Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 35

.., ..


- . ,
..

2000

34.41 2 075
620.179.112
. , :
/.. , .. ; . .. ; . . . -.
, 2000. 268 .

, ,
, . -
,
,
,
.
,
.
12.06.00
, 12.01.55
23.01.00
,
07.12.00 - , , , , ,
.

,
, . JSBN 5-79640164-5.
. 41. . 145. .: 92 .
-

: - . ..

JSBN 5-7964-0164-5

.. , .. , 2000

, 2000


........................................................................................................................................7
1.
....................................................10
1.1. ......................................11
1.2. ..............................................................................................................23
1.3.
.....................................................................................................29
1.4. .....................................................................................................................31
1.5. .................................................................................................32
..................................................................................................................................35
.......................................................................................36
2. ................................................37
2.1. ......................................37
2.2. ...........................................38
2.3. ....................................................................40
2.3.1. .........................................................................40
2.3.2. .................................................40
2.3.3. ...................................................................................40
2.3.4. ......................................................................42
2.3.5. .............................45
2.4.
.......................................................................................................................46
...........................................................................................................................47
.......................................................................................48
3. , -

.............................................................................................................49
3.1. , .................................................49
3.2. .....................................................................55
3.3.
. .......................................................58
3.4. ,
....................................................60
3.5.
.......................................................................................................64
3.6.
...............................67
3.7.
.................................................83
...........................................................................................................................86
.......................................................................................86
4. .............................................................................................................88
4.1. .............................................................88
..................................................................................................89

....................................................................................................89
- ........................................................................90
...................................................................................................91
4.2. .....................................................................92
4.3. ...........................................................95
4.4. ....................................98
.........................................................................................................101
4.5. ...............................105
4.5.1. ......................107
4.5.2. ............................108
4.5.3. -
..................................................................................................111
4.6. ..........................................116
4.6.2. .................................................................................118
4.6.3. ..........................................................................................121
4.6.4. ...................................................................................125
4.6.5. ...................................................................................125
4.6.6. ..............................................................................................127
4.6.7. .........................................................................................128
4.6.8.
..............................................................................................129
4.6.9.
..............................................................................................132
................................................................................................................................137
.....................................................................................138
5. ..........................................................................................................140
5.1. ...........................................................140
5.1.1. ......140
5.1.2. , ..........................................147
5.1.3. ......................................................152
5.2. ....................................................................156
5.2.1. .......................................................157
5.2.2. , ...............159
5.2.3. ..........................................................................................161
5.2.4. .............................................................................................164
.........................................................................169
.....................................................................171
.........................................................................172
.......................................................................173
.................................................................173
()....................175
5.3. ..............................................................................175
5.3.1. ..........................................................................175
5.3.2. , -
...............................................................................................176
5.3.3. .
................................................................................179
5.3.4.
.........................................................................191
.....................................................................................194
5.3.5. ....................................199
5.4. ...................201

5.4.1. .............................................................201
5.4.2. ......................209
5.4.3. .......................214
..................................................................214
...............................214
.........................................................................................217
..............................218
.................................................219
...................................220
5.4.4. ............................221
5.4.5.
- ...........................................................223
5.4.6. ..................227
5.5. .......230
- ()..................................................................231
.............................................................................................232
.................................................................................234
..............................................................................................235
...........................237
...............................................................................238
...............................................239
- ......................................................................................240
............................................................................................................241
..............................................................241
...............................................248
:...................................249
5.6. ..........252
..........................................................................252
............................................................................256

................................................................................................260
5.7. ......................................................264
.....................................................................................266


!
, , ,
.

,
, ..,
,
. ,
- , ,
, , ,
,
, .
,

.
. . ..,
... ..
,
,
.
.. , ..




,
. ,
,
,
. -

.

,
. ,
.
, , , .
, , ,
.
, , .
:
,
.

, ,
.
.
90- .
24 . . (
90- .) 40 . ,
- 15% .
,
.
. -
30-40%
.

(
- 7500 ). 25003000 . () 5 ,
7

, , . ,
: 1,4% ; 45,4% - ; 46% - ;
7,2% - .
, .

,
.
,

.
, .
,
-. ,

.


, .
90- .
, .

,
. .

28

10

10

230
,
115
22

100
:
515

,


.
,

:
,
, , ;

;

, ;
8

,
,
, ,
;
, ,
;

: ,
, , ,
, , .
;
-,
, ,
.

1. 1


,

, ,
.


, , , , ,
(
) ( ).
,
-
, .. .
, ,
, , , ,
,
.

.
, ,

( ),
.
, ,
, , ..
, 10-310-4.
, 10-5 10-6 .

.

.

10

1.1.


,
.

