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List and samples of SCALE, LUCID and SPADE proformas.

Page: 1
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

SCALE is a computer program for producing neatly composed pages of


structural engineers' calculations and component details for the design
of a variety of components such as beams, columns and slabs, using
steel, concrete, masonry and timber.
SCALE incorporates a library of over 1000 proforma calculations, any of
which may be selected for use when SCALE is run. The content of this
library is continually under review, proformas being added or modified
as codes of practice develop and change. The library includes:
SCALE - Reinforced Concrete Design to Eurocode 2 and BS8110
- Reinforced & Prestressed Concrete Design to BS5400 & DOT
- Reinforced Concrete to Eurocode 2, BS8007, BS8666 and Section Analysis
- Composite Construction to Eurocode 4, BS5950 and BS5400
- Timber Design to Eurocode 5 and BS5268
- Steel Design to BS5400 & DOT
- Steel Design to Eurocode 3 and BS5950-1:2000
- Masonry Design to Eurocode 6, BS5628 and MEXE
- Analysis by NL-STRESS
- Analysis by Traditional Methods
- Pre and Postprocessors for Structural Analysis
- Loadings and Foundations
- Drainage and Surveying
- Mathematics
- Manuals and Miscellaneous
LUCID for reinforced concrete component detailing.
SPADE for steelwork, timber and masonry component detailing.
NL-STRESS for the structural analysis of frameworks.
The principal proformas have now been modified such that each proforma
will allow design to the new Eurocode with full working displayed to the
Eurocode, or allow design to the previous British Standard showing full
workings displayed to the British Standard. The user can choose
the code at the start of the proforma and alternate between
codes as required.
Your pdf viewer should show a list of bookmarks to the left of this document,
click on the bookmarks to jump to the relevent example proformas.
Alternatively click on the highlighted links above to jump to the relevent
section headings in the full list of proformas on the following pages.

List of SCALE proformas.


Page: 2
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

The output from SCALE is a set of pages, neatly titled, dated and
numbered, containing calculations and component details made to a
standard suitable for submission to a checking authority.
Sample output calculations and detailing drawings for nearly one
hundred proformas are included in this document, to jump directly to
these calculations click on the bookmarked links which should be
displayed to the left of this document, or click on the highlighted
proformas below to jump directly to sample output from that proforma.
Where a SCALE proforma has a # sign following its number, this
indicates that that proforma pulls forward the moments, shears etc.
from an NL-STRESS analysis into the proforma.
The proformas marked with an (E) allow full workings to the Eurocodes
and full workings to the British Standard, or are analytical and
applicable to both. There are now over 375 proformas ready for the
Eurocodes.
SCALE
072
073
074
075
076
077
078
080
081
082
083
084
085
086
087
088
089
090
091
092
094
095
096
097
098
099
100
101
102#
103
104#
105
106#
107#
108
109
110

- Structural CALculations Ensemble - MENU OF OPTIONS


REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN TO EUROCODE 2 AND BS8110
(E) Rectangular beam - flexure only
(E) Rectangular beam - flexure, span/depth, curtailment, laps
(E) Tee beam - flexure only
(E) Tee beam - flexure, span/depth check
(E) Design of walls
Wall to wall intersection
(E) Rectangular and Tee beam - shear only
(E) Solid slab - flexure, tension steel only, span/d /m width
(E) Solid slab - flexure, tension & comp steel, span/d /m width
(E) Solid slab - flexure, tens & comp steel, span/d given width
(E) Solid slab - shear only
(E) Slab rib - shear only
(E) Two way slabs - moments only
(E) Two way slabs - with design
(E) Flat slabs - simplified method
(E) Slabs - punching shear
Annular column
(E) Stocky column - biaxial bending
(E) Slender rectangular column - uniaxial bending
(E) Slender rectangular column - biaxial bending
(E) Circular column - design for ultimate
(E) Circular column - cracking
(E) Circular column - cracking with tension stiffening
(E) Rectangular column uniaxial bending - rigorous procedure
(E) Rectangular column biaxial bending - rigorous procedure
(E) Circular column in accordance with IStructE/ICE manual
(E) Simply supported rectangular beam/slab with general loading
(E) RC beam on elastic piles subjected to train of moving point loads
(E) Rectangular beam/slab section
(E) Rectangular beam/slab section - checking aid
(E) Biaxially bent stocky column
(E) Rectangular column section - checking aid
(E) Flanged beam section design to IStructE manual
(E) Flanged beam section design to Clause 3.4.4.4
(E) Torsion steel for rectangular section
Ground-supported concrete slabs for industrial buildings
(E) Pad footing with uniaxial bending, including section design

List of SCALE proformas.


Page: 3
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

111
112
113
117
118
119

Deep beams - Kong's method


(E) Modular-ratio design of reinforcement for circular column
(E) Modular-ratio calculation of stresses for circular column
(E) Simply supported R.C. staircase
(E) Concrete nibs
(E) Fire resistance

120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
130
131
132
133
134
135
114
115
116
165
137
138
139
140
141
142
143
144
145
146
147
148
149
150
151
152
153
154
155
156
157
158
159

REINFORCED & PRESTRESSED CONCRETE DESIGN TO BS5400 & DOT


Rectangular beam/slab section
Assessment of beam/slab section
General reinforced concrete section - design
General reinforced concrete section - assessment
Early thermal cracking
Half joint
Torsion in reinforced concrete - design
Torsion in reinforced concrete - assessment
Temperature effects
HA loading to BD 37/01
HA loading assessment to BD 21/01
ULS flexure in prestressed members - design
ULS flexure in prestressed members - assessment
ULS shear in prestressed members - design
ULS shear in prestressed members - assessment
TY beam with in-situ infill
TY beam with in-situ top slab
TYE beam with in-situ top slab
TYE beam with in-situ infill
Birchwood B75 bridge beam with in-situ infill
New super Y beams with insitu top slab
Y edge beams with insitu top slab
Inverted T beam
M beam
UM beam
Y beam
U beam
Wide box beam
Box beam
SBB beam
Non standard beam
(E) Concrete mix design
Wood/Armer
Rectangular column - section interaction - design
Rectangular column - section interaction - assessment
Circular column - section interaction - design
Circular column - section interaction - assessment
General column - section interaction - design
General column - section interaction - assessment
Rectangular column - biaxial bending - design
Rectangular column - biaxial bending - assessment
Documentation for Technical Approval Procedures

160
162
164
189
190
191

REINFORCED CONCRETE TO EUROCODE 2, BS8007, BS8666, SECTION ANALYSIS


(E) Wall/slab section
(E) Beam section
(E) Two way spanning wall slab/plate with hydrostatic pressure
(E) Designated concrete to BS8500-1:2002 conforms with BS EN 206-1
(E) Bar scheduling to BS8666:2005
(Withdrawn) Bar scheduling to BS4466

List of SCALE proformas.


Page: 4
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

192
193
194
195

(E)
(E)
(E)
(E)

Properties of transformed sections


Biaxial bending of rectangular section
Biaxial bending of circular section
Biaxial bending of user defined section

210
212
214
216
218
220
222
224
225
226

COMPOSITE CONSTRUCTION TO EUROCODE 4, BS5950 AND BS5400


(E) Internal beam with UDL to BS5950 and EC4
(E) Edge beam with UDL to BS5950 and EC4
(E) Internal beam with secondary beams to BS5950 and EC4
(E) Edge beam with secondary beam to BS5950 and EC4
(E) Internal beam with secondary beams at third points to BS5950 & EC4
(E) Edge beam with secondary beams at third points to BS5950 and EC4
(E) Section properties to BS5950 and EC4
(E) Shear connector design to BS5950 and EC4
Temperature effects in composite bridge decks - BS5400 & D. Tp.
Differential shrinkage in composite bridge decks - BS5400 & D.Tp.

250#
251#
252
253
254
255
256
257
258
259
260
262
266
267
268
269
271
272
273
274
275
280
284
286
288
290
292

TIMBER DESIGN TO EUROCODE 5 AND BS5268


(E) Rectangular section with axial load & bending
(E) Rectangular Glulam column/tie with axial load
(E) Domestic floor joist
(E) Biaxial bending of timber section
(E) Simply supported beam with general loading
(E) Simply supported Glulam beam with general loading
(E) Simply supported flitched beam with general loading
(E) Spaced timber column
(E) Ply web and box beam
(E) Stressed skin timber floor joist
(E) Howe truss
(E) Pratt truss
(E) Fink truss
(E) Racking resistance of timber stud panels
(E) Fire design of timber beam
(E) Residential floor vibration check to EC5
(E) Nailed joint
(E) Screwed joint
(E) Bolted joint
(E) Spliced timber joint
(E) Toothed plate connector
(E) Rafter or sloping beam
(E) Couple roof
(E) Collar-tie roof
(E) Lean-to roof
(E) Trussed beam
(E) Braced sheds (for attic and other frames - see analysis by STRESS)

356
357
358
359
360
361
362
363
364
365
366

STEEL DESIGN TO BS5400 & DOT


List of proformas
Design objectives and partial safety factors
Steel grades to BS EN 10 025 & BS4360
Nominal yield stress
Notch toughness
Stress analysis; allowance for shear lag
Shape limitations for flanges
Openings in webs and compression flanges
Shape limitations for flat stiffeners
Shape limitations for bulb flat stiffeners
Shape limitations for angle stiffeners

List of SCALE proformas.


Page: 5
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

367
368
369
370
371
372
373
374
375
376
377
378
382

Shape limitations for tee stiffeners


Shape limitations for closed stiffeners
Shape limitations for flanges curved in elevation
Shape limitations for circular hollow sections
Effective section
Evaluation of stresses
Effective length for lateral torsional buckling
Slenderness
Limiting compressive stress
Bending resistance without longitudinal stiffeners
Shear resistance without longitudinal stiffeners
Combined bending and shear
Transverse web stiffeners other than at supports

351
384
385
386
387
388
390#
391#
392
396
407
408
409
410#
411#
412#
414#
415
416
418
419
421
422
423
424
425
426
427
428
429#
432
434
436
437
438
439
440#
441#
442#
443
444#
445#
446

STEEL DESIGN TO EUROCODE 3 AND BS5950-1:2000


(E) Balluster base plate - either concentric or not with baseplate
(E) Stainless steel circular hollow section design
(E) Stainless steel hollow section design
(E) Simply supported stainless steel beam (CHS, SHS, RHS, Channel)
(E) Axially loaded stainless steel column (CHS, SHS, RHS, Channel)
(E) Axially loaded stainless steel angle
(E) Concrete filled square and rectangular hollow section column
(E) Concrete filled circular hollow section column
Fire design of concrete filled structural hollow section column
(E) Moment connection between RHS column and column base
(E) Simple design, builder's arithmetic, general check, safe loads
(E) SS beam (UB, UC, Joist, or Channel) general loading
(E) UB, UC or RSJ with bottom flange plate
(E) I beam section design
(E) Portal frame rafter design
(E) RHS beam section design
(E) CHS beam and column section design
(E) Checking aid for SS UB's with various loadings & restraints
(E) Design of RHS Slimflor edge beam
(E) Slim floor design
(E) Slim floor design using deep decking
(E) Base plate subject to load and moment
(E) Extended bolted end plate connection beam to column
(E) Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column
(E) Beam splice - Extended end plate connection
(E) Beam splice - Flush end plate connection
(E) Welded beam to column connection
(E) Flush beam splice with end plates and single flange plate
(E) Cantilevered beam
(E) Cantilevered beam - alternative linking with NL-STRESS
(E) Fully restrained SS I beam with UDL and point load/s
(E) SS I Beam with UDL - restrained at ends only
(E) SS I Beam with UDL & point loads restrained or unrestrained
(E) SHS beam restrained at ends and loads
(E) Purlin on sloping roof
(E) Side rail
(E) Column (UB, UC or Channel) with biaxial bending
(E) Cased I section column
(E) H Section column with biaxial bending
(E) Effective length of compression members
(E) SHS and RHS column section design (axial load and bending)
(E) Plastic design of stanchions
(E) Single angle - section design

List of SCALE proformas.


Page: 6
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

447
448
449
450
451
452
453
454
456
457#
458#
459#
460
462
463
464
465
466
467
468
470
472
474
476
477
478
479
480
481
482
484
485
486
487
488
489
490
491
492
493
494
496
497
498

(E) Design of "I" beam curved on plan


(E) Design of SHS beam curved on plan
(E) Design of CHS beam curved on plan
(E) Pin ended I, H, or channel section column
(E) SHS, RHS and CHS column section design (axial load only)
(E) I column in simple construction
(E) SHS, RHS and CHS column in simple construction
(E) Channel bending about minor axis
(E) Laced or battened strut
(E) Design of SHS section curved on elevation
(E) Design of CHS section curved on elevation
(E) Design of "I" beam curved in the vertical plane
Portal frame design - plastic analysis
Portal frame in boundary conditions (fire)
(E) Channel subject to eccentric loading
(E) Beam subject to eccentric loading
(E) RHS beam - eccentric loading
(E) Steel beam with openings in the web
(E) Cellular and castellated beams
(E) Beams formed from single angle
(E) Stiffened plate girder
(E) Design of Structural T-sections
(E) Gantry girder
(E) Wind moment design of unbraced frames
(E) Axially loaded steel lattice connections
(E) Chord and bracing connections with moments including knee joints
(E) Hollow section chords with gusset plates/universal section brace
(E) Angle cleat connection
(E) Fin plate connection
(E) Angle seat connection
(E) Flexible end plate
(E) Full-depth end plate connection
(E) Flush end plate haunched connection
(E) Extended end plate haunched connection
(E) Axially loaded column base for I sections
(E) Axially loaded column base for SHS's
(E) Column splice
(E) Bolted end column splice
(E) Beam splice
(E) Universal section chord with hollow section brace
(E) Portal apex connection
(E) Load bearing stiffener design
(E) Section properties of haunched section
(E) Bolts subject to eccentric loading

503
505
506
510
511
512
515
519
520
521
525
528

MASONRY DESIGN TO EUROCODE 6, BS5628 AND MEXE


(E) Cantilever wall spanning horizontally
(E) Wall panel
(E) Panel with opening
(E) Single leaf wall
(E) Single leaf wall by effective eccentricities
(E) Lateral resistance of wall by arching
(E) Column
(E) Bed joint reinforcement for laterally loaded masonry walls
(E) Freestanding wall
(E) Brick beam
(E) Bearing
(E) Simplified sub-frame analysis to EC6

List of SCALE proformas.


Page: 7
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

529
530
532
535
536
537
538
540
541
543
546
547
548
550
552
554

(E) Internal masonry wall


(E) External cavity wall
(E) External cavity wall - by vertical arching
(E) Shear wall
(E) Fin wall
(E) Reinforced brick retaining wall
(E) Reinforced brick column
Load distribution to shear walls
Support angles
Pippard/MEXE analysis for unit applied load
Pippard/MEXE analysis for C&U, EC and user defined bogies
Pippard/MEXE analysis for user defined loading
Assessment of masonry arch bridges by modified MEXE
Mechanism analysis of arches
Masonry dams
(E) Masonry gravity wall

557
558
559
560
561
562
563
564
567
568
569
570
571
572
573
574
575
576
577
578
579
580
581
582
583
584
585
586
587
588
589
590
591
592
593
594
595
596
597
598

ANALYSIS BY NL-STRESS
(E) Benchmarking sets of NL-STRESS data files
(E) Training in the NL-STRESS language
(E) NL-STRESS Questions & Answers
(E) Plane grid analysis
(E) Foundation raft
(E) Suspended slabs/bridges
(E) Beam curved on plan
(E) Running NL-STRESS Verified Models from within SCALE
(E) Cantilever or built-in beam or rafter
(E) Lean-to, cranked, dogleg or Mansard beam
(E) Portal frame - mono pitch/rectangular
(E) Portal frame - 1 bay
(E) Portal frame - 1 bay with haunches
(E) Portal frame - 1 bay for hipped end
(E) Portal frame - 2 bays
(E) Portal frame - 2 bays with haunches
(E) Portal frame - 2 bays with haunches and single ridge
(E) Portal frame - 3 bays
(E) Portal frame - 3 bays with haunches
(E) Portal frame - 3 bays with haunches and single ridge
(E) Portal frame - 4 bays
(E) Portal frame - 4 bays with haunches
(E) Portal frame - 4 bays with haunches and single ridge
(E) Gangnail type of roof truss
(E) Lattice girder
(E) Lattice portal - N or Pratt, Howe or Warren
(E) Attic room roof truss
(E) Collar-tie & collar-and-tie roof truss
(E) Couple/couple-close truss
(E) Fink roof truss
(E) King post roof truss
(E) Queen post roof truss
(E) Mansard roof
(E) Bents, trestles and pipe racks
(E) Box culvert
(E) Continuous beam with train of moving point loads
(E) Coupled shear wall
(E) Circular arch
(E) Multi-storey multi-bay
(E) Continuous beam with optional cantilever/s

List of SCALE proformas.


