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2007



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2007

681.833
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ISBN 5-7577-0325-3

2007
20072008 .



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.. , 2007

.............................................................................................................. .5
1. .......................................................................... 11
1.1. ......................................................... 11
1.2. .................................................. 13
1.3. .......................................................... 17
1.4. .................................................. 25
1.5. ................................................. 28
1.6. ................................. 29
2. ............................................................... 32
2.1. ..... 32
2.1.1. ............... 32
2.1.2. ..................... 34
2.1.3. ........................................................ 38
2.1.4. ....... 39
2.1.5. ....................................... 40
2.1.6. ........................................................................ 41
2.1.7.
...................................................................... 42
2.1.8. ...... 44
2.1.9. ............ 46
2.1.10. .................................. 49
2.2. ................................................... 52
2.2.1. ...................................................... 52
2.2.2. ...... 54
2.2.3. ........................................ 59
2.3. ................................. 60
2.3.1. .................................. 60

2.3.2. ...... 62
2.3.3.
..................................................................................... 64
2.3.4. .... 65
2.3.5. ................. 68
3. ............................................................ 69
3.1. .................... 69
3.1.1. .................................. 69
3.1.2. .................................................. 71
3.1.3. ........ 74
3.2. ................................... 81
3.2.1. ............ 81
3.2.2. ........ 85
3.3. ..................... 89
3.3.1. ...................... 89
3.3.2. .................................. 90
3.3.3. ...... 90
3.3.4. ........................................................ 92
...................................................................................................... 95
.......................................................................................... 97
............................................................................................ 107


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33

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Flender :
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23

1.3.8

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12
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16
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19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
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26

aw =

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2 * Cos * Cos tw

(1.3.2)

,
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, . 1.3.11.
1.3.11
Z2

Z1

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24

13
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37

14
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38

15
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39

16
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

56
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80

57
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81

58
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82

59
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83

60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71

73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84

74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85

75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86

76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87

116
117
118
119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127

117
118
119
120
121
122
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124
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126
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118
119
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122
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126
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119
120
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122
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27

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1.6.

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(1.6.1)

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(1.6.4)

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1%.

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(1.6.4)

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=

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(1.6.5)

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16000 160

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(1.6.6)

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(1.6.8)

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u x1 x2

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32

2.

2.1.

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Zmax [2124].
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Z1 ,
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[Zmin, Zmax].
:

33

aij=Z2i/Z1j .

(2.1.2)

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2.1.1.
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[Zmin, Zmax].
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2.1.1

Z2i Z1j
13

13
14
15
16
17
18

1,000 0,929 0,867 0,813 0,765 0,722

125
0,104

126
0,103

127
0,102

128
0,102

129
0,101

130
0,100

14

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0,110

0,109

0,109

0,108

15

1,154 1,071 1,000 0,938 0,882 0,833

0,120

0,119

0,118

0,117

0,116

0,115

16

1,231 1,143 1,067 1,000 0,941 0,889

0,128

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0,126

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17

1,308 1,214 1,133 1,063 1,000 0,944

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0,135

0,134

0,133

0,132

0,131

18

1,385 1,286 1,200 1,125 1,059 1,000

0,144

0,143

0,142

0,141

0,140

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125 9,615 8,929 8,333 7,813 7,353 6,944

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0,969

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126 9,692 9,000 8,400 7,875 7,412 7,000

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127 9,769 9,071 8,467 7,938 7,471 7,056

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129 9,923 9,214 8,600 8,063 7,588 7,167

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1,040

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1,024

1,016

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34

n = ( Z max Z min + 1) 2 .

(2.1.3)

,
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.

( Z max Z min + 1) 2 ( Z max Z min + 1)
nu1 =
.
2

(2.1.4)

, 1,
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nu>1 =

( Z max Z min + 1) 2
( Z max Z min + 1) .
2

(2.1.5)

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nu>1= 6903.
2.1.2.
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35

uj

uj uj + .
2
2

(2.1.6)

( 2.1.1)
, (2.1.6),
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= 0,05 ( 5%)
2 U 2,1 Zmin, = 13 Zmax = 130.

, (2.1.6) Z1,
Z2
Z2 .
Z2.
Z2

Z1
13

14

15

16

17

64

65

66

67

68

69

128

2,000

1,969

1,939

1,910

1,882

1,855

129

2,016

1,985

1,955

1,925

1,897

1,870

130

2,031

2,000

1,970

1,940

1,912

1,884

23

1,769

24

1,846

25

1,923

1,786

26

2,000

1,857

27

2,077

1,929

1,800

28

2,154

2,000

1,867

1,750

29

2,231

2,071

1,933

1,813

30

2,308

2,143

2,000

1,875

1,765

31

2,385

2,214

2,067

1,938

1,824

32

2,462

2,286

2,133

2,000

1,882

33

2,538

2,357

2,200

2,063

1,941

34

2,615

2,429

2,267

2,125

2,000

35

2,692

2,500

2,333

2,188

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. 2.1.1. U.

36

(.
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. [Umin , Umax],
.
.
.. [2831] 1 ,

(,

6 % = 0,06),
:
u 0 = u min ,
u 1 = u 0 + u 0 * (1 + ) = u 0 * (1 + ),
u 2 = u 0 * (1 + ) 2 ,
u 3 = u 0 * (1 + ) ,
3

(2.1.7)

.....
u k = u 0 * (1 + ) k u max .

u1 < u2 < u3 < L < u j < u j +1 < L < uk , j = 1,2,3,...k .

(2.1.8)

k .
,
u j u u j +1 .

