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32.973.2-018.

17
681.3.06(075)
50

50 Turbo Pascal / . . . : , 2000. 496 .: .


ISBN 5-8046-0137-7

. , . -
.
.
.
32.973.018.17
681.3.06(075)

ISBN 5-8046-0137-7

. . , 2000
, , , 2000


1.
2.
3.

........................................................... 12
............................... 52
.............................................96

4.


...........................................................
...............................
VGA.
..................
................................
.................................................

5.
6.
7.
8.

148
196
254
304
332

9.

-
..............................................................358
10. ..........................................378

.
.........................................................................................437

. DOS
BIOS...................................................................................................... 443

. ...................................................... 454
............................................................................... 475


................................................................................................. 9

1. ........................................ 12
........................................................ 13
............................................................................................ 16
............................................................................... 18
......................................................................... 18
Word, Real Extended................................................................ 19
.............................................................................. 19
..................................................................... 20
............................................................................. 20
........................................................................ 20
...................................................................... 21
................................................................................... 28
- ...................................................................... 36
.......................................................................................... 42
....................................................................................................... 46
............................................................................................... 48
? ......................................................................... 51

2. ....... 52
................................................................................................ 53
............................................ 55
........................................ 57
-, -
......................................................................................... 57
.............................................................................. 58
........................................................................................... 61

..........................................
........................................................................
.......................................................
..............................................
...........................................................................
................................................................
......................................................................................
................................................................................
() .............................................
..........................................................................
() ..........................................................
.........................................................................
....................................................................
...................................................................
? ................................................................

62
64
66
67
71
73
76
80
82
82
87
89
90
94
95

3. . 96
......................................................................97
, .......................................... 97
.............................................................. 98
............................................................................... 100
............................................................................100
................................................................ 112
............................................................ 113
................................................................................................. 116
............................................. 116
.................................................................... 121
............................................................................................ 123
.................................................................................. 130
...................................... 135
.......................................................................... 144
? ....................................................................... 146

4.
........... 148
MS-DOS ............................ 149
..........................................................................................152
............................................................................................... 154
.................................................................................... 155

DOS ........................................................................................ 156


........................................................ 156
MS-DOS BIOS........................................... 162
................................................................................... 166
BIOS .......................................................................... 169
.................................................................................................... 183
mouse......................................... 192
............................................................................... 194
? ...................................................................... 195

5.

196

................................................................................................197
............................................... 197
.............................................................. 198
.... 200
........................................................................ 202
Graph ...................................................................................... 208
( -)......... 222
.............................................................................. 226
............................................. 231
. ........................ 232
............................................................................. 234
........................................................................... 242
..................................................................................... 247
mouse
....................................................................... 250
? ....................................................................... 253

6. VGA,
....... 254
................................................................... 255
VGA........................................................................................ 258
......................................................................265
............................................. 266
.......................................................... 268
.................................... 273
graphs3d............................................................................. 276
.................................................285

............................ 290
.......................................................................................... 298
? ....................................................................... 303

7. ..304
............................................................................................ 305
....................... 313
................................................................... 314
............................................................... 316
........................................ 320
..........................................................326
? ...................................................................... 330

8. .....................332
............................................ 333
............................................ 337
SoundBlaster.................................................... 341
......................................................................... 341
............................................................................... 344
............................................. 345
............................................................................ 356
? ................................................................... 357

9. -
. ........................................... 358
- .............. 359
........................................................................................... 360
................................................................................. 362
................................................................................. 362
.....................................................................363
.................................................365
............................................................................366
matrices................................................................................... 366
? ....................................................................... 377

10. .............. 378


, ......................................... 379
............................................................................... 381

............................................................ 385
............................................................................... 391
................397

.................................................... 405
................................................................. 409
..........................................422
.......................................................................... 422
? ....................................................................... 436

.
.......................................................437
. DOS
BIOS ........................................................................443
. .........................454
..........................................475


, ,
, Borland ( Inprise)
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. 1950--60- . . ,
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Borland , , ,
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Borland Delphi, Windows. Delphi Object Pascal
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.

nemnugin@mph.phys.spbu.ru

11


, ,
comp@piter-press.ru ( , ).

