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. .

ANSYS

. .

ANSYS

. . , . . .

2004
- (343) 375 94 03
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..

2008

004.4:621.01
32.973.26-012.2+34.42
-39
:
(. -. .-. , , . . );
- . . , . . .
: . .
-39 ANSYS: / ... : -, 2004. 68 .
ISBN 5-321-00533-8
- . . ,
APDL. .
"
".
ANSYS is a registered trademark of SAS IP, Inc.
004.4:621.01
32.973.26-012.2+34.42

, 2004
. . , 2004

ISBN 5-321-00533-8

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..

2008


................................................................................................................... 4
1. ANSYS ................!
.
1.1. ! .
1.1.1. .....................................................! .
1.1.2. ...........................................................! .
1.1.3. ....................................................! .
1.1.4. ................................! .
1.2. .................... !
.
1.2.1. .........................................................! .
1.2.2. ..! .
1.2.3. ANSYS CA- .......! .
1.2.4. ...............................................! .
1.2.5. .................! .
2. -
ANSYS 8.................................................................................................................. 6
2.1. .............................................................6
2.2. .............................................................................................25
2.3. .....................................................................................39

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..

2008


, , .
. , .

.

.
, , , ,
, , , .
,
, . , ,
, .

,
ANSYS ( 8), "" .
ANSYS
. , , (, )
. ANSYS
, .
ANSYS
(Windows, UNIX) :
PC . ANSYS .
(. .
) , , . , PC, . - (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
..

2008

.
, ; ;
; ,
- , .
ANSYS CAD-
CAD, . ANSYS,
CAD- ( Pro-Engineer, CADDS, Unigraphics,
AutoCAD .), ANSYS
.

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..

2008

2.
- ANSYS 8
2.1.

ANSYS.
, , ; ;
.
:
;
,
;
;
;
, , , ;

;
;

;
,
, .

50 , , ,
10 . , .

: =207 , =0,28.


- (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
..

2008

/filename,
stress

/units,si


,

,

;
stress

*afun,deg

*SET,exx,
2.07e11


;
exx ;
2.07e11

*SET,
w_hex,.01


;
w_hex ;
.01

;
w_flat ;
w_hex*tan(30)

;

*SET,w_flat,
w_hex
*tan(30)

*SET,
l_shank,.075


Utility Menu> File>
Change Jobname>
[
Stress> New log and
error file>
Yes > OK]


Utility Menu> Parameters>
Angular Units [
Degrees>
OK]
,



.
Utility Menu> Parameters>
Scalar Parameters
[Selection>
exx=2.07e11> Accept>
Selection>
w_hex
=.01> Accept>

Selection>
w_flat
= w_hex*tan(30) > Accept>

Selection>
= .075 >

l_shank

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..

2008

l_shank - Accept>
;
.075
l_ handle
*SET,
Selection>
= .2 >
l_handle,.2
;
Accept>
l_ handle
;
.2
bendrad
*SET,
Selection>
= .01 >
bendrad,.01
;
Accept>
bendrad
;
.01
l_elem
*SET,
Selection>
= .0075 >
l_elem,.0075
;
l_elem Accept>
;
.0075
no_d_hex
*SET,
Selection>
=2>
no_d_hex,2
;
no_d_hex
Accept>
;
2
tol = 25e-6 >
*SET,tol,25e-6
Selection>
Accept> Close]
;
tol ;
25e-6
/prep7

Main Menu>
et,1,solid45

Preprocessor>
;
1 ; Element Type>
solid45
Add/Edit/Delete [Add> Struc
tural> Solid> Brick 8node 45>

Apply>
et,2,plane42
Structural> Solid> Quad
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..

2008

mp,ex,1,exx

rpoly,6,w_flat

;
2 ;
plane42

;
ex ;
1 ;
exx
,

;
6 ;
w_flat ,

4node 42> OK> Close]

Main Menu>
Preprocessor>
Material Props> Material
models> Structural> Linear>
Elastic> Isotropic> EX>
exx > PRXY>
0.3> OK]
Main Menu>
Preprocessor> Modeling>
Create> Areas> Poligon>
By Side Length [Number of
sides>
6> Length of each
side>
w_flat> OK]

1
AREAS
NOV 25 20
17:04:

TYPE NUM

Y
Z

k,7

;
7 ; 6
;
0,0,0

.2.1.

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create>


Keypoints> In Active CS
[Keypoint number>
7>
X,Y,Z Location in active CS>
0,0,0> Apply>

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..

