2013, the Government of Kazakhstan is going to lift the moratorium on new licenses
for hydrocarbon resource development, which has been in force for five years. The
requirement not only to produce raw materials but also to refine them inside the
country may become one of the key criteria for investor selection. This task was given
by President Nursultan Nazarbayev to the government in his Program of Economic
Development of Kazakhstan until 2050.
Key words: Kazakhstan, moratorium, oil production, refining, foreign investments.
Ivan Zabludnev

. 2012
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majors. ,

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Oil&Gas Journal Russia

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Karachaganak Petroleum Operating
)
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. 20152019
$4,9, Petrofac
20132016 $2,5.

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Justin Dargin

. Owens
Corning OPEC.

.
Iraq poised for key role in global
energy sector
Over the past few decades, Iraq has rarely
been featured in the news for positive
developments. However, a revolution is in the
works as the country is busy building a bright
future on the back of its rapid improvements
in the energy sector.
Key words: Iraq, oil, natural gas, production,
exports, geopolitics.
Justin Dargin


, .
2011 143,1
[1]. ,
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12 / 2017.
EIA ,
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Oil&Gas Journal Russia

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Oil & Gas Journal 4 March 2013, p. 52-56.

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.


.

1.BP Statistical Review of World Energy, oil production, June


2012, p. 9.
2.Iraq Country Analysis Brief, US EnergyInformation
Administration, September 2010.
3.Iraq Energy Outlook, International Energy Agency, 2012, p. 1.
4.Chazan, Guy, and Blas, Javier, IEA predicts boominIraqi oil
production, Financial Times, Oct. 9, 2012.
5.BP Statistical Review of World Energy, oil production, June
2012, p. 20.
6.Lee, John, Gas flaring costsIraq $5million a day, Iraq
Business News, Nov. 19, 2012.
7.Iraq Energy Outlook, International Energy Agency, 2012, p. 2.
8.Dargin, Justin, Securing the peace: The battle over ethnicity
and energyin modernIraq, working paper, DubaiInitiative, Belfer
Center for Science andInternational Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School,
November 2009.
9.Shell, Mitsubishi eyeIraqs natural gas, UPI, July 13, 2011).
10.Iraq realizesits natural gas potential and hopes to export to
EU, The National, Sept. 12, 2011.
11.Neville, Simon, Iraq could become worlds second biggest oil
exporter, The Guardian, Oct. 9, 2012.
12.Bockmann, Michelle Wiese, African oil flows seen shifting to
Asia as USimports drop, Bloomberg, (Jan. 8, 2013).
13.Mouawad, Jad, Chinas growth shifts the geopolitics of oil,
New York Times, Mar. 19, 2010.
14.Aizhu, Chen, and Hua, Judy, China seen raising Saudi
oilimports 11% in 2013trade, Reuters, Dec. 7, 2012.

Oil&Gas Journal Russia

, , . . , , ,
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.

Tassphoto

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Company (NIOC) 5,2. / 3.

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Co. (NITC) , NationalIranian Gas
Co. NationalIranian Oil Refining
and Distribution.


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, ,

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, Oil&Gas Journal, 4 March 2013, p. 48-51.

37

Iranian oil industry under siege as


international sanctions grow
With the Iranian oil industry deprived of
modern technology and outside investment,
the countrys mature oil fields are in
advanced stages of decline. The rejuvenation
they need will remain unlikely to occur while
sanctions are in place, a condition likely to
persist as long as the Islamic regime insists
its nuclear program is peaceful without
allowing outsiders to verify the claim.
Key words: sanctions, Iran, US, nuclear
weapons, oil export.
Mansour Kashfi

,

. ,
, 2012 $8,5.

.

.

(Society for
WorldwideInterbank Financial
Transfers, SWIFT)

. ,
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Mansour Kashfi PhD, KashexInternational Petroleum


Consulting .
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Oil&Gas Journal Russia

40%


2012

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39

IGSS:
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IG Seismic Services +7 (495) 580-7882


www.igseis.com query@igseis.com

(FBRM)
.
, ,
, .
: , , , , .

Xiaofang Lv
, .. SPE.
Jing Gong . (1995)
, SPE.
Wenqing Li .
Yixuan Tang
.
Jiankui Zhao
(CNODC), .. (2009) .
FOCUSED-BEAM REFLECTANCE METHOD AIDS HYDRATE BLOCKAGE PREDICTION
Examining the variance of hydrate particle size with focused-beam reflectance measurements
(FBRM) yields a clearer understanding of the microscopic mechanisms guiding hydrate
formation and plugging, with the square-weighted chord length method emerging as capable of
predicting hydrate plugging fairly well.
Key words: offshore gas pipeline, hydrate, particle size, formation conditions,
hydrateplug.
Xiaofang Lv, Jing Gong, Wenqing Li, Yixuan Tang, Jiankui Zhao



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Oil&Gas Journal Russia


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Oil&Gas Journal Russia

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Oil&Gas Journal Russia

10% , 4,1 3% . AA 35 (1684/),




40 (1760/). 12


.
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523/, .

5.Boxall, J., Greaves, D., Mulligan, J., Koh, C., and Sloan, E.D., Gas
Hydrate Formation and Dissociation from Water-in-oil Emulsions
Studied Using PVM and FBRM Particle Size Analysis, International
Conference on Gas Hydrate, Vancouver, July 610, 2008.
6.Darbouret, M., Le Ba, H., Cameirao, A., Herri, J.M., Peytavy,
J.L., and Glenat, P., Lab Scale and Pilot Scale Comparison of
Crystallization of Hydrate Slurries from a Water-in-oil Emulsion Using
Chord Length Measurements, International Conference on Gas
Hydrate, Vancouver, July 610, 2008.
7.Sun, C.Y., Chen, G.J., and Yue, G.L., TheInduction Period of

Hydrate Formationin a Flow System, Chinese Journal of Chemical


Engineering, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 52731, August 2004.