(2.1.9)

,
(2.1.9),
, (.
2.1.2, 2.1.3).
(. 2.1.2).
(2.1.1),
Z2. ,

37

, ,
.
Z1
Z2

13

14

15

16

17

64

65

66

67

68

69

23

1,769

24

1,846

25

1,923

1,786

26

2,000

1,857

27

2,077

1,929

1,800

28

2,154

2,000

1,867

1,750

29

2,231

2,071

1,933

1,813

30

2,308

2,143

2,000

1,875

1,765

31

2,385

2,214

2,067

1,938

1,824

32

2,462

2,286

2,133

2,000

1,882

118

7,867

7,375

6,941

1,844

1,815

1,788

119

7,933

7,438

7,000

1,859

1,831

1,803

120

8,000

7,500

7,059

1,875

1,846

1,818

1,791

121

8,067

7,563

7,118

1,891

1,862

1,833

1,806

122

8,133

7,625

7,176

1,906

1,877

1,848

1,821

1,794

123

7,688

7,235

1,922

1,892

1,864

1,836

1,809

124

7,750

7,294

1,938

1,908

1,879

1,851

1,824

1,797

125

7,813

7,353

1,953

1,923

1,894

1,866

1,838

1,812

126

7,875

7,412

1,969

1,938

1,909

1,881

1,853

1,826

127

7,938

7,471

1,984

1,954

1,924

1,896

1,868

1,841

128

8,000

7,529

2,000

1,969

1,939

1,910

1,882

1,855

129

8,063

7,588

2,016

1,985

1,955

1,925

1,897

1,870

8,125

7,647

2,031

2,000

1,970

1,940

1,912

1,884

130

10,000

. 2.1.2.

38

. 2.1.3. .
. 2.1.2 2.1.3,
, , ..
,
.
2.1.3.

,
(. . 2.1.2 2.1.3).
, , ..
Z1 Z2.
(2.1.6)(2.1.8). ,

.

39

,
.
.
2.1.4.

. ,
,
Z1min,
Z1max, , ,
Z2min, Z2max. ,
Z1max > Z2min .
(. . 2.1.5):
Z1max ,
,

Z1max:

,
;
Z2min ,
, , Z2min ;
; ,
, , ,
U < 1.
( 2.1.1)
10, Umax
10. ,
Umax .
,
. 2.1.5.

40

Z 1min

Z1

Z 1max

U min
Z 2min

""

U max


Z 2max
Z2

. 2.1.5.
2.1.5.

, (2.1.6) (2.1.8)
.
1.

(. 2.1.4 2.1.5).
2.
, (2.1.8),
,

. . 2.1.6.
2.1.6,
, ..
, .

41

. 2.1.6.
2.1.6.

. 2.1.4 2.1.6 ,
. ,
, Umax .

Z1 Z2,
. ,
(2.1.8)
, Umax.
,
.
.

42

2.1.7.

(2.1.5) ,
, Z1min ,Z1max , Z2min , Z2max ,Umax
, .
,
,
.
,
, .

2.1.7

Z1min = 13, Z2max = 130, Z1max = 60, Z2min = 61


(. (2.1.6)) U[1,8; 8].


250
200
150
100
50
0
1
6%

11
5%

21
4%

31
3%

41
2%

51

61

71

. 2.1.7.
Z1max = 60, Z2min = 61.

43

. (2.1.7),
.
, ,
( 1,82)
,
(U > 78).
,

. , .

, , , , ,
,

100
80
60
40
20
0
1

11

16

21

26
u

. 2.1.8.
Z1max = 35, Z2min = 36 =6%
Z1max Z2min, ,
(. . 2.1.8). ,

44

,
.

, Z1max Z2min.
-
Z2min.
Z1max Z2min
, Z1max, Z2min
Z1min , Z2max, , Umin, Umax :

Z1 max =

Z 2 max
.
umin

Z 2 min = Z1min * umin .

(2.1.10)

(2.1.11)


.
2.1.8.


( 2.1.1).
Z1max Z2min,
.
, ,
, ,
.

.
( Z1min Z1max, Z2min Z2max),

45

, . ,

Umin Umax. ( (2.1.6) (2.1.7), . 2.1.9
2.1.10)
.
,
,
,

. , . 2.1.7 2.1.9.
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
10

30

50

70

90

110

130

150

. 2.1.9.
Z1 [13,60], Z2[61,130], =6%.
, .
,

,
(. . 2.1.4), .. .

46

120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

. 2.1.10.
Z1 [13,60], Z2[40,130], =6%.

,
, Z1min, Z1max, Z2min,
Z2max.
2.1.9.

,

,
. ,
,

47

,
.
(),
.
,
, , ..:

j = U j U j +1 =

z 2i
z
2i .
z1 j z1( j +1 )

(2.1.12)

(2.1.12) , Z2i , Z1j


,

, .
0,8

0,6

0,4

0,2

0,0
0

20

40

60

Z1=14

z1=15

Z1=16

Z1=17

80

100

120

. 2.1.11. .
, , Zi [13, 130],
(Z1 = 13, 14, 15, 16 17) , . 2.1.11.

48

,
j = 0.714 Z1min

= 13

Z2max = 130, I = 0.008 Z1max = 130


Z2max = 130. ,
.
, I
(. . 2.1.12).

i = u ij u( i +1 ) j =

z 2i z 2( i +1 )
1

=
.
z1 j
z1 j
z1 j

(2.1.14)

0,08
0,06
0,04
0,02
0,00
0
Z2=130

20

40

60

80

100

120

. 2.1.12.
, Zi [13, 130], Z2 = 130
, . 2.12. ,
,
j = 0.077 Z2min = 13,
I = 0.008 Z2max = 130. ,

49

(. 2.1.14). ,

.
,
,
. ,
, .
2.1.10.


