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STEERING SYSTEM

STEERING SYSTEM
Function of steering system: 1. Steers the wheels 2. Provides directional stability 3. Multiplies the effort of the driver

STEERING SYSTEM
Main Components of steering system: 1. 2. 3. . #. &. '. *. Steering Wheel Steering column Steering Gear !rop "rm !rag $in% Steering "rm (rac%)"rms (rac% +od or (ie)+od

STEERING SYSTEM

CAMBER

King in Inc!ination "K I#

CASTER

Toe$in % Toe$out

Steering Gear Bo&

'orm an( ')ee!

'orm an( ')ee! Sector

'orm an( Nut

Steering Gear Bo&

'orm an( ro!!er

Steering Gear Bo&

Recircu!ating Ba!! Type

Steering Gear Bo&

Ac*erman Steering Mec)anism

,or correct steering cot -phi. / cot -theta. 0 b 1 l

+a,is Steering Mec)anism

(he correct steering depends upon a suitable selection of cross)arm angle alpha2 and is given by tan -alpha. 0 b 1 2l

Suspension System

Suspension System
Functions of suspension systems:

It cus)ions t)e c)assis from roa( s)oc*s It pro,i(es a smoot) ri(e rotects t)e ,e)ic!e an( any cargo or !uggage from (amage It sta-i!i.es t)e ,e)ic!e Keep t)e tires in contact /it) t)e roa( Support ,e)ic!e /eig)t Contro! t)e ,e)ic!e0s (irection of tra,e!

Suspension System
Suspension Components: Springs 3oil $eaf (orsion bar Shoc% absorber

Suspension System
Types of suspension systems:

Con,entiona! suspension system In(epen(ent suspension system Air suspension system 1y(ro e!astic suspension system

Con,entiona! Suspension System

In(epen(ent Suspension System

45!6P65!65( S7SP65S485

In(epen(ent Suspension System


"dvantages9

Minimum ,i-rations Impro,es roa( )o!(ing ten(ency of tyres 2esser unsprung /eig)t 3 impro,es ri(e4 re(uces tyre /ear5 Increase( passenger space impro,e ,e)ic!e ri(e contro! an( ri(ing comfort

!isadvantages9

Increase( cost Comp!icate( (esign Better s)oc* a-sor-er re6uire(

45!6P65!65( S7SP65S485
(ypes
!ouble wishbone suspension McPherson strut suspension Multi)lin% suspension (win 4):eam suspension ;ertical guide type (ransverse leaf)spring

45!6P65!65( S7SP65S485

+ou-!e /is)-one suspension systems

+ou-!e /is)-one suspension systems

+ou-!e /is)-one suspension systems

Mc )erson strut

Mc )erson strut

Mc )erson strut

Mu!ti$!in* suspension

Mu!ti$!in* suspension

Mu!ti$!in* suspension

Mu!ti$!in* suspension

Mu!ti$!in* suspension

T/in I$Beam suspension

T/in I$Beam suspension

T/in I$Beam suspension

Trans,erse !eaf$spring

Bra*ing System

Bra*ing System

Bra*ing System

Drum Brakes

DRUM BRAKES
Wheel Piston Upper

Cylinder

nchor Pin
.Backing

Plate Parking Brake Lever

Return Brake
.Secondary

Spring
Primary

Brake

Shoe

Shoe

d!uster
.Lo"er

Return
44

Spring

Disc Brake Assembly

Rotor Pads Caliper Piston Brake Line Bleeder screw Through Bolts

Disc Brake Rotor

4$

Bra*ing System

HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

Brake pedal assem&ly Po"er &ooster 'aster cylinder Proportioning valve 'etering valve Warning light valve Lines Calipers Wheel cylinders
4%

1y(rau!ic Bra*ing System

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