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. . , 1992.
ACKER J. Class, Gender and the Relations of

Distribution // Signes, 1988, V.I3,


P.473-497.
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AGASSI J.B. Theories of Gender Equality: Lessons from the Kibbutz // Gender and
Society, 1989, V.3, P.160-186.
ALMQUIST E.M. Labor Market Gendered Inequality in Minority Groups // Gender and
Society, 1987, V.I, P.400-414.
BEER W.R. Househusbands. New York: Praeger, 1982.
BENERIA LR. and STIMPSON C.R. (eds.). Women, Households, and the Economy. New
Brunswick (NJ): Hutgers University Kress, 19
BECK S.F. The Gender Factory. New York: Plenum, 1985.
BROD H. (ed.). The Making of Masculinities. Boston: Alien and Unwin, 1987.
BRYDON L. and CHANT S. Women in the Third World. New Brunswick (NJ): Rutgers
University Press, 1989.
CHAFETZ J.S. Sex and Advantage. Totowa (NJ): Rowman and Allenheld, 1984.
CHAFETZ J.S. Gender Equity. Newbury Park (CA): Sage, 1990.
CHAFETZ J.S. and DWORLAN A.G. Female Revolt. Totowa (NJ): Rowman and Allenheld,
1986.
CHOW E.N.-L. The Development of Feminist Consciousness among Asian American
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KESSLER


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15. ESSEVELD J. Beyond silence. Middle-age women in 1970"s. Sweden, 1988.
16. N. Fertility and division of work in the family: a game theoretic model of
household decision. Amsterdam, 1993.
17. PORTER K. Conservanion-based emprowment// Populi. UNFPA. March, 1994,
18. SAARINEN A. Feminist research - an intellektual adventure? 1991.
19. SEIZ J. Optimization and oppression: methodological issues for feminist
economics. Amsterdam, 1993.
20. Analyzing gender. - HESS , B. and FERREE , ed. USA, 1988.
21. Bulletin of the United Nation. 1994
22. Feminist Praxis. Research, theory and epistemology in feminist sociology. STANLEY , L, ed. (L., N.Y.), 1990.
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1. . . 1995. . ., 1995.
2. . 1991. //
. 4. . 125-132
3. . 1988. //
. ., 1988. 2.
4. . 1990. - ? -
// . 5.
5. . 1993. . : M.Liljestrom
et al. (Eds.) Gender Restructuring in Russian Studies. Tampere. Pp. 155-162.

. ROA
6. .. 1993. . .
7. . 1993. 38.
8. .. (. .) 1991. : ,
, . ., .
9. .. (. .) 1992. . .,
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10. . 1996. //
. ., .
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() . : 1970 .
, , ', 1975 . Male/Female
Language. Language and Women's Place, (Language in Society) 1973 .
1975 . ,
.

1978 . VIII () <...>
. (), 1980 . * (I.Guentherodt et al.: Richtlinien zur Vermeidung
sexistischen Sprachgebrauchs. Linguistische Berichte, 69. .15-21).
: L.PUSCH&S.TROMEL-PLOTZ: Sprache, Geschlecht und Macht
1/2. (Linguistische Berichte, 69/70.1980), L . PUSCH : Das Deutsche als.
Mannersprache. Aufsatze und Glossen zur feministischen Linguistik (Frankfurt,
1984), S.TROMEL-PIOTZ: Frauensprache - Sprache der Veranderung (Frankfurt,
1982), : Gewalt durch Sprache: Die Vergewaltigung der Frauen in
Gesprachen (Frankfurt, 1984), G.SCHOENTHAL: Sprache und Geschlecht (Deutsche
Sprache, 2, . 143-185), M.HELLINGER: Sprachwandel und feministische
Sprachpolitlk: Internationale Perspektiven (Opladen, 1985), Cl.SCHMIDT: Typisch
weiblich - typisch mannlich. Geschlechttypisches Kommunikations-verhalten in
studentischen Kleingruppen (Tubingen, 1988); (, , , ..) 1976 . Women and Language.
:
. , 1990. (MarlisHellinger: Kontrastive Feministische Linguistik.
Mechanismen sprachlicher Diskriminierung im Englischen und Deutschen. Forum
Sprache. Max Hueber Verlag. Munchen 1990). Max Hueber Verlag, 1990.
.. , 1999.

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For example, a professor ofphilosophymay hope to write a book demonstrating
the objective nature of ethics; a student may look forward to graduating; a child
may go for a ride in an aeroplane. To take the lives of any of these people,
without their consent, is to thwart their desires for the future. (P.SINGER: Praktische
Ethik. Stuttgart, 1984, . 78)
(So magz. B. einPhilosophieprofessor hoffen, ein Buchzu schreiben, in dem er die objektive
Natur der Ethik beweist; erne Studentin mag ihr AbschluBexamen ins Auge fassen; ein Kind
mag den Wunsch haben, in einem Fhigzeug zu fliegen. Nimmt man einem dieser Menschen
ohne seine Zustimmung das Leben, so durchkreuzt man damit seine Wunsche fur die Zukunft.)