. 21354-87
:

1 1
= 1,88 3,2 * + Cos .
z1 z2

(2.1.15)

,
.
(2.1.15) :

Cos 1 1
= + .
3.2
z1 z 2

1,88

(2.1.16)

A=

1.88

.
3.2 3.2Cos

(2.1.17)

50

z2 + z1
A=0.
z2 z1

(2.1.18)

z 2 + z1 Az 2 z1
= 0,
z 2 z1

(2.1.19)

:
Az 2 z1 + z 2 + z1 = 0 ,

(2.1.20)

z 2 = uz1 (2.1.20) :
(2.1.21)

Az12 u + z1 * (1 + u ) = 0 .

, :
z1 =

u +1
,
Au

z2 =

u +1
.
A

(2.1.22)

(2.1.22) Zi U.

. ,

1 < < 2.

,,
(2.1.17) (2.1.22).
, (Z1, Z2).
, (Zmin, Zmax),
.
,
Z1= 13. , 1.5,
1.6, 1.7, 1.75, 1.8, ,
. . 2.1.13.

51

. 2.1.13,
.
Z2 140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
0

20

Eps=1.5

Eps=1,6

40
Eps=1,7

60
Eps=1,8

80

100

Eps=1,75

Z1

. 2.1.13.
,
. . 2.1.14.

1min
2min

2max

1max

1
=1,3
=1,5
=1,7

2
. 2.1.14.

52

2.2.


, .

,
(. 2.1).

,
.
2.2.1.

2.1
.
(2.1.7).

.
8032-56.
[2931] .
8032-56
:
q=n R.

(2.2.1)

53

q , n
, R , 10. ,
:

q = 5 10 = 1,60 ,

(2.2.2)

q = 10 10 = 1,25 ,

(2.2.3)

q = 20 10 = 1,12 ,

(2.2.4)

q = 40 10 = 1,06 ,

(2.2.5)

:
q = 80 10 = 1,03 .

(2.2.6)



,
.
.
2.1.2,
(2.1.7).
Umin = 1.0, , ,
.
Umax
:

54

u 0 = u min ,
u 1 = u 0 + u 0 * ( 1 + ) = u 0 * ( 1 + ),
u 2 = u 0 * ( 1 + )2 ,

(2.2.7)

u 3 = u 0 * ( 1 + )3 ,
.....
u k = u 0 * ( 1 + ) k u max .

, (2.2.2)(2.2.6),

. ,

, q = 1.12, = 0,12
12%.
(2.2.7) k:

k =

ln( u k ) ln( u 0 )
ln( 1 + )
,

(2.2.8)

2.2.2.

(2.2.7), k
k .
,
,
.
,
,
.
(. 2.1.6),
.

55

,
(. . 2.2.1).
Z 1min

Z 1max

Z1
U min

Z 2min

""

U max


Z 2max
Z2

. 2.2.1.
nz
nz=k+1,

(2.2.9)

k , , .
( ),

nz =

k
+2
2
.

(2.2.10)

. 2.2.2.

56

Z 1min

Z1

Z 1max

U min

Z 2min

""

U max



Z 2max
Z2

. 2.2.2. .

. 2.2.2 (2.2.10),
,

. ,

nz =

k
+ 3.
3

(2.2.11)

nz2 :
nz =

k
+ nz 2
nz 2

(2.2.12)

(2.2.12)

nz . ,

57

nz2
nz1 , .., :
(2.2.13)

nz1 = nz nz2 .

(2.2.12) (2.2.13)
2.2.1 . 2.2.3
= 1.03; 1.04; 1.05 1.06.
2.2.1



nz2

6%

5%

4%

3%

27,00

32,00

40,00

52,00

15,00

17,50

21,50

27,50

11,67

13,33

16,00

20,00

10,50

11,75

13,75

16,75

10,20

11,20

12,80

15,20

10,33

11,17

12,50

14,50

10,71

11,43

12,57

14,29

11,25

11,88

12,88

14,38

11,89

12,44

13,33

14,67

10

12,60

13,10

13,90

15,10

11

13,36

13,82

14,55

15,64

12

14,17

14,58

15,25

16,25

13

15,00

15,38

16,00

16,92

58

14

15,86

16,21

16,79

17,64

15

16,73

17,07

17,60

18,40

16

17,63

17,94

18,44

19,19

17

18,53

18,82

19,29

20,00

18

19,44

19,72

20,17

20,83

19

20,37

20,63

21,05

21,68

20

21,30

21,55

21,95

22,55

21

22,24

22,48

22,86

23,43

22

23,18

23,41

23,77

24,32

23

24,13

24,35

24,70

25,22

24

25,08

25,29

25,63

26,13

25

26,04

26,24

26,56

27,04

nz, [] 60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

6%

5%

10

15

4%

20

3%

25

30

nz2, []

. 2.2.3.
.
. 2.2.1 . 2.2.3,
,
. nz, nz1 nz2
. 2.2.2.

59

2.2.2

,%

nz1

nz2

nz

6%

10

5%

11

4%

12

3%

10

15

, , . 2.2.2,

.
2.2.3.

2.2.2
,
.
.
.
.
nz1
(2.2.12) _2.2.13).
( . 2.2.2) , ,
.
nz2 .
.

nz2, ,
.
, .

60

(2.2.13). .
2.2.4.
Z 1min

Z 1max



Z 2min

Z1
U min
""

U max



Z 2max
Z2

. 2.2.4. .

,
,
.

2.3.


, , ,
.
2.3.1.

61

, [20, 21, 2831],


Umin = 1,8 Umax = 8.
= 6% (,
, , 1.06 R40)
(2.2.7). . 2.3.1.
(2.3.8) k = 26.
2.3.1
=6%

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

u 1,800 1,908 2,022 2,144 2,272 2,409 2,553 2,707 2,869 3,041 3,224 3,417 3,622 3,839

15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
4,070 4,314 4,573 4,847 5,138 5,446 5,773 6,119 6,486 6,876 7,288 7,725


1 8 Z1min = 13
Z2max = 130, , (2.1.10), (2.1.11) :
Z1 max =

130
72 ;
1,8

Z 2 min = 13* 1,8 23 .