2008

k,8,,,-l_shank

k,9,,
l_handle,l_shank
l,4,1

;
8 ;
,,,-l_shank X=0, Y=0 ,Z
;
9 ;
,,l_handle,-l_shank X=0, Y ,Z

;
4 ;
1

l,7,8


;
7 ;
8 .

l,8,9


;
8 ;
9


;
8 ;
9 ;
bendrad ,

lfillt,8,9,
bendrad

/view,,1,1,1


;
,,

Keypoint number> 8>


X,Y,Z Location in active CS>
0,0, -l_shank > Apply>
Keypoint number>
9>
X,Y,Z Location in active CS>
0,l_handle, -l_shank > OK]
Main Menu> Preprocessor>
Modeling> Create> Lines>
Lines> In Active Coord [
>
4,1>
Enter> Apply>
Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>
Pan-Zoom-Rotate [+Y]
Main Menu> Preprocessor>
Modeling> Create> Lines> In
Active Coord [

>
7,8> Enter> Apply>
In Active Coord>

>
8,9> Enter> > OK]
Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>
Numbering [Line Numbers>
ON> OK]
Utility Menu> Plot> Lines
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create>
Lines> Line Fillet
[ L8, L9 > OK> Fillet Radius>
bendrad> OK]

Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>
View Settings>
Viewing Direction

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..

10

2008

/angle,,90,xm

/pnum,line,1

lplot

1;
1,1,1
X,Y,Z
, ;

;
,,
1;
90 ;
xm x



;
line
;
1

[XV, YV, ZV Coords


of view point>
1,1,1> OK]


Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>
View Settings> Angle of Rotation
[Angle of degrees>
90>
OK]


Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>
Numbering [Line numbers>
On> OK]

Utility Menu> Plot> Lines

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..

11

2008

1
LINES
NOV 25
17:08

LINE NUM
L10

L8
L9

.2.2. ,

L4L5
L3
L7L6

YL2L1X
Z

/pnum,line,0

l,1,4

asbl,1,7,,,keep



;
line
;
0

;
1 ;
4

;
1 ;
7 ;
,,,keep


Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>
Numbering [Line numbers>
Off>
Keypoint numbers>
On> OK]

Main Menu>
Preprocessor> Modeling>
Create> Lines> Lines>
In Active Coord
[
>
1,4> Enter> OK]
Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>
Numbering [Line numbers>
On> Keypoint numbers>
Off> OK]
Utility Menu> Plot> Areas
Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>
Pan-Zoom-Rotate [
]
Main Menu> Preprocessor>
Modeling> Operate>
Booleans>

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..

12

2008

cm,botarea,
area

lesize,
1,,,no_d_hex

lesize,
2,,,no_d_hex

lesize,
6,,,no_d_hex

type,2

;
botarea
;
area
-
;
1 ;
,,,
;
no_d_hex
,
;
2 ;
,,,
;
no_d_hex
,
;
6 ;
,,,
;
no_d_hex
,

;
2

Divide> With Options>


Area by Line
[ > OK] >
>
7>
Enter> OK > Subtracted lines
will be>
Kept> OK]
Utility Menu> Select>
Comp/Assembly> Create
Component
[Component name>
botarea>
Component is made of>
areas> OK]
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Meshing> Size Cntrls>
Manual Size> Lines> Picked
Lines
[
1,2,6>
Enter> OK> Element Edge
length>
no_d_hex> OK]

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create>


Elements> Elem Attributes

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..

13

2008

()

[Element type number>


2 Plane42> OK]
Main Menu>
Preprocessor>
Meshing> Mesher Opts
[Mesher type> Mapped> OK>
Shape key> Quad>OK]
Main Menu>
Preprocessor> Meshing>
Mesh> Areas> Mapped>
3 or 4 sided [Pick all]
Ansys Toolbar> Save_db

mshape,0,2d

;
0 ;
2d

mshkey,1

save





;
all

Utility Menu> Plot>

Elements

amesh,all

eplot
1
ELEMENTS

NOV 25 2
17:13

.2.3.
Y

type,1


;
1
()

esize,l_elem

Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Create>


Elements> Elem Attributes
[Element type number>
1 Solid 45> OK]
Main Menu> Preproces-

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..

14

2008

vdrag,2,3,,,,,8,
10,9

/type,,hidp

eplot

;
l_elem
,


;
2,3,,,,,
;
8,10,9
,


;
,,
1;
hidp

sor> Meshing> Size Cntrls>


Global> Size
[Element edge length>
l_elem> OK]
Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>
Numbering [Line numbers>
On> OK]
Utility Menu> Plot> Lines
Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>
Pan-Zoom-Rotate [ ]
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling> Operate> Extrude> Areas> Along Lines
[Pick all>

8,10,9> OK]
Utility Menu> Plot>
Elements

1
ELEMENTS
NOV 25 2
17:16

cmsel,,botarea

;
,, ;
botarea

.2.4.

Utility Menu> Select>


Comp/Assembly> Select
Comp/Assembly > OK>

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..

15

2008

aclear,all

asel,all

finish
/solu
antype,static
cmsel,,botarea

lsel,,ext

nsll,,1

d,all,all

lsel,all
/pbc,u,,1

[Comp/Assemb> botarea>OK]
Utility Menu> Select>
Entities
(
[
Lines>
Exterior>
- Apply>
);
Nodes>
Attached to>
Lines,all> OK]
all

Utility Menu> Select>
;
Entities
all
[
Lines> Sele all> Cansel]



Main Menu> Solution>
;
Analysis Type> New analysis
static -
[ Static> OK]
;
Utility Menu> Select>
,, - ;
Comp/Assembly> Select
botarea -
Comp/Assembly> OK >

[Comp/Assemb> botarea>OK]
Utility Menu> Select>
;
Entities [
Lines>
Exterior> Apply>
,, ;
ext
;
Nodes>
Attached to>
,, ;
Lines,all> OK]
1
Main Menu> Solution>

Define Loads> Apply>
;
Structural>
all Displacement>
;
all - On Nodes [Pick all>
DOFs to be constrained>
All DOF> OK]

;
Utility Menu> Select>
all
Entities [
Lines> Sele all>
Cansel]

Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>
;
Symbols [Surface Load
- (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru

..