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Bewerbungen sind erwunscht von qualifizierten Personen, ungeachtet des Geschlechts, der
Religion, der Rasse, Farbe oder Nationalitat fur die Stellung eines Dozenten (Die ZEIT,
15.5.1981)

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SchlielMich muB noch ein schier unlosbares sprachliches Problem angesprochen werden:
naturlich gibt es in der Schulleitung auch weibliche Fuhrungskrafte, Schulleiterinnen und
Konrektorinnen, wenn auch noch unverhahnismaflig zu wenig im Vergleich zur Anzahl der
Lehrerinnen. Aber Schulleiterinnen und Konrektorinnen auch sprachlich adaquat sichtbar zu
machen, ist logisch stringent nicht moglich, ohne dem Text die flussige Lesbarkeit zu nehmen
(LWiRRiEs: Pedagogische Fuhrungsauf-gaben des Schulleiters (Braunschweig, 1986. .
))

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Company Publications (1972) Guidelines for Equal Treatment of the Sexes


in McGraw-Hill Book
no

Henry Harris is a shrewd lawyer and


his wife Ann is a striking brunette.

yes

The Harries are an attractive


couple. Henry is a handsome
blond and Ann is a striking
brunette.
or
The Harries are highly respected
in their fields. Ann is an accompli-

. 31

the fair sex; the weaker sex


the little women; the better half;
the ball and the chain
houswife

shed musicisan and Hanry is a


shrewd lawyer.
or
The Harries are an interesting couple.
Henry is a shrewd lawyer and Ann is
active in community (or church or
civic) affers.
women

Pioneers moved West, taking their


wives and children with them.

mankind
primitive man

the best man for the job


manpower
congressman

wife
homemakerior a person who works
at home, or rephrase with a more
precise or more inclusive term
Pioneer families moven West.
Pioneer men and women (or
peoneer couples) moved West,
taking their children with them.
humanity, human beings, human
race, people
primitine people or peoples; primitive
human beings; primitive man and
women
the best person (or candidate) for
the job

businessman
fireman
mailman
salesman
statesman
cameraman
foreman

human power; human energy;


workrs; workforce
member of Congress;
representative (but Congress/775/7
Koch and Congress woman Smith)
business executive; business
manager
fire fighter
mail carrier; letter carrier
sales representative; sales clerk;
sales person
leader; public servant
camera operator
supervisor

9
7

1. ROA
the men and the ladies

the man and the women; the


ladies and the gentlemen; the
girls and the boys

man and wife

husband and wife

Marlis Hellinger, Marion Kremer, Beate Schrflpel


Empfehlungen zur Vermeidung vor> sexistischem Sprachgebrauch in
Uffentlicher Sprache (1985)

nein
Fraulein Stein
Herrn Ernst Meyer und Frau

Frau Stein
Herrn und Frau Meyer,
Herrn Ernst Meyer und
Frau Eva Meyer
Liebe Kolleginnen und Kollegen

Liebe Kollegen der


Bankkaufinann

der Bankkaufrnann;
die Bankkauflrau;
die Bankkaufleute
Arzt/Arztin

Arzt
der Student
die Lehrer
der Erwachsene
Jeder soil auf seine Kosten
komraen.
Wer zahlt, der hat auch mitzureden.
Wer hat nicht schon einmal an
seinen eigenen Fahigkeiten
gezweifelt?
Wie entspannend oder anstrengend
ein Personalcomputer ist, merkt man
nachdem man ihn gekauft hat hat
und mil ihm gearbeitet.

der/die Student/in;
der/die Studierende
die Lehrerinnen und Lehrer;
die Lehrkrafte
die/der Erwachsene
Alle sollen auf ihre Kosten
kommen.
Wer zahlt, hat auch mitzureden.
Wer hat nicht schon einmal an
eigenen Fahigkeiten gezweifelt?
Wie entspannend oder anstrengend
ein Personalcomputer ist, merken
Sie erst, nachdem Sie ihn gekauft
haben und mit ihm gearbeitet.
Wie kann sich eine Frau im Taxi
verteidigen?

Wie kann mm sich als Frau im


Taxi verteidigen?

kluge Leute bauen vor

der kluge Mann baut vor

Durchschnnittsburger/innen

der Mann aus der Stra?e

Frauen

das schone/schwache Geschlecht

Manner

das starke Geschlecht

&


:
.

