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PHILLIPS KILN SERVICES LTD.

KILN ALIGNMENT ANALYSIS


an Overview of The Direct Method
Patents: United States # 5,148,238 #5,146,795 5,491,553 Mexico #172518 Canada #1325680 #2150585 Korea #90-15348 Europe #0,420,663 Japan #2865410

Alignment:
Preventive Maintenance
Consequences of Not Checking Alignment
No preventive maintenance Less than optimum operation Acceptance of high wear rates High long term costs Low kiln availability Unpredictable outages

P2

P1

Alignment of a third and subsequent points can be measured in deviation from the reference line

P2 P1
Horizontal = H Vertical = V

P1 P(n) are points of the kiln shell at each pier. Alignment is achieved when all points are moved to the reference line.

What are these points?


P4 P2

P5

P1

P3

How are they defined?

Accuracy Accuracy = of of Alignment Locating Points

Internal Alignment
Setting targets inside the kiln NEW KILNS

(Bore Sight Alignment)

When working inside the kiln

Kiln is shut down and cool. Targets must be set at each support. Coating and refractory must be penetrated to the shell The feed end target may be in chains.

Reposition the kiln at least three times.

Not Suited for Preventive Maintenance

certain preparations are necessary.

Establishing The Axis of Rotation Using The Bore Sight

Fig A

Fig B

Fig C

Fig D

Locating The Center of Rotation


Point #3

Point #1 Point #2 R R

Fig E

Establishing The Axis of Rotation Using The Bore Sight

Fig A

Fig B

Fig C

Fig D

External Alignment
Procedures are complex

Centers are not measured. They are geometrically determined. No references. Worn roller and tire diameters to be accurately measured. The shell is eccentric in the tire. The tire exhibits ovality.

Hot External Procedures are extrapolations of Cold External Methods

Plumb bobs, optical instruments, and laser theodolites have been used. All treat rotation as an obstacle. All target the kiln tire. All find centers indirectly from component geometry.

Internal & External Methods Have Difficulties with Locating A Physical Center
1) Ovality: A B C 2) Shell Eccentricity (gap) 3) Movement or Pitching 4) Permanent shell distortions 5) Accurate diameters??? 6) Rollerspacing is very difficult to measure. C

A B

P2

P1 Where P1 & P2 are centers of rotation.

Rotation Is Required To Find The Center Of Movement


The center of rotation is found without any measurement of the support geometry!
Center of Rotation Rotating Kiln Shell

Laser #3 {Position (x3, y3, z3)} Laser #1

Physical Shell Center

Mean Positions 1, 2, & 3


Laser #2

The center of the unique circle defined by mean points #1, 2, & 3 is the center of rotation of the shell!
Y

Reference Frame X

Alignment

Laser Measurement Apparatus

measures ~ 2000 kiln positions

from six locations per tire


using 12 shell rotations. to calculate 1 point for each tire: which is the center of the kiln shells rotation

Laser Measurement Apparatus


Continuous scan during shell rotation. Shell, not tires, are targeted.

Prism locates apparatus in reference grid.


X, Y, Z addresses are accurate to 1mm.

Reference Prism one of several around the kiln

SLOPE: The vertical position of each roller.


SKEW: The degree to which the rollers deviate from parallel in relation to the axis of the shell.

Only with proper slope and skew can face contact be maximized.

Elevation

7mm [0.26]

C L Gear

16mm [0.64]

Gear

Gear 4mm [0.16]


5mm [0.21]

Alignment Analysis

11mm [0.43]

Plan
3mm [0.11] 1mm [0.04]

C L Gear

6mm [0.23] 3mm [0.10]

Recommended Roller Adjustments


26mm [1.01] 19mm [0.75] 12mm [0.49]

12mm [0.47] 1mm [0.05]

C L Gear

31mm [1.24] 19mm [0.75] 11mm [0.42]

7mm [0.27] 13mm [0.51]

Accuracy of Locating The Centers of Rotation


3mm [1/8]

1mm [0.04]

Alignment:Preventive Maintenance
An Aligned Kiln Reduces Stresses On:
Refractory Kiln Shell Tire Shell Pads Tire Retainers Tires Support Rollers Roller Shafts Support Bearings

Kiln Shell Phrenograph


Complete Shell Profile
Split is at the manhole.
0 Areas exceeding diameter by 90 180 270 360

1/2
30 25 20

35

Drive pier tire

Center tire 15 10 5 Discharge end tire

SHELL RUN-OUT MEASURES SHELL MOVEMENT

AXIS OF ROTATION

AXIS OF THE SHELL ANGULAR OCCURRENCE OF THE MAXIMUM RUN-OUT SHOWS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE GEOMETRIC CENTER & THE CENTER OF ROTATION.

SUMMARY
Why Alignment and Ovality Are Important
New Kiln Benchmark Preventive Maintenance
- Monitor Conditions - Plan Maintenance Work - Avoid Unexpected Failures

Revenue Generator

For the Record


Mining

Chemical
Lime Recovery (Pulp & Paper) Cement Since 1989, More Than 50 Kilns Per Year

More than 1,000 in the last 5 years


In more than 40 countries More than FLS and Polysius put together

For the Record


Allis Chalmers
Ahlstrom Fuller F.L.Smidth

Veba
Zkett Miag O & K

Polysius
KHD Kennedy Van Saun (KVS) Vulcan Kobe Mitsubishi

Fief Caille Babcock


Prerov I.H.I. Cle Vickers Armstrong Edgar Allen Lurgi