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. ..

.. , .. , ..


MATLAB/SIMULINK.

2008

681.3
: .. , .. , ..
: .-. , ..., . ..

MATLAB/SIMULINK.
/ .. , .. , .. . .:
, 2008. 91 .
ISBN 978-966-02-4389-7

()
MATLAB/SIMULINK.
,
,
.
.
,

.
The textbook deals with engineering methods for modeling and simulation of
systems and processes with graphical (visual) programming methods. MATLAB /
SIMULINK software environment is used mainly. Signal approximation methods, as
well as structures for dynamical and without inertia objects simulation and
mathematical programming problems solution have been considered. An illustrative
examples and praxis accompany the theoretical results. The work is destined to the
students and post-graduate dealing with modeling and simulation methods and their
applications in various fields of research (science & technology).

ISBN 978-966-02-4389-7




. ..
, 2008
.. , .. ,
.. , 2008


..................................................................................................................4
1. SIMULINK ...................................7
1.1. ..................................................................................9
1.2. ............................................................11
2. ...................................................................18
3. ..................................................................................23
3.1. ..................................................................23
3.2. ........................................26
3.3. - .........................................................35
4. ......................................................................41
5. ................................................47
5.1. ........................................................48
5.2.
MATLAB/Simulink/SimPowerSystem .................................................................49
5.3. Simulink..............51
5.4. - ..52
5.5. .....................................54
5.6. .................................................54
5.7. ......55
5.8. ...............................57
5.9. ....................59
5.10. ..............61
6. .....................................................67
7. ..........................................................................71
8. .........................................................................................................89




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SIMULINK,
MATLAB The MathWorks Inc.
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LabVIEW National Instruments.
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Electronics Workbench (Multisim)
Interactive Image Technologies Ltd.

.
FEMLAB(COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS).

, -
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MATLAB .
,
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()
[1, 9, 11 -17, 19, 27].
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SIMULINK
MATLAB.
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5


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1. SIMULINK
SIMULINK MATLAB.
SIMULINK
MathWorks,
MATLAB ,
.
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(, ..).

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(Pascal, ..),
MATLAB , , MAPLE,
MathCAD, Mathematica.
,

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SIMULINK ,
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SIMULINK (S-)
drag-and-drop ( ). S ( ),
SIMULINK.
SIMULINK , , ,

MATLAB,
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SIMULINK.
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SIMULINK.
Aerospace Blockset

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DSP Blockset
(DSP).
, ,
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Nonlinear Control Design Blockset

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SimPowerSystems
.
SimMechanics
,
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SIMULINK [1, 9, 11, 14, 27].
:
http://matlab.exponenta.ru/simulink/default.php
http://www.mathworks.com
8

1.1.
SIMULINK MatLab.
.
*.mdl
(Simulink model),
SIMULINK. ,

.
Simulation/ Configuration
Parameters, ,
, ,
..
SIMULINK,
.

Function Block Parameters, .
(Sources)
. 1.1 .

. 1.1.

Constant
;
From Workspace
;
From File ;
Sine Wave

, , ;
Signal Generator

(,
,
, );
9

Ramp

Step

Random Number
.
(Sinks)
. 1.2 -

. 1.2.

(Display)
;
(Scope)
;
( Graph)
( Y(X));
File , ,
;
Workspace ,
, MATLAB.

10

. 1.3.

Gain .
Product ( ) .
Sum ( ) .
Math Function
(, , ,
..).
(. 1.4).
1
s

MATLAB
Function

Integrator

MATLAB Fcn

. 1.4.

Mux () .
. 1.4.
Integrator .

MATLAB
Fcn

MatLab.
1.2.
, ,
x (t ) = 0,5 * sin t + t 2 [0;2] ,
. . 1.5
.

11

Sine Wave

Scope

u
Ramp

Math
Function

. 1.5.

x (t ) = 0,5 * sin t + t 2 .

0,5 sin t Sine Wave (. 1.6).


t 2
,
.

(. 1.7).

. 1.6. Sine Wave.


12

0 2
Simulation/ Configuration Parameters.

. 1.7.

x (t ) = 0,5 * sin t + t 2 .