1.Peng, D.Y., and Robinson, D.B., A New Two-Constant Equation

8.Skovoborg, P., Ng, H.J., and Rasmussen, P., Measurement

of State, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Fundamentals, Vol. 15,

ofInduction Times for the Formation of Methane and Ethane Gas

No. 1, pp. 5964, February 1976.

Hydrate, Chemical Engineering Science, Vol. 48, No. 3, pp. 445

2.Chen, G.J., and Guo, T.M., A New Approach to Gas Hydrate

53, February 1993.

Modeling, Chemical Engineering Journal, Vol. 71, No. 2, pp. 145


51, Dec. 2, 1998.
3.Chen, G.J., and Guo, T.M., Thermodynamic Modeling of Hydrate
Formation Based on New Concepts, Fluid Phase Equilibria, Vol. 112,
No. 1, pp. 4365, November 1995.
4.Pauchard, V., Darbouret, M., and Palermo, T., Gas Hydrate Slurry
Flowin a Black Oil. Prediction of Gas Hydrate Particles Agglomeration
and Linear Pressure Drop, 13thInternational Conference on
Multiphase Production Technology, Edinburgh, June 1315, 2007.

9.Natarajan, V., Bishnoi, P.R., and Kalogerakis, N., Induction


Phenomenain Gas Hydrate Nucleation, Chemical Engineering
Science, Vol. 49, No. 13, pp. 2,07587, July 1994.
10.Turner, D.J., Kleehammer, D.M., and Miller, K.T., Formation of
Hydrate Obstructionsin Pipelines: Hydrate Particle Development and
Slurry Flow, International Conference on Gas Hydrate, Trondheim,
June 1316, 2005.
11. Oil&Gas Journal, 22 June 2009, p. 52.

, , AA
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(Qin).
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2013

49



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,
.
PIEZOMETRICAL STUDY OF ARCTIC
OFFSHORE WELLS
The interpretation of hydrodynamic and
piezometrical data from prospecting
and exploration wells on the Russian
Arctic shelf has yielded considerable
information content. Some of the results
of interpretation have identified the
man-made deterioration of the wellbore zones filtration characteristics; the
presence of formation boundaries and
their configuration. This enables quick
decision-making regarding the feasibility
of stimulating well-bore zones and the
direction of further studies.
Key words: hydrodynamic well studies,
prospecting and exploration wells, well
stimulation, piezometrical studies.
Leonid Kulpin

(.1)

.
2011
: -

50

,
. ,


2004.

,
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Oil&Gas Journal Russia

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8.
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200361016316.01.2003

54

Oil&Gas Journal Russia

195248, -, . , .21
. (812) 610-02-40; (812) 610-02-52
(812) 303-89-77
e-mail: sales@newelectro.ru,
www.newelectro.ru


(1),
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..., -
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..., .
, ., .
.
OPTIMIZING THE GEOMETRICAL PARAMETERS OF THE CUTTING POINT OF PDC DRILL BITS
A method is proposed for calculating the design parameters of PDC drill bits, to enable the
optimal geometrical parameters of the cutting point (angles of incidence) to be determined. Field
tests when drilling hard rock in North Kazakhstan have proved the capability of this method.
Key words: polycrystalline diamond compact, design parameters of drilling bits, angles of
incidence, optimization.
Nikolai Burenkov, Alexander Tretyak, Alexei Chikhotkin





. , ,

,
D.
,
- PDC (polycrystalline diamond
compact),
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Oil&Gas Journal Russia

1
215,9
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2013

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1. .., .., ..
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PDC/Oil&Gas Journal Russia 52012. .6669.
2. .., .., ..

/ . - .
. 3 2009.
3. .., .., ..

-
//
. 2010. 12. .25
4.
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Oil&Gas Journal Russia


.
,
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2013

...,
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CASING STRING DIAGNOSIS
The condition of casing string is a key factor when assessing the possibility for
recommissioning idle and ageing wells aided by sidetracking and water shut-off. But
existing downhole measuring devices, which are only capable of detecting major defects,
are not sensitive enough to determine the technical condition of casing string. In order to
diagnose vertical, inclined and horizontal casing string a defectoscope has been designed
and successfully tested in real in-field conditions. The instrument possesses sufficient
sensitivity, high logging speed and the capability to function in a harsh thermobaric
environment.
Key words: casing string, diagnostics, defects, damage, defectoscope.
Vyacheslav Klimov




.


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1...
2015. , 7, 2000., .1115.
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.Oil & Gas Journal Russia 12 (15), 2008., .3640.
3...
. , ,
, 2, 2007., .6065.
4...
. , , , ., 3,
1996., .184193.
5... . .
, . , , , .15,
, 2002, .147148.
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, ., 1995. ( ).
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7.
. .., . .., .., ... ..
, 7, ., 1986., .2023.
8.- -.
2.131.005( , ., 2000.).
9. 5131323949482001
-
. , , 2002.
10.DIGITALVERTILOG. Western atlasinternational, Inc. 1991., .35.
11.Digital magnelog Western atlasinternational, Inc. 1991., .69.
12. , 08_FE_024_WL_services_
catalog_rus. df, .145, www slb com.

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13..., .., ..
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.: .: , 2008.-300..
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.8393.
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2002. 10.- .5257.
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21... .
, 2, 1988., .1517.
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. , 4, 1988, .5051.
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19871995. (
2.2. . - ).
68/95
( 550.832.004.53:
622.273/470.46; 6/95/148, , 1996., . 1, 1, .87).
24... .
, 5, 1997., .48.
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26. . .., .., ..,
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27. . .., .., ..,
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. 72.
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65





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Jie Yi .
.
Shun-Li He . .
(PhD)
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Ji-Xiang Ma . .
Leng Tian .
.
(PhD) .
Jun-Jian Wang . .