.
Web- http://www.piter-press.ru.

' (), 72
, (), 30
' ( ), 34
$ ( ), 84, 144
() ( ), 31
\ ( ), 111, 151
* (), 30, 82
+ ( ), 82
- ( ), 82
.(), 29,30,47, 117
/ ( ), 31, 82
; ( ), 17, 21, 22, 24, 26, 30, 37
< (), 39
<= ( ), 39
<> ( ), 39
= ( ), 34, 41, 47
> (), 39
>= ( ), 39
@, , 145
[] ( ), 80
[] ( ), 77
^ ( ), 124
_ ( ), 28
{$}, , 90
{$!+}, , 102, 106
{$L...}, , 221
{$...}, , 161
{$N+}, , 37
{SR+}, , 307
{SS+}, , 307
{} ( ), 15, 18, 29, 37

Abs, , 39, 83, 90


absolute, , 165
Addr, , 145

and, , 15, 84, 87,


165, 172, 189, 252, 335
Arc Tan, , 90
array, , 14, 77
ASCII, 64, 100
Assign, , 44, 100, 112

Bar, , 210
begin, , 15, 37, 126
BINOBJ.EXE, , 221
BIOS, 150
, 150
BlockRead, , 110, 115
BlockWrite, , 110, 115, 265
Boolean, , 63
Borland Graphics Interface, 231
Break, , 28, 87
Byte, , 63, 82, 99, 165, 211

CapsLock,

,
case, , 15, 23, 55,
122
CD-ROM-, 194
Char, , 63, 64, 66, 99
ChDir, , 160
Chr, , 66
Circle, , 204
ClearDcvice, , 219
Close, , 44, 45, 101
CloseGraph, , 202
ClrEol, , 307
ClrScr, , 35, 55, 74
, , 64, 90
const. , 14, 19, 61,
207

172

476

constructor, , 15,
363, 364, 365
Continue, , 28
, , 75
Cos, , 90
CR, , 100
CRT, , 55, 68, 74, 204, 206, 307, 333
ClrEol, , 307
ClrScr, , 35, 55, 74
Delay, , 79, 204, 261, 335
GotoXY, , 74, 78, 178
keypressed, , 206
NoSound, , 333
ReadKey, , 68, 69, 70
Sound, , 333
TextColor, , 78
WhereY, , 369
Ctrl-, 66

D
Debug,
Add Watch, , 441
Dec, , 35
Delay, , 79, 204, 261, 335
Delete,
,
74,
129
Delphi,
377
destructor,
, 15, 364, 365
Detect,
,
201
Dispose, , 126

,
365
div, , 15, 31, 83
DMA,
334
do, , 15, 25, 26,
27,117
DOS, , 58, 105, 156, 157,158,161
, , 162, 178
FindFirst, , 158
FindNexl, , 158
FExpand, , 105, 156, 160
FSplit, , 112, 156
GetEnv, , 161
GetTime, , 58
Intr, , 168
MSDos, , 168
PathStr, , 105, 156
SearchRec, , 157
SetFTime, , 157
Swap Vectors, , 162
UnpackTime, , 157
DOSError, , 158
, 162
Double, , 64, 94
downto,
, 15, 27,32

else, ,
15, 22,
24
end, ,
14, 15,
24,
37,47,53,122,126,361
Eof, , 45
Erase, , 110, 158, 160
Exclude, , 81
, , 162, 178
Exit, , 42, 87
, , 90
Extended, , 19, 37, 47, 64,90,
91, 113

F
False (), , 21,
87,
110, 136, 172, 195,319
far, , 41
far, , 41
FExpand, , 105, 156, 160
file, , 14
File,
New, , 440
FileSize, , 110
FillEllipse, , 261
Fill Pat tern , , 211
FindFirst, , 158
FindNext, , 158
for, , 15, 26,
27,
28, 32, 33
Frac, , 90
FreeMem, , 127, 129
FSplit, , 112, 156
function, , 14,
53