.
.
. 1.8, 1.9

{ }

sk (t ) = t k

4
k =0

,
.

(1)
(mux)
(scope).
,
. 1.10 .
13

. 1.8.
.

0.1
Constant

10
1
s

Gain

Integrator

Product
Scope
Product1

Product2

Product3

. 1.9.
.

14

. 1.10.

. 1.11

{ }

: s k (t ) = e kt k =0 .
4
(Ramp)
(Math Function).

( )
(
exp).
.
(1),
0

( e ).
.
1.12.
.
.
.1.13
.
15

. 1.11.
( 1)

0.1
Constant

10
Gain

1
s

eu

Integrator

Math
Function
Product

Scope
Product1
Product2

. 1.12.
( 2)

16

. 1.13.
.

17

2.


,
[22 25]. ,
,
,
.

a11x1 + a12 x2 + ... + a1n xn = b1


a21x1 + a22 x2 + ... + a2 n xn = b2
L
an1x1 + an 2 x2 + ... + ann xn = bn

.
:
dx1
+ a11x1 + a12 x2 + ... + a1n xn b1 = 0
dt
dx2
+ a21x1 + a22 x2 + ... + a2n xn b2 = 0
dt
L
dxn
+ an1x1 + an 2 x2 + ... + ann xn bn = 0
dt

(
{ x1, x2 , ..., xn } .

dx i
= 0 ),
dt



. ,
,
. ,
n

, , aii aij , i j .
j =1

2.1.
:
18

4 x1 + 2 x 2 = 14
2x1 + 5 x 2 = 5

dx1
= 14 4 x1 2 x 2
dt
dx2
= 5 2 x1 5 x2
dt

.
2.1.


(. 2.2).

.2.1. ,

. 2.2 , t = 2
,
:
19

x1 = 5,
x 2 = 3.

,
,
[22, 23].
.

. 2.2.

3.2.
:

5 x1 + 2 x 2 + x 3 = 2,5
3 x1 + 7 x 2 + 2 x 3 = 1,5 .
4 x1 + 0,5 x 2 + 5 x 3 = 11,5
20

.
2.3, 2.4 .

. 2.3. 3 .

,
(Display1 Display3) :
x1 = 0,5
x 2 = 1 .
x3 = 2
21

. 2.4. .

22

3.


, ,

. , Simulink
.
x (t )
[0,T ] .
v
S = {s k (t )} nk = 0 , .

[6, 18],


n

xa (t ) = X ( k )sk (t ).

(3.1)

k =0

X (k )
() x (t ) .
3.1.


[18, 26]:
X (k ) , (t )

(t ) = xa (t ) x(t ).


T
1
r (t ) 2 (t )dt = min,
T 0
r (t ) - .
v
n
X = {X (k )}k = 0 :

r
v
X = W 1 Q,

(3.2)
23

v
W Q
:
T

w ij = r (t )si 1(t )s j 1(t )dt ,


0

qi = r (t )si 1(t ) x (t )dt ,

(3.3)

i , j = 1,..., n + 1.


.
3.1.

x (t ) = cos t 2 [0, 1] .
5- .

3.2-3.3 . 3.1 3.2.

. 3.1.

Analysis MNK,
. 3.1.
Scope
Display, ,

,
.

24

. 3.2. .


, . 3. 3.

. 3.3.


, . 3.4.
25

. 3.4.

x (t ) = cos t 2

3.2.


,
,

. ,
, .. [20],
, ..
[21, 26].

. t
(n+1) ().
. 3.5 .
,
,
,
26

.
, .

. 3.5.

()
- :
tl

r (t ) X (k )s (t ) x(t )dt = 0.

tm

k =0

(3.4)

,
v
iT
[0,
], i = 1,..., n + 1, (. 3.5()) W Q
n +1
:

27

w ij =

iT
n +1

r (t )s

j 1

(t )dt ,

qi =

iT
n +1

r (t )x(t )dt,

(3.5)

i , j = 1,..., n + 1.

MatLab/Simulink. ,
, .
3.6.

. 3.6.

(Analysis).
x(t)
v
S(t ) . ,
, To Workspace,
.