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60- .
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, , , . (, ) , XIX , - .
, WOLLSTONECRAFT, H.TAYLOR,
J.S.MILL, , . ,
, .
,
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, .
() , , ,
. ,
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.
: . . ., 1997. .70-93.
- , 1997.

. 00
60- .

(The Feminine Mystique, 1963)'.


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B.FRIEDAN . B.ABZUG, E.HOLTZMAN .
,

2.
()
, ( ). - -, , , .
. -
(1981), , . 60- .
( ), ( ). , ,
, . , . , .
. , (pro-family feminism).
:
, - ?
? ? , , .
, , , ,
,
, .
, 80- ., ,
.
GREER The Female Eunuch (1971), Sex and Destiny (1984), FRIEDAN
The Second Stage (1981); ELSTAIN Public Man, Private Woman (1986).
,
, (
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2.
) .
.
- , , , , .
. . 60- . XX .
.

. SEHCKBE ...
103

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XX , , , , , . , , . : '
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SHULAMITH FIRESTONE
- (The Dialectic of Sex, 1970).
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'4___________________________________ 2. &
( , , , , , , , ).
FIRESTONE , . sex class
, . . ,
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3. , . (, , , , ) (, , , ) -
, . , ,
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.
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() ,
(, O'BRAIN M. The Politics of Reproduction. Boston, Routledge, 1981).
. , , , .
,
, . ,
,
.

. EBEHCKQE & 00 ...


105

, ,
. KATE MILLET (Sexual politics, 1970), (
unisex). . FRENCH (Beyond
Power, 1985), ,
- ,
, , ,
, .
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, .

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106___________________________________ 2. cpeauHugaa
, 1968- ., , .
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, 60-70- .,
.

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. SEHCKQE ? ...
107

, .
,
.
,
,
. MARIAROSA DALLA COSTA ,
, ,
6.
,
70- .
( 70- .) - . 60- .
FIRESTONE, MILLET.
,
, . ,
. (ZILLAH EISENSTEIN, JULIET
MITCHELL, SHEILA ROWBOTHAN) .
, . . , , , ,
, . , . , , , , ,
, , .
, 7
( , ).
) .
, ,
( ,
, Psychoanalyse et politique).
, .

80- - 90- . 60- .
, ,


. JUUET MITCHELL Women: The Longest Revolution,
1966 (: ), Woman's Estate, 1971
( )

2.
. ,
5.
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- 9. - . , . , , , .
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10 .
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. SEHCK0E KftK 00 ...


109
CHODOROW , , , , , , ,
. ( ,
) , . , GILUGAN,
.
, , . , DINNERSTEIN , , , . , , ".
CHODOROW, , DINNERSTEIN, , . , , .
, : ,
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10________________________________ 2.
.
, , , , . , - . , CHODOROW, .
, , , ,
13.
70- . . : . <...>

. . . .
., 1992. (. )
2
STACEY J. Are feminists Afraid to Leave Home? //MITCHELL J., OACKLEY A., eds. What
is Feminism? Basil Blackwell, 1987.
3
.: FIRESTONE S. The Dialectic of Sex. NY:Bantam Books, 1970.
4
DALY M. Gyn/Ecology:The Metaethic of Radical Feminism. Boston: Beacin Press,
1978.
5
MACKINNON C.A. Feminism, Marxism, Method, and State: An Agenda for Theory/
/ KEOHANE N.O. eds. Feminist Theory. A Critique of Ideology. The Harvest Press,
1982. P.1.
6
DALLA COSTA M. Women and the Subversion of the Community// The Power of
Women and the Subversion of the Community. Bristol: Falling Wall Press, 1973.
Pp. 19-54.
7
JAGGAR A. Feminist Politics and Human Nature. Towota:NY: Rowman, 1983.
8
MITCHELL J. Pssychoanalysis and Feminism. NY: Vintage Books, 1974.
9
TONG R Feminist Thought. L: Unwin Hyman, 1989. P.178.
10
CHODOROW N.J. Feminism and Psychoanalytic Theory. Polity press, 1989. P.4.
11
DINNERSTEIN D. The Mermaid and Minotaur: Sexual Arrangement and Human
Malaise. NY: Harper Colophon Books, 1977.
12
GILUGAN C. In a Different Voice. Harvard Univ.Press, 1982.
13
CHODOROW N.J. Op.cit. P.4.


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H. Speculations on Violence // The New York Review of Books. Vol. XII.