, Umin= 1,8 Umax = 8,



Z1min = 13 Z2max = 130.
Umin = 1,8, Umax = 8, Z1min = 13, Z2max = 130
, ,
.

62

2.3.2.

(2.2.12) (2.2.13)
, , . 2.3.2
. 2.3.1.
2.3.2

nz

nz

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
27,00 15,00 11,67 10,50 10,20 10,33 10,71 11,25 11,89 12,60 13,36 14,17 15,00 15,86
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
16,73 17,63 18,53 19,44 20,37 21,30 22,24 23,18 24,13 25,08 26,04

nz, [] 40
30
20
10
0
0

10

15

20

25

30
nz2, []

2.3.1. .
. 2.3.1 . 2.3.2,
, 10.20.
nz = 10, nz1 = 5 , , nz2 = 5.

63

2.3.3.

Z1 =16, Z2=127.
,
,

. . 2.3.3.
2.3.3

Z1

Z2

, %

1,800

21

39

1,857

3,2

1,908

20

39

1,950

2,2

2,022

19

39

2,053

1,5

2,144

18

39

2,167

1,1

2,272

17

39

2,294

1,0

2,409

16

39

2,438

1,2

2,553

20

49

2,450

4,0

2,707

19

49

2,579

4,7

2,869

18

49

2,722

5,0

10

3,041

17

49

2,882

5,1

11

3,224

16

49

3,063

5,2

12

3,417

20

67

3,350

2,0

13

3,622

19

67

3,526

2,6

14

3,839

18

67

3,722

3,0

15

4,070

17

67

3,941

3,2

16

4,314

16

67

4,188

2,9

17

4,573

20

93

4,650

1,7

64

18

4,847

19

93

4,895

1,0

19

5,138

18

93

5,167

0,6

20

5,446

17

93

5,471

0,5

21

5,773

16

93

5,813

0,7

22

6,119

20

127

6,350

3,8

23

6,486

19

127

6,684

3,1

24

6,876

18

127

7,056

2,6

25

7,288

17

127

7,471

2,5

26

7,725

16

127

7,938

2,7

. 2.3.3,
16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 127, 93, 67, 49, 39.
,
21 ( ), . 2.3.1
10 11. . 2.3.3
,

) U

)
6% (=6%).


, . 2.3.2.
. 2.3.2, .
, .
,
. ,

65

a, [] 250
200
150
100
50
0
0

m=1

10

m=2

15

20

25

30

m=3

. 2.3.2.

2.3.4.

, 2.2.1,

. 2.3.4.
Z1 = 17 Z2 = 128. ,

.
. 2.3.4,
50, 40, 30, 22, 17 102, 108, 114, 121, 128.
,
96 ( ).
:
U, ,

66

U
6% (=6%).
2.3.4

Z1

Z2

, %

1,800

53

96

1,811

0,629

1,908

53

102

1,925

0,866

2,022

53

108

2,038

0,778

2,144

53

114

2,151

0,324

2,272

53

121

2,283

0,485

2,409

53

128

2,415

0,253

2,553

40

102

2,550

0,118

2,707

40

108

2,700

0,259

2,869

40

114

2,850

0,662

10

3,041

40

121

3,025

0,526

11

3,224

40

128

3,200

0,744

12

3,417

30

102

3,400

0,498

13

3,622

30

108

3,600

0,607

14

3,839

30

114

3,800

1,016

15

4,070

30

121

4,033

0,901

16

4,314

30

128

4,267

1,097

17

4,573

22

102

4,636

1,386

18

4,847

22

108

4,909

1,281

19

5,138

22

114

5,182

0,853

20

5,446

22

121

5,500

0,992

21

5,773

22

128

5,818

0,783

67

22

6,119

17

102

6,000

1,945

23

6,486

17

108

6,353

2,051

24

6,876

17

114

6,706

2,474

25

7,288

17

121

7,118

2,337

26

7,725

17

128

7,529

2,532



, . 2.3.3.

a_w, 300
250
200
150
100
50
0
0

m=1

10
m=2

15
m=3

20

25
30
u

. 2.3.3.

. 2.3.3,
, ,
.
,
.

68

2.3.5.

,
, , , , ..,
,
. ,
.

Umin, Umax , Z1min , Z1max , Z2min , Z2max.
,
, , ,
.
.

, .
.

69

3.
3.1.
-
,
, .. ..
,

.

[13 .].
:
). ;
). .
,

,
.
3.1.1.

U i = i U

(3.1.1)

i . . 3.1.1
-, - .
X U, Y

70

U.
Umin Umax
. , ,
X OY
45,
.
, ,
, OY
,
.
i = 2 (3.1.1).

1-

2-

3-

U max

U min
U
. 3.1.1.

,
.
.

71

3.1.2.
-
, , ..
,
,
..

4 50 [20, 21,
2831].
q=1.06 q=1.03. ,
, ,
, (2.2.7), (2.2.8)
.
. 3.1.2.

k, . 100

80
60
40
20
0

6
,%

. 3.1.2. .

72

. 3.1.1, =6% , , q=1.06


44 , 5% q=1.05 52 , 4% q=1,04 65 3% q=1.03
86 , .

U = U1 * U 2 =

Z2 Z4
*
,
Z1 Z 3

(3.1.2)


Z 2 = U 1 * Z1 ,

(3.1.3)

Z4 = U 2 * Z3 .

U1 =

U
.
U2

(3.1.4)

(
),
.
:
aw1 = aw2 .