Page: 8
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

599
600

(E) Sub-frame - 2 to 10 bays


(E) Frame analysis by NL-STRESS

601
602
603
604
605
606
608
610
611
612
614
615
620
621
622
623
624
626
628
632
634
635
636
638
639
640
642
643
649
650
651
652
653
659
660
662
663
664
666
668

ANALYSIS BY TRADITIONAL METHODS


(E) Table of deflections for checking beams
(E) Shears, moments, etc. for beams
(E) Beams under combined axial and transverse loading
(E) Continuous beam - moment distribution
(E) Cantilever beam with varying section properties
(E) Simply supported beam
(E) Cranked or dogleg beam
(E) Influence lines
Pigeaud's tables for concentrated loads on slabs
Rectangular culverts
(E) Circular plate with UDL
(E) Rectangular plates
Subframe analysis
(E) Plane truss analysis - joint by joint
(E) Plane truss analysis
(E) Multi storey and multi bay frames
(E) Multi storey frames
(E) Vierendeel girders
(E) Shear legs
(E) Rectangular portal
(E) Ridged portal
(E) Two bay ridged portal
(E) Couple roof
(E) Circular arch
Helical stair
(E) Deep beams
(E) Roof trusses
(E) Section design for UB's UC's SHS's RHS's & CHS's
(E) Plastic section properties
(E) Section properties - general
(E) Section properties with weightings
(E) Section properties - plate girder with welded connections
(E) Section properties - plate girder with angle connections
(E) Influence surfaces of elastic plates - Pucher's charts
(E) Yield-lines
Suspension bridges
Suspension cable analysis
Dynamical behaviour
(E) Elastic stability
Static analysis of symmetrical guyed masts

670
672
674
675
677
678
679
680
682
684
686
687

PRE & POSTPROCESSORS FOR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS


HB Vehicle - load sharing
(E) Post-processing NL-STRESS results
(E) Derives moments and principal stresses from plate deflections
Wave forces - 5th order
(E) Preprocessing NL-STRESS data to remove expressions
Guyed masts
Circular tanks
(E) Joint coordinates of circular members
(E) Beta angle for space frame members
(E) Member stiffness matrices
Loss of stiffness due to partial plasticity
(E) Equilibrium & compatibility check of plane frame & truss members

List of SCALE proformas.


Page: 9
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

688
689
690
692
694

(E)
(E)
(E)
(E)
(E)

Equilibrium & compatibility check of plane grid members


Equilibrium & compatibility check of space frame & truss members
Support displacements to model for guy pretension
Modelling of guys for analysis by stiffness method
Loads on continuous beams - used in sheet pile design

130
131
700
701
702
703
704
705
706
707
710
711
715
716
717
718
720
725
726

LOADINGS
HA loading to BD 37/01
HA loading assessment to BD 21/01
Wind loads to CP3 Chapter 5
(E) Snow loading
(E) Wind loads to BS6399-2:1997 and Eurocode 1
Topographic location factor to BS6399 Part 2 1997
(E) Lateral earth pressure from surcharge
Pressures from retained materials
Moments and forces in hopper bottoms
Moments and forces in cylindrical containers
Loading on strip footing
Column & foundation loads
Unit loads
Loading on domestic lintel
Unit loads for steel frames
Steel beam with welded bottom flange
(E) Weighting of items comprising several parts
(E) Factored load summary sheet
(E) Eurocode load combinations

731
732
734
735
742
743
744
745
746
747
748
749
750
751
752
754
755
756
757
758
759
760
761
764
765
766
767
768
769
770

FOUNDATIONS
(E) Notes on pilecaps
(E) Pilecap for 2 piles - truss analogy
(E) Pilecap for 4 piles - truss analogy
(E) Pilecap for 5 piles - truss analogy
(E) Pilecap for 2 piles - bending theory
(E) Pilecap for 3 piles - bending theory
(E) Pilecap for 4 piles - bending theory
(E) Pilecap for 5 piles - bending theory
(E) Pilecap for 6 piles - bending theory
(E) Pilecap for 7 piles - bending theory
(E) Pilecap for 8 piles - bending theory
(E) Pilecap for 9 piles - bending theory
(E) Concrete retaining wall
(E) Active pressure on a retaining wall to BS8002:1994 or Eurocode 7
(E) Stability calculations for a retaining wall
(E) Biaxial bending on pad base
(E) Pad base
(E) Preliminary sizing of trapezoidal combined base
(E) Preliminary sizing of T-shaped combined base
(E) Preliminary sizing of rectangular combined base
(E) Preliminary design of tied separate bases
(E) Combined base
(E) Traditional raft foundation design.
(E) Beam on elastic foundation with load train - Hetenyi
(E) Beam on elastic foundation
(E) Ground beam on elastic piles
(E) Active thrust on wall - cohesionless soil with horizontal surface
(E) Active & passive pressures on sheet pile wall - with two soils
Active wall pressure (Rankine) retaining soil slope
(E) Slip circle analysis - Taylor's stability numbers

List of SCALE proformas.


Page: 10
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

771
772
773
775
776
780
781
782
786
787
788
789
790
791
792
793
794
795
796

(E) Slip circle analysis - Swedish method


Coefficient of volume compressibility and compression index
One dimensional consolidation beneath rectangular raft
(E) Safe bearing pressures
(E) Structural design of bituminous roads
Soil pressures due to stacks
Elastic stresses within foundation material
Elastic stresses resulting from UDL on rectangular area
Vertical loads on straight bored piles in clay
Large diameter belled piles in clay
(E) Pile loads from a crane base
Pile group analysis
Loads on piles in groups
Pile types and characteristics
(E) Sheet retaining structures
(E) Laterally loaded piles
Sheet pile wall - Das
(E) Specialist firms for ground improvement and piling works
Embedded depths of holding down bolts

800
805
855
856
859
860
861
870
871
872
890

DRAINAGE & SURVEYING


Drain & sewer pipe sizing
(E) Gutters and rain water pipes
(E) Road alignment vertical curve
(E) Road alignment horizontal curves
(E) Areas and volumes for cuttings and embankments
(E) Volumes from spot levels
(E) Simpson's rule for volumes
(E) Setting out piles
(E) Analytical geometry based on the COGO approach
(E) Traverse survey - open or closed
(E) Crack movements - by tell-tales

902
903
904
905
906
907
908
909
910
911
912
913
914
915
916
918
919
920

MATHEMATICS
(E) Solution of triangles
(E) Solution of simultaneous equations
(E) Solution of quadratic, cubic & quartic equations
(E) Coordinate geometry
(E) Differentiation of standard forms
(E) Differentiation of a general function
(E) Integration of standard forms
(E) Integration of a general function
(E) Mensuration of plane areas and solids
(E) Statistics and quality control
(E) Latent roots
(E) Centre of gravity
(E) Matrix inversion
(E) Greek alphabet
(E) Conversion between Imperial and metric and vice versa
(E) Compound interest for mortgage and loan payments
(E) Sorting text or numbers
(E) Expressing a set of data points as a polynomial

001#
002
070
921

MANUALS & MISCELLANEOUS


(E) BM & SF diagrams for structure previously analysed by NL-STRESS
(E) Overview
(E) Simple test example
(E) Introduction to NL-STRESS Parametric Data Files

List of SCALE proformas.


Page: 11
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

922
923
924
925
950
951
952
954
958
960
961
962
963
964
966
967
968
969
970
980
990
991
992
993
995
996
997

(E)
(E)
(E)
(E)
(E)
(E)
(E)
(E)
(E)
(E)
(E)
(E)
(E)
(E)
(E)
(E)
(E)
(E)
(E)
(E)
(E)
(E)
(E)
(E)
(E)
(E)
(E)

Introduction to NL-STRESS Proforma Data Files


Introduction to NL-STRESS Benchmarks
Verifying the correctness of SCALE proformas & NL-STRESS models
Introduction to NL-STRESS Verified Models
Invoice for structural work
First page of calculations
Setting page length
Pages with heading only
Printing out the NL-STRESS Verified Models Manual
Produces a report of times logged in & logged out of SAND
Printing out the NL-STRESS Parametric Data Files Manual
Printing out the NL-STRESS Proforma Data Files Manual
Printing out the NL-STRESS Benchmarks Manual
Printing out the NL-STRESS Reference Manual (Theory & Benchmarks)
Printing out the SCALE Reference Manual
Printing out the SCALE help file and other help files
Printing out the Praxis Manual
Printing typical SCALE, LUCID & SPADE calcs/plots
Cross referencing of numerical variables in proforma files
English for engineers - hints on style and grammar
Job check list
Construction notes
Typical letters
Job information sheet
Computer output & QA
How to write a SCALE proforma
Examples of correct nesting structures for SCALE proformas

300#
305#
310#
315#
320

STEEL DESIGN TO BS449 INCLUDING AMENDMENT 8,1989


I beam
I column
RHS beam
RHS column
Angle cleat

List of LUCID proformas.


Page: 1
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

LUCID: Reinforced concrete detailing system. LUCID (and SPADE) are


not just electronic drawing boards, each is an 'expert detailer' which
does the drawing for you, producing to-scale details. The details may
be edited directly, or read and edited by your own CAD system.
100
110
120
130

FOUNDATIONS
Notes on the detailing of foundations
Pile caps
Square and rectangular reinforced and mass concrete bases
Isolated, internal and edge strip footings

200
210
220

RETAINING WALLS
Notes on the detailing of retaining walls
Free standing cantilever retaining walls
Propped retaining walls

300
310

CULVERTS AND SUBWAYS


Notes on the detailing of culverts and subways
Culverts and subways

400
410
420
430
440
450
460

SLABS
Notes on the detailing of edge supported slabs and flat slabs
Simply supported single panel slabs
One way spanning slabs
Two way spanning slabs
Flat slabs
Flat slabs - shear reinforcement at columns
Holes and chairs for top reinforcement

500
510

COLUMNS
Notes on the detailing of columns
Square, rectangular and circular columns

600
610

WALLS
Notes on the detailing of walls
Walls

700
710

STAIRCASES
Notes on the detailing of in-situ staircases
In-situ staircases

800
810
820

BEAMS
Notes on the detailing of beams
Simply supported and continuous beams
Cantilever beams

901
908
910
920
941
952
966

GENERAL
General notes on LUCID
Component detailing using LUCID
Bar schedule
The COMMAND prompt
Editor
Setting page length
Printing out the LUCID Reference Manual

List of SPADE proformas.


Page: 1
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

SPADE: Structural Parts And Details Ensemble


(Steel, masonry & timber component detailing)
202
250
252
265

TIMBER
Beam to column connection
Spliced joints - various
Timber joist bearings on steel beams
Fan truss - general arrangement

266
267
268
269

Fink truss - general arrangement


Howe truss - general arrangement
Pratt truss - general arrangement
Queen post truss - general arrangement

310
320

PORTAL CONNECTIONS
Portal eaves haunched connection
Portal apex haunched connection

410
412
416

END PLATE CONNECTIONS


Flexible end plate connection - beam to beam
Flexible end plate connection - beam to column
Extended end plate connection - beam to column

420
422
430

ANGLE CLEAT & ANGLE SEAT CONNECTIONS


Double angle cleat - beam to beam connection
Double angle cleat - beam to column connection
Angle seat - beam to column connection

440
442

FIN PLATE CONNECTIONS


Fin plate - beam to beam
Fin plate - beam to column

450
452
454
458

MOMENT CONNECTIONS
Tongue plate connection - beam to column
Direct welded connection - beam to column
Tee connections - beam to column
Beam stub connection

460

MISCELLANEOUS CONNECTIONS
Beam over beam connection

490
492

SPLICES
Beam splice
Column splice

510
512

COLUMN BASES
Column base plate
Welded gusset column base plate

540
550

SHOP DETAILS
Shop detail - non skew beam - drilled
Shop detail - column - drilled

580
582

FIRE CASINGS
Beam and column fire casing - timber framing - up to 1 hour
Beam and column fire casing - steel angle framing - up to 2 hours

List of SPADE proformas.


Page: 2
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

590
592

LOCATION DRAWINGS
Location drawing - single bay portal frame
Location drawing - multi-storey frame

605
608
610
612
613
614
615
616
618
619
620
622
624
630
632
634

MASONRY
Raft foundation - wide toe
Raft foundation - deep edge beam
Raft foundation - plain edge detail
Raft foundation - plain internal wall support
Bored pile foundation to resist uplift
Bored pile foundation
Masonry walls
Trench fill foundation
Traditional strip footing with concrete floor
Traditional strip footing with suspended timber floor
Wide strip foundation
Pad and stem foundation for loose fill
Precast driven segmental pile foundation
Granular layer beneath slab venting through trench
Granular layer beneath slab venting through trench with riser
Granular layer beneath slab venting through slotted pipe & riser

801
901
908
920
941
952
966
967
996

GENERAL
Graph plotting
General notes on SPADE
Component detailing using SPADE
The COMMAND prompt
Editor
Setting page length
Printing out the SPADE Reference Manual
Printing out the SPADE help file
How to compose a SPADE proforma detail
SPADE and all proformas are copyright (C) Fitzroy Systems,

List of NL-STRESS proformas.


Page: 1
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

NL-STRESS Structural Analysis - MENU OF OPTIONS

m102.ndf
m103.ndf
m104.ndf
m105.ndf
m106.ndf
m107.ndf
m108.ndf
m109.ndf

NL-STRESS PARAMETRIC MODELS


NL-STRESS parametric models are particularly useful for
checking that the results from other structural analysis
programs are in the right field.
N/Pratt deck latt truss, optn taper, udl top+bot, sway loads.
Howe thru latt truss, optn taper, udl top+bot, sway loads.
Howe deck latt truss, optn taper, udl top+bot, sway loads.
Warren thru latt truss, const height, udl top+bot, sway loads.
Warren thru latt truss w verts, udl top+bot, sway loads.
Warren deck latt truss w end verts, udl top+bot, sway loads.
Warren deck latt truss w verts, udl top+bot, sway loads.
Roof of 2 rafters w single tie, udl on plan, lateral udls.

m201.ndf
m202.ndf
m203.ndf
m204.ndf
m205.ndf
m206.ndf
m207.ndf
m208.ndf
m209.ndf
m210.ndf
m211.ndf
m212.ndf
m213.ndf
m214.ndf
m215.ndf
m216.ndf
m217.ndf
m218.ndf
m219.ndf
m220.ndf
m221.ndf
m222.ndf
m223.ndf
m224.ndf
m225.ndf
m226.ndf
m227.ndf
m228.ndf
m229.ndf
m230.ndf
m231.ndf
m232.ndf
m233.ndf
m234.ndf
m235.ndf
m236.ndf
m237.ndf
m238.ndf
m239.ndf
m240.ndf
m241.ndf
m242.ndf

PLANE FRAMES
Cantilever beam, sectn prop by geom, udl & conc loads.
Propped cantilever, sectn prop by geom, udl & conc loads.
Cantilever with tie-down span, udl and end point load.
Tapered cantilever, sectn prop by geom, loads p(1:n) at a(1:n).
Continuous beam, sectn prop by geom, various udls on each span.
Continuous beam, sectn prop by geom, udl & concentrated loads.
Continuous beam, sectn prop by geom, udl, conc & linear loads.
Ground beam on elastic foundation, train of moving loads.
Ground beam on piles at various centres with train of loads.
Influence lines, reaction, shear & bm, cont beam of nsp spans.
Cranked beam, sectn prop by geom, combn of fixities & supports.
Single span SS beam, sectn prop by geom, patterns for udls.
2 span continuous beam, sectn prop by geom, patterns for udls.
3 span continuous beam, sectn prop by geom, patterns for udls.
4 span continuous beam, sectn prop by geom, patterns for udls.
Cantilever column, sectn prop by geom, udl & conc loads.
Cant column propped, sectn prop by geom, udl & conc loads.
Cant column with tie-down span, udls & end point loads.
Cranked col, sectn prop by geom, pin/fixed ends, may be propd.
Column w.rect offset, sectn prop by geom, J2/5 may be propped.
Lean-to frame, rigid joint col to horiz beam, var supports.
Lean-to frame, rigid joint col to sloping rafter, var supports.
Lean-to frame, rigid joint sloping col to horiz beam, var supt.
Lean-to frame, rigid joint sloping col to sloping rafter.
Couple roof with rigid connection at apex and various supports.
Collar-tie roof (or A-frame), var member connectns, var suppts.
Couple close roof, var members, var connections, var supports.
Unsymm couple roof, rigid connection at apex, various supports.
Unsymm couple close roof with tie, var connectns, var supports.
Unsymm couple roof w. sup at diff levels, various connections.
Unsymm triangular frame, 1 leg vertical, with various supports.
Unsymm triangular frame, 1 leg vertical with tie, var supports.
Lean-to with col & beam & skew corner between, var supports.
Couple roof (gable frame) with left column, various supports.
Rect portal, optional pins at transom ends & at supports.
Rect rigid portal, pin ended tie grnd level, optnl slidng rel.
Rect portal, optional pins at transom ends, unequal len cols.
Rect rigid portal, unequal len cols, pin ended sloping tie.
2 storey bent, optn rel for middle beam, var sup at grnd level.
Shed: sloping roof, various support conditions.
Shed: sloping roof, tied columns & various supports.
Shed: sloping roof, bases at diff levels, various supports.

List of NL-STRESS proformas.


Page: 2
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

m243.ndf
m244.ndf
m245.ndf
m246.ndf
m247.ndf
m248.ndf
m249.ndf
m250.ndf
m251.ndf
m252.ndf
m253.ndf
m254.ndf
m255.ndf
m256.ndf
m257.ndf
m258.ndf
m259.ndf
m260.ndf
m261.ndf
m262.ndf
m263.ndf
m264.ndf
m265.ndf
m266.ndf
m267.ndf
m268.ndf
m269.ndf
m270.ndf
m271.ndf
m272.ndf
m273.ndf
m274.ndf
m275.ndf
m276.ndf
m277.ndf
m278.ndf
m279.ndf
m280.ndf
m281.ndf
m282.ndf
m283.ndf
m284.ndf
m285.ndf
m286.ndf
m287.ndf
m288.ndf
m289.ndf
m290.ndf
m291.ndf
m292.ndf
m293.ndf
m294.ndf
m295.ndf
m296.ndf
m297.ndf
m298.ndf
m299.ndf
m300.ndf

Shed: columns & beam & skew corner, various supports.