.
1.1

R max

R W ma x


Rmax,


. 1.1.
Rwmax

.
: , , .
. ,
2-10 , ,
.
, ,
.
,
-.
. 1.2
. 1
7
9

6
2
5
11
8
3,
1
4
2
2
3 10
4,
12
5 6,
7
10
8, 9.
. 1.2.
11

,

.
12.
, ,
,
(. . 1.1).
11

Y.
Y 100000 .
,
() .
.
(),
.
,
2789-73.

. 1.3. : Ra, Rz Rmax .
L
B

tp 1

B
y
Rp

Hmax

li

D
A
r

hi

a
yi D
A
x

Rmax
Hmin
C

tp
tm

. 1.3.
) - ; ) - .

Ra -

L:
Ra =

1L
1 n
y
(
x
)
dx

yi .

L0
n i =1

(1.1.)

(1.1.) L - ,
; i (. . 1.3, ), n -
, i.
L

, ( ydx = 0) .
0

,
.
Rz -
:
5
1 5

R z = H imax + H imin .
5 1
1

(1.2)

(Rmax)
. Rp.
12


, ,
.
.
150 1760.
.
,
.
.
,
:
rcp. = rcp.. r..

(1.3)



L,
(. .1.3,).
t p =

R max

1 m
L i
L 1


. , (. . 1.3,)

tp = tm .

(1.4)

= a / Rp , tm=tp =Rp, >1 - .



:
a
n =n0
R p

(1.5)

n0 - , .
C 14 . .1.1.

.
,
().
. 1.4 .
Ari ,
Ai ().
1.1

13



()

9
9
1011

Ra,
0,04
0,05
0,02

r,
100
500
270

Rmax,
1,2
1,6
0,48

(), ,
().

n

r= Ari.

Ari

..
(

).
i


Aa
,

,
. 1.4.


:

- ;

i - ;
.
ri -

.1.5
.

,
,
.
,
, ri
i,
.
(. . 1.5).
:
A ri = 0,82( jN i r )

a i = 0,82 jN i / r

2 \3

2/3

(1.6)
(1.7)

14

Rp

dx

Ni

a
B1

dx

B1

. 1.5.

j=

1 12 1 22
+
E1
E2

- ; 1 , 2

; 1, 2 - ; N ; r - . 2
, r=r1r2/(r1+r2) - .
,
.
. :
Ari = N i /HB,

(1.8)

ai=Ni/2rHB .

(1.9)

- ,
,
. (1.9)
(. .1.4,):
i2 = r2 (r - ai)2 2air; Ari = i2 2rai , aiAri/2rNi/2rHB

. ,
,
. ,
(1.4), ,
, ,
. , ,
. (1.6), (1.7) ,
si
ri :
A ri = A si ,

(1.10)

0,5 1.
:
15

A r = A s = A c t p = A c t m = A so a .
Rp

(1.11)

, , ..
m

t p = L i /l = A si /A c = A s /A c , t m = A so /A c , Aso -

, Ac - .
, ,
. (1.5) .1.5.
(1.5), ,
dx (. . 1.5,):
dn =

( 1) n 0 x 2dx
R p1

(1.12)

. 1.5,
dx , :
A s = 2 r ( a x ).

(1.13)

, dx
,
dA s = A s dn =

2 R ( 1) n 0
( a x ) x 2 dx .
R p1

(1.14)

, ,

2 rn 0 R p a

A s = dA s =
R

0
p
a

= A so a

(1.15)

(1.11) = 1. ,
, ,
A so =

2 rR p

n0 =

2 rR p n oc

2 rR p = A smax

Ac .

(1.16)

- ,
- ; n -
,
(n=n0/Ac). As0=tmAc, n0=tmAc/2rRp,
noc= tm/2rRp.
.

1 (. . 1.5).
-. (1.7)
2 R p / = As

a x = 0,82 jN i / r

)2/3 .
16

, dx,
N i = r ( a x ) 3/2 /0,82 3/2 j .

, , (1.12)
dN = N i dn r = r ( 1) n oc A c x 2 ( a x ) 3/2 /0,82 3/2 jR p 1dx .

N = dN =
0

r ( 1) n 0 A c k/0,823/2 jR p 1 a + 0,5 .

(1.17)

=[1,5(-1)(1,5)]/(+1,5); - -.
(1.17) , , (1.15), (1.11),
:
Ar

+1
0,74
n oc A c
r
=

K1 R p

1 2 +1
2
2
2 j
2 +1
2 +1

N
=
BN

(1.18)

1=[1,5(+1)(1,5)]/(+1,5). (1.17) :
2

2
0,74R p 1 j 2 +1
2 +1 .

a =
N
n oc A c r1/2 k1

(1.19)

(1.18), (1.19) ,
- .
, 2 3,
, Ar 4/5 6/7 .
.

,
A r = N/HB .