(3.1.5)

73

a w1 =

Z1 + Z 2
Z + U 1 * Z1
Z * ( 1 + U 1 )* m1
* m1 = 1
* m1 = 1
2 * cos( 1 )
2 * cos( 1 )
2 * cos( 1 )

a w2 =

Z3 + Z4
Z + U 2 * Z3
Z * ( 1 + U 2 )* m2
.
* m2 = 3
* m2 = 3
2 * cos( 2 )
2 * cos( 2 )
2 * cos( 2 )

(3.1.6)

(3.1.7)

(3.1.6) (3.1.7),
Z 1 * ( 1 + U 1 )* m1 Z 3 * ( 1 + U 2 ) * m 2

= 0.
2 * cos( 1 )
2 * cos( 2 )

(3.1.8)


2 * cos( 2 ) * Z 1 * m1 * ( 1 + U 1 ) 2 * cos( 1 ) * Z 3 * m 2 * ( 1 + U 2 ) = 0 . (3.1.9)

q1 = 2 * cos( 2 )* Z1 * m1
q2 = 2 * cos( 1 )* Z 3 * m2

(3.1.10)

(3.1.9)
q1 * ( 1 + U 1 ) q 2 * ( 1 + U 2 ) = 0 .

(3.1.4), (3.1.11)

(3.1.11)

74

q1 * ( 1 +

U
) q2 * (1 + U 2 ) = 0 .
U2

(3.1.12)

q1 * U 2 + q1 * U q2 * U 2 q2 * U 22 = 0 .

(3.1.13)


q 2 * U 22 U 2 * ( q1 q 2 ) q1 * U = 0 .

(3.1.14)

(3.1.14) U2.
, :

U2 =

1
* ( q1 q2 + q12 2 * q1 * q2 + q22 + 4 * q2 * q1 * U ) .
2 * q2

(3.1.15)

(3.1.10) , , (3.1.15) 1, 2, m1
m2,
.

3.1.3.

,
. 3.1.3.
,
.
, ,
. :

75

,
.

f ( x ) = kx + b ,

(3.1.16)

k b .

. U X, U Y,
(X,Y).
3.1.3.
Y

3
F

2
D

A
1

. 3.1.3.
.
(1, 2, 3, 4, . 3.1.3.)
(3.1.16).

76

y A = k1 x A + b1 ,

(3.1.17)

y B = k1 x B + b1 ,

(3.1.18)

y C = k 2 x C + b2 ,

(3.1.19)

y D = k 2 x D + b2 ,

(3.1.20)

y E = k 3 x E + b3 ,

(3.1.21)

y F = k 3 x F + b3 ,

(3.1.22)

y A = k 4 x A + b4 ,

(3.1.23)

y C = k 4 x C + b4 ,

(3.1.24)

y E = k 4 x E + b4 ,

(3.1.25)

yE y C y A = xA ,

(3.1.26)

xE = y E = xD ,

(3.1.27)

xC = x B .

(3.1.28)

,
. (3.1.23)

b4 = y A k 4 x A .

(3.1.29)

(3.1.29) (3.1.24) (3.1.21):

y c = xc k 4 + y A k 4 x A .

(3.1.30)

y E = xE k4 + y A k 4 x A .

(3.1.31)

xC =

xA
yA

y E = xE =

xC
xA
=
yC y A yC

(3.1.32)

77

(3.1.32) (3.1.31) :
xA
xA
=
k 4 + y A x A k 4 .
y A yC y A yC

(3.1.33)

(3.1.33):
(3.1.34)

xA
(1 k4 )
yA
= yC .
y A xA k4
(3.1.34) (3.1.30):

(3.1.35)

xA
(1 k 4 )
yA
= xC k 4 + y A x A k 4 .
y A x A k4

xA
( 1 k 4 ) = xC k 4 ( y A x A k 4 ) + y A ( y A x A k 4 )
yA
.

(3.1.36)

x A k4 ( y A x A k4 )

(3.1.36) k4
:
k41

x A x A y A + 2 x A y A2 + x A 1 4 x A + 2 y A + 4 x A y A 3 y A2
2 ( x A2 + x A2 y A )

(3.1.37)

k42

x A x A y A + 2 x A y A2 x A 1 4 x A + 2 y A + 4 x A y A 3 y A2
2 ( x A2 + x A2 y A )

..

(3.1.38)

78

(3.1.37) (3.1.38) (3.1.29), b4.



(3.1.17)(3.1.28).
,
8 > U > 1,
250 >U > 110.
U1 (Za) U (Ya) U (Xa).
(. 3.1.37) (3.1.38),
(. 3.1.4 3.1.5).
. 3.1.4 3.1.5 ,
, , .
(3.1.4)
k4, (3.1.5)
k4. ,

(3.1.17)(3.1.27) ,
.
8 > U > 1 250 >U > 110
, U1 -60 1
( ) 1 25 ( ). ,
(3.1.34) .
(3.1.35) 25,
. U U
.
, 3.1.3
,
.

79
Xa

Ya

Za

. 3.1.4.
.

Ya

Xa

. 3.1.5.
.
.

f ( x ) = e kx + b

(3.1.39)

80

. 3.1.6.
1, 2, 3 ,
. , (3.1.17)(3.1.28).
Y
E
4

2
F

1
D

. 3.1.6.

.

y A = k1 x A + b1 ,

(3.1.40)

y B = k1 x B + b1 ,

(3.1.41)

y C = k 2 x C + b2 ,

(3.1.42)

y D = k 2 x D + b2 ,

(3.1.43)

y E = k 3 x E + b3 ,

(3.1.44)

y F = k 3 x F + b3 ,

(3.1.45)

y A = e k4 .x A + b4 ,

(3.1.46)

y C = e k4 .xC + b4 ,

(3.1.47)

y E = e k 4 . x E + b4 ,

(3.1.48)

yE y C y A = xA ,

(3.1.49)

xE = y E = xD ,

(3.1.50)

xC = x B .

(3.1.51)

81

.

Mathematica 5.
.

3.2.