GetDir, , 160
GetEnv, , 161
Getlmage, , 212, 262
GetMaxX, , 203
GetMaxY, , 203
GetMcm, , 127, 129
GetPixel, , 216
GetTime, , 58
GotoXY, , 74, 78, 178
Graph, , 200, 208
Bar, , 210
Circle, , 204
ClearDevice, , 219
CloseGraph, , 202
Detect, , 201
FillEllipse, , 261
FillPatternType, , 211
Getlmage, , 212, 262
GetMaxX, , 203
GetMaxY, , 203

Graph, ()
GetPixel, , 216
GraphResult, , 202
HorizDir, , 219
ImageSize, , 213
InitGraph, , 201, 202
Line, , 204
LineRel, , 322
OutTextXY, , 207,211,219
Putlmage, , 212, 262
PutPixel, , 216
Rectangle, , 210
RegisterBGIdriver, , 222
RegisterBGIfont, , 222
RestoreCRTMode, , 202,
262

SetActivePage, , 231, 262


SetBkColor, , 203
SetColor, , 203, 210
SetFillStyle, , 210
SetGraphMode, , 202
SetRGBPalette, , 215
SetTextJustify, , 219
SetTextStyle, , 219
SetViewPort, , 226
SetVisualPage, , 231, 262
VertDir, , 219

, 219
, 200
, 201
, 219
, 213
, 210
, 203
GraphResult, , 202

Halt, , 42, 87, 106, 307


HorizDir, , 219

I
IEEE 754, , 91
if, , 15, 21, 33, 81
ImageSize, , 213
implementation, ,
15,47
in, , 81
Inc, , 35
Include, , 81
inherited, , 363
InitGraph, , 201, 202
Input, , 42, 102
Insert, , 74
Int, , 90

477

Integer, , 63, 75, 80, 82, 456


interface, , 15, 47
Intr, , 168
lOResult, , 102, 106, 158

keypressed, , 206

Length, , 74
LF, , 100
Line, , 204
LineRel, , 322
Ln, , 90
Longint, , 35, 63, 80, 82, 90,
126, 157, 165,307

Maxint, , 82
MaxLongInt, , 82
Mem, , 165
MemL, , 165
MernW, , 165
mod, , 15, 31, 43, 83
Move, , 265
MS-DOS,
, 150
, 165
, 151
, 153
, 153
, 154
, 161
, 152
, 150
, 162
, 163
-, 163
, 151
, 154
MSDos, , 168

N
New, , 126
, 365
nil, , 126
NoSound, , 333
not, , 15, 84, 87,
172
NumLock, , 164, 172

0
Object Pascal, 377
object, , 15, 361,
363

478

Odd, , 35, 83
of, , 14, 15, 24
Ofs, , 145
Options,
Compiler,
8087/80287, , 38
Complete Boolean eval,
, 88
Emulation, , 38
or,
, 15, 84, 87,172
Ord, , 64, 72,89
Ord, , 66
Output, , 42
OutTextXY, , 207, 211, 219

PathStr, , 105, 156


Pi, , 90
PIT (Programming Interval
Timer), 334
Pointer,
, 98
Pos, , 75, 111
PPI (Programmable Peripheral
Interface), 334
Pred, , 89
private,
, 361
prn, , 456
procedure,
, 14, 53, 364
program,
, 14, 16, 28
Ptr, , 165
Ptr, , 145
public, , 15
Putlmage, , 212, 262
PutPixel, , 216

Q
QR-, 400

Random, , 225
Randomize, , 225
Read, , 42, 101, 102,112
ReadKey, , 68, 69, 70
ReadLn,, 30, 42,67,101,107,
112
Real, , 19, 32, 64, 90
record,
, 14, 116
Rectangle, , 210
RegisterBGIdriver, , 222

RegisterBGIfont, , 222
Registers, , 166
Rename, , 110, 158
repeat,
, 15, 25, 28, 35,42
Reset, , 101, 112, 113
RestoreCRTMode, , 262
RestoreCrtMode, , 202
Rewrite, , 44, 101, 112, 113
RGB- , 214
Round, , 90

