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Scientific Method

Scientific Method of
Scientific Method: A method reducing uncertainty
stemming from a lack of information.
Reliability and Validity are the two traits which characterize
the scientific method.

Validity –characteristic used to describe the research that

measures what it claims to measures. ex-to measure
television viewing audiences.

Reliability-characteristic of a research methodology that allows

it to be repeated again by any researcher-always with the
same results.

Scientific method in the physical sciences
and marketing
• Physical Sciences appears significantly more scientific than
• In most physical sciences the reproducible experiment is the
accepted scientific method, an experiment is conducted under
controlled condition
• In marketing it is difficult to control all the condition
surrounding research project.
• Until recent years marketing research is not supported by
Validity and Reliability and the methodology is not published.
• Nowadays there are some marketing research which can be
called as experiments.

Distinction between Scientific
and Nonscientific
Three major differences between scientific
and non scientific methods that affect the
reliability and validity of results are
1- Objectivity of the investigator
2- Accuracy of Measurement
3- Continuing and Exhaustive nature of

Objectivity of the Investigator
• Researcher must base their judgment on facts, not on
perceived notions or intuition.

• If an investigator is not completely objective in his

thinking , if he is not just as anxious to find facts
supporting one outcome of his study , it is unlikely his
work will be scientific.

• Marketing researcher often report to strong- willed

executives and they pressurize the researcher to confirm
their views.

Accuracy of Measurement
• The Scientific method attempts to obtain the most
accurate measurement possible.
• In the Physical Sciences electronic measuring
devices of great accuracy are available for some
• In marketing researches typical scales used are
I like a lot
I like it little
I dislike it
I dislike it little

Continuing and Exhaustive
nature of investigation

• Considers all the facts pertinent to the

problem at hand.

• It is aggressive searching for additional

evidence to support, or confound, the
existing conclusion.
Difficulties in Applying the
Scientific Method to Marketing
Problems Lack of reliability in following factors
• Investigator involved in use of • I.B & E.N.I
• Imprecise Measuring Devices • A.M.
• Influence of Measurement • A.M.
process on Results
• Time Pressure for Results • E.N.I.
• Difficulty in using Experiments • E.N.I.
to test Hypothesis
• Great complexity of Subject
• I.B., A.M., E.N.I.

I.B.=investigator objectivity
A.M.=accuracy in measurement
E.N.I.=exhaustive nature of investigation