28

x(t ) = Cos( t 2 ) [0,


1]. [0; 0,1], [0; 0,2], [0;
0,3], [0; 0,4], [0; 0,5]. sk (t ) = t k , k = 0, n.
,
. . 3.7 X(t).

. 3.7. ,


Ramp, t.
, ,
( , ,

), x(t).
(Scope),

x(t ) = Cos( t 2 ) .
Scope
. 3.8.

. 3.8. ,

29


S(t)

k
sk (t ) = t , k = 0, n , . 3.9.

. 3.9. .


, s(t ) = 1
( Integrator) .
Gain, Gain1, Gain2
.

.
. 3.10.
,
Analysis, ,
,
v
Q , - W.

v
. Q
x(t),
W ,
.
,
. 3.11.

30

. 3.10.

. 3.11. .

.
- ,
( t)
. t
, Switch
x(t). ,
, ,
31

. MatLab
,
Switch , ,
,
.
Switch . 3.12.

. 3.12. Switch.

Analysis.

. 3.13. Analysis

x(t)
s(t). Subsystem
32

v
Q , Subsystem 1-5 -
W. Matrix Concatenation .
.
,

(. 3.6). . 3.14 ,
.

. 3.14. .


iT
[ ,T ], i = 0,..., n 1 .
n
Switch
( : [0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8])
(. 3.11)
x(t) .

. 3.15.

. 3.15. .


.
33

, ,
.

(. 3.16.). X(t) S(t) . From
Workspace .
,
.
.
. 3.17.
x(t)

x(t)
S(t)

S(t)
Scope
Dot Product
X
From
Workspace

. 3.16. .

,
. .

. ,

.
Simulink DSP (Digital Signal Processing) Blockset.

34

. 3.17. .


Simulink.
, ,
.
3.3. -

[21].

-
.
[0,T ] m ,

h = T m .

{ih}mi=1

v i (t ) = (t (i 1)h ) (t ih ) .

(3.6)

35

i = 1, ..., m ; v i (t ) -
; (t ) :
0, t < 0,
1, t 0.

(t ) =

(3.7)

-
(3.2)(3.3)
m

x~(t ) = X 0 (i )v i (t ),

(3.8)

i =1

ih

X 0 (i ) =

1
x(t )dt .
h ( i 1)h

(3.9)

-
- :
2t

w i (t ) = + 1 2i v i (t ),
h

(3.10)

-

:
m

xa (t ) = ( X 0 (i )v i (t ) + X1(i )w i (t )).

(3.11)

i =1

. 3.18, 3.19 ,
-
.

36

. 3.18. , -
, - .

37

. 3.19. , -
, - .

38

3.2.

MATLAB/Simulink.

x(t ) = cos 2 t 2 [0,1], m=10.


. 3.20.
:

BF ;

X(t) ;

X0, X1 ;

Step

. , ,
.

Step

x(t)
X0
V(t)
W(t)

BF

v (t)

X0

To Workspace

x(t)
X1
w(t)

x(t)

X(t)

X1

0
Display

. 3.20. - - .

.
3.21,
.
,
.

39

x(t)
X0

X(t)
From
Workspace
Scope

Dot Product2

Out1

BF

. 3.21. .


. . 3.22
. ,
(m)
. ,
.
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

. 3.22. .

40

4.


.
Simulink
.
4.1. ,

.
:
d 2 y (t )
dy (t )
+ a1
+ a2 y (t ) = a3e a t cos a5 t ,
dt
dt 2
4

y (t ) t = 0 = y 0 ,
dy (t )
= y 0 .
dt t =0
, : a1 = a2 = 0,1 ,
a3 = 5 , a 4 = 1, a5 = 0,1, :

y + 0.1y + 0.1y = 5e t cos(0.1t ) ,


y (0) = 1.5,
y (0) = 2.

, . 4.1.

(.4.2),
( )
. 4.3.

41

-1

Gain 2

Math
Function

Ramp

Product
0.1

cos

Gain 3

Gain 4

-5

Trigonometric
Function

Gain 1
0.1

1
s

1
s

Integrator

Integrator 1
Scope

Gain
0.1
XY Graph

. 4.1.