S
ScrollLock, , 172
SearchRec, , 157
Seg, , 145
Seg0040, , 163
set, , 80
SetActivePage, , 231, 262
SetBkColor, , 203
SetColor, , 203, 210
SetFillStyle, , 210
SetFTimc, , 157
SetGraphMode, , 202
SetRGBPalette, , 215
SetTextJustify, , 219
SetTextStyle, , 219
SetViewPort, , 226
SetVisualPage, , 231, 262
shi, , 15, 83
Shortint, , 63, 80, 82
shr, , 15, 83
Sin, , 90
Single, , 64
SizeOf, , 82, 118, 129
Sound, , 333
SoundBlaster, 345
/, 345


, 352
, 351
, 352
, 350
, 353
,
352
, 346
Sqr, , 32,83, 90
Sqrt, , 90
Str, , 75, 119, 207
string, , 14, 45
string, , 71
Succ, , 89
Swap Vectors, , 162

System, , 55, 70, 83, 90, 100, 129,


158, 165, 166
Abs, , 39,83,90
Addr, , 145
, , 90
Assign, , 44, 100, 112
BlockRcad, , 110, 115
BlockWrite, , 110, 115, 265
Break, , 28, 87
ChDir, , 160
Chr, , 66
Close, , 44, 45, 101
Continue, , 28
Copy, , 75
Cos, , 90
Dec, , 35
Delete, , 74, 129
Dispose, , 126
, 365
Eof, , 45
Erase, , 110, 158, 160
Exclude, , 81
Exit, , 42, 87
, , 90
FileSize, 41, 110
Frac, , 90
FrceMcm, , 127, 129
GetDir, , 160
GetMem, , 127, 129
Halt, , 42, 87, 106, 307
Inc, , 35
Include, , 81
Insert, , 74
Int, , 90
lOResult, , 102, 106, 158
Length, , 74
Ln, , 90
Maxint, , 82
MaxLongInt, , 82
Move, , 265
New, , 126
, 365
Odd, , 35, 83
Ofs, , 145
Ord, , 64, 72, 89
Ord, , 66
Pos, , 75,111
Pred, , 89
Ptr, , 165
Ptr, , 145
Random, , 225
Randomize, , 225
Read, , 42,101,102,112
ReadLn, , 30, 42, 67, 101,
107, 112

479

Rename, , 110, 158


Reset, , 101, 112, 113
Rewrite, , 44, 101, 112, 113
Round, , 90
Seg, , 145
Seg0040, , 163
Sin, , 90
SizeOf, , 82, 118, 129
Sqr, , 32,83,90
Sqrt, , 90
Str, , 75, 119,207
Succ, , 89
Tan, , 90
Trunc, , 35, 90
UpCase, , 66
Val, , 75, 84
Write, , 30, 32, 42, 101,
102, 112, 119,201,207
WriteLn, , 30, 32, 34, 38,
42,44, 101, 107, 112, 113, 119,201

Tan, , 90
TEML (Turbo Editor Macro
Language), 442
Text, , 44, 100
TextColor, , 78
then,
, 15, 21, 33
to, , 15, 26, 32
True (), , 21,
87, 110, 136, 173,298,317
Trunc, , 35, 90
type,
, 14, 41, 47,97

unit, , 14, 47
UnpackTime, , 157
until,
, 15, 25, 35,42
UpCase, , 66
uses,
, 35, 46, 200

Val, , 75, 84
var, , 14, 18, 58,
77, 80, 98,124
VertDir, , 219
virtual, , 15, 364

w
Watch, , 441
WhereY, , 369

480

while, , 15, 25,


28,38,45

with, , 117
Word, , 19, 32, 61, 63, 80, 82,
83, 127, 165, 189, 210,213, 214,226,
333, 334
Write, , 30, 32, 42, 101, 102, 112,
119,201,207
WriteLn, , 30, 32, 34, 38, 42, 44,
101, 107,112,113, 119, 201

X
,
, 14, 84,87, 189, 252

, 165
, 123, 144
, 316

QR-, 400
, 236, 247
, 392
, 308
, 243
, 409, 417
, 405
, 405, 406, 419
, 409, 414
, 424, 425
, 409
, 432
, 423
, 422
, 423
, 316

, 313
, 381
, 389
, 286
, 290
, 388
, 14
, 227, 290
, 298
, 30, 37
, 30
, 31, 83
, 30
, 30, 31
, 43
, 31
, 30
, 30