16

2008

nplot
asel,,loc,y,
bendrad,
l_handle

asel,r,loc,x,
w_flat/2,
w_flat

nsla,,1

nsel,r,loc,y,
l_handle+tol,
l_handle(3.0*l_elem)-tol

u ;
,,1

;
,, ;
loc -
;
y y;
bendrad ,
;
l_handle ,

;
r ;
loc
;
x x;
w_flat/2 ,
;
w_flat
,
, ;
,, ;
1
;
r
;
loc
;
y y;
l_handle+tol , -

Symbols>
Pressures>
Show pres and convect as>
Arrows> OK]
Utility Menu> Plot> Nodes
Utility Menu> Select>
Entities
[
Areas>
By location>
Y coordinates> Min,Max>
bendrad,l_handle>
Apply>

X coordinates>
Reselect> Min,Max>
w_flat/2,w_flat> Apply

Nodes>
Attached to>
Areas,all>
From full> Apply
Nodes>
By Location>
Y coordinates>
Reselect> Min,Max>
l_handle+tol,l_handle(3.0*l_elem)-tol> OK]

- (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
..

17

2008

*get,minyval,
node,,
mnloc,y

*get,maxyval,
node,,
mxloc,y

*SET,ptorq,50/
(w_hex*
(maxyvalminyval))

sf,all,pres,ptorq

allsel
/psf,pres,,2

;
l_handle-(3.0*l_elem)tol ,
;
minyval ;
node ;
,, ;
mnloc
;
y - y
;
maxyval
;
node ;
,, ;
mxloc
;
y y

;
ptorq ;
50/(w_hex*(maxyvalminyval)) ; 50

, ;
all ;
pres ;
ptorq

;

Utility Menu> Parameters>


Get Scalar Data [
Model
data>
For selected set>
OK> Name of parameter to be
defined>
minyval>
Current node set>
Min Y coordinates>
Apply>
Model data>
For selected set> OK>
Name of parameter to be defined>
maxyval>
Current node set>
Max Y coordinates> OK]
Utility Menu> Parameters>
Scalar Parameters
[Selection>
ptorq
=50/(w_hex*(maxyvalminyval)) > Accept> Close]
Main Menu> Solution>
Define Loads> Apply>
Structural>
Pressure> On nodes
[Pick all> Load pres valu>
ptorq> OK]
Utility Menu> Select>
Everything
Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>
Symbols [Surface Load

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..

18

2008

pres ;
,,2
nplot

Symbols>
Pressures>
Show pres and convect as>
Arrows> OK]
Utility Menu> Plot> Nodes

1
NODES
NOV 25
17:25

U
PRES
456140

lswrite

*SET,pdown,

10/
;
(w_flat*(maxyv
pdown al-minyval))
;
10/(w_flat*(maxyvalminyval)) ; 10

asel,,loc,z,
;
(-l_shank+
,, ;
loc
(w_hex/2))
;
z z;
-(l_shank+(w_hex/2))
,

.2.5. ,
: ,

Main Menu> Solution>


Load Step Opts>
Write LS File
[Load step file number>
1> OK]
Utility Menu> Parameters>
Scalar Parameters
[Selection>
pdown =10/(w_flat*(maxyvalminyval)) >
Accept> Close]
Utility Menu> Select>
Entities
[
Areas>
By location>
Z coordinates> Min,Max>
-(l_shank+(w_hex/2))>
Apply>

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..

19

2008

nsla,,1

, ;
,, ;
1
nsel,r,loc,y,
, l_handle+tol,l_ ;
handler ;
(3.0*l_elem)loc
tol
;
y y;
l_handle+tol , ;
l_handle-(3.0*l_elem)-tol
,

sf,all,pres,pdo
wn
, ;
all ;
pres ;
pdown
allsel

nplot

Nodes>
Attached to>
Areas,all>
From full> Apply>
Nodes>
By Location>
Y coordinates>
Reselect> Min,Max>
l_handle+tol,l_handle(3.0*l_elem)-tol> OK]

Main Menu> Solution>


Define Loads> Apply>
Structural> Pressure> On
nodes [Pick all>
Load pres valu>
pdown > OK]
Utility Menu> Select>
Everything
Utility Menu> Plot> Nodes

lswrite

save
lssolve,1,2


Main Menu> Solution>

Load Step Opts> Write LS
, - File [Load step file number>
2> OK]

Ansys Toolbar> Save_db

Main Menu> Solution>


, Solve> From LS Files
- (343) 375 94 03
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..