Shed: columns & beam & skew corner, var support at diff levels.
Shed: vert columns, skew corner & horiz beam, tie at supports.
Shed: vert columns and asymm rafters with various supports.
Shed: vertical columns and asymm rafters, tie at supports.
Shed: vert cols & asymm rafters, tie at eaves, var supports.
Symm trapezoidal rigid frame, various support conditions.
Symm trapezoidal rigid frame, tie at supports.
Asymm trapezoidal rigid frame, var support levels & conditions.
Asymm trapezoidal rigid frame, tie & var support conditions.
Asymm trapezoidal rigid frame, sloping&vert cols, sup diff lvl.
Asymm trapezoidal rigid frame, sloping&vert cols, tie between.
Asymm trapezoidal rigid frame, vert&sloping cols, var supports.
Single bay ridged portal frame, various support conditions.
Single bay ridged portal frame, tie at grnd level, var supps.
Single bay ridged portal frame, tie betwn eaves, var supports.
Symmetrical Mansard frame, various support conditions.
Symmetrical Mansard frame, ground tie, var support conditions.
Symmetrical Mansard frame, eaves tie, var support conditions.
Symmetrical bent, skew corners, various support conditions.
Symmetrical bent, skew corners, tie at ground level.
Barrel-vault portal frame, vertical columns, various supports.
Barrel-vault portal frame, vert cols, ground tie, var supps.
Barrel-vault portal frame, vert cols, eaves tie, var supps.
Vierendeel frame, var suppts at grnd level, optnl sliding rel.
N/Pratt latt girder/portal, nb bays, opt taper, end diag tens.
Howe latt girder/portal, nb bays, opt tc taper, end diag tens.
Warren latt girder/portal, nb bays, opt taper, end diag tens.
Warren latt girder/portal, nb bays, opt taper, end diag comp.
Sing/multi-bay portal frame/s, no haunch, nb bays, vert & sway.
Sing/multi-bay portal frame/s, haunches, nb bays, vert & sway.
3 seg rafters, Warren internals, udl/point loads; wind normal.
Attic room roof frame, proj udl, point loads, wind normal.
A-frame, plan udl rafters, collar&point lds on J3-5; wind norm.
Collar-and-tie roof frame, proj udl/point loads; wind normal.
Couple roof frame, proj (plan) udl, wind normal to rafters.
Couple roof frame with tie, proj (plan) udl, wind normal.
Fink roof frame, plan udls, point loads, wind normal.
King post frame, plan udls, point loads, wind normal.
Queen post frame, plan udls, point loads, wind normal.
Mansard roof frame, plan udls, point loads, wind normal.
Tied-Mansard roof frame, plan udl and point loads, wind normal.
Pitched Vierendeel roof frame, plan udl/point loads, wind norm.
Pipe tree with 2 horizontal branches, vertical & lateral loads.
Pipe tree with 4 horizontal branches, vertical & lateral loads.
Pipe tree with 6 horizontal branches, vertical & lateral loads.
1 storey bent with vert/raking cols, optn pins at transom ends.
2 storey bent with vert/raking cols, vertical & lateral loads.
3 storey bent with vert/raking cols, vertical & lateral loads.
2-pinned segmental circular arch, distr loading, var conc lds.
Encastre segmental circular arch, distr loading, var conc lds.
Subframes: beams w.cols below and optn beams above, nb spans.
Modelling inclined supports.
Modelling overlapping members.
Modelling structural scissors.
Infl lines for cont beams of const span, by 'print collection'.
Vierendeel girder, udls/loads on top & bottom chords/joints.
Outrigged frame carrying a point load on a beam, var supports.

List of NL-STRESS proformas.


Page: 3
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

m301.ndf
m302.ndf
m303.ndf

Braced outrigged frame carying end point load, var supports.


Symmetrical centre span with cantilevers at both ends.
Built-in beam, sectn prop by geom, udl & concentrated loads.

m401.ndf
m402.ndf
m403.ndf
m404.ndf
m405.ndf
m406.ndf
m407.ndf
m408.ndf
m409.ndf
m410.ndf
m411.ndf
m412.ndf
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m414.ndf
m415.ndf
m416.ndf
m417.ndf
m418.ndf
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m421.ndf
m422.ndf
m423.ndf
m424.ndf
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m432.ndf
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m435.ndf
m436.ndf
m437.ndf
m438.ndf
m439.ndf
m440.ndf
m441.ndf
m442.ndf
m443.ndf

PLANE GRIDS
Circular-arc bow girder, out of plane concentrated and udls.
Circular-arc cantilever, out of plane concentrated and udls.
Grillage: girders & stiffeners, point/udls; all edges blt-in.
Grillage: girders & stiffeners, point/udls; all edges SS.
Grillage: girders & stiffeners, point/udls; N&S blt-in, E&W SS.
Grillage: girders & stiffeners, point/udls; E&W blt-in, N&S SS.
Grillage: girders & stiffeners, point/udls; N&W blt-in, S&E SS.
Grillage: girders & stiffeners, point/udls;N&S blt-in,E&W free.
Grillage: girders & stiffeners, point/udls;E&W blt-in,N&S free.
Grillage: girders & stiffeners, point/udls;N&W blt-in,S&E free.
Grillage: girders, point/area/udls; all edges SS.
Grillage: girders, point/area/udls; all edges blt-in.
Grillage: girders, point/area/udls; E&W edges SS, N&S blt-in.
Grillage: girders, point/area/udls; N&S edges SS, E&W blt-in.
Grillage: girders, point/area/udls; W&S edges SS, prop at nj.
Grillage: girders, point/area/udls; W&S edges blt-in, prop@nj.
Grillage: girders, point/area/udls; N&S&W SS, East edge free.
Grillage: girders, point/area/udls; N&S&W blt-in, E edge free.
Grillage: girders, point/area/udls; W edge SS, props@E corners.
Grillage: girders, point/area/udls; W edge blt-in, props@Ecnrs.
Grillage: girders, point/area/udls; S edge SS, props @ N crnrs.
Grillage: girders, point/area/udls; S edge blt-in, props@Ncnrs.
Skew grillage of girders, point/area/udls; all edges SS.
Skew grillage of girders, point/area/udls; all edges built-in.
Skew grillage of girders, point/area/udls; N&S blt-in, E&W SS.
Skew grillage of girders, point/area/udls; E&W blt-in, N&S SS.
Skew grillage of girders, point/area/udls; E&W blt-in,N&S free.
Skew grillage of girders, point/area/udls; E&W SS, N&S free.
Skew grillage of girders, point/area/udls; N&S blt-in,E&W free.
Flat plate in flexure; 4 SS edges, udl.
Flat plate in flexure; 4 built-in edges, udl.
Flat plate in flexure; N&S edges built-in, E&W SS.
Flat plate in flexure; E&W edges built-in, N&S SS, udl.
Flat plate in flexure; E&W edges built-in, N&S free, udl.
Flat plate in flexure; E&W edges SS, N&S free, udl.
Flat plate in flexure; E&W edges free, N&S SS, udl.
Flat plate in flexure; N&S edges built-in, E&W edges free, udl.
Flat plate in flexure; N&S&W built-in, East edge free, udl.
Flat plate in flexure; N&S&W built-in, East edge SS, udl.
Flat plate in flexure; N&S&W SS, East edge free, udl.
Flat plate in flexure; S&E&W built-in, North edge free, udl.
Flat plate in flexure; S&E&W built-in, North edge SS, udl.
Flat plate in flexure; S&E&W SS, North edge free, udl.

m701.ndf
m702.ndf
m703.ndf
m704.ndf
m705.ndf
m706.ndf
m707.ndf
m708.ndf

SPACE FRAMES
Circular hopper (barrel upper, cone lower), various supports.
Truncated cone/hopper, various supports at top & bottom.
Circular concrete tank, internal fluid pressure, on springs.
Multi-storey frame, nx/nz bays along X/Z axes, ny storeys up Y.
Circular chimney/funnel, hole/s for flue gasses, wind loading.
Spherical dome, load at top ring, udl on surface.
Lattice tower, tapered lower section, optional straight upper.
I-section SS beam, axial load and udl in Y and Z.

List of NL-STRESS proformas.


Page: 4
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

m709.ndf
m710.ndf
m711.ndf
m712.ndf

T-section cantilever beam, bending about Z, torque from end ld.


Channel cantilever beam, bending about Y, torque from end load.
L-section cantilever beam, torque about the X axis.
RHS SS beam, axial load, biaxial bending, torque.
VERIFIED MODELS
NL-STRESS Verified Models cover a wide range of engineering
structures; each Verified Model is self-checking. To run a
verified model, the engineer need only click on one in the
following list, then click Continue. To edit the parameters,
click Edit instead of Continue, type replacement values for
typically 10-20 parameters, click End & Continue to run.

vm110.ndf
vm112.ndf
vm113.ndf
vm114.ndf
vm115.ndf
vm117.ndf
vm120.ndf
vm122.ndf
vm123.ndf
vm124.ndf
vm130.ndf
vm131.ndf
vm140.ndf
vm150.ndf
vm153.ndf
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vm208.ndf
vm209.ndf
vm210.ndf
vm211.ndf
vm215.ndf
vm216.ndf
vm217.ndf
vm218.ndf
vm219.ndf

PLANE FRAME & TRUSS VERIFIED MODELS


Simply supported beam including shear deflection.
Cantilevered beam.
Cantilevered beam subjected to many point loads.
Tapered cantilevered beam subjected to many point loads.
Cantilever with tie-down beam.
Subframe, continuous beam with columns below & above.
Continuous beam with pattern loadings.
Two member lean-to or Mansard beam.
Three member lean-to or Mansard beam.
Three member cranked beam.
Ground beam on an elastic foundation.
Ground beam on elastic piles.
Influence lines for continuous beams.
Pratt through truss.
Pratt deck truss.
Howe through truss.
Howe deck truss.
Warren through truss.
Warren through truss with verticals.
Warren deck truss.
Warren deck with verticals.
Two rafters with tie.
Two rafters, post & tie.
King post roof truss.
Roof truss, three segment rafters, Pratt internals.
Roof truss, three segment rafters, Howe internals.
Trussed rafter, or Fink roof truss.
Roof truss, three segment trussed rafter, Warren internals.
Three segment rafters, Warren internals roof truss.
Mansard truss.
Pipe tree having two branches.
Pipe tree having four branches.
Pipe tree having six branches.
One storey bent having vertical/raking piles.
Two storey bent having vertical/raking piles.
Three storey bent having vertical/raking piles.
Bent, or rectangular portal frame.
Rigid pile cap with several piles.
Ridged portal frame with pinned or fixed feet.
Nissen or Mansard portal.
Gable frame with inclined legs.
Portal frame with skew corners.
Trapezoidal frame.

List of NL-STRESS proformas.


Page: 5
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

vm220.ndf
vm223.ndf
vm225.ndf
vm226.ndf
vm227.ndf
vm228.ndf
vm230.ndf
vm232.ndf
vm233.ndf
vm234.ndf
vm235.ndf
vm241.ndf
vm242.ndf
vm244.ndf
vm245.ndf
vm246.ndf
vm247.ndf
vm260.ndf
vm262.ndf
vm270.ndf
vm280.ndf
vm281.ndf
vm282.ndf
vm283.ndf
vm290.ndf
vm291.ndf

Two bay ridged portal with pinned feet.


Multi bay haunched ridged portal with pinned/fixed feet.
Couple roof frame.
Couple close roof frame.
Collar-tie roof frame.
Collar-and-tie roof frame.
Attic room roof frame.
Fink roof frame.
King post roof frame.
Queen post roof frame.
Tied Mansard roof frame.
Vierendeel girder.
Vierendeel roof frame.
N/Pratt lattice portal/girder.
Howe lattice portal/girder.
Warren lattice portal/girder, end diagonals in tension.
Warren lattice portal/girder, end diagonals in compression.
Multi-storey frame, moment distribution self-check.
Multi-storey frame, equilibrium & compatibility self-check.
Pierced shear walls.
Two pinned circular arch.
Encastre circular arch.
Two pinned parabolic arch.
Encastre parabolic arch.
Outrigged frame.
Braced outrigged frame.

vm300.ndf
vm301.ndf
vm302.ndf
vm310.ndf
vm311.ndf

PLANE GRID VERIFIED MODELS


Cantilever or propped-cantilever on plan.
Circular arc cantilever on plan.
Circular arc bow girder on plan.
Grillage of beams, classical check.
Grillage of beams, modern check.

vm410.ndf
vm411.ndf
vm420.ndf
vm430.ndf
vm435.ndf
vm436.ndf
vm440.ndf

PLASTIC
Plastic
Plastic
Plastic
Plastic
Plastic
Plastic
Plastic

vm601.ndf
vm602.ndf
vm605.ndf
vm610.ndf
vm618.ndf
vm620.ndf
vm630.ndf
vm640.ndf
vm641.ndf
vm642.ndf
vm643.ndf
vm644.ndf
vm650.ndf

FINITE ELEMENT VERIFIED MODELS


Plate with out-of-plane loading.
Flat plate in flexure with area loading.
Floor panel with hole.
Plate with free edge.
Plate/wall in extension with hole.
Circular balcony plate.
Spherical shell.
I-section subjected to torque.
RHS subjected to torque & biaxial bending.
T-section subjected to torque and bending.
Channel section subjected to torque and bending.
Angle section subjected to torque.
Circular tank.

ANALYSIS
analysis
analysis
analysis
analysis
analysis
analysis
analysis

of
of
of
of
of
of
of

cantilever.
propped cantilever.
continuous beam.
rectangular portal.
ridged portal.
multi-bay ridged portal.
multi-storey frame.

List of NL-STRESS proformas.


Page: 6
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

vm710.ndf
vm718.ndf
vm720.ndf

VERIFIED MODELS FOR DYNAMICS


Natural frequency of beam.
Natural frequency of built-in plate.
Natural frequency of simply supported plate.

vm802.ndf
vm810.ndf
vm830.ndf
vm850.ndf
vm852.ndf
vm950.ndf
vm951.ndf
vm952.ndf

VERIFIED MODELS FOR STABILITY


Cantilever beam with large displacements.
Stability of columns with various supports.
Stability of circular ring/pipe.
Stability of cantilever with udl & end load.
Multi-storey frame using non-linear elastic analysis.
Hanging cable with flexible platform.
Suspension bridge with three pinned stiffening girder.
Suspension bridge with two pinned stiffening girder.
KLEINLOGEL'S RIGID FRAME FORMULAS
Click on a chosen frame (starting nk) click Edit and
amend the numerical data as required, press the End key to
leave the Editor, click Continue, press Enter twice,
compare the results at the end. Note that Prof. Kleinlogel
changes the direction of reactions to oppose the loading
applied, and ignores axial shortening.

nk001.ndf
nk002.ndf
nk003.ndf
nk004.ndf
nk005.ndf
nk006.ndf
nk007.ndf
nk008.ndf
nk009.ndf
nk010.ndf
nk011.ndf
nk012.ndf
nk013.ndf
nk014.ndf

LEAN-TO FRAMES WITH RIGID JOINT AT EAVES


Pinned at ground & wall.
Pinned at ground, fixed at wall.
Pinned at wall, fixed at ground.
Built-in at wall and ground.
Built-in at ground, sliding support at top of wall.
Built-in at wall, sliding support at ground.
Pinned at ground and wall.
Built-in at ground and wall.
Pinned at ground and wall, inclined column.
Built-in at ground and wall, inclined column.
Pinned at ground and wall, inclined column & rafter.
Built-in at ground, pinned at wall, inclined col & rafter.
Built-in at wall, pinned at ground, inclined col & rafter.
Built-in at wall and ground, inclined column & rafter.

nk015.ndf
nk016.ndf
nk017.ndf
nk018.ndf
nk019.ndf
nk020.ndf
nk021.ndf

SYMMETRICAL TWO-HINGED TRIANGULAR FRAME


Rigid connection at apex, pinned at ground.
Rigid connection at apex, tie-rod at ground.
Rigid connection at apex, hinged tie and pinned supports.
Pinned connection at apex, hinged tie and pinned supports.
Rigid connection at apex, and fixed supports.
Rigid connection at apex, hinged tie and fixed supports.
Pinned connection at apex, hinged tie and fixed supports.

nk022.ndf
nk023.ndf
nk024.ndf
nk025.ndf
nk026.ndf
nk027.ndf
nk028.ndf

UNSYMMETRICAL TRIANGULAR FRAME, RIGID CONNECTION AT APEX


Pinned supports at same level.
Tie-rod at ground level.
Left support fixed, right support pinned.
Both supports fixed.
Pinned supports at different levels.
Left support fixed, right pinned at different levels.
Both supports fixed, supports at different levels.

List of NL-STRESS proformas.


