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GSM

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GSM

, ,
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GSM

M
1G 2G

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GSM

1G -

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GSM

1G 2G

4/12/2014


GSM



2G
, , . One user
one number

,


ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)
,

4/12/2014


GSM

GSM Global System for Mobile


GSM
ETSI
(European Telecommunication Standard
Institute)
1987 MoU, 890 915 MHz uplink, 935 960 downlink
1988 ETSI
1991

1992 GSM 1800 1710 1785 uplink, 1805 1880- downlink


1996 120 GSM
1998 HSCSD (High speed circuit switched data)
1999 GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) 250
GSM

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GSM

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GSM

, ()

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GSM

,
ETSI

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GSM

10

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GSM

11

2G -

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GSM

12

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GSM

13


GSM

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GSM

14

GSM,


(handover, location update,


paging)

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GSM

15

BSS Base Station Subsystem


NSS Network Switching
Subsystem
NMS Network Management
Subsystem


Air

A
O&M
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GSM

16

NSS
MSC (Mobile Switching
Center)
HLR, VLR, EIR

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GSM

17





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GSM

18

SIM Subscriber Identity Module

VLR Visitor Location Register


HLR Home Location Register

MSC Mobile switching center

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19

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GSM

20

SIM

(IMSI)




, ,

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GSM

21

HLR


( )
VLR,

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GSM

22

VLR


( HLR)

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GSM

23

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GSM

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MS ,
ID VLR
MS ID

MS
VLR
MS VLR,
VLR HLR

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GSM

25


MS. Location update

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GSM

26

.
(call set-up) 1
1.

2.

PSTN,
GMSC (gateway)

3.

MSISDN
IMSI = MCC+MNC+MSIN

GMSC,
HLR

4.

HLR,
VLR

5.

MS

6.


MSRN

7.

GMSC
MSRN

8.

GMSC
MSC/VLR
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VLR address
Subscriber data

MSRN= CC+NDC+SN

MSISDN = CC+NDC+SN

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27

1. MSISDN (Mobile Subscriber


International ISDN Number)

MSISDN = CC + NDC + SN

CC = Country code (371=Latvia,


358=Finland, etc.)
NDC = National Destination Code
SN = Subscriber Number
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28

2. PSTN, GMSC (gateway)


3. GMSC, HLR
IMSI

IMSI = MCC + MNC + MSIN
MCC = Mobile Country Code (always
three digits)
MNC = Mobile Network Code (always
two digits)
MSIN = Mobile Subscriber
Identification Number (up to ten digits)

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29

4. HLR, VLR
5. MS

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30

6.
MSRN
(routing),

IMSI
MSRN = CC + NDC + SN
CC = Country Code (of the
visited country)
NDC = National Destination
Code (of the serving network)
SN = Subscriber Number

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31


HLR

VLR

MSISDN: 39 347 220759


IMSI:
222 10 1234567890
VLR address: xyz
Subscriber data:
services

IMSI:
222 10 1234567890
MSRN: 358 50 456456
LAC:
262 15 0987
Data: abc

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32

.
(call set-up) 2

(LA)

,
paging

IMSI = MCC+MNC+MSIN
LAC local area code
Data

LAI = MCC + MNC + LAC

MSRN

MCC = Mobile Country Code (of the visited


country)
MNC = Mobile Network Code (of the serving
PLMN)
LAC = Location Area Code

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33

BSS

(BSC)
(BTS - Base Transceiver Station)
(TC)


BTS
TC


Air A

MS NSS
handover

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GSM

34


(call set-up)
paging

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GSM

35

Call set-up 10

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.

MSISDN

GMSC
GMSC
HLR
HLR
MSC/VLR

VLR
MSC/VLR
MSRN
MSRN GMSC
GMSC
MSC/VLR
MSC/VLR



LA

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36

Call set-up 10
,

1.
2.
3.

4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

9.
10.
11.

MS
BSS



MSC

VLR


MS





MS
B

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37

MS
Location update (3 ):

, ,
( IMSI Attach):

1.

SIM LAI (Location Area Identity) (LAI = MCC + MNC +


LAC)
SIM , TMSI
(Temporary MSI)

2.
3.

()
, , LAI

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,
Location
Update !

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MS

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MS
,


LA

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Handover

MS

,
handover:
1.

2.

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handover
1. Intra cell Intra BSC -
( BSC)
2. Inter cell Intra BSC
(
BSC)
3. Inter cell Inter BSC

BSC ( MSC)
4. Inter MSC
MSC/VLR
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Handover
Intra cell Intra BSC

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GSM

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Handover
Inter cell Intra BSC

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GSM

45

Handover

Inter cell Inter BSC

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GSM

46

Handover

Inter MSC

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47

Handover Inter MSC


BSS
,
HON

MSC,

HON=CC+NDC+SN
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GSM

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GSM

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GSM

49

(charging
records)


MSC

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GSM

50

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GSM

51

(, , SMS ..)



MS
, PSTN
,


(roaming)

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GSM

52

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CR charging records

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GSM

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CR
CR
.

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GSM

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IMSI SIM HLR


Ki ( 16 ) SIM HLR
AC NSS
VLR

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GSM

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A3 Ki (one way)
A8
A5

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GSM

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GSM

58

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GSM

59

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MS
International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI) -
ME,


ME
/ IMEI
NSS EIR - Equipment Identity Registrer

4/12/2014


GSM

61




PIN Personal Identification Number
SIM
Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI 32
)

IMEI International Mobile Equipment Identity

4/12/2014


GSM

62

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