. [1]


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[2]


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Oil&Gas Journal Russia

EQUATIONS PREDICT WELLBORE


PRESSURE, LIQUID LOADING IN HIGH GOR
WELLS
Unique behavior of gas condensate wells
is characterized by rapid well production
loss. Condensate rapidly builds up around
the wellbore, reducing gas permeability
and gas deliverability, when the flowing
bottomhole pressure (BHP) drops less
than the dewpoint. To improve the final
recovery, the production system must be
optimized.
A task lies in accurately predicting
the wellbore pressure drop because
multiphase flow prevails in the wellbore
as well as in gas and oil transmission and
distribution pipelines. Physical phenomena,
such as turbulence, flow regime
transitions, and thermodynamic phase
changes with pressure and temperature,
occur in the wellbore. Consequently, tools
currently applied to pure oil fields often
produce erroneous predictions. This article
describes forecasting wellbore pressure
and liquid loading in gas condensate wells
under high GOR conditions.
Key words: gas condensate wells,
GOR, wellbore pressure, liquid loading,
prediction.
Jie Yi, Shun-Li He, Leng Tian, Ji-Xiang Ma,
Jun-Jian Wang

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Oil&Gas Journal, 1 April, 2013, p. 64-73


2013

69

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Oil&Gas Journal Russia

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20
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40
50
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2.Trick, M.D., Comparison of Correlations for Predicting

7

3
,

Gas-Water Wells, paper 2003019presented at the


CanadianInternational Petroleum Conference, June 1012,

1,100
2,200

Wellbore Pressure Lossesin Gas-Condensate and

2003, Calgary.

3.Zhu, J.H., Hu, Y.Q., and Zhao, J.Z, Calculation of


II

3,300

III

Wellbore Pressure for Condensate Wells UnderInfluence


of Phase State Changing, J.Natural Gas Exploration &

4,400
5,500
1,0

Development, 2006, p. 1820.


1,5

2,0

2,5

3,0

3,5
4

4,0

4,5

5,0

, 10 /

4.Sadegh, A.A., Zaghloul, J.S., and Adewumi, M.A.,


Gas/Condensate Wellbore Modeling Using a Fundamental
Approach, paper SPE 102479presented at the SPE Annual

II

III

Technical Conference and Exhibition, Sept. 2427, 2006, San

,

,
;

Antonio.
5.Meng, Y.X., Li, X.F., and Yin, B.T., Calculation of
Wellbore Pressure for Condensate Wells, J.Engineering
Thermal Physics Journal, Vol. 31 (2010), pp. 15081511.
6.Xue, X.M., Li, X.F., and Wu, Y.F., Calculating Method
of Wellbore Temperature Distribution for Gas Well with High
Gas/Liquid Ratio, J.Natural GasIndustry, Vol. 26 (2006),
pp. 102104.
7.Li, S.L., Sun, L.T., and Guo, P., Gas and Gas Condensate
Field Development, Beijing: PetroleumIndustry Press, 2005.
8.Veeken, C.A.M. and Belfoid, S.P.C., New Perspective
on Gas-Well Liquid Loading and Unloading, paper SPE

,
2500

.



.




(.2).


30 ,
.
, 6
1, 9
2, 15
3.



95%, ,

74





.


30

TazhongI

.



.

134483presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference


and Exhibition, Sept. 1922, 2010, Florence.
9.Ilobi, M.I. andIkoku, C.U., Minimum Gas Flow Rate
for Continuous Liquid Removalin Gas Wells, paper SPE
10170presented at the SPE Annual Technical Conference and
Exhibition, Oct. 47, 1981, San Antonio.
10.Turner, R.G., Analysis and Prediction of Minimum
Flow Rate for the Continuous Removal of Liquids from Gas
Well, J.Journal of Petroleum Technology, Vol. 21, No. 11
(November 1969), pp. 14751482.
11.Coleman, S.B., Clay, H.B., McCurdy, D.G., and Norris,
H.L. III, A New Look at Predicting Gas-Well Load-Up,
J.Journal of Petroleum Technology, Vol. 43, No. 3 (March
1991), pp. 329333.
12.Nosseir, M.A., Darwich, T.A., and Sayyouh, M.H.,
A New Approach for Accurate Prediction of Loadingin
Gas Wells Under Different Flowing Conditions, paper
SPE 37408presented at the SPE Production Operations
Symposium, Mar. 911, 1997, Oklahoma City.

13.Li, M., Sun, L., and Li, S.L., NewView on ContinuousRemoval Liquid from Gas Wells, paper SPE 75455presented

1.Yang, J.S., Gas Production Techniques, Beijing:

at the SPE Permian Basin Oil and Gas Recovery Conference,

PetroleumIndustry Press, 1992.

May 1516, 2002, Midland, Tex.

Oil&Gas Journal Russia

Shell

: -,
. .
-,
, .
-, .
: -, , .

-,
2012, 378, 14
18. 314
(FSRU) [1].
,
.

76

, ,
-. , Nakilat.
54, .
Oil&Gas Journal Russia

LNG shippers in search of the happy medium


The LNG sector is changing dynamically, before our very eyes.
Major new LNG plants are being commissioned, and a whole range
of consumers are trying to ease their dependence on pipeline gas
supplies by building re-gasification terminals. The changes have not
left LNG marine shipping in their wake: gigantic Qatari LNG tankers,
for example, are not yet sought after by the majority of LNG shippers,
despite their obvious economic benefits, and interest worldwide
is strongest in the smaller and medium-sized vessels due to the
infrastructure-related restrictions imposed by ports and straits.
Key words: LNG tankers, LNG exports, transportation, LNG carriers.
Alexander Sobko

14,4

()
17

102,6

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26


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HeavyIndustries

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Oil&Gas Journal Russia

Kogas

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Oil&Gas Journal Russia

Qmax,

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-:
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[8].