Page: 7
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

nk029.ndf
nk030.ndf
nk031.ndf
nk032.ndf
nk033.ndf

UNSYMMETRICAL TRIANGULAR FRAME, RIGID CONNECTION AT APEX


Right column vertical, both supports fixed.
Right column vertical, tie-rod at ground level.
Right column vertical, both supports fixed.
Right column vertical, left support fixed, right pinned.
Right column vertical, left support pinned, right fixed.

nk034.ndf
nk035.ndf
nk036.ndf

THREE MEMBER LEAN-TO RIGID FRAME, INSIDE JOINTS FIXED,


LEFT COLUMN VERTICAL, RIGHT RAFTER HORIZONTAL
Left and right supports pinned.
Left support fixed, right support pinned.
Left and right supports fixed.

nk037.ndf

THREE MEMBER GABLE FRAME


Both supports fixed.

nk038.ndf
nk039.ndf
nk040.ndf
nk041.ndf
nk042.ndf
nk043.ndf
nk044.ndf

SYMMETRICAL RECTANGULAR FRAME


Left and right supports fixed, eaves joints pinned.
Left and right supports pinned, eaves joints fixed.
Eaves joints fixed, tie-rod at ground level.
Left and right supports fixed, eaves joints fixed.
Left and right supports pinned, eaves joints fixed.
Eeaves joints fixed, tie-rod at ground level.
Left and right supports fixed, eaves joints fixed.

nk045.ndf
nk046.ndf
nk047.ndf
nk048.ndf
nk049.ndf
nk050.ndf
nk051.ndf

RECTANGULAR FRAME WITH SUPPORTS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS


Left and right supports fixed, eaves joints pinned.
Left and right supports pinned, eaves joints fixed.
Tie-rod at ground level, eaves joints fixed.
Left and right supports fixed, eaves joints fixed.
Left supports fixed, right pinned, eaves joints fixed.
L. & R. supports pinned, eaves fixed, tie in middle.
L. & R. supports pinned, eaves fixed, tie in middle.

nk052.ndf
nk053.ndf
nk054.ndf
nk055.ndf
nk056.ndf
nk057.ndf
nk058.ndf
nk059.ndf
nk060.ndf

RIGID FRAME SHED WITH FIXED EAVE AND RIDGE


Left and right supports pinned.
Tie-rod at ground level.
Left and right supports pinned at different levels.
Left support fixed, right pinned, at different levels.
Left support fixed, right pinned at same level.
Left support pinned, right supp fixed at different levels.
Left support pinned, right support fixed at same levels.
Left and right supports fixed at different levels.
Left and right supports fixed at same level.

nk061.ndf
nk062.ndf
nk063.ndf
nk064.ndf
nk065.ndf
nk066.ndf
nk067.ndf

BENT
Left
Left
Left
Left
Left
Left
Left

nk068.ndf
nk069.ndf
nk070.ndf

RIGID FRAME SHED, FIXED


Left and right supports
Left and right supports
Left and right supports

WITH ONE SKEW CORNER, INSIDE JOINTS FIXED


and right supports pinned at different levels.
and right supports pinned at different levels.
support fixed, right support pinned at same level.
support fixed, right pinned at different levels.
support pinned, right fixed at different levels.
and right supports fixed at different levels.
and right supports fixed at same level.
JOINTS
pinned
pinned
pinned

AT EAVES & APEX


at same level.
with tie-rod.
with tie-rod between eaves.

List of NL-STRESS proformas.


Page: 8
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

nk071.ndf
nk072.ndf

Left and right supports fixed at same level.


Left and right supports fixed with tie-rod between eaves.

nk073.ndf
nk074.ndf
nk075.ndf

SYMMETRICAL TRAPEZOIDAL
Left and right supports
Left and right supports
Left and right supports

nk076.ndf
nk077.ndf
nk078.ndf
nk079.ndf
nk080.ndf
nk081.ndf

UNSYMMETRICAL TRAPEZOIDAL FRAME, JOINTS AT EAVES FIXED


Left and right supports pinned at different levels.
Left and right supports pinned with tie-rod at same level.
Left and right supports pinned at same level.
Left support pinned, rightfixed at different levels.
Left and right supports fixed at different levels.
Left and right supports fixed at same level.

nk082.ndf
nk083.ndf
nk084.ndf
nk085.ndf
nk086.ndf
nk087.ndf
nk088.ndf
nk089.ndf

TRAPEZOIDAL SHED FRAME WITH ONE VERTICAL COLUMN


Left and right supports pinned at different levels.
Left and right supports pinned with tie-rod at same level.
Left and right supports pinned at same level.
Left supports pinned, right support fixed at diff. levels.
Left supports pinned, right support fixed at diff. levels.
Left and right support fixed at different levels.
Left and right supports fixed at same level.
Left supports pinned, right support fixed at diff. levels.

nk090.ndf
nk091.ndf
nk092.ndf
nk093.ndf

SYMMETRICAL GABLE FRAME, VERTICAL LEGS, FIXED EAVES & APEX


Left and right supports pinned, with tie-rod.
Left and right supports pinned, with tie-rod between eaves.
Left and right supports fixed.
Left and right supports fixed, with tie-rod.

nk094.ndf
nk095.ndf
nk096.ndf
nk097.ndf
nk098.ndf

GABLE FRAME WITH INCLINED LEGS, FIXED JOINTS AT EAVES & APEX
Left and right supports pinned.
Left and right supports pinned, with tie-rod.
Left and right supports pinned, with tie-rod between eaves.
Left and right supports fixed.
Left and right supports fixed, with tie-rod between eaves.

nk099.ndf
nk100.ndf
nk101.ndf

SYMMETRICAL BENT WITH SKEW CORNERS, FIXED AT RIDGE & EAVES


Left and right supports pinned.
Left and right supports pinned, tie-rod at ground level.
Left and right supports fixed.

nk102.ndf
nk103.ndf
nk104.ndf
nk105.ndf

SYMMETRICAL BENT WITH PARABOLIC GIRDER, FIXED AT EAVES


Left and right supports pinned.
Left and right supports pinned, tie-rod at ground level.
Left and right supports pinned, tie rod at eaves level.
Left and right supports fixed.

nk106.ndf
nk107.ndf
nk108.ndf

SYMMETRICAL VIERENDEEL FRAME, EXTERNALLY SIMPLY SUPPORTED


Left and right supports pinned, top & bottom different.
Left and right supports pinned, square, same all members.
Left and right supports pinned, all members different.

nk109.ndf
nk110.ndf

SYMMETRICAL VIERENDEEL FRAME, ON ELASTIC FOUNDATION


Properties of verticals the same, horizontals different.
All section properties are the same.

FRAME, JOINTS AT EAVES FIXED


pinned at same level.
pinned with tie-rod at same level.
fixed at same level.

List of NL-STRESS proformas.


Page: 9
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

nk111.ndf
nk112.ndf
nk113.ndf

CLOSED TRIANGULAR RIGID


Left and right supports
Left and right supports
Left and right supports

FRAME
pinned, unsymmetrical shape.
pinned, symmetrical shape.
pinned, equilateral shape.

nk114.ndf
nk115.ndf
nk116.ndf
nk117.ndf

SQUARE OR RECTANGULAR FRAME, SUBJECTED TO INTERNAL PRESSURE


Different section properties for verticals & horizontals.
As for frame 114 with central vertical tie-rod.
As for frame 114 with two vertical tie-rods.
As for frame 114 with central vertical & horizontal tie-rods.
PARAMETRIC DATA FILES
A file of data for the analysis of a structural framework
in which the data has been written parametrically i.e. the
geometric, loading & material properties are given as
parameters, is referred to as a Parametric Data File. To
run a parametric data file, the engineer need only click on
one in the following list, then click Continue. To edit the
parameters, click Edit instead of Continue, type replacement
values for typically 10-20 parameters, click End & Continue.

pf01.ndf
pf02.ndf
pf03.ndf
pf04.ndf
pf05.ndf
pf06.ndf
pf07.ndf
pf08.ndf
pf09.ndf
pf10.ndf
pf11.ndf
pf12.ndf
pf13.ndf
pf14.ndf
pf15.ndf
pf16.ndf
pf17.ndf
pf18.ndf
pf19.ndf
pf20.ndf
pf21.ndf
pf22.ndf
pf23.ndf
pf24.ndf
pf25.ndf
pf26.ndf
pf27.ndf
pf28.ndf
pf29.ndf

PLANE FRAME PARAMETRIC DATA FILES


Cantilever beam, parametric data, NL-STRESS editor.
As pf01 with inclined supps & use of syntax diagrams.
As pf01 including diagrams & calculations.
Multi-storey frames.
Natural frequency calculation.
Influence lines by Muller-Breslau method.
Influence lines by PRINT COLLECTION command.
Curved beams introducing functions.
Coupled shear walls - up to 100 storeys.
Continuous beams.
Subframes - beams with columns below and above.
Including post processing in an NL-STRESS data file.
Overview of the stiffness method.
Data preparation of large structures by substructures.
Thermal strains.
Member eccentricities and end joint sizes.
Overlapping members and scissors.
Prestressed continuous beams - load balancing method.
Ground beam on elastic piles subjected to load train.
Box culvert.
Loads on piles in groups.
Circular/parabolic arches.
Pipe-tree racks.
Bents and pipe racks.
Two member lean-to or Mansard beam.
Three member lean-to or Mansard beam.
Dogleg or cranked beam.
Vierendeel girder.
Ground beam on elastic piles.

gr01.ndf
gr02.ndf
gr03.ndf

PLANE GRID PARAMETRIC DATA FILES


Bow girder introducing PLANE GRIDS.
Ground slab with loads from racks.
Pseudo slab bridges.

List of NL-STRESS proformas.


Page: 10
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

gr04.ndf

Timber floor panel.

fe01.ndf
fe02.ndf
fe03.ndf
fe04.ndf
fe05.ndf
fe06.ndf
fe07.ndf
fe08.ndf
fe09.ndf
fe10.ndf
fe11.ndf
fe12.ndf
fe13.ndf
fe14.ndf
fe15.ndf
fe16.ndf
fe17.ndf
fe18.ndf
fe19.ndf
fe20.ndf

FINITE ELEMENT PARAMETRIC DATA FILES


Finite element method for plates in flexure.
Finite element method for plates in extension.
Finite element for plates in extension & flexure.
Plate/wall with hole/window in extension.
Floor slab with opening, various boundary conditions.
Spiral stairs - folded steel plate.
Rectangular tanks.
Setting openings and stiffeners in plates and walls.
Boxbeam with side cantilevers.
Circular hopper.
Circular chimney.
Circular balcony - plate with opening.
Barrel vault roof.
Rings and pipes.
Spherical dome.
Angle in bending and torsion.
Channel in bending and torsion.
I section in bending and torsion.
T section in bending and torsion.
Flat slab subframe.

sf01.ndf
sf02.ndf
sf03.ndf
sf04.ndf
sf05.ndf
sf06.ndf
sf07.ndf
sf08.ndf
sf09.ndf
sf10.ndf

SPACE FRAME PARAMETRIC DATA FILES


3D multi-storey frames.
Circular tanks.
Space structures - square on square example.
Shear (flexural) centre.
Conical roof.
Orange segment roof truss.
Spiral stair - reinforced concrete.
Temporary works - column outriggers.
Dynamical behaviour of 3D multi-storey frame.
Cantilever stair with 2 curved flights & quarter landing.

rf01.ndf
rf02.ndf
rf03.ndf
rf04.ndf
rf05.ndf
rf06.ndf
rf07.ndf
rf08.ndf
rf09.ndf
rf10.ndf
rf11.ndf
rf12.ndf
rf13.ndf
rf14.ndf
rf15.ndf
rf16.ndf
rf17.ndf
rf18.ndf

ROOF FRAME/TRUSS PARAMETRIC DATA FILES


N/Pratt lattice girder/portal - end diagonals in tension.
Howe lattice girder/portal - end diagonals in compression.
Warren lattice girder/portal - end diagonals in tension.
Warren lattice girder/portal - end diags in compression.
Portal frame/s without haunches.
Portal frame/s with haunches.
Gangnail roof truss.
Attic room roof truss.
Collar-tie roof truss.
Collar-and-tie roof truss.
Couple roof truss.
Couple-close roof truss.
Fink roof truss.
King post roof truss.
Queen post roof truss.
Mansard roof truss.
Tied-Mansard roof truss.
Plane/pitched Vierendeel roof truss.

sw01.ndf

SWAY & WITHIN MEMBER STABILITY


Longitudinal deflection of cantilever with lateral load.

List of NL-STRESS proformas.


Page: 11
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

sw02.ndf
sw03.ndf
sw04.ndf
sw05.ndf
sw06.ndf
sw07.ndf
sw08.ndf
sw09.ndf
sw10.ndf
sw11.ndf
sw12.ndf
sw13.ndf
sw14.ndf
sw15.ndf
sw16.ndf
sw17.ndf
sw18.ndf
sw19.ndf
sw20.ndf
sw21.ndf

Elastic critical load (E.c.l.) - end loaded columns.


E.c.l. - end & distributed loaded columns.
E.c.l. - piles with lateral restaint pressure.
E.c.l. - circular ring with lateral pressure.
E.c.l. - circular arch.
E.c.l. - rectangular beam under pure bending.
E.c.l. - narrow rectangular cantilever beam.
E.c.l. - narrow rectangular beam, centre load.
E.c.l. - I beam under pure bending.
E.c.l. - cantilever I beam with end load.
E.c.l. - I beam with centre point load.
E.c.l. - rectangular plate - all edges simply supported.
E.c.l. - rectangular plate - all edges clamped.
E.c.l. - short edges simply supported long clamped.
E.c.l. - one long edge free others simply supported.
E.c.l. - short edges s.s. one long clamped other free.
E.c.l. - short edges clamped others simply supported.
Non-linear analysis - the DIRECTION command.
Non-linear analysis of wall with window - in extension.
Column subjected to axial load and lateral restraint.
BENCHMARKS
Benchmarks are a collection of examples taken from
engineering textbooks & periodicals. Embedded in the data
file for each example, is part of the results, so that after
the benchmark is run the printed results may be checked. To
run a benchmark, the engineer need only click on one in the
following list, then click Continue.

bm01.bmk
bm02.bmk

TIMING BENCHMARKS
Plane frame with 27 joints, 38 members & 2 load cases.
Space frame with 66 joints, 99 members & 1 load case.

dt01.bmk
dt02.bmk
dt03.bmk
dt04.bmk
dt05.bmk
dt06.bmk
dt07.bmk
dt08.bmk
dt09.bmk
dt10.bmk

DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORT - HECB BENCHMARKS


Plane truss with varying relative stiffness.
Plane frame with displaced supports.
Plane frame problem 2.
Encastre segmental arch rib.
Grillage with applied displacements & elastic supports.
Grillage with shear deformation.
Skew deck of orthogonal grillage.
Circular-arc bow girder.
Space truss.
Space frame with varying stiffnesses & displaced supports.

dy01.bmk
dy02.bmk
dy03.bmk
dy04.bmk
dy05.bmk
dy06.bmk
dy07.bmk
dy08.bmk
dy09.bmk

DYNAMICAL BEHAVIOUR BENCHMARKS


Ex. from Fig 3.2, Warburton 1964.
Ex. from Table 12.2, Steel Designers' Manual 1992.
Ex. from Table 12.2, Steel Designers' Manual 1992.
Nat. freq. for point loads, Dunkerley method Ryder, 1957.
Nat. freq. example 10.3-2 Coates et al. 1988.
Nat. freq. example in Fig 4.8, Warburton 1964.
Nat. freq. example problem 1 in Chapter 1, Warburton 1964.
Nat. freq. example problem 7 in Chapter 15, Ryder 1957.
Nat. freq. grid cl.12.15, Steel Designers' Manual 1992.

fe01.bmk

FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS BENCHMARKS


Plate in flexure, Yettram & Husain 1965.

List of NL-STRESS proformas.


Page: 12
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

fe02.bmk
fe03.bmk
fe04.bmk
fe05.bmk
fe06.bmk
fe07.bmk
fe08.bmk
fe09.bmk
fe10.bmk
fe11.bmk
fe12.bmk
fe13.bmk
fe14.bmk
fe15.bmk
fe16.bmk
fe17.bmk
fe18.bmk
fe19.bmk
fe20.bmk

Plate in extension, Yettram & Husain 1966.


Plates in extension & flexure, Yettram & Husain 1965/66.
Folded plate, Figure 8.13, Rockey et al. 1983.
Torisphere with central hole.
Edge supported plate with only four elements.
Edge supported plate with sixty four elements.
Example Fig. 5.5, Rockey et al. 1983.
Example Fig. 6.3, Rockey et al.
Simply supported circular plate with UDL, Roark 1965.
Rectangular plate with UDL, Timoshenko et al. 1959.
RHS as fe03.bmk with span:depth ratio increased to 8:1.
Rect. plate with one free edge, Timoshenko et al. 1959.
Built-in rectangular plate, Timoshenko et al.
Channel section with destabilising end load, Roark 1965.
Circular shell from Fig 265, Timoshenko et al.
Circ. concrete tank from Fig 246, Timoshenko et al.
Modelling of element in extension & sign conventions.
Modelling of element in flexure & sign conventions.
Modelling of element in combined extension & flexure.

gr01.bmk
gr02.bmk
gr03.bmk
gr04.bmk
gr05.bmk

PLANE GRID BENCHMARKS


Bridge deck example, C&CA 1972.
Foundation raft, Sawko 1972.
Authentic bridge deck provided by Dr R. C. Slater.
Curved balcony member from Design Ex. 6, SCI 2001.
Member stresses for sections defined by props or geometry.

pf01.bmk
pf02.bmk
pf03.bmk
pf04.bmk
pf05.bmk
pf06.bmk
pf07.bmk
pf08.bmk
pf09.bmk
pf10.bmk
pf11.bmk
pf12.bmk
pf13.bmk
pf14.bmk
pf15.bmk
pf16.bmk
pf17.bmk
pf18.bmk
pf19.bmk
pf20.bmk

PLANE FRAME BENCHMARKS


Shear wall, MacLeod April, 1966.
Box culvert.
Influence lines by Muller-Breslau, Coates et al. 1988.
Natural frequency determination, McMinn 1962.
Prestressed continuous beam, Lin 1963.
Shear deformation - Ex. 6.7-1 by Coates et al.
Member loads - Example 6.7-2 by Coates et al.
Symmetry - Example 6.10-1 by Coates et al.
Looping example, Problem 6.1 by Coates et al.
Looping across tables - Pr. 6.2 Coates et al.
Springs at supports - Pr. 7.18 by Coates et al.
Applied moments - Problem 8.5 by Coates et al.
DIAGRAMS example - Pr. 6.14 by Coates et al.
Propping force - Problem 6.16 by Coates et al.
Member distortions - Pr. 4.15 by Coates et al.
Temperature, self weights, length coefficients example.
Curved member, Design example 6, BCC 842, SCI 2001.
Temperature gradient, example from Emkin et al. 1977.
Stresses for sections defined by properties or geometry.
Member properties given by: AS other member properties.

pl01.bmk
pl02.bmk
pl03.bmk
pl04.bmk
pl05.bmk
pl06.bmk
pl07.bmk
pl08.bmk

PLASTIC ANALYSIS BENCHMARKS


Single bay portal frame, Morris & Randall, 1977.
Two storey frame, Horne & Merchant, Fig 5.14, 1965.
Plastic grillage, Example 1.0, Morris & Randall, 1977
Elastic-plastic analysis of compression members.
Reversing plastic hinge example.
Built-in beam, Example 1.1, Morris & Randall.
Propped cantilever, Example 1.2, Morris & Randall.
Two span beam, Example 2.1, Morris & Randall.