. 4.2.
42

. 4.3. .

4.2. ,
3- .
:
d 3 y (t )
d 2 y (t )
dy (t )
+
2
.
5
+6
+ 2. 5 y ( t ) = e t ,
3
2
dt
dt
dt
y (0) = 1; y (0) = 1; y (0) = 2.

,
,
.4.4.
Math
Function

Ramp

eu
Scope

XY Graph

1
s

1
s

1
s

Integrator1

Integrator2

Integrator3

Gain1
2.5
Gain2
6

Gain3
2.5

. 4.4. 3 .
43


(Gain1 Gain3).
(Integrator1
Integrator
3.

Ramp ( -t)
MathFunction,
.
(. 4.5).
(XY Graph)
. 4.6.

. 4.5.

. 4.6.
44

4.3 ,
. ,
, 1 ,
30 20
/.

.
. ,
, :
y = y 0 + v sin( ) t g

t2
,
2

x = v cos( ) t ,

: y 0 = 1, v = 20 / , = 30 o , g = 9.81 / .
.
4.7.
1
s

1
s

Integrator1

Integrator2

-KGain2
<=

STOP

Relational
Stop Simulation
Operator
10
1

Constant

Gain1

0
Constant1
XY Graph

-KGain3
36.97
Display

Scope

. 4.7.


Gain1, -
Gain3, Gain2.

.
Relational Operator Stop Simulation ,
45

y .
,
. . 4.8 4.9

.4.8. , 30
1, 20 /c.

.4.9. .
46

5.




. ,
..
70- ,

[2-5, 22, 23]. ,


, ,



. :

;

( ,
..);
,

.
-

, ,

.

, ,
[1, 16, 27],

,

.
.

,
.
MATLAB/
Simulink/SimPowerSystem ,

47

,
.

.
5.1.


,
(
) ,
. , , ,
- ,
,

.
.

.

, :
z = f ( x1, x 2 ,..., x m ) ,

(5.1)

: z (
, x i (i := 1,..., m ) - (
).
:

( x1, x 2 ,...x m ) = 0 .

(5.2)

(5.2) ,

. ,

(5.2),


, ..
. Simulink MATLAB


.

MATLAB

SimPowerSystem
[24, 25]
.
48

5.2.
MATLAB/Simulink/SimPowerSystem


MATLAB
.
1.
,
. . 5.1 .
,
Simulimk
SimPowerSystem ,

.
Simulink >,
SimPowerSystem .

SimPowerSystem ,
: > .

f (z)

Constant

Solve
f(z) = 0

Algebraic Constraint

Display

Gain

Scope

Slider
Gain

DC Voltage Source

+
v
-

Controlled Current Source


s

Controlled Voltage Source


s

Diode

Series RLC Branch

Voltage Measurement

. 5.1.

Simulink

(Constant) -

49

.
.
(Gain)
, .
.
(Slider Gain) , .
.
.

.
( , 3- 2-
. 5.1)
.
(+, -) .
(Algebraic Constraint)

z , f(z)
. ,

. ,

Simulink.
(Mux), ( , 3- 1-
. 5.1) () .
.
,

.
(Display)
(
).
(Scope)
, .
.

SimPowerSystem

50

() (DC
Voltage Source) ...
.

,
.

( )
( ).
(Diode) .


.

800

).
(Controlled Voltage
Source) ,
...
Simulink.
Simulink SimPowerSystem.
(Controlled Current Source)
,
Simulink.
Simulink
SimPowerSystem.

(Voltage
Measurement)


SimPowerSystem.
SimPowerSystem

Simulink SimPowerSystem.

5.3. Simulink

4 :
a1x1 + a2 x 2 + a3 x 3 + a4 x 4 = 0 .
.
Simulink . 5.2.
4 ,
.

, 4 .
x 3 .
(Out1) (In3).
x1, x 2 , x 4 .

51

1
(a1x1 + a2 x 2 + a3 x 3 ) .
a4

,
, .
,

( -
).
:

1
In1

2
In2

x4 =

10
Gain1

4
Gain2
f (z)

Solve
f(z) = 0

Algebraic Constraint
3
In3

4
In4

1
Out1

1
Gain3

-10
Gain4

. 5.2.