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25
21

25-50 50-90
2

14

1. The LNG Industry in 2012. GIIGNL, 2013.


2. MHI Starts Construction of New-Generation LNG Carrier, Japan. LNG World News, 11.12.2012.
3. Singapore sets sights on LNG hub. Petroleum Economist, 22.03.2011.
4. CNOOC of China Plans to Order 14 Small Scale LNG Tankers. LNG world News, 30.11.2012.
5. Medium-Term Gas Market Report 2012, IEA.

7. World LNG Report 2010. IGU.


8. Q-Max LNG tanker arrives at Japan port for 1st time. Reuters, 13.07.2010.

120-180

200

296

45

: -,
The LNG Industry in 2012. GIIGNL, 2013

2013

6. Turkey Seeks Partnership With Qatar to Build Third LNG Terminal. Bloomberg, 05.01.2013.

2
-
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. 3

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- ,
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170. 3) (11), (300) (50) [9].

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ArcticVoyager Arctic Discoverer
140. 3.
Hoegh LNG K Line Statoil, Total, RWE
Dea . .
2012 Ob River
( 147,5. 3)
. Dynagas
Gazprom Global LNG (100% GM&T) ,
Hammerfest, .

. ,
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9. . . . OGJR 9
(64), 2012.
10. . . ,
. OGJR 1-2 (68), - 2013, . 20.

81


- . -,
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, .
: ,
, .
: , , , .

,
, , , ,
.

,

. .
,
, . , ,

, ,
.

JohnE.Paisie JEA Consulting Group.


JEA
PFC Energy, IBM
Consulting Services, PriceWaterhouseCoopers PwC Consulting.
MBA ,
Global Association of Risk Professionals.
US LNG export projects
Evaluating potential US LNG export terminals on the basis of their
development plan, financial health, and development timeline allows a
sorting of the various projects by their likelihood of completion.
Depending on the extent of the exports, trade flow patterns could be
altered and existing commercial arrangements disrupted. Increased
unconventional domestic natural gas supplies will raise NGL
production and could also shift US energy demand, both affecting
future oil demand. Other countries with substantial unconventional
gas resources could also apply the technological and operational
lessons learned in the US to ramp up production rapidly.
Key words: LNG export, terminals, economics, competition.
John E. Paisie


1 . (FERC).
,
, .

FERC , Oil&Gas Journal, 3 December 2012, p.116-123, 2 January 2013, p.94-98.

82

(EIS) (); , , .
, .
FERC

, ,
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Oil&Gas Journal Russia

1

12
11
13
US

14
6
5 2
3
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8
7

4
10

1. Freeport LNG Expansion


2. Lake Charles Exports
3. Cameron
4. Gulf
5.
Sabine Pass
6. Golden Pass Products
7. Gulf Coast LNG Export
8. Excelerate
9. Corpus Christi Liquefaction
10. Main Pass Energy Hub
11. Jordan Cove Energy Project
12. Oregon
13.
Dominion Cove Point
14. Elba Island

.
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Freeport LNG Expansion


: Freeport LNG (20%), Zachry American
Infrastructure (55%), Dow Chemical (15%), Osaka Gas (10%)
: ,

: 39,6 3/
: 2
: 2 ,
: 320 000 3
:

3 ( )
,

14,5 ,

Lake Charles Exports LLC


: Southern Union
( Energy Transfer Equity) BG Group
: -,

: 56,6 3/
: 3
: 4 , 425 000 3
: ,
77

4 ( )
,
,

Cameron LNG Liquefaction


: Sempra LNG
: -,

: 48,1 3/
: 3
: 3 , 480 000 3
: 2

3 ( )
,
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Gulf LNG
: El Paso (50%), GE Energy Financial
Services (46%), (4%)
: ,

: 42,5 3/
: 3
: 2 , 320 000 3
:

3 ( )
,

Sabine Pass LNG Terminal


: Sabine Pass Liquefaction,
88,8% Cheneire Energy Partners
: -,

: 79,3 3/
: 4
: 6 , 960 000 3
: 2

4 ( )
10 ,

Golden Pass Products


: Qatar Petroleum (70%)
ExxonMobil (30%)
: ,

: 73,6 3/
: 4
: 5
:

4 ( )
,
,

2013

83

2. .
-

Gulf Coast LNG Export


: Gulf Coast LNG Export LLC, 97%

: ,

: 73,6 3
: 4
: 4 640 000 3
: 2

2 ( )
,
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Floating Terminal Project


: Excelerate Energy,
RWE George Kaiser
: -,
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: 2 500 000 3
: 2

3 ( )
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Corpus Christi Liquefaction


: Cheniere Marketing,
Cheneire Energy Partners
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Main Pass Energy Hub
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: , ;
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: 3 480 000 3
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: 6

: 200 000 3
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,

3.
-

Jordan Cove Energy Project


: Veresen (75%)
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: -,

-
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: 1;
: 413,4 3
: 2

3 ( )
,
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Marcellus

Oregon LNG
:
LNG Development Co. (
Leucadia National Corp.)
: ,





: 35,4 3/
: 2
: 2 160 000 3
:

2 ( )

219 ,

.

4.
-
Dominion Cove Point
: Dominion Resources
: ,

Elba Island terminal


: Southern LNG ( El Paso
Pipeline Partners, Kinder Morgan)
: ,





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: 2
: 2 160 000 3
:
: 340
-
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- : , (.2).
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Sabine Pass Golden Pass
Freeport LNG (.1).
,

.
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84

2 ( )

234 ,

.
.