List of NL-STRESS proformas.


Page: 13
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

pl09.bmk
pl10.bmk
pl11.bmk
pl12.bmk
pl13.bmk
pl14.bmk
pl15.bmk
pl16.bmk
pl17.bmk
pl18.bmk
pl19.bmk
pl20.bmk
pl21.bmk

Three span beam, Example 2.3, Morris & Randall.


Single ridged portal, Example 4.4, Morris & Randall.
Two bay ridged portal, Ex. 4.7, Morris & Randall.
Multi-storey frame, Example 6.2, Morris & Randall.
Test order of formation of plastic hinges.
Portal frame with out of plane loading.
Space frame - ring beam supported on RHS columns.
Example 14.6-1 from Coates et al. 1988.
Rect. portal, Example 14.6-4 from Coates et al. 1988.
Non-symmetric portal, Ex. 14.6-5 from Coates et al.
Non-symm. 2 bay portal, Ex. 14.7-1 from Coates et al.
Two storey portal, Example 14.7-2 from Coates et al.
Collapse load factor, Ex. 14.8-1 from Coates et al.

pt01.bmk
pt02.bmk
pt03.bmk
pt04.bmk
pt05.bmk
pt06.bmk
pt07.bmk
pt08.bmk
pt09.bmk
pt10.bmk

PLANE TRUSS BENCHMARKS


Ex. 20, Gennaro, Computer Methods in Solid Mechanics 1965.
Example 22, Gennaro.
Chapter 4 Problem 1, Gennaro.
Chapter 4 Problem 4, Gennaro.
Chapter 4 Problem 13, Gennaro.
Example 31, Gennaro.
Example 32, Gennaro.
Example 33, Gennaro.
Example 34, Gennaro.
Example 4.10, Grassie.

sf01.bmk
sf02.bmk
sf03.bmk
sf04.bmk
sf05.bmk
sf06.bmk
sf07.bmk
sf08.bmk
sf09.bmk
sf10.bmk
sf11.bmk
sf12.bmk
sf13.bmk
sf14.bmk
sf15.bmk
sf16.bmk
sf17.bmk

SPACE FRAME BENCHMARKS


Cantilever stair.
Guide dolphin.
Example in Figure 3-8, Weaver 1967.
Example in Figure 3-9, Weaver 1967.
Example from UCC symposium Nov 1972.
Tapered beams example - equivalent to rect. section.
Cantilever with various loadings, Steel Designers' Man 1966.
S.S. beam with various loadings, Steel Designers' Man. 1966.
Built-in beam with various loadings, Steel Des. Man. 1966.
Ring beam on T columns to show need for BETA angle.
Curved balcony member for SCI design example 6.
Curved balcony member from Design Ex. 6, SCI 2001.
Member distortions for cantilever or built-in beam.
Temperature gradient, Emkin et al. 1977.
Stresses for sections defined by properties or geometry.
Rectangular/ridged haunched portal frame.
Isection tapered in two directions with Eurocode 3 axes.

sw01.bmk
sw02.bmk
sw03.bmk
sw04.bmk
sw05.bmk
sw06.bmk
sw07.bmk
sw08.bmk
sw09.bmk
sw10.bmk
sw11.bmk
sw12.bmk

SWAY FRAME BENCHMARKS


Column with axial load, Figure 4.1, Horne & Morris 1981.
Column with axial load and lateral load.
Guyed mast analysis.
Two storey frame, Figure 5.14, Horne & Merchant 1965.
Lateral displacement of tip of end loaded cantilever.
Suspension bridge, Chap. 13, Ex. 5, Pippard & Baker 1957.
Comparison between member end springs & pseudo springs.
Modelling imperfections by parabolic bow.
Example 9.11-1, Coates et al. 1988.
Problem 9.1, Coates et al.
Problem 9.2, Coates et al.
Problem 9.8, Coates et al.

List of NL-STRESS proformas.


Page: 14
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

sw13.bmk
sw14.bmk
sw15.bmk
sw16.bmk
sw17.bmk
sw18.bmk
sw19.bmk
sw20.bmk
sw21.bmk

Problem 9.9, Coates et al.


Problem 9.10, Coates et al.
Problem 9.11, Coates et al.
Problem 9.12, Coates et al.
Net, symmetrical loading, Elibiari et al., Nooshin 1984.
Net, unsymmetrical loading, Elibiari et al., Nooshin 1984.
Hyperbolic paraboloid net, Elibiari et al., Nooshin 1984.
Stable/unstable post-buckling behaviour, Coates et al. 1988.
Snap through - Problem 9.8-1, Coates et al. 1988.
PROFORMA DATA FILES
To run a proforma data file, the engineer need only click on
one in the following list, then click Edit and type numbers
to replace all question marks. When editing: pressing Insert
toggles between Insert/Overstrike; Ctrl+Y deletes the line
containing the cursor; Ctrl+N inserts another line at the
cursor position; Ctrl+U deletes to the right of the cursor.

cb01.ndf
cb02.ndf
cb03.ndf
cb04.ndf
cb05.ndf
cb06.ndf
cb07.ndf
cb08.ndf
cb09.ndf
cb10.ndf
cb11.ndf
cb12.ndf
cb13.ndf
cb14.ndf
cbp02.ndf
cbp03.ndf
cbp04.ndf
cbp05.ndf
cbp06.ndf
cbp07.ndf
cbp08.ndf
cbp09.ndf
cbp10.ndf
cbp11.ndf
cbp12.ndf
cbp13.ndf
cbp14.ndf

CONTINUOUS BEAM PROFORMAS


1 span beam with UDLs.
2 span beam with UDLs.
3 span beam with UDLs.
4 span beam with UDLs.
5 span beam with UDLs.
6 span beam with UDLs.
7 span beam with UDLs.
8 span beam with UDLs.
9 span beam with UDLs.
10 span beam with UDLs.
11 span beam with UDLs.
12 span beam with UDLs.
13 span beam with UDLs.
14 span beam with UDLs.
2 span beam with udls & point loads.
3 span beam with udls & point loads.
4 span beam with udls & point loads.
5 span beam with udls & point loads.
6 span beam with udls & point loads.
7 span beam with udls & point loads.
8 span beam with udls & point loads.
9 span beam with udls & point loads.
10 span beam with udls & point loads.
11 span beam with udls & point loads.
12 span beam with udls & point loads.
13 span beam with udls & point loads.
14 span beam with udls & point loads.

ms1x1.ndf
ms1x2.ndf
ms1x3.ndf
ms1x4.ndf
ms1x5.ndf
ms2x1.ndf
ms2x2.ndf
ms2x3.ndf
ms2x4.ndf

MULTI-STOREY PROFORMAS
1 bay x 1 storey.
1 bay x 2 storey.
1 bay x 3 storey.
1 bay x 4 storey.
1 bay x 5 storey.
2 bay x 1 storey.
2 bay x 2 storey.
2 bay x 3 storey.
2 bay x 4 storey.

List of NL-STRESS proformas.


Page: 15
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

ms2x5.ndf
ms2x6.ndf
ms2x7.ndf
ms2x8.ndf
ms2x9.ndf
ms3x1.ndf
ms3x2.ndf
ms3x3.ndf
ms3x4.ndf
ms3x5.ndf
ms4x1.ndf
ms4x2.ndf
ms4x3.ndf
ms4x4.ndf
ms4x5.ndf
ms5x1.ndf
ms5x2.ndf
ms5x3.ndf
ms5x4.ndf
ms5x5.ndf

2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5

bay
bay
bay
bay
bay
bay
bay
bay
bay
bay
bay
bay
bay
bay
bay
bay
bay
bay
bay
bay

x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x

5
6
7
8
9
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5
1
2
3
4
5

storey.
storey.
storey.
storey.
storey.
storey.
storey.
storey.
storey.
storey.
storey.
storey.
storey.
storey.
storey.
storey.
storey.
storey.
storey.
storey.

ng02.ndf
ng03.ndf
ng04.ndf
ng05.ndf
ng06.ndf
ng07.ndf
ng08.ndf

N
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

GIRDER PROFORMAS
bay N girder.
bay N girder.
bay N girder.
bay N girder.
bay N girder.
bay N girder.
bay N girder.

prt1.ndf
prt1h.ndf
prt1hh.ndf
prt2.ndf
prt2h.ndf
prt2h1.ndf
prt3.ndf
prt3h.ndf
prt3h1.ndf
prt4.ndf
prt4h.ndf
prt4h1.ndf
prt5h.ndf

PORTAL FRAME
1 bay portal
1 bay portal
1 bay portal
2 bay portal
2 bay portal
2 bay portal
3 bay portal
3 bay portal
3 bay portal
4 bay portal
4 bay portal
4 bay portal
5 bay portal

nls.ndf

NL-STRESS data file for any structure.

rtatt.ndf
rtfink.ndf
rtcl.ndf
rtct.ndf
rtcts.ndf
rtcp.ndf
rtcpc.ndf
rtking.ndf
rtqn.ndf
rtmans.ndf

ROOF TRUSS PROFORMAS


Attic room roof truss.
Fink roof truss.
Collar-tie roof truss.
Collar & tie roof truss.
Roof truss collar-and-tie sloping.
Roof truss couple.
Roof truss couple close.
King post roof truss.
Queen post roof truss.
Roof truss Mansard - steel.

PROFORMAS
frame.
frame with
frame with
frame.
frame with
frame with
frame.
frame with
frame with
frame.
frame with
frame with
frame with

haunches at eaves.
haunches at eaves and ridge.
haunches at eaves.
haunches at eaves & single ridge.
haunches at eaves.
haunches at eaves & single ridge.
haunches at eaves.
haunches at eaves & single ridge.
haunches at eaves.

List of NL-STRESS proformas.


Page: 16
Fitzroy Systems Ltd.
Made by: IF Brown
http://www.fitzroy.com/
Date: 02/04/14
email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240
Ref No: scalepdf

rtmant.ndf Roof truss Mansard - timber.


sub01.ndf
sub02.ndf
sub03.ndf
sub04.ndf
sub05.ndf
sub06.ndf
sub07.ndf
sub08.ndf
subh01.ndf
subh02.ndf
subh03.ndf
subh04.ndf
subh05.ndf
subh06.ndf
subh07.ndf
subh08.ndf

SUBFRAME PROFORMAS
1 bay subframe.
2 bay subframe.
3 bay subframe.
4 bay subframe.
5 bay subframe.
6 bay subframe.
7 bay subframe.
8 bay subframe.
1 bay half subframe.
2 bay half subframe.
3 bay half subframe.
4 bay half subframe.
5 bay half subframe.
6 bay half subframe.
7 bay half subframe.
8 bay half subframe.

wg02.ndf
wg03.ndf
wg04.ndf
wg05.ndf
wg06.ndf
wg07.ndf
wg08.ndf

WARREN GIRDER PROFORMAS


2 bay Warren girder.
3 bay Warren girder.
4 bay Warren girder.
5 bay Warren girder.
6 bay Warren girder.
7 bay Warren girder.
8 bay Warren girder.
NL-STRESS Parametric Models, Verified Models, NL-STRESS cf.
Kleinlogel, Parametric Data Files, Benchmarks and Proforma
Data Files are copyright Fitzroy Systems, published here in
electronic form and supplied on the basis that the limit of
liability of Fitzroy is the cost of goods supplied.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 073. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rect. beam: flexure, span/depth, curtailment, laps
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC073 BS

Office: 1007
Location: Example: small beam - high-yield steel - no compression steel
Bending in rectangular beams with optional calculations for shear,

lap lengths, bar curtailment & limiting span/effective depth ratio

Calculations are based on formulae


in Clause 3.4.4.4 of BS8110: Part 1
and thus assume the use of a simplified
rectangular concrete stress-block, and
that the depth to the neutral axis is
restricted to 0.5*d.

d' b

(o) (o)

A's

d h

As

o o o

Design to BS8110(1997) with partial safety factor for steel gammaS=1.15


Moment before redistribution
Mbef=12 kNm (ultimate value)
Beam being analysed is considered as non-continuous.
Characteristic concrete strength fcu=35 N/mm2
Max.aggregate size (for bar spc) hagg=15 mm
Char.strength of long'l bars
fy=500 N/mm2
Longitudinal reinforcement is high-yield steel.
Diameter of tension bars
dia=10 mm
Diameter of link legs
dial=8 mm
Char.strength of link steel
fyv=500 N/mm2
High-yield steel shear reinforcement.
Designed concrete mix to be used. Cover data from Tables A.4 & A.5 of
BS8500-1:2006.
Intended life of structure (for durability considerations) is 50 years.
Designated exposure class is XC1
Specified fixing tolerance
tol=10 mm
Chosen fire resistance period
fire=1 hours
From Table 3.4 of BS8110, minimum cover needed to all steel for simply
supported beam with a fire period of 1 hour/s is 20 mm.
Minimum nominal cover required to satisfy fire resistance
requirements may be reduced to 15 mm provided that nominal
maximum size of aggregate does not exceed 15 mm.
Minimum nominal cover to all steel is 25 mm
Nominal concrete cover
cover=25 mm
Overall depth of section
h=275 mm
Effective depth of section
d=237 mm
Breadth of section
b=200 mm
From Figure 3.2 of BS8110, minimum possible beam width complying
with a fire period of 1 hour/s is 200 mm
Breadth provided complies with fire regulations (Figure 3.2 of Code).
Longitudinal reinforcement

As Mbef=M, no redistribution has occurred.


Thus betab=1 and K'=0.156 [see Condition (b) in Clause 3.2.2.1].
Applied-moment factor
K=M*1000*1000/(b*d^2*fcu)
=12*1000*1000/(200*237^2*35)
=0.03052

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 073. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rect. beam: flexure, span/depth, curtailment, laps
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC073 BS

Office: 1007
As applied-moment factor K=0.03052 does not exceed resistance-moment
factor for concrete alone K'=0.156, no compression steel is needed,
and lever arm
z=d*(0.5+SQR(0.25-K/0.9))
=237*(0.5+SQR(0.25-0.03052/0.9))
=228.67 mm
but lever arm must not exceed
0.95*d=0.95*237 =225.15 mm
i.e. adopt lever arm of
z=225.15 mm
Area of tension steel required
As=M*1000*1000/(z*fy/gammaS)
=12*1000*1000/(225.15*500/1.15)
=122.58 mm2
Min.number of tension bars reqd. nbrtmn=2
Area of tension steel provided
Aspr=157.08 mm2 ( 2 No. 10 mm bars)
Tension steel provided
per=100*Aspr/(b*h)
=100*157.08/(200*275)
=0.2856 % of gross section.
Within specified limits of 0.13 % and 4%, so this is satisfactory.
Maximum clear distance allowed between tension bars according to
Clause 3.12.11.2.4 is given by cdist=47000*3*Aspr*betab/(2*fy*As)
=47000*3*157.08*1/(2*500*122.58)
=180.68 mm
which is satisfactory as it is less than 300 mm
Min.number of tension bars needed to meet bar-spacing requirements=2
TENSION
REINFORCEMENT
SUMMARY

Characteristic strength 500 N/mm2


Diameter of bars
10 mm
Number of bars
2
arranged in a single layer.
Cover to all steel
25 mm
Area of steel required
122.58 mm2
Area of steel provided
157.08 mm2
Percentage provided
0.2856 %
Weight of steel provided 1.2331 kg/m
Max.permissible spacing 180 mm
Link size assumed
8 mm

Check on span/effective depth ratio

Calculate redistribution ratio


btab=M/Mbef=12/12=1
Basic ratio for simp.-sup.beam
bs'd=20 see Table 3.9
Area of tension steel provided
Aspr=157.08 mm2
Service stress in this steel
fs=2*fy*As/(3*Asprx*btab)
=2*500*122.58/(3*157.08*1)
=260.13 N/mm2
As applied-moment factor
M'bd2=M*1000*1000/(b*d^2)
=12*1000*1000/(200*237^2)
=1.0682 N/mm2
Mod.factor for tension steel from
equation 7 (Table 3.10) modf1=0.55+(477-fs)/(120*(.9+M'bd2))
=0.55+(477-260.13)/(120*(.9+1.0682))
=1.4682
Mod.factor for no comp.steel
modf2=1
Maximum permissible
span/effective-depth ratio
ps'd=bs'd*modf1*modf2=20*1.4682*1
=29.364

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 073. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rect. beam: flexure, span/depth, curtailment, laps
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC073 BS

Office: 1007
Span of beam (see Cls.3.4.1.2-4) span=5 m
Actual span/effective-depth ratio as'd=1000*span/d=1000*5/237
=21.097
As this does not exceed
29.364, this is Acceptable.
Bending-moment capacities at steel curtailment points

As there are only two bars in tension, no curtailment is possible.