5.4. -

5.1. . 5.2
3 ,

.
52

3
. 5.3. . 5.2,
,
().
,
x1, x 2 , x 3 ,
.

,
.
:
10 x1 + 4 x 2 + x 3 = 10,
4 x1 + 10 x 2 + x 3 = 29,
x1 + 4 x 2 + 10 x 3 = 3.5.
. 5.3
( x1 =2.5, x 2 =-4, x 3 = 1).
2.5
-4
1

Display

In1

In1

In2

In2

Out1

In2

Out1

In3

In3

In4

In4

Subsystem

In1

Subsystem1

Out1
In3

In4

Subsystem2

1
Constant

53

. 5.3. -
3 .

5.5.

Simulink SimPowerSystem,
, ,

. ,
Simulink

SimPowerSystem.
. 5.4.

,
Simulink SimPowerSystem.
. 5.4
Conn2
, Conn1
. . 5.4 ,

.
[23, 25].
3
Conn3
1
Conn1

+
-

f (z)
v

Solve
f(z) = 0

s
+

Algebraic Constraint1

Voltage Measurement3

2
Conn2

Controlled Voltage Source1

. 5.4. .

5.6.

. 5.5. 1
,
. Conn1 , onn2-Conn5
, :
a 2 x 2 + a3 x 3 + a5 x 5 = 0 .

. 5.5.
54

Conn1
Conn2

Conn3

Conn1

Conn3

Conn2

Conn4

Conn5

Conn5

Conn4

Conn3

Conn2

Conn1

Subsystem1

Subsystem2

. 5.5.
.

5.7.

5.2.
. 5.5
,

. . 5.6
3 .

(),
. 5.6, Subsystem1, Subsystem2, Subsystem3,

.
,
, . Conn1
, ...

onn5.

,

.
:
2 x1 + 5 x 2 + x 3 = 11,

4 x1 + x 2 + 3 x 3 = 7,
x1 + x 2 + x 3 = 4.
,
, : x1 = 1, x 2 = 2, x 3 = 3 .
55

Continuous
pow ergui

+
v
-

Voltage Measurement3
+
v
-

Scope2

-1
2

Conn5

Conn4

Conn3

Conn2

Conn1

Voltage Measurement1
Subsystem1

+
v
-

Voltage Measurement2

Conn5
Conn5

Conn4
Conn4

Conn3
Conn3

Conn2
Conn2

Conn1

Conn1

Display5

Subsystem2

DC Voltage Source1
Subsystem3

.5.6.

56

5.8.


.
,
:
a11x1 + a12 x 2 b1,
a21x1 + a22 x 2 b2 ,
a31x1 + a32 x 2 b3 .
,

,
().

:
a11x1 + a12 x 2 + x 3 = b1,
a21x1 + a22 x 2 + x 4 = b2 ,
a31x1 + a32 x 2 + x 5 = b3 ,
x 3 0, x 4 0, x 5 0.
5.3.
, . 5.7,
(Subsystem,
Subsystem1, Subsystem2),
(Conn1, Conn2, Conn3, Conn5),
5 .
Conn5 (Diode1, Diode2,
Diode4),

x 3 , x 4 x 5 .

,
.

57

. 5.7.

58

5.9.
5.4.
:

= c1x1 + c 2 x 2 , x1 , x 2 ,
:

a11x1 + a12 x 2 b1,


a21x1 + a22 x 2 b2 ,
x1 0, x 2 0.

. 5.8.
,

(
)

(Diode2, Diode3),
Conn2, Conn3.
,
.
,
,
: a11 = 3, a12 = 2, a21 = 1, a22 = 4,

b1 = 6, b2 = 4, c1 = c 2 = 1 . ,

( x1 = 1.6, x 2 = 0.6, = 2.2 ), .


(Constant),

(ControlledCurrentSourse).