3.1.2 ,
( (3.1.1) . 3.1.1), (.
(3.1.15)). .
Umin , Umax Umin1,
Umax1 , .
3.2.1.

Umin = 4, Umax = 50 q = 1,06,

= 6%. :

k=

ln(umax ) ln(umin )
.
ln(1 + )

(3.2.1)

k = 44.
,
(2.2.12):

nz =

k
+ nz 2
nz 2

(3.2.2)

. (3.2.1). ,
nz= 13, nz1= 6, nz2=7, . .

82

6 7 .
Z1 = 18 Z2 = 125,
.
. 3.2.1.

nz2

50
45
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
1

11

16

21

26

31

nz

. 3.2.1. q = 1.06.
3.2.1

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Z1 Z2 U1 U
21
21
21
21
20
19
19
18
18
21
21
20

44
44
46
46
46
46
46
46
46
57
57
57

2,095
2,095
2,190
2,190
2,300
2,421
2,421
2,556
2,556
2,714
2,714
2,850

2,000
2,059
2,120
2,183
2,247
2,314
2,382
2,452
2,525
2,600
2,676
2,756

. .

-0,036
0,025
-0,008
0,057
0,014
-0,039
0,031
-0,031
0,044
-0,038
0,041
-0,013

-1,724
1,182
-0,356
2,590
0,593
-1,612
1,297
-1,197
1,723
-1,394
1,521
-0,455

U2 U2
4,000
4,240
4,494
4,764
5,050
5,353
5,674
6,015
6,375
6,758
7,163
7,593

4,390
4,390
4,798
4,798
5,290
5,861
5,861
6,531
6,531
7,367
7,367
8,123

0,150
-0,104
0,034
-0,252
-0,063
0,187
-0,153
0,155
-0,227
0,204
-0,226
0,074

3,538
-2,322
0,716
-4,985
-1,175
3,303
-2,544
2,439
-3,360
2,847
-2,974
0,916

83
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44

19
19
18
18
21
21
20
19
19
18
18
21
21
20
19
19
18
18
21
21
20
19
19
18
18
21
21
20
19
19
18
18

57
57
57
57
69
69
69
69
69
69
69
85
85
85
85
85
85
85
104
104
104
104
104
104
104
125
125
125
125
125
125
125

3,000
3,000
3,167
3,167
3,286
3,286
3,450
3,632
3,632
3,833
3,833
4,048
4,048
4,250
4,474
4,474
4,722
4,722
4,952
4,952
5,200
5,474
5,474
5,778
5,778
5,952
5,952
6,250
6,579
6,579
6,944
6,944

2,837
2,921
3,007
3,096
3,188
3,282
3,379
3,479
3,582
3,688
3,797
3,909
4,024
4,143
4,266
4,392
4,522
4,655
4,793
4,935
5,081
5,231
5,386
5,545
5,709
5,877
6,051
6,230
6,414
6,604
6,799
7,000

-0,079
0,007
-0,071
0,021
-0,004
0,093
0,029
-0,050
0,056
-0,037
0,076
-0,023
0,096
0,016
-0,082
0,048
-0,067
0,071
-0,018
0,128
0,031
-0,088
0,071
-0,069
0,100
0,099
0,099
-0,020
-0,165
0,025
-0,145
0,056

-2,636
0,242
-2,226
0,664
-0,115
2,838
0,836
-1,374
1,542
-0,958
1,970
-0,574
2,366
0,373
-1,827
1,076
-1,413
1,501
-0,355
2,591
0,594
-1,610
1,298
-1,196
1,725
1,660
1,660
-0,319
-2,503
0,379
-2,093
0,802

8,049
8,532
9,044
9,586
10,161
10,771
11,417
12,102
12,829
13,598
14,414
15,279
16,196
17,167
18,198
19,289
20,447
21,674
22,974
24,352
25,814
27,362
29,004
30,744
32,589
34,544
36,617
38,814
41,143
43,611
46,228
49,002

9,000
9,000
10,028
10,028
10,796
10,796
11,903
13,188
13,188
14,694
14,694
16,383
16,383
18,063
20,014
20,014
22,299
22,299
24,526
24,526
27,040
29,961
29,961
33,383
33,383
35,431
35,431
39,063
43,283
43,283
48,225
48,225

0,468
-0,044
0,442
-0,134
0,025
-0,621
-0,200
0,360
-0,410
0,280
-0,585
0,187
-0,784
-0,135
0,724
-0,433
0,626
-0,675
0,174
-1,287
-0,322
0,957
-0,783
0,794
-1,162
-1,186
-1,186
0,248
2,140
-0,329
1,997
-0,777

5,489
-0,482
4,606
-1,315
0,230
-5,443
-1,652
2,805
-3,014
1,945
-3,826
1,158
-4,568
-0,742
3,756
-2,117
2,888
-2,936
0,713
-4,988
-1,178
3,300
-2,547
2,436
-3,363
-3,239
-3,239
0,640
5,201
-0,754
4,320
-1,585

. 3.2.1, 25
, 4 (
18, 19, 20, 21) 7 ( 125, 104, 85, 69, 57, 46,
44). ,
, ,

84

, .
.
,
. 3.2.2.
3.2.2.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Z1 Z2 U1 U
48
48
45
45
45
45
45
45
38
38
38
38
38
38
32
32
32
32
32
32
27
27
27
27
27
27
23
23
23
23
23

99
102
99
102
105
108
112
115
99
102
105
108
112
115
99
102
105
108
112
115
99
102
105
108
112
115
99
102
105
108
112

2,063
2,125
2,200
2,267
2,333
2,400
2,489
2,556
2,605
2,684
2,763
2,842
2,947
3,026
3,094
3,188
3,281
3,375
3,500
3,594
3,667
3,778
3,889
4,000
4,148
4,259
4,304
4,435
4,565
4,696
4,870

2,000
2,059
2,120
2,183
2,247
2,314
2,382
2,452
2,525
2,600
2,676
2,756
2,837
2,921
3,007
3,096
3,188
3,282
3,379
3,479
3,582
3,688
3,797
3,909
4,024
4,143
4,266
4,392
4,522
4,655
4,793

. .