20

2008

finish
/post1
set,1

prrsol

/pbc,defa

/psf,defa

/edge,,1

pldisp,2

[Starting LS file number>


;
1> Ending LS
1 file number>
2>
;
2 File number increment>

1> OK]


Main Menu>
,
General Postproc>
;
Read Results>
1 First Set


Main Menu>

General Postproc>
List Results> Reaction Solu>

[All items> OK]


Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>
;
Symbols [Boundary conditions
None>
defa - simbols>

- Surface load symbols>


None> OK]
;
defa
Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>

Style> Edge Options
,
[Element outlines for
non-contour/contour plots>
Edge Only/ All> OK]
;
,,
1;
1
Main Menu>

General Postproc>
;
Plot Results> Deformed
2 - Shape [Items to be plotted>
Def + undef edge> OK]

- (343) 375 94 03
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..

21

2008

1
DISPLACEMENT
NOV 25
17:34

STEP=1
SUB =1
TIME=1
DMX =.004904

.2.6.
Y

X
Z

/gsave,pldisp,
gsav



;
pldisp ;
gsav
/plopts,info,on

;
info ;
on
/plopts,leg1,off

;
leg1
;
off
/angle,,120,
;
ym,1
,,
1;
120 ;
ym y
;
1
plnsol,s,int

;

Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>


Save Plot Ctrls
[Save plot ctrls on file>
pldisp.gsa> OK]
Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>
Window Controls> Window
Options [Display of legend>
Auto legend>
Legend header> Off> OK]

Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>


View Settings>
Angle of Rotation
[Angle of degrees>
120> Relative/ absolute>
Relative angle>
Axis of rotation>
Global Cartes Y> OK]

Main Menu>
General Postproc>
Plot Results> Contour Plot>

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o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
..

22

2008

s ;
int (
,

)
1

X
Z
MX

ANSYS 7.0
NOV 25 2002
17:35:56
421709
.302E+08
.599E+08
.896E+08
.119E+09
.149E+09
.179E+09
.209E+09
.238E+09
.268E+09

Nodal Solu
[
Stress>
Intensity SINT> OK]

.2.7. ,

MN

/gsave,plnsol,gsav

set,2

prrsol


;
plnsol
;
gsav

,
;
2

/gresume,pldisp,

Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>


Save Plot Ctrls
[Save plot ctrls on file >
plnsol.gsa> OK]

Main Menu>
General Postproc>
Read Results> Next Set

Main Menu>
General Postproc>
List Results> Reaction Solu>
[
All items> OK]
Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>

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..

23

2008

gsav

pldisp,2

/gresume,plnsol,
gsav

plnsol,s,int

wpof,,,-0.067

/type,1,5


;
pldisp
;
gsav

;
2


;
plnsol
;
gsav

;
s
;
int



;
-0.067
z
;
1 1;
5

Restore Plot Ctrls


[File name>
pldisp.gsa> OK]

Main Menu> General


Postproc> Plot Results>
Deformed Shape
[Items to be plotted>
Def + undef edge> OK]
Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>
Restore Plot Ctrls
[Restore plot ctrls on file >
plnsol.gsa> OK]

Main Menu>
General Postproc>
Plot Results> Contour Plot>
Nodal Solu
[
Stress>
Intensity SINT> OK]
Utility Menu> Work plane>
Offset WP by Increments
[Snaps x,y,z Offsets>
0,0,-0.067> OK]
Utility Menu> PlotCtrls>
Style>
Hidden Line Options>
Type of Plot>

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o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
..

24

2008

/cplane,1,wp


;
1,wp

;
1 1;
wp


;
1 1;
.01
;
s
;
int

/view,1,wp

/dist,1,.01

plnsol,s,int

ANSYS 7.0
NOV 25 2002
18:16:00
204853
.161E+08
.319E+08
.478E+08
.637E+08
.795E+08
.954E+08
.111E+09
.127E+09
.143E+09
Y
Z

finish

Capped hidden>
Cutting plane>
Working plane> OK]
CAD
.

Main Menu> General


Postproc>
Plot Results> Contour Plot>
Nodal Solu [Stress> Intensity
SINT> OK]

.2.8.

2.2.

- (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
..

25

2008

ANSYS.

,
, .

1 .
100 .
, .

: =200 , =0,28.

1000. . .

/units,si



;
w ( );
0.02

;
h ( );
0.02

*SET,w,0.02

*SET,h,0.02



Utility Menu>
Parameters>
Scalar Parameters
[Selection>
w=0.02> Accept>
Selection>
h=0.02> Accept>
Close]

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o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
..

26

2008

/PREP7
K,1

K,2,1

LSTR,1,2

HPTCREATE,LINE,
1,0,
RATI,0.75

ET,1,BEAM3


;
Main Menu> Preprocessor> Modeling>
1 ;
Create> Keypoints> In
Active CS [Keypoint
0,0,0
number>
1> X,Y,Z
Location in active CS>
0,0,0> Apply>
;
Keypoint number>
2 ;
2>
1,0,0
X,Y,Z Location

in active CS>
1,0,0> OK]

Main Menu>
;
Preprocessor>
1 ; Modeling>
2
Create>
Lines> Lines>
Straight line
[


>
1,2> Enter> OK]
Main Menu>

;
Preprocessor>
Modeling>
LINE ;
Create>
1 ;
RATI Keypoints>
;
Hard PT on line>
0 - Hard PT by ratio
, [

; 0.75 - >
,
1> Enter> OK>
0.75
>

0.75> OK]
Main Menu>
- (343) 375 94 03
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..