2 ( )
,
,

Excelerate Energy Main Pass Energy Hub. :


, (.2).
.
Oregon LNG Jordan Cove Energy,
(.3).
. Dominion Cove Point
ElbaIsland LNG,

(.4).
Oil&Gas Journal Russia

7.

. Sabine Pass
;

.
Cameron LNG
( , Sabine Pass),
(.5).
Excelerate
; (.6).
-
5. .
-
Freeport LNG
Expansion LP
Lake Charles
Exports LLC
Cameron LNG
liquefaction

Gulf LNG

Sabine Pass
LNG terminal
Golden Pass
Products LLC

3 ( )
,
. Osaka Gas Chuba Electric
100%-
2 ( )

. Kinder Morgan
, -
4 ( )

Sempra Energy
.
Mitsubishi Corp., Mitsui & Co. GDF Suez
3 ( )

. GE Energy Financial Services

Kinder Morgan ,
-
BG Group
5 ( )


. 50%
3 ( )

.

6. .
-
Gulf Coast
LNG Export

1 ()
,
- ,

Excelerate Floating 4 ( )
Terminal

,
. RWE Supply and Trading

2 ( )
Cheneire
,
Marketing
Cheneire Energy
, ..
-
,
3 ( )
Main Pass

Energy Hub
. Freeport McMoRan
. -/

2013

Jordan Cove
Energy Project

3 ( )
,
Veresen
.

Oregon LNG

2 ( )
(Leaucadia National)
.

8.
-

Dominion Cove
Point

4 ( )

Dominion Resources
,
Sumitomo Corp. Tokyo Gas

Elba Island
terminal

2 ( )

Kinder Morgan ,
, , El Paso

BG Group

. Jordan Cove
Energy
Oregon LNG.
(.7).
. Dominion Cove Point

(.8).


. -

Sabine Pass ,
.
Freeport LNG ( , Sabine
Pass), (.9).
Excelerate,
(.10).
.
Jordan Cove Energy Oregon LNG. (.11).
. Dominion Cove
Point
(.12).


, , . .
13 Sabine Pass. Cameron LNG

85

-
9. .
-

Freeport LNG
Expansion LP

:
, 2011 .
: .
2012 . : 2017 .

4 ( )

Lake Charles
Exports LLC

:
, 2011 .
: 2012 .
. : 2018 .

3 ( )

Cameron LNG
liquefaction

:
, 2011 .
: 2012 .
. : 2016 .
:
, 2012 .
:
2012 . .
: ,
,
: .
: 2015 .

3 ( )

Gulf LNG

Sabine Pass
LNG terminal
Golden Pass
Products LLC

:
2012 . , ,
: .
:

2 ( )

5 ( )

2 ( )

10. .
-

Gulf Coast LNG


Export LLC

:
2012 . , 2012 .
:
. . :

2 ( )

Excelerate floating
terminal

: ,
, .
: 2012 .
. : 2017 .

3 ( )

Corpus Christi
Liquefaction LLC

:
2012 ., , 2012 .
: 2011 .
. : 2017 .
:
2012 ., ,
. :
. . : 2017 .

2 ( )

Main Pass Energy


Hub LLC

2 ( )

11.
-

Jordan Cove
Energy Project

: ,
, 2012 .
: 2012 .
. : 2017 .

3 ( )

Oregon LNG

:
, 2012 .
: 2012 .
. : 2017 .

3 ( )

12.
-

Dominion Cove
Point

:
, 2011 .
: 2012 .
. : 2018 .

3 ( )

Elba Island terminal

:
, 2012 .
: .
:

2 ( )

. Excelerate. Jordan Cove Energy


Oregon LNG.-

86


Dominion Cove Point ElbaIsland.
3
, Oil&Gas Journal Russia

13
-

Gulf Coast LNG


Export LLC
Excelerate
floating terminal
Corpus Christi
Liquefaction LLC
Main Pass
Energy Hub LLC
Jordan Cove Energy
Oregon LNG
Dominion Cove Point
Elba Island terminal

3,5

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Lake Charles
Dominion Cove Point. Gulf LNG Main Pass
Energy Hub , .
, .


- , ,
(.14). JEA Consulting
.

() . 2013

Freeport LNG
Expansion LP
Lake Charles
Exports LLC
Cameron LNG
liquefaction
Gulf LNG
Sabine Pass
LNG terminal
Golden Pass
Products LLC

,
3
3

12

11

9
14

13 2
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10

83

1. Freeport LNG Expansion LP


2. Lake Charles Exports LLC
3.
Cameron
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Gulf
5.
Sabine Pass
6. Golden Pass Products LLC
7. Gulf Coast LNG Export LLC
8. Excelerate
9. Corpus Christi Liquefaction LLC
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Oregon
13.
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Oil&Gas Journal Russia

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1.National Gas Act Section 3 (c), amended by Energy Policy Act of 1992, Section 201.
2.DOE Policy Guidelines at 6685.
3.US Decision on LNG exports will not be outsourced Energy Department, Reuters, http://Reuters.
com/article/2012/11/14/usa-lng-doe (accessed Nov. 15, 2012).
4.Natural GasImport and Export Regulations, US Department of Energy, http://www.fossil.energy.gov/
programs/gasregulations (accessed Oct. 17, 2012).