Anchorage and lap lengths - Clause 3.12.8 of BS8110: Part 1

Type 2 deformed bars: bond coefficient beta=0.50 (Table 3.26)


Tension reinforcement:
Force in tension bar at yield
Ft=fy/gammaS*PI*dia^2/4
=500/1.15*3.1416*10^2/4
=34148 N
Ultimate anchorage bond stress
fbu=beta*SQR(fcu)=0.5*SQR(35)
=2.958 N/mm2
Anchorage and tension lap length lap=Ft/(PI*dia*fbu)
=34148/(3.1416*10*2.958)
=367.46 mm
=370 mm (rounded)
1.4 * tension lap length
=520 mm (rounded)
2 * tension lap length
=740 mm (rounded)
Shear reinforcement

Shear calculations are in


accordance with Clauses 3.4.5
of Code

Support
:
av Design section

Location for shear calculation:


0.25 m from support
Effective breadth for shear
bv=200 mm
Shear force due to ultimate load V=100 kN
Distance from support
av=250 mm
No.of tension bars effective at section nbars=2
Area of eff.longitudinal bars
As=nbars*PI*dias^2/4=2*3.1416*10^2/4
=157.08 mm2
Percentage of longitudinal steel per=100*As/(bv*d)
=100*157.08/(200*237)
=0.33139 %
Clause 3.4.5.2 limits the maximum shearing stress to 0.8fcu N/mm2
and thus limiting shear stress
vlim=0.8*SQR(fcu)=0.8*SQR(35)
=4.7329 N/mm2
Now using the formula given in Note 2 below Table 3.8, with f00d=400/d
and pcnt=100*As/(bv*d),
Design shear stress in concrete
vc=0.79*pcnt^(1/3)*f00d^.25/1.25
=0.79*0.33139^(1/3)*1.6878^.25/1.25
=0.49849 N/mm2
As characteristic concrete strength exceeds 25 N/mm2
therefore increase vc according to footnote in Table 3.8

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 073. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rect. beam: flexure, span/depth, curtailment, laps
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC073 BS

Office: 1007
Modified design shear stress
vc=vc*(fcu/25)^(1/3)
=0.49849*(35/25)^(1/3)
=0.55766 N/mm2
Shear enhancement is ignored so
vc=0.55766 N/mm2
Design shear stress
v=V*1000/(bv*d)=100*1000/(200*237)
=2.1097 N/mm2
Number of legs to be provided
nlegs=2
Total leg area
Asv=nlegs*(PI*dialr^2/4)
=2*(3.1416*8^2/4)
=100.53 mm2
As v ( 2.1097 N/mm2 ) exceeds (vc+0.4) ( 0.95766 N/mm2 )
maximum spacing of links
sv=fyv/gammaS*Asv/(bv*(v-vc))
=500/1.15*100.53/(200*(2.1097
-0.55766))
=140.81 mm
=140 mm (rounded)
Chosen link spacing
sv'=140 mm
Use 8 mm links (two legs), spaced at 140 mm centres along beam.
Resistance provided by links alone vs=1.561 N/mm2
As this exceeds 0.4 N/mm2, shear reinforcement exceeds nominal.
SHEAR
REINFORCEMENT
SUMMARY

Characteristic strength
Diameter of links
Number of legs
Spacing
Approx.weight of links

500 N/mm2
8 mm
2
140 mm
2.1588 kg/m
No 73

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 073. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rect. beam: flexure, span/depth, curtailment, laps
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC073 EC

Office: 1007
Location: Ex1 - Beam with compression reinforcement
Bending in rectangular beams

d2

(o) (o)

As2

d h

As

o o o

Calculations are based on EN1992-1-1:2004


Eurocode 2:Design of concrete structures
and assume the use of a simplified
rectangular concrete stress-block, and
that the depth to the neutral axis is
restricted to 0.45*d.

Loading

Design BM before redistribution


Mbef=150 kNm
Beam being analysed is considered as non-continuous.
Materials

Char cylinder compress strength


Char yield strength of reinft
Max.aggregate size (for bar spc.)
Diameter of tension bars
Diameter of link legs

fck=30 N/mm2 (concrete)


fyk=500 N/mm2
hagg=20 mm
dia=25 mm
dial=8 mm

Durability and cover to reinforcement

Life of structure
50 years
Exposure class
XC1
Designed concrete
C 30 /37
Minimum cover
covern=30 mm
Fixing tolerance
tol=10 mm
Nominal cover (Cl. 4.4.1.1(2))
cover=40 mm
Section properties

Overall depth of section


Effective depth of section
Breadth of section
Main reinforcement

Partial safety factor for steel


Char yield strength of reinft.
Partial safety factor for conc.
Char cylinder compress strength
Design yield strength of reinft.
It is usual practice in the UK to
Limit on factor
Factor
Factor

h=400 mm
d=340 mm
b=250 mm

gams=1.15
fyk=fy=500 N/mm2
gamc=1.5
fck=30 N/mm2 (concrete)
fyd=fyk/gams=500/1.15=434.8 N/mm2
restrict x/d to 0.45
delta=0.85
K'=0.597*delta-0.18*delta^2-0.209
=0.597*0.85-0.18*0.85^2-0.209
=0.1684
K=M*1E6/(b*d^2*fck)
=150*1E6/(250*340^2*30)
=0.173

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 073. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rect. beam: flexure, span/depth, curtailment, laps
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC073 EC

Office: 1007
Lever arm
z=d/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*K'))
=340/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*0.1684))
=278.3 mm
Depth to neutral axis
x=2.5*(d-z)=2.5*(340-278.3)
=154.3 mm
Diameter of compression bars
diac=12 mm
Depth to compression steel
d2=45 mm
Stress
fsc=700*(x-d2)/x=700*(154.3-45)/154.3
=495.8 N/mm2
Limit fsc to fyd
fsc=fyd=434.8 N/mm2
Area of comp.steel required
As2=(K-K')*fck*b*d^2/(fsc*(d-d2))
=(0.173-0.1684)*30*250*340^2
/(434.8*(340-45))
=31.16 mm2
Tension reinforcement
As=K'*fck*b*d^2/(fyd*z)+As2*fsc/fyd
=0.1684*30*250*340^2/(434.8*278.3)
+31.16*434.8/434.8
=1238 mm2
Mean width of the tension zone
bt=bw=250 mm
Mean value axial tensile strength fctm=0.3*fck^(2/3)=0.3*30^(2/3)
=2.896 N/mm2
Minimum reinforcement required
Asmin=0.26*fctm*bt*d/fyk
=0.26*2.896*250*340/500
=128 mm2
Minimum compression steel
As2min=0.002*b*h=0.002*250*400
=200 mm2
Revised compression steel area
As2=As2min=200 mm2
Breadth of section
bw=250 mm
Maximum reinforcement permitted
Asmax=0.04*bw*h=0.04*250*400
=4000 mm2
Percentage area steel required
rho=100*As/(bw*d)=100*1238/(250*340)
=1.456 %
Number of tension bars required
nbart=INT(As/(PI*dia^2/4))+1
=INT(1238/(3.142*25^2/4))+1
=3
Area of tension steel provided
Aspr=nbart*PI*dia^2/4=3*3.142*25^2/4
=1473 mm2
Number of compression bars
nbarc=INT(As2/(PI*diac^2/4))+1
=INT(200/(3.142*12^2/4))+1
=2
Area of compression steel
Asprc=nbarc*PI*diac^2/4
=2*3.142*12^2/4
=226.2 mm2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 073. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rect. beam: flexure, span/depth, curtailment, laps
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC073 EC

Office: 1007
DESIGN
SUMMARY
FLEXURE
TENSION REINFORCEMENT

COMPRESSION REINFORCEMENT

Overall depth
Effective depth
Width of section
Parameter K
Parameter K'
Lever arm ratio z/d
Steel area provided
Diameter of bars
Number of bars
Steel area required
Steel percentage req.
Minimum area of steel
Maximum area of steel
Steel area provided
Diameter of bars
Number of bars
Steel area required
Minimum area required

400 mm
340 mm
250 mm
0.173
0.1684
0.8185
1473 mm2
25 mm
3
1238 mm2
1.456 %
128 mm2
4000 mm2
226.2 mm2
12 mm
2
31.16 mm2
200 mm2

Spacing of bars - tension reinforcement

Clear spacing between bars


clearm=hagg+5=20+5=25 mm
Modified clear spacing
clearm=dia+1=25+1=26 mm
Minimum spacing (sagging moment) clearm=26 mm
compute
comp1=(b-2*(cover+dial)-nbart*dia)
=(250-2*(40+8)-3*25)
=79
compute
comp2=(nbart-1)=(3-1)=2
Clear spacing
clear=comp1/comp2=79/2=39.5 mm
Spacing of bars - compression reinforcement

Minimum spacing (sagging moment) clearm=75 mm


compute
comp1=(b-2*(cover+dial)-nbarc*diac)
=(250-2*(40+8)-2*12)
=130
compute
comp2=(nbarc-1)=(2-1)=1
Clear spacing
clear=comp1/comp2=130/1=130 mm
Deflection check

Effective span of beam


Actual span to depth ratio

L=5.4 m
l'd=L*1000/d=5.4*1000/340
=15.88
Percentage compression steel
rho'=100*As2/(b*d)
=100*31.16/(250*340)
=0.0367 %
Reference reinforcement ratio
rho0=(fck^0.5)/10=(30^0.5)/10
=0.5477 %
Basic span effective depth ratio terms (Clause 7.4.2)
N1=1.5*(fck^0.5)*rho0/(rho-rho')
=1.5*(30^0.5)*0.5477/(1.456-0.0367)
=3.17
N2=1/12*(fck^0.5)*(rho'/rho0)^0.5
=1/12*(30^0.5)*(0.0367/0.5477)^0.5
=0.1181

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 073. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rect. beam: flexure, span/depth, curtailment, laps
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC073 EC

Office: 1007
N=11+N1+N2=11+3.17+0.1181
=14.29
Factor for simply supported spans k=1.0
Flange beam factor
F1=1
Factor for long spans
F2=1.0
Tensile steel stress factor
F3=500/(fyk*As/Aspr)
=500/(500*1238/1473)
=1.19 (conservative)
Allowable span/depth ratio
l'da=k*N*F1*F2*F3=1*14.29*1*1*1.19
=17
DESIGN
SUMMARY
DEFLECTION

Shear check

Location for shear calculation:


Shear force due to ultimate load
Effective breadth for shear
Maximum concrete strut capacity
Percentage compression steel
Design shear stress
Strength reduction factor
Concrete strut capacity
Term for angle theta
Ratio shear area to spacing
Minimum ratio area to spacing
Number of shear legs
Area of shear legs
Spacing of links
Maximum spacing limited
Chosen spacing

Actual l/d ratio


Basic l/d ratio
Span factor
Flange beam factor F1
Long spans factor F2
Steel stress factor F3
Allowable l/d ratio

15.88
14.29
1
1
1
1.19
17

At simple support
VEd=110 kN
bw=b=250 mm
VRdm=0.2*fck*(1-fck/250)*bw*d/10^3
=0.2*30*(1-30/250)*250*340/10^3
=448.8 kN
rho'=100*As2/(bw*d)=100*200/(250*340)
=0.2353 %
vEd=VEd*10^3/(0.9*bw*d)
=110*10^3/(0.9*250*340)
=1.438 N/mm2
v=0.6*(1-fck/250)=0.6*(1-30/250)
=0.528 N/mm2
vRdm=0.138*fck*(1-fck/250)
=0.138*30*(1-30/250)
=3.643 N/mm2
Asw's=vEd*bw/(fyd*2.5)
=1.438*250/(434.8*2.5)
=0.3307
Aswm=0.08*bw*fck^0.5/fy
=0.08*250*30^0.5/500
=0.2191
nsl=2
Asw=nsl*PI/4*dial^2=2*3.142/4*8^2
=100.5 mm2
smax=INT(Asw/Asw's)=INT(100.5/0.3307)
=303 mm
smax=0.75*d=0.75*340=255 mm
s=250 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 073. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rect. beam: flexure, span/depth, curtailment, laps
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC073 EC

Office: 1007
SHEAR SUMMARY
Shear force
110 kN
Design shear strength
1.438 N/mm2
Concrete strut capacity 3.643 N/mm2
Area/spacing ratio
0.3307
Diameter of links
8 mm
Area of links
100 mm2
Maximum spacing
255 mm
(based on 0.75d)
Actual spacing
250 mm
No 73

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 075. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Tee beam - flexure, span/depth check
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC075 BS

Office: 1007
Location: Example: small beam - high-yield steel - no compression steel
Bending in flanged beams with optional calculations for shear, lap

lengths, bar curtailment and limiting span/effective-depth ratio

d' b

Calculations are based on formulae
hf
(o)(o)

in Clause 3.4.4.4 of BS8110: Part 1
A's
and thus assume the use of a simplified

d h
rectangular concrete stress-block, and
As

that the depth to the neutral axis is
o o

restricted to 0.5*d.

bw
Design to BS8110(1997) with partial safety factor for steel gammaS=1.15
Moment before redistribution
Mbef=12 kNm (ultimate value)
Beam being analysed is considered as non-continuous.
Characteristic concrete strength fcu=35 N/mm2
Max.aggregate size (for bar spc) hagg=15 mm
Char.strength of long'l bars
fy=500 N/mm2
Longitudinal reinforcement is high-yield steel.
Diameter of tension bars
dia=12 mm
Char.strength of link steel
fyv=500 N/mm2
Diameter of link legs
dial=6 mm
High-yield steel shear reinforcement.
Designed concrete mix to be used. Cover data from Tables A.4 & A.5 of
BS8500-1:2006.
Intended life of structure (for durability considerations) is 50 years.
Designated exposure class is XC1
Specified fixing tolerance
tol=10 mm
Chosen fire resistance period
fire=1 hours
From Table 3.4 of BS8110, minimum cover needed to all steel for simply
supported beam with a fire period of 1 hour/s is 20 mm
Minimum nominal cover required to satisfy fire resistance
requirements may be reduced to 15 mm provided that nominal
maximum size of aggregate does not exceed 15 mm.
Minimum nominal cover to all steel is 25 mm
Nominal concrete cover
cover=25 mm
Overall depth of section
h=275 mm
Effective depth of section
d=238 mm
Breadth of flange
b=400 mm
Breadth of rib
bw=200 mm
Thickness of flange
hf=100 mm
From Figure 3.2 of BS8110, minimum possible beam width complying
with a fire period of 1 hour/s is 200 mm
Breadth provided complies with fire regulations (Figure 3.2 of Code).

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 075. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Tee beam - flexure, span/depth check
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC075 BS

Office: 1007
Longitudinal reinforcement

As Mbef=M, no redistribution has occurred.


Thus redistribution ratio betab=1
xmax=0.5*d=119 mm and K'=0.156 [Condition (b) in Clause 3.2.2.1].
Max.depth of conc.stress-block
dpmax=0.9*xmax=0.9*119=107.1 mm
As max.depth of stress-block of 107.1 mm exceeds flange thickness of
100 mm, stress-block may extend below flange: check resistance moment.
Moment capacity of flange alone

Mfl=b*hf*0.45*fcu*(d-hf/2)/1000000
=400*100*0.45*35*(238-100/2)
/1000000
=118.44 kNm
As this exceeds M, lower edge of stress-block does not fall below
underside of flange and section may be designed as a rectangular beam.
Applied-moment factor
K=M*1000*1000/(b*d^2*fcu)
=12*1000*1000/(400*238^2*35)
=0.015132
As this does not exceed the resistance-moment factor K' ( 0.156 ),
no compression steel is required.
and lever arm
z=d*(0.5+SQR(0.25-K/0.9))
=238*(0.5+SQR(0.25-0.015132/0.9))
=233.93 mm
but this must not exceed 0.95*d = 0.95*238 =226.1 mm,
so make
z=226.1 mm
Area of tension steel required
As=M*1000*1000/(z*fy/gammaS)
=12*1000*1000/(226.1*500/1.15)
=122.07 mm2
Min.number of tension bars reqd. nbrtmn=2
Area of tension steel provided
Aspr=226.19 mm2 ( 2 No. 12 mm bars)
Tension steel provided per0=100*Aspr/(b*hf+bw*(h-hf))
=100*226.19/(400*100+200*(275-100))
=0.30159 % of gross section.
As this does not exceed 4% (see Clause 3.12.6.1), the design is O.K.
Percentage of tension steel provided per=100*Aspr/(bw*h)
=100*226.19/(200*275)
=0.41126 % of web area.
As this is not less than minimum of 0.13 %, the design is O.K.
Maximum clear distance allowed between tension bars according to
Clause 3.12.11.2.4 is given by
cdist=47000*3*Aspr*betab/(2*fy*As)
=47000*3*226.19*1/(2*500*122.07)
=261.27 mm
which is satisfactory as it is less than 300 mm
Min.number of tension bars needed to meet bar-spacing requirements=2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 075. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Tee beam - flexure, span/depth check
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC075 BS

Office: 1007
TENSION
REINFORCEMENT
SUMMARY

Characteristic strength 500 N/mm2


Diameter of bars
12 mm
Number of bars
2
arranged in a single layer
Cover to all steel
25 mm
Area of steel required
122.07 mm2
Area of steel provided
226.19 mm2
Percentage provided:
of gross section
0.30159 %
of web area
0.41126 %
Weight of steel provided 1.7756 kg/m
Max.permissible spacing 261 mm
Link size assumed
6 mm

Check on span/effective-depth ratio

Calculate redistribution ratio


btab=M/Mbef=12/12=1
Ratio of web width/flange width
bw'b=bw/b=200/400=0.5
Interpolating from Table 3.9 with bw/b=0.5
Basic ratio for simply-sup.span
bs'd=17.143
Area of tension steel provided
Aspr=226.19 mm2
Service stress in this steel
fs=2*fy*As/(3*Asprx*btab)
=2*500*122.07/(3*226.19*1)
=179.89 N/mm2
As applied-moment factor
M'bd2=M*1000*1000/(b*d^2)
=12*1000*1000/(400*238^2)
=0.52962 N/mm2
Mod.factor for tension steel from
equation 7 (Table 3.10) modf1=0.55+(477-fs)/(120*(.9+M'bd2))
=0.55+(477-179.89)/(120*(.9+0.52962))
=2.2819
but this cannot exceed 2, so
modf1=2
Mod.factor for no comp.steel
modf2=1
Maximum permissible
span/effective-depth ratio
ps'd=bs'd*modf1*modf2=17.143*2*1
=34.286
Span of beam (Clause 3.4.1.2-4)
span=7 m
Actual span/effective-depth ratio as'd=1000*span/d=1000*7/238
=29.412
As this does not exceed
34.286, this is Acceptable.
Bending-moment capacities at steel curtailment points