()
, 30
, 31, 83
, 157

, 16, 35, 46
, 82
, 84
, 236, 247
, 26, 87
, 87
, 67



, 178
, 67

, 269
, 266
, 268
, 267
, 273
, 266
, 279
, 270
, 273
, 268, 279
, 272

, 268, 279
, 267

, 269
, 267
, 154
, 23
, 90, 98, 99
, 200
CGA, 256
EGA. 256

HGC, 256
IBM 8514/a, 257
IBM XGA, 258
MCGA, 257
MDA, 256
SVGA, 258
VGA, 257

, 265
, 256
, 255, 265
, 255
, 200
, 256

()
, 200

, 221
, 255
,
256

, , 178

, 214
, 197
, 274
, 56
, 100
, 333
, 334
, 23
, 24
, 24

, 34
, 30
, 180, 181
, 30
, 34
, 43
, 101
, 30
, 20
, 20, 37
, 30, 37
, 21, 25, 87
, 88

, 409, 417
, 392

, 392
, 392
, 38
, 326
, 46
, 56
, 316
, 389

, 198
, 199
, 208
, 227


, 262
, 247

481

()
, 234
, 234
, 234
, 236
, 243
, 258
, 232
, 265
, 261
, 242
, 262
, 261

, 225
, 411
, 40
, 36
, 77, 98
, 333
, 334
, 123
, 32
, 33
, 34

{$}, 90
{$!+}, 102, 106
{$L...}, 221
{$...}, 161
{$N+}, 37
{$R+}, 307
{$S+}, 307

far, 41
, , 151
CD-ROM, 194
, 422
, 424, 425
, 423
, 422
, 423
, 153
, 129

, 308

-, 37
, 28, 37
, 150
, 317
, 431

482

, 116
, 116
, 121
,
13,
14
absolute, 165
and, 15, 84, 87, 165,172,189,252,
335
array, 14, 77
begin, 15, 37, 126
case, 15, 23, 55, 122
const. 14, 19, 61, 207
constructor, 15, 363, 364, 365
destructor, 15, 364, 365
div, 15,31,83
do, 15,25,26,27, 117
downto, 15, 27, 32
else, 15,22,24
end, 14, 15, 24, 37, 47, 53, 122, 126,
361
far, 41
file, 14
for, 15,26.27,28,32,33
function, 14, 53
if, 15, 21, 33, 81
implementation, 15, 47
in, 81
inherited, 363
interface, 15, 47
mod, 15, 31, 43, 83
not, 15, 84, 87, 172
object, 15, 361, 363
of, 14, 15, 24
or, 15, 84, 87, 172
Pointer, 98
private, 361
procedure, 14, 53, 364
program, 14, 16, 28
public, 15
record, 14, 116
repeat, 15, 25, 28, 35, 42
set, 80

shi, 15,83
shr, 15,83
string, 14, 45, 71
then, 15,21,33
to, 15,26,32
type, 14, 41, 47, 97
unit, 14, 47
until, 15,25,35,42
uses, 35, 46, 200
var, 14, 18, 58, 77, 80, 98, 124
virtual, 15, 364
while, 15,25,28,38,45
with, 117
xor, 84, 87, 189, 252


, 345
, 345
, 345

, 341
, 341
, 343
, 342
, 343
, 343
, 343
, 343
,
343
, 341
, 341
, 344
SoundBlaster, 345

FM-, 344
MPU, 345
, 344

, 344
, 84

, 16
. .

, 56
, 129
, 55
, 56
, 30
, 97
, 37
, 16, 28
, 29, 72
, 411
, 409
, 409, 412
, 409
, 409
, 409

, 409,417
, 409, 414
, 409

, 442
, 441
, 438

()
, 441
, 442
, 440

, 442

, 441

, 442

, 441

, 441
, 441
, 437
, 440
, 29, 37
, 16
, 307, 380, 390,
400, 405
, 398

, 344
SoundBlaster, 345

FM-, 344
MPU, 345
, 344

, 344
, 405

, 67
, 170
, 172
, 69
, 69, 170
, 69

CapsLock, 172
NumLock, 164, 172
ScrollLock, 172
, 438
, , 69
ASCII, 64

,
115
, 326
, 328
, 327
, 18, 29
, 16, 30
, 118

483

, 14
Detect, 201
HorizDir, 219
Maxint, 82
MaxLongInt, 82
nil, 126
Pi, 90
Seg0040, 163
VertDir, 219
, 200
, 19
, 19
, 274
, 198
, 199
, 274, 281
, 273
, 274
, 275, 281
, 320
, 243
, 431