(1.20)

, (. (1.11), (1.15) (1.20)



1

1
R p 1
N.
a =
2 r n oc A c HB

(1.21)

,
.
, .
, .
,
, , , .
,

, , tm, Rmax, r
, :
17

= 1 + 2 ;

(1.22)

b = K 2 t m1 t m2 R p /R p1 R p 2 ;
1
2

(1.23)

R p = R p1 + R p2 ;

(1.24)

r = r1r2 / ( r1 + r2 ).

(1.25)

K 2 = ( 1 + 1) ( 2 + 1) /( 1 + 2 + 1) .
1, 2 .
,
, ,
, .

2R max
Ac =
H

2R

max

+ + +

2K 4 NA a

(1.26)

- ; - ;
- , 0,5, 1 0
; - ; 4 -
; - (
=0,43j; - ).
( Rmax),
(1.18), (1.19), (1.21) =.
,
, ,
. , (
), (
5-30 ). 0,5, ,
, .
, ,

. .1.6
.
.. ..:

( N/A a E ) 2/3
A r = A a 1 K1e

18

(1.27)

- K1=0,8 1; 1,2(r/Rz)1/3; = n0/nm, nm



; -
; no - ,
r
.


.
=E


, ..
. 1.6.


, .


.
,
,
. . 1.7,,, ,
.

. 1.7.

(. .1.7,) ( ).
() () :
=.

(1.28)

(. .1.7,) (-).
:
=

dx
= d
dz

dV
dx
d
=
=
=
dz
dt dz
dt

(1.29)

- .

(. .1.7,)
( -):
= sign ,

(1.30)

sign - . > ,
19

1, 2 ( = 0), > -
, ().
(. .1.7,,,),
. ()
-, ,
:

=E + = E+ .

(1.31)

=const ,
E

= 1 exp t
E

(1.32)

- (=0),
(1.31), :
E

= exp ( t ) .

E
=t0

(1.33)

()
, .
, .
:

= +

,
:


= +

(1.34)

= const , ,

E
= 0 exp t ,

(1.35)

0 - . (. .1.7,,)
.
- .

= - < < ;

.
= singn - .

(1.36)

- = , - . < ,
. ,
- -
20

. . 1.8.
-, .
,
, .
. 1.7, , ..
..
.

const

=0

=const

. 1.8.


.
, .

m
m
A rt = N t m
2 t 1 /HB t HB ,

(1.37)

rt - t2-t1, tHB -
, m .
.
2 : ,
, ,
. ,
.
, ,
, .

. .
3 : ,

.
.
, ,
( 1 ) .
21


. ,
.
.

, .
,
-.

. ,
.
.
.

.
(). . 1.9. 1 ,
,
. .
,
2 .
,
, .
,
.
,
, .
1.2.
,
, .
, . 1.10.
(Fn)

2
1
,
(. . 1.10,).
(Ln)


.
N

. 1.9.
.



( )

.
22

(L)
,
.
.

() (r):
F = Ar.

(1.38)


:
= F/N.

(1.39)

()
().

F
4 : ,
, ()
F
(

).
F

,
Fc
.
,
L L
L
,

. 1.10.
,
:
.
- ;

-
.

.
,
,
. , ,
.
.
0,2 , 0,050,2.
-
, (..
, .. .) (, ,
.). .
() () :
23

Ni

Ni

Ti

Ni
Ti

B1

R
A1

Ri

. 1.11.

F = FA + F .

. 1.12.

(1.40)


,
. .
2 .
.
.
- .

,
(. . 1.11).
. 1.11,
. -

. ,
, ,
.
. . 1.12 -
. , MN . - ,
, . ,
, ,
.
. 1.11,
. , ,
. .
.
,
11. .
.

, (1.40)
24

F
= A + ,
Ar

N
1

(1.41)

R
5
F
A, -
r

h
.
2

3

()
-

. 1.13.

,
.
,
(
), .
, ,

.
, ,
. .. , .. , .. .
,
(r=N/Ar) :

A=0 + ,

(1.42)

0 - , .
.. ..
- , . 1.13.
1 - 2 h.
3.
2.
4, .
.
. (r).
. ,
,
, ,
.
, , .
,
. ,
. 5-6
. 5
,
25

.

(r),
. 1.14.

,
0 .
(1.40) ,

tg
=

. 1.14.
r

FA = A A r = 0 A r + r A r = 0 A r + N .

(1.43)


A =

N1
F

FA
= 0 A r /N + .
N

(1.44)

A =

1
2
N +1

D
B

Fc

R
A

(1.45)

, (1.20)

A =

, ,
(1.18)
(1.44),
0B

. 1.15.

0
+ = const .
HB

(1.46)

.

(. . 1.15).
h .

R = N + Fc ,

l - ; FC .
,
26

NlSBCFEHB; FcSABCDHB .
( )
= FC/Nl = SABCD/SBCFE ;
E

2hr

; SBCFE=BEL; SABCD=hL.