As there are only two bars in tension, no curtailment is possible.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 075. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Tee beam - flexure, span/depth check
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC075 BS

Office: 1007
Anchorage and lap lengths (Clause 3.12.8 of BS8110: Part 1)

Type 2 deformed bars: bond coefficient beta=0.50 (Table 3.26)


Tension reinforcement:
Force in tension bar at yield
Ft=fy/gammaS*PI*dia^2/4
=500/1.15*3.1416*12^2/4
=49173 N
Ultimate anchorage bond stress
fbu=beta*SQR(fcu)=0.5*SQR(35)
=2.958 N/mm2
Anchorage and tension lap length lap=Ft/(PI*dia*fbu)
=49173/(3.1416*12*2.958)
=440.95 mm
=450 mm (rounded)
1.4 * tension lap length
=620 mm (rounded)
2 * tension lap length
=890 mm (rounded)
Shear reinforcement

:
Shear calculations

are in accordance

:
with Clauses 3.4.5

of Code.
o o

Support
:<Design section
av
Location for shear calculation:
0.25 m from support
Effective breadth for shear
bv=200 mm
Shear force due to ultimate load V=100 kN
Distance from support
av=250 mm
No.of tension bars effective at section nbars=2
Area of eff.longitudinal bars
As=nbars*PI*dias^2/4=2*3.1416*12^2/4
=226.19 mm2
Percentage of longitudinal steel per=100*As/(bv*d)
=100*226.19/(200*238)
=0.4752 %
Clause 3.4.5.2 limits the maximum shearing stress to 0.8fcu N/mm2
and thus limiting shear stress
vlim=0.8*SQR(fcu)=0.8*SQR(35)
=4.7329 N/mm2
Now using the formula given in Note 2 below Table 3.8, with f00d=400/d
and pcnt=100*As/(bv*d),
Design shear stress in concrete
vc=0.79*pcnt^(1/3)*f00d^.25/1.25
=0.79*0.4752^(1/3)*1.6807^.25/1.25
=0.56154 N/mm2
As characteristic concrete strength exceeds 25 N/mm2
therefore increase vc according to footnote in Table 3.8.
Modified design shear stress
vc=vc*(fcu/25)^(1/3)
=0.56154*(35/25)^(1/3)
=0.62819 N/mm2
Shear enhancement is ignored so
vc=0.62819 N/mm2
Design shear stress
v=V*1000/(bv*d)=100*1000/(200*238)
=2.1008 N/mm2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 075. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Tee beam - flexure, span/depth check
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC075 BS

Office: 1007
Number of legs to be provided
nlegs=2
Total leg area
Asv=nlegs*(PI*dialr^2/4)
=2*(3.1416*6^2/4)
=56.549 mm2
As v ( 2.1008 N/mm2 ) exceeds (vc+0.4) ( 1.0282 N/mm2 ),
minimum spacing of links
sv=Asv*fyv/(gammaS*bv*(v-vc))
=56.549*500/(1.15*200*(2.1008
-0.62819))
=83.476 mm
=80 mm (rounded)
Chosen link spacing
sv'=80 mm
Use 6 mm links (two legs), spaced at 80 mm centres along beam.
Resistance provided by links alone vs=1.5366 N/mm2
As this exceeds 0.4 N/mm2, shear reinforcement exceeds nominal.
SHEAR
REINFORCEMENT
SUMMARY

Characteristic strength
Diameter of links
Number of legs
Spacing
Approx.weight of links

500 N/mm2
6 mm
2
80 mm
3.2237 kg/m
No 75

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 075. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Tee beam - flexure, span/depth check
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC075 EC

Office: 1007
Location: Ex1 - Continuous T-beam
Bending in flanged beams

b
Calculations are based on EN1992-1-1:2004
Eurocode 2:Design of concrete structures

and assume the use of a simplified


rectangular concrete stress-block, and

d h
that the depth to the neutral axis is

As


restricted to 0.45*d.
o o o

bw
Loading

Design BM before redistribution


Mbef=600 kNm
Beam being analysed is considered as continuous.
Section considered has a sagging moment.
Materials

Char cylinder compress strength


Char yield strength of reinft
Max.aggregate size (for bar spc.)
Diameter of tension bars
Diameter of link legs

fck=30 N/mm2 (concrete)


fyk=500 N/mm2
hagg=20 mm
dia=25 mm
dial=10 mm

Durability and cover to reinforcement

Life of structure
50 years
Exposure class
XC1
Designed concrete
C 30 /37
Minimum cover
covern=30 mm
Fixing tolerance
tol=10 mm
Nominal cover (Cl. 4.4.1.1(2))
cover=40 mm
Section properties

Overall depth of section


h=650 mm
Effective depth of section
d=570 mm
Average web width
bw=350 mm
Flange thickness
hf=200 mm
Distance between beam supports
L=8.2 m
Section being considered is a T-beam.
Clear distance between beam webs b1=2250 mm
Clear distances are symmetrical
Maximum breadth of section
bmax=2*b1+bw=2*2250+350=4850 mm
For an end span
Lo=0.85*L*1000=0.85*8.2*1000
=6970 mm
Effective width
beff1=0.2*b1+0.1*Lo=0.2*2250+0.1*6970
=1147 mm
Flange width
b=2*beff1+bw=2*1147+350=2644 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 075. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Tee beam - flexure, span/depth check
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC075 EC

Office: 1007
Main reinforcement

Partial safety factor for steel


gams=1.15
Char yield strength of reinft.
fyk=fy=500 N/mm2
Partial safety factor for conc.
gamc=1.5
Char cylinder compress strength
fck=30 N/mm2 (concrete)
Design yield strength of reinft. fyd=fyk/gams=500/1.15=434.8 N/mm2
It is usual practice in the UK to restrict x/d to 0.45
Limit on factor
delta=0.85
Factor
K'=0.597*delta-0.18*delta^2-0.209
=0.597*0.85-0.18*0.85^2-0.209
=0.1684
Factor
K=M*1E6/(b*d^2*fck)
=600*1E6/(2644*570^2*30)
=0.0233
No compression reinforcement required.
Lever arm
z=d/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*K))
=570/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*0.0233))
=558 mm
Reduce lever arm to
z=0.95*d=0.95*570=541.5 mm
Depth to neutral axis
x=2.5*(d-z)=2.5*(570-541.5)
=71.25 mm
Tension reinforcement required
As=M*1E6/(fyd*z)
=600*1E6/(434.8*541.5)
=2548 mm2
Mean width of the tension zone
bt=bw=350 mm
Mean value axial tensile strength fctm=0.3*fck^(2/3)=0.3*30^(2/3)
=2.896 N/mm2
Minimum reinforcement required
Asmin=0.26*fctm*bt*d/fyk
=0.26*2.896*350*570/500
=300.5 mm2
Breadth of section
bw=2644 mm
Maximum reinforcement permitted
Asmax=0.04*bw*h=0.04*2644*650
=68744 mm2
Section 2.18 of PD6687 suggests that rho in flanged sections should
be based on the area of the concrete above the centroid of the
tension steel
Area term
At=bw*d+(b-bw)*hf
=2644*570+(2644-2644)*200
=1507080 mm2
Percentage area steel required
rho=100*As/At=100*2548/1507080
=0.1691 %
Number of tension bars required
nbart=INT(As/(PI*dia^2/4))+1
=INT(2548/(3.142*25^2/4))+1
=6
Area of tension steel provided
Aspr=nbart*PI*dia^2/4=6*3.142*25^2/4
=2945 mm2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 075. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Tee beam - flexure, span/depth check
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC075 EC

Office: 1007
DESIGN
SUMMARY
FLEXURE
TENSION REINFORCEMENT

Overall depth
Effective depth
Flange width
Web width
Parameter K
Parameter K'
Lever arm ratio z/d
Steel area required
Steel area provided
Diameter of bars
Number of bars
Steel percentage req.
Minimum area of steel
Maximum area of steel

650 mm
570 mm
2644 mm
350 mm
0.0233
0.1684
0.95
2548 mm2
2945 mm2
25 mm
6
0.1691 %
300.5 mm2
68744 mm2

Spacing of bars - tension reinforcement

Clear spacing between bars


clearm=hagg+5=20+5=25 mm
Modified clear spacing
clearm=dia+1=25+1=26 mm
compute
comp1=(bw-2*(cover+dial)-nbart*dia)
=(2644-2*(40+10)-6*25)
=2394
compute
comp2=(nbart-1)=(6-1)=5
Clear spacing
clear=comp1/comp2=2394/5
=478.8 mm
Deflection check

Effective span of beam


Actual span to depth ratio

L=8.2 m
l'd=L*1000/d=8.2*1000/570
=14.39
Reference reinforcement ratio
rho0=(fck^0.5)/10=(30^0.5)/10
=0.5477 %
Basic span effective depth ratio terms (Clause 7.4.2)
N1=1.5*(fck^0.5)*rho0/rho
=1.5*(30^0.5)*0.5477/0.1691
=26.61
N2=3.2*(fck^0.5)*(rho0/rho-1)^1.5
=3.2*(30^0.5)*(0.5477/0.1691-1)^1.5
=58.72
N=11+N1+N2=11+26.61+58.72
=96.33
Factor for continuous end spans
k=1.3
Flange beam ratio
Ff=b/bw'=2644/350=7.554
Flange beam factor
F1=0.8
Factor for long spans
F2=7/L=7/8.2=0.8537
Tensile steel stress factor
F3=500/(fyk*As/Aspr)
=500/(500*2548/2945)
=1.156 (conservative)
Allowable span/depth ratio
l'da=k*N*F1*F2*F3
=1.3*96.33*0.8*0.8537*1.156
=98.84
Absolute value of span/depth
l'da=40*k=40*1.3=52

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 075. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Tee beam - flexure, span/depth check
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC075 EC

Office: 1007
DESIGN
SUMMARY
DEFLECTION

Shear check

Location for shear calculation:


Shear force due to ultimate load
Maximum concrete strut capacity
Design shear stress
Strength reduction factor
Concrete strut capacity
Term for angle theta
Ratio shear area to spacing
Minimum ratio area to spacing
Number of shear legs
Area of shear legs
Spacing of links
Maximum spacing limited
Chosen spacing
SHEAR SUMMARY

Actual l/d ratio


Basic l/d ratio
Span factor
Flange beam factor F1
Long spans factor F2
Steel stress factor F3
Allowable l/d ratio

14.39
96.33
1.3
0.8
0.8537
1.156
52

400mm from support


VEd=267 kN
VRdm=0.2*fck*(1-fck/250)*bw*d/10^3
=0.2*30*(1-30/250)*350*570/10^3
=1053 kN
vEd=VEd*10^3/(0.9*bw*d)
=267*10^3/(0.9*350*570)
=1.487 N/mm2
v=0.6*(1-fck/250)=0.6*(1-30/250)
=0.528 N/mm2
vRdm=0.138*fck*(1-fck/250)
=0.138*30*(1-30/250)
=3.643 N/mm2
Asw's=vEd*bw/(fyd*2.5)
=1.487*350/(434.8*2.5)
=0.4788
Aswm=0.08*bw*fck^0.5/fy
=0.08*350*30^0.5/500
=0.3067
nsl=4
Asw=nsl*PI/4*dial^2=4*3.142/4*10^2
=314.2 mm2
smax=INT(Asw/Asw's)=INT(314.2/0.4788)
=656 mm
smax=0.75*d=0.75*570=427.5 mm
s=125 mm
Shear force
Design shear strength
Concrete strut capacity
Area/spacing ratio
Diameter of links
Area of links
Maximum spacing
(based on 0.75d)
Actual spacing

267 kN
1.487 N/mm2
3.643 N/mm2
0.4788
10 mm
314 mm2
427.5 mm
125 mm
No 75

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 078. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rectangular and Tee beam - shear only
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC078 BS

Office: 1007
Location: Medium-sized section. Low shear force.
Shear in rectangular and flanged beams, with choice of av enhancement

The shear calculations


are in accordance with
the requirements of
Clause 3.4.5

Support

av Design section

Design to BS8110(1997) with partial safety factor for steel gammaS=1.15


It is assumed that nominal shear reinforcement at least will be provided
Shear force due to ultimate loads V=400 kN
Overall depth of section
h=550 mm
Effective depth of section
d=500 mm
Effective breadth for shear
bv=200 mm
Characteristic concrete strength fcu=40 N/mm2
Distance to support
av=500 mm
Diameter of compression bars
diac=0 mm
Diameter of tension bars
dia=25 mm
Diameter of link legs
dial=8 mm
Number of tension bars at section nbars=2
Char.strength of link steel
fyv=500 N/mm2
Area of longitudinal steel
As=nbars*PI*dia^2/4=2*3.1416*25^2/4
=981.75 mm2
Percentages of longitudinal steel:
In terms of (bv*d):
per=100*As/(bv*d)
=100*981.75/(200*500)
=0.98175 %
In terms of (bv*h):
perg=100*As/(bv*h)
=100*981.75/(200*550)
=0.8925 %
From Table 3.8 with fcu=25 N/mm2, effective depth=500 mm and steel
percentage=0.98175 %, design concrete shear stress vc=0.62813 N/mm2.
Since characteristic concrete strength is between 25 and 40 N/mm2,
increase vc according to formula in footnote below Table 3.8. Then
vc=vc25*(fcu/25)^(1/3)
=0.62813*(40/25)^(1/3)
=0.73467 N/mm2
Since av is less than 2*d (see Clause 3.4.5.8),
maximum enhanced value of
vc=vc*2*d/av=0.73467*2*500/500
=1.4693 N/mm2
Design shear stress
v=V*1000/(bv*d)=400*1000/(200*500)
=4 N/mm2
Full shear enhancement due to support proximity taken into account.
Number of legs to be provided
nlegs=4
Total leg area
Asv=nlegs*(PI*dial^2/4)
=4*(3.1416*8^2/4)
=201.06 mm2
Since v (i.e. 4 N/mm2 exceeds (vc+0.4) (i.e. 1.8693 N/mm2 ,
minimum spacing of links
sv=fyv/gammaS*Asv/(bv*(v-vc))
=500/1.15*201.06/(200*(4-1.4693))
=172.72 mm
=170 mm (rounded)

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 078. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rectangular and Tee beam - shear only
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC078 BS

Office: 1007
Use 8 mm links ( 4 legs), spaced at 170 mm centres along beam.
Approx.total weight of links
5.8 kg per metre
No 78

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 078. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rectangular and Tee beam - shear only
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC078 EC

Office: 1007
Location: Default example
Shear in rectangular and flanged beams

Shear force due to ultimate loads VEd=345 kN


Section data

Overall depth of section


Effective depth of section
Effective breadth for shear
Char cylinder compress strength
Char yield strength of reinft.
Diameter of links
Partial safety factor for reinft
Design yield strength of reinfnt
Shear

Design shear stress


Strength reduction factor
Concrete strut capacity
Ratio shear area to spacing
Minimum ratio area to spacing
Number of shear legs
Area of shear legs
Spacing of links
Chosen spacing
SHEAR SUMMARY

h=600 mm
d=550 mm
bw=350 mm
fck=30 N/mm2 (concrete)
fyk=500 N/mm2
dial=10 N/mm2
gams=1.15
fywd=fyk/gams=500/1.15=434.78 N/mm2

vEd=VEd*10^3/(0.9*bw*d)
=345*10^3/(0.9*350*550)
=1.9913 N/mm2
v=0.6*(1-fck/250)=0.6*(1-30/250)
=0.528 N/mm2
vRdm=0.138*fck*(1-fck/250)
=0.138*30*(1-30/250)
=3.6432 N/mm2
Asw's=vEd*bw/(fywd*2.5)
=1.9913*350/(434.78*2.5)
=0.64121
Aswm=0.08*bw*fck^0.5/fyk
=0.08*350*30^0.5/500
=0.30672
nsl=2
Asw=nsl*PI/4*dial^2=2*3.1416/4*10^2
=157.08 mm2
smax=INT(Asw/Asw's)
=INT(157.08/0.64121)
=244 mm
s=225 mm
Shear force
Design shear strength
Concrete strut capacity
Area/spacing ratio
Area of links
Maximum spacing
Actual spacing

345 kN
1.9913 N/mm2
3.6432 N/mm2
0.64121
157 mm2
244 mm
225 mm
No 78

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 082. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Solid slab - flexure, tens & comp steel, span/d
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC082 BS

Office: 1007
Location: Typical continuous slab reinforced with high-yield steel
Bending in solid slabs (with comp.steel if reqd.), designed for a given

width, with checks on minimum steel and span/effective-depth ratio

d'
Calculations are based on formulae

in Clause 3.4.4.4 of BS8110: Part 1 (o)
(o)
(o)
(o)

and thus assume the use of a
d
simplified rectangular concrete
h
stress-block, and that the depth to
o o o o o o o o o o o o
the neutral axis is restricted to d/2.