-0,003
-0,005
-0,017
-0,019
-0,020
-0,018
-0,036
-0,031
-0,006
-0,008
-0,008
-0,005
-0,026
-0,019
0,002
0,000
0,001
0,004
-0,021
-0,012
0,021
0,019
0,020
0,024
-0,005
0,007
0,088
0,087
0,090
0,097
0,065

-0,164
-0,235
-0,788
-0,859
-0,844
-0,749
-1,464
-1,197
-0,217
-0,289
-0,274
-0,178
-0,898
-0,630
0,078
0,006
0,021
0,117
-0,604
-0,335
0,570
0,498
0,513
0,610
-0,115
0,155
2,036
1,962
1,977
2,076
1,340

U2 U2
4,000
4,240
4,494
4,764
5,050
5,353
5,674
6,015
6,375
6,758
7,163
7,593
8,049
8,532
9,044
9,586
10,161
10,771
11,417
12,102
12,829
13,598
14,414
15,279
16,196
17,167
18,198
19,289
20,447
21,674
22,974

4,254
4,516
4,840
5,138
5,444
5,760
6,195
6,531
6,787
7,205
7,635
8,078
8,687
9,159
9,571
10,160
10,767
11,391
12,250
12,915
13,444
14,272
15,123
16,000
17,207
18,141
18,527
19,667
20,841
22,049
23,713

0,014
0,021
0,076
0,088
0,092
0,086
0,180
0,155
0,029
0,042
0,042
0,029
0,155
0,115
-0,015
-0,001
-0,004
-0,027
0,148
0,086
-0,154
-0,143
-0,156
-0,196
0,040
-0,056
-0,762
-0,779
-0,832
-0,925
-0,640

0,328
0,472
1,594
1,740
1,710
1,514
2,994
2,439
0,436
0,581
0,551
0,358
1,820
1,271
-0,156
-0,012
-0,042
-0,234
1,220
0,674
-1,131
-0,989
-1,018
-1,209
0,231
-0,309
-3,950
-3,812
-3,840
-4,025
-2,627

85
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44

23
19
19
19
19
19
19
16
16
16
16
16
16

115
99
102
105
108
112
115
99
102
105
108
112
115

5,000
5,211
5,368
5,526
5,684
5,895
6,053
6,188
6,375
6,563
6,750
7,000
7,188

4,935
5,081
5,231
5,386
5,545
5,709
5,877
6,051
6,230
6,414
6,604
6,799
7,000

0,081
0,020
0,017
0,018
0,024
-0,017
-0,001
-0,136
-0,145
-0,148
-0,146
-0,201
-0,187

1,614
0,391
0,319
0,334
0,430
-0,293
-0,024
-2,203
-2,273
-2,259
-2,165
-2,870
-2,607

24,352
25,814
27,362
29,004
30,744
32,589
34,544
36,617
38,814
41,143
43,611
46,228
49,002

25,000
27,150
28,820
30,540
32,310
34,748
36,634
38,285
40,641
43,066
45,563
49,000
51,660

-0,814
-0,213
-0,184
-0,204
-0,279
0,204
0,017
1,668
1,827
1,924
1,951
2,772
2,658

-3,152
-0,778
-0,635
-0,664
-0,855
0,589
0,047
4,556
4,706
4,675
4,474
5,996
5,425

. 3.2.2, 44
, 8 (
16, 19, 23, 27, 32, 38, 45, 48) 6 ( 115, 112,
108, 105, 102, 99).
.
. 3.2.1 3.2.2,
.
3.2.2.

Umin = 4, Umax = 50 q = 1,06.


(3.1.15) 1 = 150,
2 = 150 m1=1 m2=2
k = 44, .
,
nz= 13, nz1= 6, nz2=7. ,
.
. 3.2.3.

86

3.2.3

N
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.

Z1
23
21
19
17
15
13
23
21
19
17
15
13
23
21
19
17
15
13
23
21
19
17
15
13
23
21
19
17
15
13
23
21
19
17
15
13
23

Z3
18
17
16
15
14
13
18
17
16
15
14
13
18
17
16
15
14
13
18
17
16
15
14
13
18
17
16
15
14
13
18
17
16
15
14
13
18

Z2

Z4

65
65
65
65
65
65
77
77
77
77
77
77
89
89
89
89
89
89
105
105
105
105
105
105
123
123
123
123
123
123
145
145
145
145
145
145
171

26
26
26
26
26
26
32
32
32
32
32
32
38
38
38
38
38
38
46
46
46
46
46
46
55
55
55
55
55
55
66
66
66
66
66
66
79

U2
U1
1,444 2,826
1,529 3,095
1,625 3,421
1,733 3,824
1,857 4,333
2,000 5,000
1,778 3,348
1,882 3,667
2,000 4,053
2,133 4,529
2,286 5,133
2,462 5,923
2,111 3,870
2,235 4,238
2,375 4,684
2,533 5,235
2,714 5,933
2,923 6,846
2,556 4,565
2,706 5,000
2,875 5,526
3,067 6,176
3,286 7,000
3,538 8,077
3,056 5,348
3,235 5,857
3,438 6,474
3,667 7,235
3,929 8,200
4,231 9,462
3,667 6,304
3,882 6,905
4,125 7,632
4,400 8,529
4,714 9,667
5,077 11,154
4,389 7,435

U
aw1
4,082 45,552
4,734 44,517
5,559 43,482
6,627 42,446
8,048 41,411
10,000 40,376
5,952 51,764
6,902 50,729
8,105 49,693
9,663 48,658
11,733 47,623
14,580 46,587
8,169 57,975
9,473 56,940
11,125 55,905
13,263 54,870
16,105 53,834
20,012 52,799
11,667 66,258
13,529 65,222
15,888 64,187
18,941 63,152
23,000 62,117
28,580 61,081
16,341 75,575
18,950 74,540
22,253 73,505
26,529 72,469
32,214 71,434
40,030 70,399
23,116 86,963
26,807 85,928
31,480 84,893
37,529 83,857
45,571 82,822
56,627 81,787
32,630 100,422

87

38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.