, 326
, 320
, 323

, 185
, 189, 252
, 190

, 188
, 185
, 189

, 186
, 189, 250, 252,337
, , 177

, 180,181

, 385
, 312, 385, 417, 418
, 391
, 25, 87
, 88

False (), 21, 34, 42, 87, 110, 136,
172 195 319
True (), 21, 34, 87, 110, 136,
173, 298,317
, 66
, 34
, 151

484

, 21

, 39 47
, 55

, 76
, 77
, 76
79
, 76
, 77
, 76
, 77
, 77
, 77
, 77
, 37, 64, 90
. 38
, 127,269,391

398
, 129
, 400
, 406

, 398
, 400
, 269
, 269
, 269
, 127
, 397
, 269
, 397
, 397
, 400
400
, 269
, 400
, 366

, 409, 417
, 38
, 40
, 405
, 405, 406.419
, 409
, 406
, 409, 414
. 424, 425
, 409
, 410
, 432
, 423

()
, 422
, 423
, 380, 390, 400, 405
, 398
, 274, 281
, 37, 46
, 80, 99
, 80
, 81
, 81
, 322
, 16, 35, 36,37,46
CRT, 35, 55, 68, 74, 204, 206, 307,
333 369
DOS, 58, 105, 156, 157, 158, 161
Graph, 200, 208
System, 28, 30, 32, 34, 35, 38, 39, 42,
44, 45,55,70,83,90,100,129,158,
165, 166
, 47
, 47
BIOS, 150
, 116
, 117
, 183
, 184

, 250
, 186
, 185
, 189, 252
, 190

, 188
, 185
, 189

, 186
, 189, 250,252,337
, 191
, 190

, 191
, 186

, 187
, 191
, 190
, 186
, 191

, 308, 380
, 307, 405

, 19
, 113
, 405, 406, 419
, 409
, 406

Output, , 102
-
, 359
, 362
, 362
, 360
, 360
. 364, 369
, 364, 365,369,372
, 365
, 364, 365,369,372
, 360, 361
, 360

, 365
, 360

, 364, 366
, 366
, 364

, 366
, 29
, 273
, 35
, 359
, 16
, 14
@, 145
/, 15
, 23, 55
, 24
, 24
, 34, 101
, 29, 37
, 20, 30, 37
, 37
, 98
, 17
, 16, 20, 21
, 21
, 15
, 21, 33, 42,81
, 21, 23

, 23
, 22

485

()
, 25
, 25, 26, 42
, 28
, 28
(repeat), 25, 28,
35,42
(while), 25, 28,
38, 45
(for), 26, 28, 30,
32,33

, 30
, 31, 83
, 30
, 31
, 30
, 31
, 30
, 30
, 30
, 31, 83
, 82
, 87
, 81
, 81
, 81
, 81
, 94
, 83

, 150
, 16
, 29
, 19
, 39, 47
, 18, 29
-, 37
, 97
, 42
, 29, 37
, 58
, 87
, 66
, 39
, 89, 98

/, 102
, 441

String constant exceeds line, 73


Type mismatch, 31, 98
, 435

Arithmetic overflow, 83

486

, 214
VGA, 214

, 115
, 58
-, 57, 61
-, 61
-, 58, 61
, 57
, 57
, 327
, 323
, 380
, 316
, 100
, 13
DOSError, 158
, 162
, 165
, 56
, 123
, 126, 127
, 126
, 72
, 55
, 77
, 45
, 71

, 72
, 73
, 76
, 123
, 123
, 124, 126
, 44, 100, 101
, 36
, 26, 89
, 198
, 56, 58
, 32
, 36
, 56
, 57
, 58
-, 57, 61
-, 61
-, 58, 61
, 57
, 57
, 56, 58
, 37, 53
, 37, 53
, 364, 366