59

Conn5

Conn4

Conn3

Conn2

Conn1

Subsystem2
1.6

Diode4

0.6

Conn5

Conn4

Conn3

Subsystem1

Conn2

Display5

Conn1

-2.2

Voltage Measurement1

Conn5

Conn4

Subsystem

Conn3

+
-

Conn2

Diode1

Voltage Measurement2
v

DC Voltage Source1

+
-

Conn1

Voltage Measurement3
v

+
-

Diode3
+

Diode2

Controlled Current Source

-0.005 Constant

. 5.8.
60



MATLAB


.

Simulink SimPowerSystem.


60

1015 .

.
5.10.

,
, .



,
.
[8, 10]. m
ai , i := 1,K, m n

b j , j := 1,K, n .
, , mxn
cij
i-j. i-j
x ij , :
n

ij

= ai , i := 1,K, m ,

(5.3)

x ij

i=

= b j , j := 1,K, n ,

(5.4)

j =1
m

x ij 0 ,

(5.5)
61

= c ij x ij min .

(5.6)

i =1 j =1

(5.3)
. , (5.4)
. (5.5)
(
).
( ) (5.6)

.

[10]
, , .
,

,
.
(5.3) (5.4)
-,
(5.5) .
,
, ,
[7].
(5.6)
.


,
,
. ,
,
.

. 5.9.

62

20

Constant1

Conn1

Conn1
Controlled Current Source1

Subsystem1

. 5.9. .

(Controlled
Current Source1) SimPowerSystems,
(Constant1) Simulink.
,
(Conn1). ,
Constant1,
,
Subsystem1.

11
1
Conn1

Constant

Subsystem5

Controlled Current Source

Conn1


.5.10.

. 5.10. .


. 5.11.

63

+
v
-

Voltage Measurement Display1

DC Voltage Source
1

Conn1

1
Out1

Diode
Current Measurement

2
Conn2

Out1
Conn1
Conn2

Subsystem7

. 5.11. .

(Diode)
(DC Voltage Source).

(Conn1),
... (Current
Measurement) (Conn2).
Out1
Simulink

Mux.

Voltage Measurement

Display1,

( ).
(Conn1)
(Conn1) ,
(Conn2)
(Conn1)

.
.
5.5.
. ,
64

,
.
200 100 .
110, 140 50
. 1 6
,
, .

- 1
- 2

- 1
30
30

- 2
10
50

- 3
30
60

. 5.12
, ,
(. 5. 9 5.11). 1 2
Subsystem1 Subsystem2.
1, 3,
Subsystem5

Subsystem10.

(
),
.
2.
:
1 Subsystem7, Subsystem3 Subsystem8,
2 Subsystem4, Subsystem6 Subsystem9.
,
,
Display1,
.

Constant
(Subsystem1, 2, 5, 10)
0.1.
DC
Voltage Source
(Subsystem7, 3, 8, 4, 6, 9) 0.1.
,
:

x11 = 1 x12 = 14 x13 = 10


x21 0 x22 = 5

x23 0
65

Continuous
powergui

Conn1

Conn1

Conn 2

Subsystem8

Out1

Conn 1

Conn2

Subsystem3

Out1

Conn 1

Conn2

Subsystem7

Out1

Subsystem1

Conn1

Conn 2

Subsystem9

Out1

Conn1

Conn 2

Subsystem6

Out1

Conn1

Subsystem4

Out1

Subsystem2

Conn 2

Conn1

1
14
10
-1.537 e-008
5
-2.808 e-009

Subsystem10

Conn1

Subsystem5

Conn1

Display 1

.5.12. .

66

6.

:
MATLAB Simulink.
Simulink Library Browser
File->New->Model, ,
Ctrl+N.
,
.
,
.

,
Simulink Simulink Library
Browser.
,
,
,


.

.
,

Format->Rotate Block,
Ctrl+R. 90 .

(
) .