21
19
17
15
13
23
21

17
16
15
14
13
18
17

171
171
171
171
171
203
203

79
79
79
79
79
95
95

4,647 8,143 37,840 99,387


4,938 9,000 44,438 98,351
5,267 10,059 52,976 97,316
5,643 11,400 64,329 96,281
6,077 13,154 79,935 95,245
5,278 8,826 46,582 116,986
5,588 9,667 54,020 115,951

6 (23, 21, 19, 17, 15, 13)


(65, 77, 89, 105, 123, 145, 171).
(18, 17, 16, 15, 14, 13) (26, 32, 38, 46, 55, 66, 79).

203 95.
145, 171 , ,
203.
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.
.
3.2.2.
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U2

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26

31

36

41

. 3.2.2.

88

,
, . 3.2.3.
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90,0
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. 3.2.3.
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aw, [] 140
120
100
80
60
40
20
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26

31

36

41

aw2

. 3.2.4.

89

3.3.
3.3.1.



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), . 3.3.1.
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. 3.3.1.

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90

, :
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0Y D, C, A:
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, ..
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5.638.
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, (2.2.7 2.2.8),
. 3.3.2.
3.3.3.


(2.2.12 2.2.13). . 3.3.1
.

91

3.3.1

nz2

nz

30,000

16,500

12,667

11,250

10,800

10,833

11,143

11,625

12,222

10

12,900

11

13,636

12

14,417

13

15,231

14

16,071

15

16,933

16

17,813

17

18,706

18

19,611

19

20,526

20

21,450

21

22,381

22

23,318

23

24,261

24

25,208

25

26,160

26

27,115

27

28,074

28

29,036

29

30,000

92

. 3.3.1 .3.3.1
. 3.3.1 . 3.3.1,
10.8,
, ,
11.

nz

35,000
30,000
25,000
20,000
15,000
10,000
5,000
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11

13

15

17

19

21

23

25

27

29
nz 2

. 3.3.1 .
3.3.4.


, , 13.
,
. . 3.3.2.
,
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: 18, 23, 30, 41, 55, 74; : 13, 14, 15, 16, 17;
,
, 90 ,
6% [93].

93

3.3.2

Z2

Z1

U t

U p

1,060

18

17

1,059

-0,111

1,124

18

16

1,125

0,124

1,191

18

15

1,200

0,749

1,262

18

14

1,286

1,807

1,338

23

17

1,353

1,088

1,419

23

16

1,438

1,320

1,504

23

15

1,533

1,937

1,594

23

14

1,643

2,983

1,689

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13

1,769

4,508

1,791

30

17

1,765

-1,481

1,898

30

16

1,875

-1,243

2,012

30

15

2,000

-0,610

2,133

30

14

2,143

0,463

2,261

30

13

2,308

2,027

2,397

41

17

2,412

0,631

2,540

41

16

2,563

0,864

2,693

41

15

2,733

1,484

2,854

41

14

2,929

2,535

3,026

41

13

3,154

4,066

3,207

55

17

3,235

0,870

3,400

55

16

3,438

1,104

94

3,604

55

15

3,667

1,722

3,820

55

14

3,929

2,770

4,049

55

13

4,231

4,298

4,292

74

17

4,353

1,403

4,549

74

16

4,625

1,635

4,822

74

15

4,933

2,250

5,112

74

14

5,286

3,292

5,418

74

13

5,692

4,812

95

, ,


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, .
,
. , ,
,
.

,
, .
,

. ,

.

,
.

(

96


, ..

. ,
, ,
.
, ,
, , .

97

1. .. :
. / 2 ., . .: , 1979. .1 7.
2. ..
. / .. // . 1939. 8.
.18 21.
3. . : 13 . . /
.., . . / . .. , . .
.: . . ,
: 1932. .1 720 .
4.

..

.:

, 1974. 320 .
5.

..

. .: , 1974.
264 .
6. .. . //
. 1972. 3. . 50 53.
7. ..
. / . . // . 1990.
1. . 12 16.
8.

..

: . / . .
.: , 1978. 178 .
9. .. . .: ,
1962. 531 .
10. .. .
.: , 1949. 404 .

98

11. .. . .:
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12. ..
. // 1957.
7. . 14 19.
13. .. . //
1952. 7. . 12 17.
14. .. . //
1955. 2. . 3 13.
15. ..
. / . . //
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16. . . . .: ,
1976. 375 .
17. .. . /
.. . . .. .., .. . .:
, 1977. 334 .
18. ..

. //
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22.

..


. // . , 1974. 18. . 10 13.

99

23. . / . . . . .: , 1953. 250


.
24. . . . / . .
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25. . . / . .., ..
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26. . / . ..
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27. ..
.: . .
. . : 05.02.02. / .. : 1973.
151 .
28. .. .
// 1997. 3. . 5 10.
29.

..

//

//

1985. 9. . 30 35.
30.

..

1990. 8. . 30 36.
31. .. :
. . ...: 05.02.02. / . .
..

1980. 32 .

32. .. . / .. .:
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33. .. . / .: , 1968. 584 .
34. . . / .: ,
1989. 503 .
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1997 142 .
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..

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..

. / .. , .. , ..
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,
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,
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.
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..

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.:

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107

2007 20072008 .

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