27

2008

R,1,w*h,(w*h**3)/12,h

MP,EX,1,200e9

;
1 ;
BEAM3

(
3

x y,
z)

( ,

);
1
;
w*h ,
;
(w*h**3)/12
.
;
h ,
,
;
EX ;
1 ;
200e9

MP,PRXY,1,0.28

Preprocessor>
Element Type>
Add/Edit/Delete
[Add>
Structural>
Beam>
2D elastic 3> OK>
Close]
Main Menu>
Preprocessor>
Real constants>
Add/Edit/Delete> Add
[Type 1 Beam3> OK>
OK>
Number of real
constant>
1
Cross-sectional area>
w*h
Area moment of inertia>
(w*h**3)/12
Total beam height>
h> OK> Close]

Main Menu>
Preprocessor>
Material Props> Material
models> [ Structural>
Linear>
Elastic>
Isotropic> EX>
200e9 >
PRXY>

- (343) 375 94 03
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..

28

2008

LESIZE,ALL,
0.1, , , ,1, , ,1

LMESH,1

NPLOT

FINISH
/SOL
ANTYPE,0

DK,1,UX
DK,1,UY

;
PRXY ;
1 ;
0.28


;
ALL ;
0.1


0.28> OK>
]

Main Menu>
Preprocessor>
Meshing> Size Cntrls>
Manual Size> Lines> All
Lines [Element Edge
length>
0.1> OK]
Main Menu>
Preprocessor>
Meshing>
Mesh> Lines > [Pick all]

Utility Menu> Plot>

Nodes
. 2.9. ( :


)


Main Menu>
Solution>
;
Analysis Type>
0
New analysis
[
Static> OK]
Main Menu>

Solution>
;
Define Loads>
1 ;
Apply>
UX,UY
Structural>
Displacement>

On Keypoints
X,Y
[
1
>
- (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru

..

29

2008

DK,2,UY

FK,3,FY,-1000

1> OK>
DOFs to be
constrained>
UX UY>
Displacement value>
0> OK]
[

2
;
2 ;
>
2> OK> DOFs
UY - to be constrained>
Y
UY>
Displacement value>
( )
0> OK]
Main Menu>

;
Solution> Define Loads>
3 ;
Apply> Structural>
FY Force/Moment>
Y ( - On Keypoints [
);
3 -1000 -

>
3> OK>
Direction of Force >
FY> Value of
Force>
-1000> OK]
. 2.10.

SOLVE
FINISH
/POST1
AVPRIN,0,0


Main Menu>
Solution> Solve>
Current LS Files]



Main Menu>

;
General Postproc>
Element Table>
0
Define Table> Add>
- [Eff NU for EQU strain>
,
- (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru

..

30

2008

ETABLE,evolume,
VOLU

SSUM


;
0


( );
evolume ;
VOLU

*GET,volume,SSUM, ,

ITEM,EVOLUME
, ;
volume
();
SSUM ;
ITEM ;
EVOLUME
-

0> User label for


item>
evolume> Results
data item>
Geometry>
Elem volume> OK>
Close]
Main Menu>
General Postproc>
Element
Table>
Sum of Each Item>
OK
[

:
evolume,
0.4e-3]
Utility Menu>
Parameters>
Get Scalar Data>
Results Data>
Elem table sums> OK>
[Name of parameter to
be defined>
volume> element
table item>
evolume> OK]

- (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
..

31

2008


AVPRIN,0,0


;
0
,

;
0

Main Menu>
General Postproc>
Element Table>
Define Table> Add>
[Eff NU for EQU strain>
0>

ETABLE,smax_i,
NMISC, 1


( i-
);
smax_i

;
NMISC
;
1

ESORT,ETAB,
SMAX_I,0,1


;
ETAB ;
SMAX_I

User label for item>


smax_i>
By sequence num>
nmisc>
nmisc,1> OK>
Close]
Main Menu>
General Postproc>
List Results>
Sorted Listing>
Sort Elems>
[Order in which to sort>
Descending order>
Sort on absolute vale>
Yes>
Sort elems based on>
smax_i>
OK]
Utility Menu>
Parameters>
Get Scalar Data>
Results Data>
Other operations> OK>

- (343) 375 94 03
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..

32

2008

*GET,smaxi,
SORT,,MAX

AVPRIN,0,0

ETABLE,smax_j,
NMISC, 3

;
0 ;
1


, ;
smaxi (
);
SORT ;
MAX


;
0
,

;
0


( j-
), -

[Name of parameter to
be defined>
smaxi>
Data to be retrieved>
From sort opern>
Maximum value>
OK]

Main Menu>
General Postproc>
Element Table>
Define Table> Add>
[Eff NU for EQU strain>
0>

User label for item>


smax_j>
By sequence num>
nmisc>
nmisc,3> OK>
Close]

- (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
..