,
,
,
.
Simulation
Start.
CTRL+T.
67

,
Simulink ,

Help MATLAB / Simulink.
6.1. .
1
y = (1 + 2 sin(2t ))2

. : Constant, Integrator, Gain,


Trigonometric Function, Math Function, Sum, Scope,.
2

y = 1 + 0.5 sin(2t )

. , . 1,
Math Function.
3
2

y = t e t cos(2t )

. : Constant, Integrator, Gain,


Trigonometric Function, Math Function, Product, Scope.
4

y = 3.5 + 0.3t 0.06t 2 e 2t + t 2

. :
Constant, Integrator, Gain, Math Function, Sum, Scope.
5
y = min(5t, 100 2t 2 )

. : Constant, Integrator, Gain, Math


Function, Sum, MinMax, Scope.
6

y=

100 + 20t

. : Constant, Integrator, Gain, Abs,


Math Function, Scope.

68

6.2. .
7. ,

XY Graph
:
x (t ) = A sin(t ),
y (t ) = B cos(t ).

: A = 5, B = 2, = 5 .
. : Ramp, Gain, Trigonometric Function, XY
Graph,
.
8. ,

XY Graph
:
x(t ) = (10 t ) sin(0.4t ),
y (t ) = (10 t ) cos(0.4t ).

. : onstant, Integrator, Gain, Trigonometric


Function, Product, Scope, XY Graph,
.
9.

{ }

s k (t ) = e kt k =0 .
. : onstant, Integrator, Gain, Math
Function, Mux, Scope.
10.

sk (t ) = {sin kt,cos kt }k =0
4

. : onstant, Integrator, Gain, Trigonometric


Function, Mux, Scope.
11.
sk (t ) = {1, t , sin t }
. : onstant, Integrator, Gain, Trigonometric
Function, Mux, Scope.

69

6.3. .
12.
:
2 x1 x 2 6.5 0

x1 + 2 x 2 x 3 1 = 0 .
x + 2 x 0.5 = 0
3
2
. : onstant, Gain, Sum, Algebraic
Constraint, Mux, Display.
13.
3 :
d 3y
d 2y
dy
+
0
.
5
+ 0. 9
+ 2y = 0 .
3
2
dx
dx
dx
:
y (0) = 2, y (0) = 1, y (0) = 0 .
.

. : Integrator, Gain, Sum, Mux, Display, XY


Graph. XY Graph
.
14.
2 :
d 2y
dy
+ 0 .1
+ 0 .5 y = 1
2
dt
dt
:
y (0) = 1, y (0) = 1 .
.
.

. : Integrator, Gain, Constant, Sum, Mux,


Display, XY Graph. XY
Graph .


,
.

, .
70

7.

1
s

Constant

Integrator

2
Gain1

sin
Trigonometric
Function
Gain2
2

u2
Math
Function

Scope

. 7.1. 1.

. 7.2. 1 .

71

1
s

Constant

Integrator

2
Gain1

sin
Trigonometric
Function
Gain2
-K-

sqrt
Math
Function

Scope

. 7.3. 2.

. 7.4. 2 .

72

1
s

u2

Constant

Integrator

Math
Function2

eu

-1
Gain1

Math
Function3

-KGain2
Trigonometric
Function

cos

Product

Scope

. 7.5. 3.

. 7.6. 3 .

73

1
s

1
s

Constant

Integrator1

Integrator2

Gain6

-K- Gain2

-K-

Gain4

-K-

Math
Function2

eu

Gain5

2 Gain1

-K-

Math
sqrt
Function3

Scope

. 7.7. 4.

. 7.8. 4 .
74

1
s

Constant

Integrator1

Gain6

-K-

MinMax

Math
Function2

u2

Gain1

-K-

Gain2

min

Scope

. 7.9. 5.

. 7.10. 5 .
75

1
s

Constant

Integrator1

-KGain1
-KGain2

Scope

Abs |u|

Math
Function2
sqrt

. 7.11. 6.

. 7.12. 6 .

76

sin
Trigonometric
Function1

-KRamp

5
Gain2

XY Graph

Gain1
cos
Trigonometric
Function2

2
Gain3

Scope

. 7.13. 7.

. 7.14. 7 .

77

. 7.15. ( 7).

-K-

Constant

Product1

Gain2

XY Graph1
Integrator

1
s

sin
-KGain1

Product2

Trigonometric
Function1
cos
Trigonometric
Function2

. 7.16. 8.

78

Scope

. 7.17. 8 .