, 0,7 h ,
r
h

0,55
.
r

:
nr
F = F dn r .
0 i
,
= 0,55K

a
r

(1.47)

- , K = 0,75 ( +1)/( +1,5).


= 0,19 K y a r ,

(1.48)

K y = 2,67( +1,5) / ( + 2), 3 -


; - ,
- .
.
(0,02-0,04)
(0,08-0,2).
,
100 ,
.
. .
, , ,
,
.

(. . 1.6).
(v)
. ,
, 50-100
0,05-0,02.
.
, ; ,
27

, ..
, . 1.16.
1 3
2, . .
,
, , ,
, .
1.3.

[2] ,
.
.. ..
, . 1.7,.
V
.. .. :
f = ( a + bV ) v + d

(1.49)

, , , d
.
, , d
.
.

, (FV) .

, .
, (0, ),
.

,
.
N
1

F
3

,
,
V

..
2
.

. 1.16.

:
Tmax = T0 + TV + TS + TB ,

28

(1.50)

T0 - , Tv -
, TS - ()
, TB -


.
m

P
x
:
F
xl=Vt
K

,
N

. 1.17.
,


.

P
.
TV,
TS, TB
,
t
.
, Tmax ,


. 1.18.
, ,


.
,
. ,
( , , ,
.). .
,
.
, ,

,
, , ,
. . 1.17.
-. , =0, =const , 2-
:
..
.
m x = k ( x Vt ) + Nsign x = 0

(1.51)


. . 1.18
.
. .. .
( )
29

. ,
,
.

1.4.
, , ,
,
, 2r.
.
. , ( . 1.19,).

F
e
FI
NI

Nl=R

. 1.19.


. .
.
, (.
. 1.19,), .
, (.
. 1.19,). .
.
. 2
: ( N 1 = N 1 ) (Fl)
.
30

Ne = Fr = M C ,

k =

Mc
= ,
N

(1.52)

e - - (.
. 1.19,).
,
. d Md,
- l = rd.
K = Md/Nrd = e/r .

(1.53)

. ,
K C 1/rn, n<1.
,
, -
. .
,
k =0,24r (qrj)1/2,

(1.54)

q - , .

.. .
- (. . 1.7,).

k=C1V,

(1.55)


K = C 2 r N 1/2 / V

(1.56)


, - .
..
,
. ,

, - .
1.5.
() ,
.
,
: hmin (Rmax1+Rmax2). .
:
31

F =

dV
S,
dz

(1.57)

- ; dV/dz ; S .

,
,

(. . 1.20), dV/dz=V/h.
(1.57)

F=VS/h .

h
Fl
Z

. 1.20.

(1.58)

.
.
. .. (1836-1920)
h=const (.
. 1.21,). (1.57) S 2rL
V - r.
M=Fr=2R3L / h.

(1.59)

= (2r/h)v/q.
L - ; - ; h<<r.
, , ,
, .
.
e

N
hmax

hmin
V

h
I

hmax

hmin
X

V
B

. 1.21.

,
. .
32

.
,
.
, . 1.21,.
,

, N:
hmin=krv/q ,

(1.60)

- , g=N/L - .
, .
,
, .
,

dp/dx=6v(h-h0)/h3 .

(1.61)

h0 - ; h -
.
. .
,
(. . 1.21,), :

N = 6 VB[ lnK 2( K 1) / ( K + 2) ] /h 2min ( K 1) 2 ,

F = 2 VB[ 2lnK 3( K 1) / ( K + 2) ] /h min ( K 1) ,


(1.62)
= F/N = 2BL( v/q ) [ 2lnK 3( K 1) / ( K + 2) ] /h min ( K 1) .

K=hmax/hmin.
(1.60), (1.62) =/q
.
- (. . 1.22).
, ,
.
. >
, .

.
. .
,
, .
. 1.23
.
.
33


70 /.
.

.



.


PC=400...2500
.
-

: ,
.

:
.=.+,

(1.63)

I
I

. 1.22.

- ;
- ,

. 1.23.
; - ,



.
(>PC),

(1.64)

,
, ,
,
.


. ,
.
,
34

50-70- .
.., .., .., ..
.

, ,
, ,
, .
, , ..
, ..
- .
,

.

,
, ,
.

1. . . , . . .:
, 1968. 503 .
2. . . , . . . .:
, 1988. 256 .
3. . . .: , 1989. 510 .
4. . . , . .
. .: , 1981. 244 .
5. . . , . . . -.: - , 1949.
6. . . , . . , . . .
. .: , 1977. 526 .
7. . . . .:
, 1976. 248 .
8. : / . .. . .: , 1945.- 778 .
9. . / . . .: . ., 1962. 822 .
10. . . , . . , . .
. .: , 1986. 248 .

35