33

2008

ESORT,ETAB,
SMAX_J,0,1

*GET,smaxj,
SORT,,MAX

*SET,smax,
smaxi>smaxj

;
smax_j

;
NMISC
;
3


;
ETAB ;
SMAX_J
;
0 ;
1


, ;
smaxj (
);
SORT ;
MAX



;
smax ;
smaxi>smaxj

Main Menu>
General Postproc>
List Results>
Sorted Listing>
Sort Elems>
[Order in which to sort>
Descending order>
Sort on absolute vale>
Yes>
Sort elems based on>
smax_j> OK]
Utility Menu>
Parameters>
Get Scalar Parameters>
Results Data>
Other operations>
[Name of parameter to
be defined>
smaxj>
Data to be retrieved>
From sort opern>
Maximum value>
OK]
>
smax=smaxi>smaxj
Enter

- (343) 375 94 03
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..

34

2008

FINISH

/OPT
OPANL,'optimize',
'lgw',' '

OPVAR,H,
DV,0.01,0.05,0.001

Utility Menu>
File>
Write DB Log File>
[Name>
optimize.lgw>
OK]

Main Menu>

Design Opt>

Analysis File>
(
Assign>
, Browse>
APDL,
optimize.lgw> OK>
, - OK
P51X
);
optimize
;
lgw

;
H (
),

, ;
DV ;
0.01
;
0.05 -
-

Main Menu>
Design Opt>
Design Variables> Add>
[Parameter>
H>
Minimum value>
0.01>
Maximum value>
0.05>
Convergence tolerance>
0.001>
Apply>

- (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
..

35

2008

;
0.001
OPVAR,W,
DV,0.01,0.05,0.001

;
W ( ),
,
;
DV ;
0.01
;
0.05 -
;
0.001

Parameter>
W>
Minimum value>
0.01>
Maximum value>
0.05>
Convergence tolerance>
0.001> OK> Close]

OPVAR,SMAX,SV,
98e6,100e6,0.001


( ,
)
SMAX (
,

);
SV ;

Main Menu>
Design Opt>
State Variables>
Add> [Parameter>
SMAX >
Minimum value>
98e6>
Maximum value>
100e6>
Convergence tolerance>
0.001> OK>Close]

- (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
..

36

2008

98e6
;
100e
;
0.001
OPVAR,VOLUME,
OBJ,200e-9


(
,
);
VOLUME

( );
OBJ ;
200e-9

Main Menu>
Design Opt> Objective>
Add>
[Parameter>
VOLUME >
Minimum value>
Convergence tolerance>
200e-9> OK]

OPTYPE,FIRS

;
FIRS

;
30
;
100 %;
0.2

Main Menu>
Design Opt>
Method/Tools> Method>
First-Order> OK>
[Maximum iterations>
30>
Persent step size>
100>
Percent forward diff>
0.2> OK]

OPFRST,30,100,0.2

- (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
..

37

2008

OPEXE
KEYW,BETA,0



[
]

XVAROPT,' '


X;
,,

PLVAROPT,H,W


;
H,W

Main Menu>
Design Opt> Run
Utility Menu>
Parameters>
Scalar Parameters>
( H=0.031 ,
W=0.012 ;

SMAX=99,966,

VOLUME=37e-3)
> Close
Main Menu>
Design Opt>
Design Sets>
Graphs/Table>
[X-variable parameter>
Set number>
Y-variable parameter>
H W>
Graph> OK]

. 2.11.


( 29
)

FINISH

- (343) 375 94 03
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..

38

2008

2.3.

ANSYS. .

; , ;
150 .



/prep7
et,1,solid92

mp,EX,1,70e9
mp,PRXY,1,0.34


Main Menu>

Preprocessor>
;
1 Element Type>
;
Add/Edit/Delete
solid92 - [Add>
Structural>

Solid>
(
Tet 10 node 92>
10- OK> Close]
)
Main Menu>
;
Preprocessor>
Material Props>
EX ;
Material Models>
1
( );
[
Structural>
70e9
Linear>
;
Elastic>
Isotropic> 1>
PRXY
OK>
;
Young's modulus EX>
0.34 70e9>

PRXY>
0.34> OK>

- (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
..

39

2008

;
ALPX

;
1 ;
19e-6
;
EX ;
2
();
200e9 ;
PRXY
;
0.28

Thermal expansion>
Secant coefficient>
Isotropic>
19e-6>
OK >

mp,ALPX,2,12e-6

;
ALPX
;
2 ;
12e-6

Thermal expansion>
Secant coefficient>
Isotropic>
12e-6> OK]

tref,70

, ;
70

Main Menu>
Preprocessor> Loads>
Define Loads>
Settings>
Reference Temp
[
70> OK]

mp,ALPX,1,19e-6

mp,EX,2,200e9
mp,PRXY,2,0.28

Material>
New Material> 2> OK>
[
Structural>
Linear>
Elastic>
Isotropic Young's
modulus EX>
200e9>
PRXY>
0.28> OK>

- (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
..

