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Scientific Method

Scientific Method of
Investigation
Scientific Method: A method reducing uncertainty
stemming from a lack of information.
Reliability and Validity are the two traits which characterize
the scientific method.

Validity –characteristic used to describe the research that


measures what it claims to measures. ex-to measure
television viewing audiences.

Reliability-characteristic of a research methodology that allows


it to be repeated again by any researcher-always with the
same results.

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Scientific method in the physical sciences
and marketing
• Physical Sciences appears significantly more scientific than
marketing.
• In most physical sciences the reproducible experiment is the
accepted scientific method, an experiment is conducted under
controlled condition
• In marketing it is difficult to control all the condition
surrounding research project.
• Until recent years marketing research is not supported by
Validity and Reliability and the methodology is not published.
• Nowadays there are some marketing research which can be
called as experiments.

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Distinction between Scientific
and Nonscientific
Three major differences between scientific
and non scientific methods that affect the
reliability and validity of results are
1- Objectivity of the investigator
2- Accuracy of Measurement
3- Continuing and Exhaustive nature of
investigation

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Objectivity of the Investigator
• Researcher must base their judgment on facts, not on
perceived notions or intuition.

• If an investigator is not completely objective in his


thinking , if he is not just as anxious to find facts
supporting one outcome of his study , it is unlikely his
work will be scientific.

• Marketing researcher often report to strong- willed


executives and they pressurize the researcher to confirm
their views.

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Accuracy of Measurement
• The Scientific method attempts to obtain the most
accurate measurement possible.
• In the Physical Sciences electronic measuring
devices of great accuracy are available for some
measurements.
• In marketing researches typical scales used are
I like a lot
I like it little
I dislike it
I dislike it little

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Continuing and Exhaustive
nature of investigation

• Considers all the facts pertinent to the


problem at hand.

• It is aggressive searching for additional


evidence to support, or confound, the
existing conclusion.
Difficulties in Applying the
Scientific Method to Marketing
Problems Lack of reliability in following factors
• Investigator involved in use of • I.B & E.N.I
results
• Imprecise Measuring Devices • A.M.
• Influence of Measurement • A.M.
process on Results
• Time Pressure for Results • E.N.I.
• Difficulty in using Experiments • E.N.I.
to test Hypothesis
• Great complexity of Subject
• I.B., A.M., E.N.I.

Where
I.B.=investigator objectivity
A.M.=accuracy in measurement
E.N.I.=exhaustive nature of investigation
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