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# The Solar System

Solar System
the sun and all things orbiting around it, including the eight major planets, their satellites, and all the smaller pieces such as asteroids, meteoroids, and comets
Not to scale

http://asm.arc.nasa.gov/Gallery/images/generic/LG_Capableofeverything.jpg

## Formation of the Solar System

Formed around 4.6 billion years ago
Solar Nebula Huge cloud of gas and dust that collapsed into a flattened disk

Disk Sun formed at the center of the disk while other objects (planets, moons, etc.) formed from the whirling material of the disk

Solar System Much of the material was cleared away. The Sun, planets, and other objects remained
Images taken from:
http://astronomyonline.org/SolarSystem/SolarSystemFormation.asp

Planet
derived from a Greek word that means wanderer a major object which orbits around a star in our solar system, there are eight such objects which are traditionally called planets

Orbit
the path of an object in space as it travels around another object planets orbit around the sun in an elliptical (flattened circle or oval) path; proposed by Johannes Kepler Keplers 1st Law due to the gravitational attraction, a planets (or other objects) speed increases as it approaches the sun Planetary Motion Not to scale

The Earth animation is not rotating in the correct direction; it should be rotating from west to east

What do you think is the relationship between a planets orbit and a year?

## Mass vs. Weight

Mass Weight

a measure of how much matter an object is made of does not change, regardless of where something or someone is

the force of gravity on an object equal to the mass of the body times the local acceleration of gravity

## Why do you think the persons weight is less on the moon?

The Earth animation is not rotating in the correct direction; it should be rotating from west to east

## Mass = 59 kg Weight = 579 N

Mass = 59 kg Weight = 96 N

http://www.exploratorium.edu/ronh/weight/index.html

## Rotation vs. Revolution

Rotation
the movement or path of the earth or a heavenly body turning on its axis equivalent to one day

Revolution
the motion of one body around another, such as Earth orbiting around the sun also known as an orbital period equivalent to one year

## Earth revolves at a speed of around 107,000 km/hr or 67,000 mi/hr

The Earth animation is not rotating in the correct direction; it should be rotating from west to east

Sun

Tips for remembering: rotation occurs in one day; day has three letters and rotation has three syllables revolution occurs in one year; year has four letters and revolution has four syllables

Impact Cratering a process that occurs when a round pit is left behind on the surface of a planet or other body in space after a smaller object strikes the surface
The Earth animation is not rotating in the correct direction; it should be rotating from west to east

## Factors Influencing Planetary Characteristics

Tectonics the process of change in a crust due to the motion of hot material underneath
http://www.odsn.de/odsn/services/paleomap/animation.htm l

## Animation taken from:

Volcanism the process of molten material moving from a space bodys hot interior onto its surface

Weathering and Erosion Weathering - the breaking down of rocks into smaller pieces; mostly caused by movements of water, wind, and ice Erosion the process in which sediment is picked up and moved from one place to another

Atmosphere
the outer layer of gases of a large body in space, such as a planet or star usually composed of layers Greenhouse Effect
the trapping of radiant energy by the gases (CO2, CH4, H2O, among others) that compose the atmosphere planetary conditions would be very different without it (i.e. the Earths temperature would be 60oF cooler we would not survive)
The Earth animation is not rotating in the correct direction; it should be rotating from west to east

## Radiant energy from the sun

What do you notice about the amount of energy entering the atmosphere, compared to the amount leaving?

## Image taken from:

http://www.ucar.edu/learn/1_1_1.htm

Planet Classifications
Terrestrial Planets
(inner planets)
Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars closest to the sun composed primarily of rock and metal have deep atmospheres (except Mercury), solid surfaces, no rings, & few satellites

Gas Planets

(outer planets)

Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune composed primarily of hydrogen & helium have deep atmospheres, rings, & many satellites