40

2008

/pnum,volu,1

/num,1

cylind,0.015, ,
-0.0075,0,0,180


;
volu
;
1


;
1
;

;
0.015
;
,, - ;
-0.0075 Z,
;
0 Z,
, ;
0
,

;
180


Utility Menu>
PlotCtrls>
Numbering
[Volume numbers>
On> OK]

Main Menu>
Preprocessor>
Modeling> Create>
Volumes> Cylinder>
By Dimensions
[Outer radius>
0.015>
Z-coordinates>
-0.0075,0>
Starting angle>
0>
Ending angle>
180> Apply>

- (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
..

41

2008

cylind,0.015, ,0.03,
0.0375,0,180

cylind,
0.0075, ,0,0.03,0,180

wpoff,0.0015

wpstyle,,,,,,,,0

;
0.015 ;
,, - ;
0.03 Z,
;
0.0375 Z, ;
0
,

;
180

;
0.0075 ;
,, - ;
0 Z, ,
;
0.03 Z,
;
0
,

;
180


;
0.0015
X

Outer radius>
0.015>
Z-coordinates>
0.03, 0.0375>
Starting angle>
0>
Ending angle>
180>
Apply>

Outer radius>
0.0075>
Z-coordinates>
0,0.03>
Starting angle>
0>
Ending angle>
180> OK

Utility Menu>
WorkPlane> Offset WP
by Increments
[Snaps X,Y,Z offset>
0.0015> OK]
Utility Menu>
WorkPlane> Display
Working Plane [

- (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
..

42

2008

cylind,0.03,0.0105,0,
0.0225,0,180

wpoff,-0.0015

wpstyle,,,,,,,,0
cylind,0.03,0.0105,
0.0225,0.03,0,180

;
0.0105 ;
0.03 ;
0 Z, ,
;
0.0225 Z, ;
0
,

;
180


;
-0.0015
X


;
0.0105 ;
0.03 ;
0.0225 Z,
;
0.03 Z,
;
0
,

]
Main Menu>
Preprocessor>
Create>
Cylinder>
By Dimensions
[Outer radius>
0.03>
Optional inner radius>
0.0105>
Z-coordinates>
0, 0.0225>
Starting angle>
0>
Ending angle>
180> OK]

Utility Menu>
Work plane> Offset
WP by Increments
[Snaps X,Y,Z offset>
-0.0015> OK]
Utility Menu>
Working Plane>
Display Working Plane
Main Menu>
Preprocessor>
Create> Cylinder>
By Dimensions
[Outer radius>
0.03>
Optional inner radius>
0.0105>
Z-coordinates>
0.0225,0.03>
Starting angle>
0>

- (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
..

43

2008

vglue,all


;
180


,
;
all

Ending angle>
180> OK]

Main Menu>
Preprocessor>
Operate> Booleans>
Glue> Volumes
[Pick all]

.2.12.
ANSYS (
)

numcmp,all

vplot

mat,1

Main Menu>
Preprocessor>
Numbering Ctrls>
Compress Numbers
[Label Items to be
compressed>
All> OK]
Main Menu>

Preprocessor>
Modeling>
Check Geom>
Show Degeneracy>
Plot Degen Volus [OK]
Main Menu> Pre, processor> Modeling>
1;
Create> Elements>
1
Elem Attributes [OK]

, , , ,
..;
all

- (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
..

44

2008

smrt,off

vmesh,4,5

mat,2

vmesh,1,3

/pnum,mat,1


;
off
,

;
4,5
4
5 1

Main Menu>
Preprocessor>
Meshing> Size Cntrls>
SmartSize>
Basic [OK]

Main Menu>
Preprocessor>
Meshing> Mesh>
Volumes> Free
[
>
OK]
Main Menu>
, Preprocessor>
, Modeling> Create>
2;
Elements>
2
Elem Attributes
[Material number>
2> OK]
Main Menu>
- Preprocessor>
;
Meshing> Mesh>
Volumes>
1,3
1 Free [ (
3 1
,

)>
OK]

Utility Menu>
PlotCtrls> Numbering
;
mat - [Node numbers>
On>
;
Elem/Attrib number1 - ing>
Material numbers>

- (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru

..

45

2008

eplot

Numbering shown
with>
Colors only> OK]

Utility Menu> Plot>
Elements

.2.13.

psmesh
,,,
20001,
volu,
1,0,Z,
0.015,,,,
epts,
npts



,
PRETS179; psmesh
,
,
PRETS179;
20001 , ;
volu
;
1 , ;
0

; z 0;
0.015 z, -

Main Menu>
Preprocessor>
Modeling>
Create>
Elements>
Pretension>
Pretension Mesh>
With Options>
Divide at Valu>
Elements in Volu
[

>
OK>
Pretension node>
20001>
Separation coord
system>
Global Cartesian>
Separation surface
norml to>
z-axis>
Coord value>
0.015>
Elem component>

- (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
..