89




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169,6

84,3
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83,5
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95,5
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100,0
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92,9
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90,9
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95,5
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97,4
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94,5
137,5

82,6
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88,7
210,0

97,2
197,0
(1946 . = 100)

174,6
499,9

192,1
630,6

183,3
545,9
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161,4
324,4
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143,6
212,4

144,7
252,5

193,1
322,8

188,1
274,9
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159,1
342,0

141,1
218,4

138,5
199,6
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159,9
216,3

157,7
211,0

171,2
271,0

161,9
149,3
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150,5
233,3
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171,7
274,3

190,7
266,7

156,8
281,9
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151,0
278,5

173,8
346,5
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154,6
328,4
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198,5
272,4
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197,8
353,4

181,2
303,9
,
238,0
310,6


159,9
278,5

165,9
324,4

161,9
269,1

159,0
231,8


195,0
346,9

182,7
319,9
, . .
166,5
337,5

187,1
330,6

198,7
349,4

187,0
365,5

177,0
225,9

169,0
221,2

193,4
386,7

180,0
265,5

147,3
246,4

123,0
125,3

197,0
350,9
( Nelson-Farrar) (1946)
179,8
438,5
Nelson-Farrar (1956)
88,7
118,5
Nelson-Farrar (1956)
88,4
147,0
: , , Wholesale Prices Itemized Cost Indexes, Oil & Gas Journal.

2010

2011

2012

2012

960,3
1124,4
2889,5
2731,5
2629,4
3365,8
2664,3
3875,5
1006,2
414,9
439,1
1183,9
662,9
908,6
761,3
926,6
1337,1
625,0
500,3

968,2
1166,7
3403,2
3460,4
3238,2
4176,7
3368,3
3692,9
1216,2
414,9
439,1
1379,9
801,4
1098,4
844,2
1117,6
1612,8
625,0
500,3

1042,4
923,8
3403,2
3460,4
3238,2
4176,7
3368,3
2499,5
1215,3
414,9
439,1
1224,5
800,8
1097,6
844,2
1048,9
1513,7
625,0
500,3

1065,9
1038,8
3403,2
3460,4
3238,2
4176,7
3368,3
3064,6
1126,2
414,9
439,1
1244,2
742,2
1017,1
844,2
1019,5
1471,3
625,0
500,3

1279,4
454,5

1304,3
470,8

1407,5
489,4

1468,2
478,2

2617,9
3456,9
2909,3

2684,9
3540,2
2985,6

2746,0
3636,7
3055,6

2772,2
3678,6
3089,5

1696,4
1089,9
1421,0
1908,7
1587,0
968,3
1244,1
997,5
513,9
1011,2
1315,9
797,4
1027,8
1116,0
1036,1
1108,2
1120,5
1372,3
1978,0
1435,1
2116,5
1168,3
811,2
1671,6

1809,1
1106,1
1381,3
1953,2
1667,3
952,7
1247,9
998,1
513,7
1070,2
1346,8
821,1
1036,0
1153,6
1067,3
1153,0
1136,1
1405,4
1987,7
1469,9
2039,0
1151,1
797,9
1644,4

1804,9
1136,8
1338,5
2020,7
1718,2
935,0
1270,5
1016,7
514,8
1098,6
1368,3
815,7
1047,0
1220,9
1133,7
1229,3
1199,2
1424,4
2027,4
1477,0
1960,4
1210,0
870,6
1793,9

1777,1
1142,3
1340,3
2027,5
1725,3
935,5
1271,5
1023,3
513,2
1096,1
1375,9
798,1
1045,1
1258,0
1150,4
1278,9
1238,8
1429,1
2058,8
1466,5
1930,9
1249,9
911,7
1878,6

1385,8
1697,5
1866,0
1222,4

1434.7
1752,3
1904,6
1278,4

1480,2
1824,2
1956,2
1399,3

1486,2
1847,1
1976,0
1403,9

3116,7
2761,4
2030,7
1691,1
1288,4
1805,1
938,7
1002,1
1997,1
2798,1
1136,8
650,7
2152,1
2337,6
628,2
796,8

3244,7
3162,6
2108,7
1907,6
1407,3
2089,3
1086,7
1160,2
2308,5
3204,8
1130,0
712,8
2234,7
2435,6
651,9
814,7

3343,8
3227,7
2170,6
1837,6
1387,7
1984,2
1031,9
1101,8
2211,1
3270,2
1154,5
699,2
2331,4
2465,2
637,5
739,0

3357,9
3026,6
2165,0
1742,4
1353,3
1916,9
996,9
1064,6
2075,1
3066,2
1171,1
675,6
2352,5
2467,4
654,3
788,2

Oil & Gas Journal, 1 April 2013 p.88-89

94

Oil&Gas Journal Russia

,
Nelson-Farrar
(1946 . 100)
, . .


()
(1956 . = 100)
(1956 . = 100)

1962
222,5
189,5
183,4
214,8
183,6
198,8
205,9
258,8
237,6
1962
100,9
93,9
123,9
131,8
121,7
96,7

1980
777,3
394,7
512,6
587,3
618,7
578,1
629,2
951,9
822,8
1980
810,5
200,5
439,9
226,3
324,8
229,2

103,7
103,6

312,7
457,5

2009
2011,4
515,5
1023,0
1394,8
1253,8
1239,7
1324,8
2813,0
2217,7
2009
978,5
264,5
1177,1
445,2
812,4
406,2

582,6
706,1

2010
2030,7
513,9
1027,8
1435,1
1116,0
1224,7
1480,1
2909,3
2337,6
2010
1184,9
281,7
1279,4
454,5
850,0
449,8

2011
2108,7
513,7
1036,0
1469,9
1153,6
1256,4
1610,2
2985,6
2435,6
2011
1204,4
277,4
1304,3
470,8
885,7
537,4

2011
2130,0
514,1
1045,8
1481,2
1253,8
1285,0
1618,8
3017,3
2457,9
2011
1078,0
273,9
1307,8
477,5
893,8
518,9

2012
2165,0
513,2
1045,1
1466,5
1258,0
1289,6
1534,2
3089,5
2467,4
2012
1091,6
307,1
1468,2
478,2
897,2
495,9

2012
2167,8
512,8
1043,9
1501,2
1258,0
1296,7
1543,8
3096,8
2475,6
2012
1138,4
282,1
1423,4
504,6
900,2
502,5