4. February 27. 1969. P. 24.
2
STOLLER R. J. Sex and Gender. N. Y., 1968. P. VIII-IX.
3
Ibid. P. 9.
4
Ibid. P. 48.
5
.: SHERFEY M.J. The Evolution and Nature or Female Sexuality in Relation to
Psychoanalytic Theory // Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association. Vol.
14. 1966. 1; MONEY J. Psychosexual Differentiation // Sex Research, New
Developments. N. Y., 1965.
6
MONEY J. Op. cit. P. 12.
7
Ibid. P. 13.
8
KAGIN J. The Acquisition and Significance of Sex-Typing // Review of Child
Development Research, ed. M. HOFFMAN . N. Y., 1964.
9
TGER L. Men in Groups. N. Y., 1968.
10
MAINE H. Ancient Law. L, 1861. P. 122.
11
MAINE H. The Early History of Institutions. L, 1861. P. 310-311.
12
McLENNON J. The Patriarchal Theory. L., 1885.
13
MALINOWSKI B. Sex, Culture and Myph. N. Y., 1962. P. 63.
14
GOODE W. The Family. Englewood, 1964. P. 80.
15
BEIGEL H. Romantic Love //The American Sociological Review. Vol. 16. 1951. P.
331.
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2
FREUD S. Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905) // The Standard Edition of
the Complete Psychological Works of S. Freud. L, 1961. V. 7.
3
FREUD S. Some Psychical Consequences of Anatomical Distinction Between the
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4
CHODOROW N. Family Structure and Feminine Personality // Woman, Culture and
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5
CHODOROW N. Family Structure and Feminine Personality // Woman, Culture and
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6
CHODOROW N. The Reproduction of Motheing. Berkley, 1978. P. 150, 166-167.
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CHODOROW N. The Reproduction of Motheing. P. 167.
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MEAD G.H. Mind, Self and Society. Chicago, 1934; PIAGET J. The Moral Judgment
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.
9

J. Sex Differences in the Games Children Play// Social Problems 23 (1976).


P. 478-487.
10
LEVER J. Sex Differences in the Games Children Play // Social Problems 23
(1976). P. 482.
11
PIAGEL J. The Moral Judgment of the Child (1932). N.Y., 1965. P. 83.
12
Ibid. P. 77.
13
KOHLBERG L. State and Sequence: The Cognitive-Development Approach to
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14
LOS P. The Second Individuation Process of Adolescence // The Psychoanalytic
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15
FREUD S. Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality (1905) // FREUD S. The Standard
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16
FREUD S. Female Sexuality (1931) // FREUD S. The Standard Edition... V. 21. P.
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17
FREUD S. Some Psychical Consequences of Anatomical Distinction Between the
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18
ERIKSON E. Childhood and Society. N.Y., 1950.
19
ERIKSON E. Identity: Youth and Crises. N.Y., 1968.
20
B E T T E L H E I M B . T h e Us e s o f E n c h a n t m e nt . N . Y. , 1 9 7 6
21
MCCLELLAND D. Power: The Inner Experience. N.Y., 1975.
22
MCCLELLAND D. Power: The Inner Experience. N.Y., 1975. P. 81.
23
HORNER M. Toward an Understanding of Achievement-related Conflicts in Women
//Journal of Social Issues. 28 (1972). P. 157- 175.
24
HORNER M. Sex Differences in Achievement Motivation and Performance in
Competitive and Noncompetitive Situations. University of Michigan, 1968. P. 125.
25
SASSEN G. Success Anxiety in Women. A Contructivist Interpretation of Its Sources
and Its Significance. Harward Educational Review 50 (1980). P. 13-25.
26
Ibid. P. 15.
27
W O L F V. A. Room of O ne's Own. N. Y. P. 76.
28
M I L L E R J.R. T owa rd a New Ps ychology of W omen. Boston. 1971.
29
BROW ERMAN J., VOGEL S., BROW ER MAN D., CLAR KSO N F., ROSENKR ANTS P., Sex-Role
Stereotypes: A. Yurrent Appraisal // Journal of Social Issues. 28 (1972). P. 59-78.
30
KO H L B ER G L. T he Developm ent of Modes of Thinking and Choices in Years 10 to
16, Ph. D. Diss. University of Chic ago, 1958; K O H L BE R G L. The Phi losophy of Moral
Development. San Francisco, 1981.
31
KOHLBERG L, KRAMER R. Continuities and Discontinuities in Child and Adult
Development// Human Development. 12 (1969). P. 93-120.
32
PI A G E L J. The Struct uralism . N. Y., 1970.
33
KOHLBERG L. Continuities and Discontinuities in Childhood and Adult Moral
Development // Collected Papers on Moral Education. Moral Education Research
Foundation. Harvard University, 1973.
34
Ibid. P. 29-30.
35
L O E V I N G E R J., W E SS L E R R. Meas uring Ego Developm ent. San Franc isco, 1970.
36
Ibid. P. 6.
37
MCCLELLAND D. Power: The Inner Experience. P. 197.
38
Ibid. P. 96.
LEVER

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72________________________________________________________
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