46

2008

cm,
lines,
line

cmplot

( );
epts ,
, ; npts ,

;
lines ;
line
, ,

epts>
Node component>
npts> OK]

Utility Menu>
Select>
Comp/Assembly>
Create Component >
[
Lines>
Lines> OK]
Utility Menu> Plot>
Components>
Selected Components

.2.14. ( ),

finish
/solu
eqslv,pcg,1e-8

asel,s,loc,y



Main Menu>
;
Solution> Analysis
pcg
Type> Sol'n Control>
;
1e-8 , Sol'n Options

[ Pre-Condition CG>
Accuracy> OK]

Utility Menu>
Select> Entities
;
s [
Areas>
;
By location>
- (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru

..

47

2008

da,all,symm

loc ;
y y
;
all
;
symm

Y coordinates>
0> OK]
Main Menu>
Solution> Define
loads> Apply> Structural> Displacement>
Symmetry B.C.>
On Areas [Pick all]

.2.15.
,

asel,all

;
all

dk,1,ux

;
1 ;
ux
x

Utility Menu>
Select> Entities
[ Areas>
By num/pick>
From full>
OK> Pick all]
Main Menu>
Solution>
Define loads>
Apply>
Structural>
Displacement>
On Keypoints
[
>
1> Enter>
OK> DOFs
to be constrained>
UX>

- (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
..

48

2008

dk,12,ux

;
12 ;
ux
x

dk,1,uz

;
1 ;
uz
z

f,20001,fx,100

,
;
20001 ;
fx ,
x;
400

Displacement value>
0> Apply>

>
12> Enter> OK>
DOFs to be constrained>
UX> Displacement
value>
0> Apply>

>
1> Enter> OK>
DOFs
to be constrained>
UX , UZ ( )>
Displacement value>
0> OK]
Main Menu>
Solution> Define
loads> Apply>
Structural>
Force/Moment>
On Nodes [
>
20001> Enter>
OK> Direction of
force/mom>
FX>
Force/moment value>
400> OK> Close]

- (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
..

49

2008

.2.16. .

(
1
x z, 12
x),


/title,first

solve
finish
/post1
/cont,1,
9,-10e6, ,10e6

plnsol,s,z


;
first

Utility Menu> File>


Change Title
[Enter new title>
first> OK]
Main Menu>
Solution> Solve>
Current LS [OK]


Utility Menu>

PlotCtrls> Style>
;
1 ;
Contours>
9 ;
Uniform Contours
User specified>
-10e6 - [
Min contour value>
;
,, , -10e6>
;
Max contour value>
10e6 10e6> OK]

Main Menu>

- General Postproc>
;
Plot Results>
s Contour Plot>
;
Nodal Solu
[Item to be contoured>
z z
Stress>
Z-direction SZ> OK]
- (343) 375 94 03
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..

50

2008

.2.17.

:

,
finish
/solu
antype,,restart

fdele,20001,fx

d,20001,
ux,%_fix%



Main Menu>

Solution>
( Analysis Type>
);
,, Restart [OK]
();
restart
,
Main Menu>
;
Solution> Define
Loads> Delete>
20001 ;
fx ,
Structural>
x
Force/Moment>
On Nodes
[
>
20001> Enter>
OK> Force/moment to
be deleted>
FX> OK]
Main Menu>
;
Solution> Define
Loads> Apply>
20001 ;
Structural>
ux x;
%_fix% , Displacement >
On Nodes
- (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru

..

51

2008

,
,
/title,second

solve
finish
/post1
plnsol,s,z

finish
/solu
antype,,restart

tunif,150

/title,third


;
second

[
>
20001> Enter> OK>
DOFs to be constrained>
UX> Apply as>
Fix to Current> OK]
Utility Menu> File>
Change Title
[Enter new title>
second> OK]
Main Menu> Solution> Solve> Current
LS [OK]




;
s
;
z z

Main Menu>
General Postproc>
Plot Results> Contour
Plot> Nodal Solu
[Item to be contoured>
Stress>
Z-direction SZ> OK]


Main Menu>

Solution> Analysis
( Type> Restart [OK]
);
,, ();
restart
Main Menu>
;
Solution> Define
150 Loads> Apply>
Structural>
Temperature> Uniform
Temp [Uniform temperature>
150> OK]
Utility Menu> File>
- (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru

..

52

2008


;
third

solve
finish
/post1
/cont,1,
9,-50e6, ,50e6
plnsol,s,z




;
s
;
z z

Change Title
[Enter new title>
third> OK]
Main Menu>
Solution> Solve>
Current LS [OK]
Utility Menu>
PlotCtrls> Style>
Contours> Uniform
Contours
[
User specified>
Min contour value>
-50e6>
Max contour value>
50e6> OK]
Main Menu>
General Postproc>
Plot Results>
Contour Plot>
Nodal Solu
[Item to be contoured>
Stress>
Z-direction SZ>
OK]
.2.18.
150 : ,


- (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
..

53

2008

finish

- (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
..

54

2008


ANSYS

. .
. .

06263 12.11.2001 .
03.11.2004


.-. . 4,1
50 .

6084 1/16
. . . 4,12

-
620002, , . , 19
-
620002, , . , 19

- (343) 375 94 03
o.m.ogorodnikova@bk.ru http://cae.ustu.ru
..

55

2008