. 7.18. ( 8).

79

1
Constant
Integrator

1
s
-1
Gain1
-2
Gain2
-3
Gain3
-4
Gain4

Math
Function1
e

Math
Function2
e

Scope

Math
Function3
e

Math
Function4

. 7.19. 9.

. 7.20. 9 .

80

1
Constant
Integrator

1
s

sin
Trigonometric
Function1

-KGain1
cos

Trigonometric
Function2
sin
Trigonometric
Function3

-KGain2
cos

Trigonometric
Function4

Scope
sin

Trigonometric
Function5

-KGain3

cos
Trigonometric
Function6
sin
Trigonometric
Function7

-KGain4

cos
Trigonometric
Function8

. 7.21. 10.

81

. 7.22. 10 .
82

1
Constant
1
s
Integrator

Scope
sin
Trigonometric
Function1

. 7.23. 11.

. 7.24. 11 .

83

Solve
f(z) = 0

f (z)

Algebraic Constraint1
0
Gain1

f (z)

Solve
f(z) = 0

-1

Gain4

Gain7

-1

-1

Gain2

Gain5

Gain8

Algebraic Constraint2

Solve
f(z) = 0

f (z)

Algebraic Constraint3
2
Gain3

-1

Gain6

Gain9

1
Constant

-KGain10

-1

-K-

Gain11

Gain12

Display
5.5
4.5
2.5

. 7.25. 12.

84

. 7.26. 12 (

. 7.27. 12 (
XY-Graph).

85

Scope 1

XY Graph
1
s

1
s

1
s

Integrator 1

Integrator 2

Integrator 3

Gain 1

0.5

Gain 2

0.9

Gain 3

. 7.28. 13.

. 7.29. 13 .
86

. 7.30. ( 13).

Scope 1

XY Graph
1
s

1
s

Integrator 1

Integrator 2

Gain 1

0.1

Gain 2

0.5

Constant

. 7.31. 14.
87

. 7.32. 14 .

. 7.33. ( 14).

88

8.

1. .., .., .. MATLAB 7. .:


, 2005. 1104 .
2. .. 156703 .
/ .. , ..,
.., .., ... .18.09.1962,
795137/26-24; . .., 1963, 16; G 06d.
3. .. 282761 .
/ .. ,
.., .. . .21.09.1969, 1349448/18-24;
. .., 1970, 30; G 06g 7/34.
4. .. 304600 . /
.. , .., .. . .18.09.1969,
1349833/18-24; . .., 1971, 17; G 06g 7/34.
5. .. 409249 . /...
. 05.07.71, 1677956/18-24; . .., 1973, 48;
G 06 3/00.
6. .. . .-.: . -
.-. ., 1947. 324 .
7. ..
// . .- : -
, 1972. . 13.- . 56 58.
8. .., ..
.- .: , 1987. 152 .
9. ..
. SIMULINK MATLAB. .:
, 2002, 128 .
10. .
. .: - . ., 1961. 212 .
11. .. MATLAB 6/6.1/6.5 + Simulink 4/5.
. . .: . -2002. 768 .
12. .., .
MATLAB. . .: , 2001. 480 .
13. .., . MATLAB. ,
. . .: ,
2002. 448 .
14. ., . Simulink 4. . .:
. , 2003. 403 .
15. .. LabView . .:
, 2005. 352 .
89

16. .. IBM PC.


Electronics Workbench . .: ,
2003. 736 .
17.
..,

..
MATLAB

- . .: , 2002.
350 .
18. ., .
. .: , 1977. 832 .
19. .. MatLAB 5.x. .: BHV, 2000.
384 .
20. .. . .: ,
1962. 388 .
21. :
/ .., .., .. .
.: ., 2002. 344 .
22. .. .
.: - , 1964. 263 .
23. ..
. .: , 1967. 568 .
24. .., .. .
.: . , 1977. 151 .
25. .., ..
. .: ,
1971. 110 .
26. ..
. , 1987. 46 .
(. / . - ;
112).
27. .. SIMULINK: .
.: -, 2003. 496 .

90


. ..



MATLAB/SIMULINK.




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..
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