628,2
796,8

651,9
814,7

641,1
772,3

654,3
788,2

651,0
798,1

Oil & Gas Journal, 1 April 2013, p. 86

2012


2012
2012
/
622
669
2304
2085
1067
1086
1141
1092
964
805
-1560
-1319
1506
1554
3826
3716

2011

2011
/
%
245
37,7
324
15,1
-349
-23,1
-270
-20,2
-57
-5,7
282
-16,6
-100
-5,9
-139
-3,5

895
650

2472
2148

1162
1511

1064
1334

943
1000

-1419
-1701

1587
1687

3784
3923

10 488
9870
9688
10 552
-64
-0,6

-2125
-1826
-1951
-1783
-342
19,2

-679
-829
-853
-891
212
-23,8

6698
6833
7383
8059
-1361
-16,9

2191
2075
2198
2135
38
1,8

4195
4526
4419
4630
-435
-9,4

1909
1636
1709
1683
226
13,4

22 677
22 285
22 593
24 403
-1726
-7,1
: DOE International Petroleum Monthly, OGJ

Oil & Gas Journal, 22 April 2013, p.34

2012

, .

2013

2013

44 256,5

39 939,0

128 381,9

128 395,2

0,0

22 466,2
20 093,0

21 098,5
17 948,9

66 676,0
57 907,2

65 667,9
59 724,6

1,5
-3,0

22 411,1

21 030,8

66 534,3

65 555,4

1,5

60 441,3
43 682,3
50 801,4
18 474,7
29 794,8
27 292,6
11 107,6
99 200,0
3305,2
5874,0
6313,7

57 803,2
42 774,6
46 495,5
17 114,7
27 317,4
25 064,3
9365,5
92 500,0
3100,8
5582,4
5938,0

183 511,0
135 004,7
152 291,6
55 223,9
84 634,4
80 352,4
30 534,3
295 900,0
9774,8
17 746,8
18 987,0

185 142,6
140 636,6
158 823,1
56 227,4
85 605,3
81 311,2
28 786,9
301 100,0
9445,3
17 379,5
19 477,6

-0,9
-4,0
-4,1
-1,8
-1,1
-1,2
6,1
-1,7
3,5
2,1
-2,5

684,8

595,9

2039,2

2139,5

-4,7

2012

. /
522
519
85
82
115
115
322
322
735
735
355
355
171
171
130
130
79
79
2719
2719
400
400
1625
1625
694
694
381
350
62
49
309
291
10
10
642
645
454
455


,
. /
2012
507
73
115
318
724
355
171
117
81
2711
400
1625
686
366
55
300
12
643
449

2011
529
66
115
348
642
350
175
38
79
2679
400
1608
672
357
77
267
13
635
440

2011
. /
-22
8
-30
82
5
-4
80
1
32
1
18
14
9
-23
33
-1
9
10


178
181
184
181


10
10
10
14

3977
4031
3900
3719

94
89
88
87

213
213
207
214

688
622
613
613

327
343
365
384

2414
2516
2400
2181

241
248
228
240

8976
8999
8850
8561
- .
: Oil & Gas Journal Russia. - OGJ

Oil & Gas Journal, 1 April 2013, p. 114


2013


, .
, .
, .

, .
, 3
.. , 3
, 3
, 3
, .
, .
.. , .
, -
, .
, .
, .


2012

2013

%
-4,2
12,0
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12,8
1,4
-2,3
212,2
1,6
1,2
0,1
1,1
2,0
2,5
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219
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3,4

2012, /

2011, /

III .
88,92
1,50
2,35
1,34
1,73
6,87
1,19
2,47
2,11
18,87
2,23

II .
88,48
1,55
2,33
1,32
1,71
6,83
1,18
2,33
2,14
18,84
2,19

I .
88,64
1,54
2,27
1,30
1,80
6,81
1,18
2,24
2,11
18,68
2,31

IV .
89,08
1,57
2,41
1,43
1,75
6,94
1,19
2,26
2,16
19,13
2,30

III .
89,03
1,62
2,53
1,47
1,84
7,21
1,17
2,37
2,14
19,28
2,21

II .
86,76
1,62
2,31
1,47
1,76
6,98
1,17
2,22
2,12
19,04
2,05

4,48

4,30

5,28

4,81

4,31

3,91


45,80
45,39
46,21
46,57
46,79
non-
0,77
0,75
0,75
0,80
0,79

4,90
4,73
4,70
4,80
4,81

9,93
10,09
10,32
10,07
9,72

10,22
10,67
10,41
10,39
9,95
non-
17,30
16,85
16,25
16,46
16,97
non-
43,12
43,09
42,43
42,51
42,24

88,63
88,63
88,63
88,28
87,15

3,78
3,79
3,89
3,77
3,66

2,94
2,95
2,94
2,94
2,93

10,96
10,86
10,82
10,68
10,07

2,75
3,19
3,35
3,33
3,09

1,63
1,56
1,56
1,61
1,60

22,06
22,37
22,53
22,29
21,32

13,35
13,35
13,42
13,30
13,26

4,40
4,31
4,32
4,21
4,21
non-
12,43
12,04
12,02
12,64
13,00
non-, non-OPEC
30,18
29,70
29,76
30,15
30,46
OPE*
36,58
36,71
36,52
35,68
35,30

-0,29
0,15
-0,01
-0,80
-1,88
* .
: DOE International Petroleum Monthly, OGJ

45,23
0,74
4,58
9,60
10,26
16,36
41,54
86,07
3,36
2,98
10,02
3,33
1,57
21,22
13,36
4,31
12,65
30,32
34,50
-0,69

Oil & Gas Journal, 22 April 2013, p.34

95

, . /

,
. /

2012

, 3

2013

2012

2013

2012

. /

2013

2012

7671
348
170
330
770
823
4241
541
38
77
30
250
15
38
8736
1180
1770
260
660
61
290
28
1380
2000
470
67
255
315
22 392
42
210
2970
2650
740
2820
2600
940
9250
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930
53
187
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24
1545
46
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10