, 286
, 286
, 135
, 142
, 140
, 141
, 385
, 312, 385,417,418
, 78, 140
, 139
, 389
, 139
, 385
, 385
/, 265, 334, 345
, 99

, 18
, 19

Mem, 165
MemL, 165
MemW, 165
, 91

, 82
, 400
: , 438
, 155, 166, 335
$08 ( ), 443
$09 (), 170, 444
$10 (), 1,73, 181, 232, 258
, 447
, 447
, 444
, 446
, 446
, 447

, 446

, 447

, 448

, 446
, 445
, 445

, 445
$11 ( ), 448
$12 ( ), 448
$13 ( /)

, 449

()
, 449
, 448
, 449
$16 (/
), 170, 173, 449
$17 ()
,
450
, 450
, 450
, 450
$1 ( )
, 451
, 451

, 451

, 451
$21 ( MS-DOS), 452
$33 (), 183
DOS, 452
, 99, 118
, 100
, 36
, 94
, 20, 30, 37
, 79
, 98
, 16
, 42
, 153
, 273

, 275
, 280
, 275, 279
, 278, 280
, 275, 278
, 275
, 275
, 181
, 28
, 381
, 58
, 20, 53
Assign, 44, 100, 112
Bar. 210
BlockRead, 110, 115
BlockWrite, 110,115,265
Break, 28,87
CbDir. 160/
Cirde, 204
ClearDevice, 219
Close, 450

487

()
CloseGraph, 202
Ch-Eol, 307
CIrScr, 35,55,74
Continue, 28
Delay, 79,204,261,335
Delete, 74, 129
Dispose, 126
, 365
Erase, 110, 158, 160
Exclude, 81
Exec, 162, 178
Exit, 42,87
FillEllipse, 261
FmdFirst, 158
FmdNext, 158
FreeMem, 127, 129
FSplit, 112, 156
GetDir, 160
Getlmage, 212, 262
GetMem, 127, 129
GetTime, 58
GotoXY, 74, 78, 178
Halt, 42, 87, 106, 307
Include, 81
InitGraph, 201,202
Insert, 74
Intr, 168
keypressed, 206
Line, 204
Move, 265
MSDos, 168
New, 126
, 365
NoSound, 333
Ord, 64,72,89
OutTextXY, 207,211,219
Ptr, 165
Putlmage, 212, 262
PutPixel, 216
Randomize, 225
Read, 42,101,102,112
ReadLn, 30, 42,67. 101,107,112
Rectangle, 210
RegisterBGIdnver, 222
RegisterBGIfont, 222
Rename, 110,158
Reset, 101, 112, 113
RestoreCRTMode, 202, 262
Rewrite, 44, 101, 112, 113
SetActivePage, 231, 262
SetBkCoter, 203
SetColor, 203.210
SetFillStyle, 210
SetFTime. 157

488

()
SetGraphMode, 202
SetRGBPalette, 215
SetTextJustify, 219
SetTextStyle, 219
SetViewPort, 226
SetVisualPage, 231, 262
Sound, 333
Str, 75, 119, 207
Swap Vectors, 162
TextColor, 78
UnpackTime, 157
Val, 75,84

Write, 30, 32, 42, 101, 102, 112, 119,


201, 207
WnteLn, 30, 32, 34, 38, 42, 44, 101,
107, 112, 113, 119,201
, 53
, 334
, 81
, 17

, 16
, 16, 37
, 18
, 97
, 314
, 198
, 62
, 364
, 166
, 153
, 380
, 308
, 305
, 305
, 381
, 313
, 409, 414
, 424, 425
, 386
, 386, 390
, 386, 387
, 391
, 386, 387
, 391
, 386, 388

, 130
, 131, 133
, 132
, 131, 134
, 132

, 123, 144, 166


, 145, 166
, 166
, 166

, 15
CR ( ), 113, 114
LF ( ), 113, 114
, 66
, 26, 99
, 409
, 410
, 406

, 345

, 177
, 58

, 266
, 269
, 391
, 392

, 392,393
, 397
, 392, 393

, 392, 393

, 406

, 422
, 26, 77, 89

, 16
, 18
, 225
, 123,144
, 98
, 98
, 37, 64, 90
, 38
, 16, 20, 21
, 186
, 15
CR ( ), 113, 114
LF ( ), 113, 114
, 100
, 100
, 130
, 131, 133
, 132
, 131, 134
, '132