7696
347
171
330
770
850
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246
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22 358
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2685
950
9150
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7671
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170
330
770
823
4241
541
38
77
30
250
15
38
8736
1180
1770
260
660
61
290
28
1380
2000
470
67
255
315
22 392
42
210
2970
2650
740
2820
2600
940
9250
170
1
2919
14
930
53
187
95
24
1545
46
16
10

7469
350
158
330
761
884
4033
538
40
68
30
222
17
38
8576
1200
1770
260
675
63
290
28
1150
2040
470
60
255
315
23 156
41
170
2650
3300
750
2750
2580
894
9850
170
1
3246
16
1029
52
197
105
24
1762
43
16
3

202
-2
12
9
-61
208
3
-2
9
28
-2
160
-20
-15
-2
230
-40
7
-764
1
40
320
-650
-10
70
20
45
-600
-327
-2
-99
1
-11
-10
-217
3
7

2,7
-0,5
7,6
1,1
-6,9
5,2
0,6
-4,7
13,1
12,5
-9,3
-1,3
1,9
-1,7
-2,2
-3,5
20,0
-2,0
11,9
-3,3
2,9
23,5
12,1
-19,7
-1,3
2,5
0,8
5,0
-6,1
-13,1
-10,1
-12,1
-9,7
2,3
-5,3
-9,5
-12,3
7,8
0,9
233,3

42 523,3
4249,5
1189,9
906,6
3342,9
6600,9
9802,2
5241,1
340,0
3776,4
28,3
3484,6
331,5
3232,5
12 864,7
6515,9
113,3
8,5
2974,7
56,7
708,3
1983,1
246,5
1,7
257,8
40 820,7
736,6
793,2
13 173,5
9915,5
1133,2
4674,5
2663,0
7082,5
396,6
252,1
25 831,3
104,8
3212,6
1082,2
475,9
708,3
9547,2
10 504,8
45,3
85,0
65,2

42 395,8
4198,5
1192,7
900,9
3334,4
6600,9
9802,2
5215,6
334,3
4164,5
28,3
3583,7
308,8
3243,8
12 887,3
6515,9
113,3
8,5
2974,7
56,7
708,3
1983,1
266,3
1,7
257,8
40 820,7
736,6
793,2
13 173,5
9915,5
1133,2
4674,5
2663,0
7082,5
396,6
252,1
26 128,8
121,8
3008,6
1099,2
467,4
699,8
8300,7
10 992,0
48,2
87,8
65,2

42 523,3
4249,5
1189,9
906,6
3342,9
6600,9
9802,2
5241,1
340,0
3776,4
28,3
3484,6
331,5
3232,5
12 864,7
6515,9
113,3
8,5
2974,7
56,7
708,3
1983,1
246,5
1,7
257,8
40 820,7
736,6
793,2
13 173,5
9915,5
1133,2
4674,5
2663,0
7082,5
396,6
252,1
25 831,3
104,8
3212,6
1082,2
475,9
708,3
9547,2
10 504,8
45,3
85,0
65,2

13 542

13 468

13 542

13 414

129

1,0

85 290,3

91 494,6

85 290,3

921
13
1696
10 366
82
11
399
54
19 905
515
59
2140
2500
3270
1010
2562
165
7005
84
507
88
75 165
30 367
2689

844
13
1618
10 483
82
11
366
50
19 850
551
59
2105
2348
3334
990
2564
164
7064
82
501
88
75 395
30 409
2809

921
13
1696
10 366
82
11
399
54
19 905
515
59
2140
2500
3270
1010
2562
165
7005
84
507
88
75 165
30 367
2689

915
14
1600
10 390
83
12
350
50
18 846
577
40
2230
2470
3126
940
2518
136
6134
85
504
87
74 707
31 014
3016

6
-1
96
-24
-1
-1
49
4
1058
-62
19
-90
30
145
70
44
29
871
-1
3
1
458
-647
-327

0,6
-5,1
6,0
-0,2
-1,2
-5,6
13,9
8,9
5,6
-10,8
48,4
-4,0
1,2
4,6
7,5
1,7
21,3
14,2
-1,7
0,6
0,8
0,6
-2,1
-10,8

1501,5
167,1
3600,7
64 830,4
566,6
127,5
13 907,2
589,3
92 709,9
2818,8
1501,5
1612,0
1699,8
13 258,4
849,9
5691,5
963,2
60 257,9
3898,2
28,3
133,2
300 037,4
47 821,0
17 054,7

2501,5
167,1
3600,7
67 232,8
566,6
130,3
16 709,0
589,3
92 673,1
2869,8
1501,5
1597,8
1699,8
12 932,6
849,9
5731,2
971,7
72 516,3
3484,6
28,3
133,2
306 397,4
47 821,0
17 329,5

1501,5
167,1
3600,7
64 830,4
566,6
127,5
13 907,2
589,3
92 709,9
2818,8
1501,5
1612,0
1699,8
13 258,4
849,9
5691,5
963,2
60 257,9
3898,2
28,3
133,2
300 037,4
47 821,0
17 054,7

1
1

()
( )
1
1

1
1
1
1,2
1

1,2


1


*OPEC

OPEC
,
. - .
: Oil & Gas Journal. - OGJ

(Baker Hughes)

Oil & Gas Journal, 8 April 2013, p. 30

1756

3488
: Baker Hughes Rig Count

1
2

96

2013
115
336
247
133
464
437

2013
113
350
250
135
642
427

2012
89
312
244
109
492
438

2012
81
311
253
120
706
439


2012
96
356
241
119
365
423

1762
3679

1979
3663

1990
3900

1919
3518

Oil&Gas Journal Russia