489

, 298
,
299
,
299
, 298
, 302
, 298
, 298
, 123
IEEE 754, 91
, 386
, 386, 390
, 386, 387
, 391
, 386, 387
, 391
, 386, 388
, 178
, 432
, 71

, 45
, 71
, 72
, 73
, 76
, 99
, 17, 28
, 21
, 274

Registers, 166
SearchRec, 157
Shortint, 63, 80, 82
Single, 64
string, 71
Text, 44, 100
Word, 19, 32, 61, 63,80,82,83,127,
165, 189, 210, 213, 214, 226, 333, 334
, 26, 87
, 90, 98, 99
, 62
, 98
, 62, 97
, 116
, 116
, 121
, 97
, 31
, 98, 99
, 97
, 41
, 89, 98
, 18
, 26, 89
, 99
, 62
, 82
, 99, 118
, 62
, 62
, 62
, 26, 99
, 26,77,89
, 98
, 98
, 123
, 71, 99
, 62
, 76
, 80
, 99

, 113
, 100
, 112
, 41
, 26,98,99
, 16
, 327

, 100
, 100
UNIX MS-DOS, 114
, 44
, 16
, 25
, 379
, 29, 37

, 19
, 112

Boolean, 63
Byte, 63,82,99, 165,211
Char, 63,64,66,99

Comp, 64,90
Double, 64,94
Extended, 19, 37, 47, 64, 90, 91, 113
FillPatternType, 211
Integer, 63, 75, 80, 82, 456
Longint, 35, 63, 80, 82, 90, 126, 157,
165, 307
PathStr, 105, 156
Real, 19, 32, 90

, 99, 123
nil, , 126
, 123
, 124, 126

490

, 15
, 66
CR ( ), 113, 114
LF ( ), 113, 114
, 45

, 32
, 33
, 34
, 422
, 307, 405
, 314
, 21, 33, 42, 81
, 21, 23

, 23
, 22
/, 42

, 44, 100, 101


, 42
n, , 456
, 157
, 101
, 16, 151
, 151
, 151
, 152
, 152
, 113
, 101
, 151
, 151
, 44
, 100
UNIX MS-DOS, 114
, 112
, 151
, 57
, 388
, 305
, 168
, 57
, 17
, 321
Abs, 39, 83, 90
Addr, 145
ArcTan, 90
Chr, 66
Copy, 75
Cos, 90
Dec, 35
Eof, 45
Exp, 90

()
FExpand, 105, 156,160
FileSize, 110
Frac, 90
GetEnv, 161
GetMaxX, 203
GetMaxY, 203
GetPixel, 216
GraphResult, 202
ImageSize, 213
Inc, 35
Int, 90
lORsult, 102, 106, 158
Length, 74
Ln, 90
Odd, 35,83
Ofs, 145
Ord, 66
Pos, 75, 111
Pred, 89
Ptr, 145
Random, 225
ReadKey, 68, 69, 70
Round, 90
Seg, 145
Sin, 90
SizeOf, 82, 118, 129
Sqr, 32.83,90
Sqrt, 90
Succ, 89
Tan, 90
Trunc, 35,90
UpCase, 66
WhereY, 369
, 37
, 37
, 46
, 42
, 37
, 37
, 37
, 37
, 41
, 316


, 341
, 341
, 343
, 342
, 343
, 343
, 343
, 343

()

, 343
, 341
, 341
, 400
, 423

, 26, 98, 99
, 25
, 25, 26, 42
, 28
, 28
, 27
, 25, 28, 35, 42
, 25, 28, 38,45
, 26, 28,30,32,33

, 26, 27, 32
, 313

, 406
, 345
, 345
, 58
, 385
, 320

, 381
, 305
, 144

491

, 409
, 409, 412
, 409
, 409
, 409

, 409, 417
, 409, 414
, 409

, 84, 144

, 218

, 221
, 218

, 422
, 423
, 275, 281
, 381
, 385
, 273
, 273

, 273
, 273

, 406