Design to BS8110(1997) with partial safety factor for steel gammaS=1.15
Moment before redistribution
Mbef=1875 kNm (total)
Slab containing section being analysed is considered as continuous.
Design moment (after redistrib.) M=1800 kNm (total)
Characteristic concrete strength fcu=30 N/mm2
Characteristic steel strength
fy=500 N/mm2
Longitudinal reinforcement is high-yield steel.
Diameter of tension bars
dia=20 mm
Designed concrete mix to be used. Cover data from Tables A.4 & A.5 of
BS8500-1:2006.
Intended life of structure (for durability considerations) is 50 years.
Designated exposure class is XC1
Specified fixing tolerance
tol=10 mm
Chosen fire resistance period
fire=2 hours
From Table 3.4 of BS8110, minimum cover needed to all steel for
continuous slab with a fire period of 2 hour/s is 25 mm
Minimum nominal cover to all steel is 25 mm
Nominal concrete cover
cover=25 mm
Overall thickness of slab
h=400 mm
From Figure 3.2 of BS8110, minimum possible slab thickness
complying with a fire period of 2 hour/s is 125 mm
Thickness provided complies with fire regulations (Fig. 3.2 of Code).
Maximum effective depth
dmax=h-cover-dia/2=400-25-20/2
=365 mm
Effective depth of section
d=365 mm
Breadth of slab
b=3000 mm
Longitudinal reinforcement

Redistribution

Thus redistribution factor b


with resistance-moment factor
As applied-moment factor

perct=100*(Mbef-M)/Mbef
=100*(1875-1800)/1875
=4 %
(i.e. does not exceed 10%)
betab=M/Mbef=1800/1875=0.96
K'=0.156

K=M*10^6/(b*d^2*fcu)
=1800*10^6/(3000*365^2*30)
=0.15012
does not exceed resistance-moment factor K', no comp.steel is needed.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 082. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Solid slab - flexure, tens & comp steel, span/d
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC082 BS

Office: 1007
and lever arm
z=d*(0.5+SQR(0.25-K/0.9))
=365*(0.5+SQR(0.25-0.15012/0.9))
=287.78 mm
but must not exceed 0.95*d=0.95*365 =346.75 mm
i.e. take
z=287.78 mm
Area of tension steel required
As=M*10^6/(z*fy/gammaS)
=1800*10^6/(287.78*500/1.15)
=14386 mm2 (total)
As 3*d>750 mm, maximum clear distance between bars
for tension steel
maxcl=750 mm, and
maximum spacing (c.to c.of bars) pchmx=750+dia=770 mm
Calculated c.to c.spacing for tension bars pch=b*PI/4*dia^2/As
=3000*3.1416/4*20^2/14386
=65.514 mm
As this does not exceed maximum permissible spacing of 770 mm,
employ this value.
Chosen spacing of tension bars
pch=60 mm
Number of tension bars needed
Not=INT((b-dia-2*cover)/pchTA)+1
=INT((3000-20-2*25)/60)+1
=49
To accommodate tension bars in width of slab available, they should be
respaced at 60 mm centres, with a side cover of 50 mm
Area of tension steel provided

Aspr=Not*PI*dia^2/4=49*3.1416*20^2/4
=15394 mm2 (total)

Spacing and proportion of tension steel - Clause 3.12.11.2.7

Tension steel provided


per=100*Aspr/(b*h)
=100*15393/(3000*400)
=1.2828 % of gross section.
As this falls within Code limits of 0.13% and 4%, this is satisfactory.
Basic clear dist.allowed between tension bars (see Cl.3.12.11.2.4)
is given by
cdist=47000*3*Aspr*betab/(2*fy*As)
=47000*3*15393*0.96/(2*500*14386)
=144.84 mm
which is satisfactory, as it is less than 300 mm.
As the amount of tension steel is not less than 1%, no change to the
calculated spacing cdist need be made [see Clause 3.12.11.2.7(b)].
As max.allowable pitch of cdist+dia=164.84 mm is not less than rounded
value determined above (i.e. 60 mm), the above pitch is satisfactory.
Minimum distribution steel required

Min.permiss.steel area (Table 3.25) Asmin=0.0013*1000*h=0.0013*1000*400


=520 mm2/m width.
Diameter of distribution bars
diamn=12 mm
As 3*d exceeds 750, max.permiss.clear spacing of bars is 750 mm and
thus maximum permissible pitch
pchmx=750+diamn=750+12=762 mm
Max.pitch for distribution steel pchmn=1000*PI/4*diamn^2/Asmin
=1000*3.1416/4*12^2/520
=217.49 mm,
which is O.K. as it does not exceed the limit pchmx (i.e. 762. mm)
=200 mm (rounded)

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 082. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Solid slab - flexure, tens & comp steel, span/d
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC082 BS

Office: 1007
Spacing of distribution bars
pchDA=200 mm
Area of dist.steel provided
Asmpr=1000*PI/4*diamn^2/pchDA
=1000*3.1416/4*12^2/200
=565.49 mm2/m
TENSION
REINFORCEMENT
SUMMARY

Characteristic strength
Diameter of bars
Number of bars
Spacing of bars
Effective depth
Area of steel required
Area of steel provided
Percentage provided
Weight of steel provided

500 N/mm2
20 mm
49
60 mm
365 mm
14386 mm2
15393 mm2
1.2828 %
120.84 kg/m

DISTRIBUTION
REINFORCEMENT
SUMMARY

Characteristic strength
Diameter of bars
Spacing of bars
Depth to bar centres
Area of steel required
Area of steel provided
Percentage provided
Weight of steel provided

500 N/mm2
12 mm
200 mm
349 mm
520 mm2/m
565 mm2/m
0.14125 %
4.44 kg/m2

Check on span/effective-depth ratio

Calculate redistribution ratio


btab=M/Mbef=1800/1875=0.96
Basic ratio for slab
continuous at one edge
bs'd=23
(interpolated from Table 3.9)
Area of tension steel provided
Aspr=15393 mm2
Service stress in this steel
fs=2*fy*As/(3*Aspr*btab)
=2*500*14386/(3*15393*0.96)
=324.51 N/mm2
As applied-moment factor
M'bd2=M*10^6/(b*d^2)
=1800*10^6/(3000*365^2)
=4.5037
From equation 7
modf1=0.55+(477-fs)/(120*(0.9+M'bd2))
=0.55+(477-324.51)/(120*(0.9
+4.5037))
=0.78517
Mod.factor for tension steel
modf1=0.78517
Mod.factor for no comp.steel
modf2=1.0
Maximum permissible
span/effective-depth ratio
ps'd=bs'd*modf1*modf2=23*0.78517*1
=18.059
Effective span of slab
span=5 m
True span/effective-depth ratio
as'd=1000*span/d=1000*5/365
=13.699
As this does not exceed
18.059, this is Acceptable.
No 82

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 082. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Solid slab - flexure, tens & comp steel, span/d
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC082 EC

Office: 1007
Location: Ex1 - Continuous slab
Bending in solid slabs (with comp.steel if reqd.), designed per metre

width, with checks on minimum steel and span/effective-depth ratio

d2

o
o
o
o

h
o
o
o
o
o
o

Calculations are based on EN1992-1


2004 Eurocode 2:Design of concrete
structures and assume the use of a
simplified rectangular concrete
stress-block & that the depth to
the NA is restricted to 0.45d.

Design moment - (i.e. factored moment)

Design BM before redistribution


Mbef=625 kNm
Section being analysed is considered as continuous.
Section considered has a hogging moment
Design BM (after redistribution) M=600 kNm
Materials

Char cylinder compress strength


Char yield strength of reinft
Max.aggregate size (for bar spc.)
Diameter of tension bars
Diameter of distribution bars

fck=30 N/mm2 (concrete)


fyk=500 N/mm2
hagg=20 mm
dia=25 mm
diad=12 mm

Durability and cover to reinforcement

Life of structure
50 years
Exposure class
XC1
Designed concrete
C 30 /37
Minimum cover
covern=25 mm
Fixing tolerance
tol=10 mm
Nominal cover (Cl. 4.4.1.1(2))
cover=35 mm
Section properties

Overall depth of section


Effective depth of section
Breadth of section
Main reinforcement

Partial safety factor for steel


Char yield strength of reinft.
Partial safety factor for conc.
Char cylinder compress strength
Design yield strength of reinft.
Redistribution ratio
Percentage redistribution

h=400 mm
d=350 mm
b=1000 mm

gams=1.15
fyk=fy=500 N/mm2
gamc=1.5
fck=30 N/mm2 (concrete)
fyd=fyk/gams=500/1.15=434.8 N/mm2
delta=M/Mbef=600/625=0.96
percnt=(1-delta)*100=(1-0.96)*100
=4 %
It is usual practice in the UK to restrict x/d to 0.45

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 082. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Solid slab - flexure, tens & comp steel, span/d
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC082 EC

Office: 1007
Limit on factor
delta=0.85
Factor
K'=0.597*delta-0.18*delta^2-0.209
=0.597*0.85-0.18*0.85^2-0.209
=0.1684
Factor
K=M*1E6/(b*d^2*fck)
=600*1E6/(1000*350^2*30)
=0.1633
No compression reinforcement required.
Lever arm
z=d/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*K))
=350/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*0.1633))
=288.9 mm
Depth to neutral axis
x=2.5*(d-z)=2.5*(350-288.9)
=152.7 mm
Tension reinforcement required
As=M*1E6/(fyd*z)
=600*1E6/(434.8*288.9)
=4776 mm2
Mean width of the tension zone
bt=bw=1000 mm
Mean value axial tensile strength fctm=0.3*fck^(2/3)=0.3*30^(2/3)
=2.896 N/mm2
Minimum reinforcement required
Asmin=0.26*fctm*bt*d/fyk
=0.26*2.896*1000*350/500
=527.2 mm2
Breadth of section
bw=1000 mm
Maximum reinforcement permitted
Asmax=0.04*bw*h=0.04*1000*400
=16000 mm2
Percentage area steel required
rho=100*As/(bw*d)=100*4776/(1000*350)
=1.365 %
Distribution steel
Asmpr=Asmin=527.2 mm2
Minimum distribution steel
Asmpr=0.2*As=0.2*4776=955.2 mm2
DESIGN
SUMMARY
FLEXURE

Overall depth
Effective depth
Parameter K
Parameter K'
Lever arm ratio z/d
Steel area (tension)
Steel percentage req.
Minimum area of steel
Maximum area of steel
Distribution steel

400 mm
350 mm
0.1633
0.1684
0.8255
4776 mm2/m
1.365 %
527.2 mm2/m
16000 mm2/m
955.2 mm2/m

Spacing of bars - tension reinforcement

In accordance with the "Standard Method of Detailing Structural


Concrete" the minimum clear distance between bars is 75 mm
Minimum pitch (hogging moment)
pchmn=75+dia=75+25=100 mm
Maximum pitch of bars (<3h)
pchmx=400 mm
Calculated pitch of bars
pitch=1000*PI*dia^2/(4*As)
=1000*3.142*25^2/(4*4776)
=102.8 mm
Rounded spacing (c.to c.of bars) 100 mm
Chosen spacing of tension bars
pch=100 mm
Area of tension steel provided
Aspr=1000/pch*PI*dia^2/4
=1000/100*3.142*25^2/4
=4909 mm2/m

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 082. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Solid slab - flexure, tens & comp steel, span/d
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC082 EC

Office: 1007
Spacing of distribution steel

Minimum area of distn. bars


955.2 mm2/m
Diameter of distribution bars
diad=12 mm
Calculated pitch of bars
pitch=1000*PI*diad^2/(4*Asmpr)
=1000*3.142*12^2/(4*955.2)
=118.4 mm
Rounded spacing (c.to c.of bars) 110 mm
Chosen spacing of distn. bars
pchd=110 mm
Area of distn. steel provided
Asdpr=1000/pchd*PI*diad^2/4
=1000/110*3.142*12^2/4
=1028 mm2/m
TENSION REINFORCEMENT

DISTRIBUTION REINFORCEMENT

Shear check

Location for shear calculation:


Shear force due to ultimate load
Effective breadth for shear
Maximum concrete strut capacity

Diameter of bars
Spacing of bars
Area of steel required
Area of steel provided
Diameter of bars
Spacing of bars
Area of steel required
Area of steel provided

25 mm
100 mm
4776 mm2/m
4908 mm2/m
12 mm
110 mm
955.2 mm2/m
1028 mm2/m

350mm from internal support


VEd=250 kN
bw=b=1000 mm
VRdm=0.2*fck*(1-fck/250)*bw*d/10^3
=0.2*30*(1-30/250)*1000*350/10^3
=1848 kN
Consider 100% of tension reinforcement at the shear section.
Area of reinforcement at section Asl=Aspr=4908 mm2/m
Percentage area
rho1=100*Asl/(bw*d)
=100*4908/(1000*350)
=1.402 %
Partial concrete safety factor
gamc=1.5
Factor
CRdc=0.18/gamc=0.18/1.5=0.12
Factor
ks=1+(200/d)^0.5=1+(200/350)^0.5
=1.756
Term for shear resistance
vRdc=(rho1*fck)^(1/3)
=(1.402*30)^(1/3)
=3.478
Shear resistance
VRdc=CRdc*ks*vRdc*bw*d/1000
=0.12*1.756*3.478*1000*350/1000
=256.5 kN
Minimum stress
vmin=0.035*ks^1.5*fck^0.5
=0.035*1.756^1.5*30^0.5
=0.4461 N/mm2
Minimum shear resistance
VRdm=vmin*bw*d/1000
=0.4461*1000*350/1000
=156.1 kN

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 082. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Solid slab - flexure, tens & comp steel, span/d
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC082 EC

Office: 1007
SHEAR SUMMARY
Shear force
250 kN
Shear resistance
256.5 kN
Crack control check

Unfactored permanent load on slab Gk=100 kN


Unfactored variable load on slab Qk=40 kN
Permanent load factor
gamG=1.35
Variable load factor
gamQ=1.5
As the slab is > 200 mm measures to control cracking are necessary.
The ratio (Gk+2Qk)/(G*Gk+Q*Qk) can be estimated from the shear
values at each end of the span as follows:
Factor 2 for variable load
psi2=0.3
compute
ratio1=Gk+psi2*Qk=100+0.3*40
=112
compute
ratio2=gamG*Gk+gamQ*Qk
=1.35*100+1.5*40
=195
compute
ratio=ratio1/ratio2=112/195
=0.5744
Redistribution ratio
delta=M/Mbef=600/625=0.96
SLS stress in reinforcement s
SLSs=500/1.15*(As/Aspr)*ratio*1/delta
=500/1.15*(4776/4908)*0.5744*1
/0.96
=253.1 N/mm2
Design crack width
wk=0.3 mm
Max allowable SLS stress s
SLSs2=TABLE 7.3 for pch=100
=320 N/mm2
The bar spacing 100 mm used complies with Table 7.3N of EC2 Part 1:2004
hence satisfactory.
No 82

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 086. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC086 BS

Office: 1007
Location: Typical two-way slab with all edges fixed
Design of two-way slabs rectangular slabs supporting uniform loads

Design to BS8110(1997) with partial safety factor for steel gammaS=1.15


Calculation of design moments in accordance with Clauses 3.5.3

of BS8110 throughout.


dead load = gk kN/m2

lx
live load = qk kN/m2



ly
Length of shorter side
Length of longer side
Constant
Characteristic dead load
Characteristic imposed load
Total design ultimate load

lx=6 m
ly=8 m
k=ly/lx=1.3333
gk=4 kN/m2
qk=5 kN/m2
n=1.4*gk+1.6*qk=1.4*4+1.6*5
=13.6 kN/m2
mstrwx=0.75*lx=4.5 m
mstrwy=0.75*ly=6 m
h=200 mm
fcu=30 N/mm2
fy=500 N/mm2

Width of middle strip short side


Width of middle strip long side
Overall depth of slab
Characteristic concrete strength
Characteristic strength of steel
Bond type (0,1 or 2)
Type=2
From equation 49, with bond coefficient of 0.5 (see Table 3.26),
design ultimate anchorage bond stress fbu=2.7386 N/mm2.
Size
Size
Size
Size

of
of
of
of

upper
lower
upper
lower

bars
bars
bars
bars

in
in
in
in

x-direction
x-direction
y-direction
y-direction

diaux=20 mm
diax=20 mm
diauy=16 mm
diay=16 mm

Cover to reinforcement at top of slab:


Designed concrete mix to be used. Cover data from Tables A.4 & A.5 of
BS8500-1:2006.
Intended life of structure (for durability considerations) is 50 years.
Designated exposure class is XC2
Specified fixing tolerance
tol=10 mm
Chosen fire resistance period
fire=2 hours
From Table 3.4 of BS8110, minimum cover needed to all steel for
continuous slab with a fire period of 2 hour/s is 25 mm
This applies to both top and bottom reinforcement.
Cover to reinforcement at bottom of slab:
Designed concrete mix to be used. Cover data from Tables A.4 & A.5 of
BS8500-1:2006.
Intended life of structure (for durability considerations) is 50 years.
Designated exposure class is XC2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 086. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC086 BS

Office: 1007
Specified fixing tolerance
tol=10 mm
Nominal cover at top of slab
tcover=35 mm
Nominal cover at bottom of slab
bcover=35 mm
Effective depths:
Of top steel:

in x-direction dux=155 mm
in y-direction duy=dux-(diaux+diauy)/2
=155-(20+16)/2
=137 mm
Of bottom steel: in x-direction dx=155 mm
in y-direction dy=dx-(diax+diay)/2=155-(20+16)/2
=137 mm
From Figure 3.2 of BS8110, minimum possible slab thickness
complying with a fire period of 2 hour/s is 125 mm
Thickness provided complies with fire regulations (Figure 3.2 of Code).
/ / / / / / / / / /
//
/
gk kN/m2
/

/
/ lx=6 m
/
qk kN/m2
/

//
/ / / / / / / / / /

ly=8 m
Negative mt.coefft.at cont.edges
Positive mt.coefft.at midspan
Long-span coefft.at cont edges
Long-span coefft.at midspan

All four edges continuous

Coefficients from Table 3.14

betsxn=TABLE 3.15 for row=1, k=1.3333


=0.047333
betsxp=TABLE 3.15 for row=2, k=1.3333
=0.035667
betsyn=0.032
betsyp=0.024

Short span lx at continuous edges

Design moment
msxe=betsxn*n*mstrwy*lx^2
=0.047333*13.6*6*6^2
=139.05 kNm
Resistance-moment factor
K'=0.156
As applied-moment factor
K=msxe*10^6/(1000*mstrwy*dux^2*fcu)
=139.05*10^6/(1000*6*155^2*30)
=0.032153
does not exceed resistance-moment factor K' the section is satisfactory.
Calculated lever arm
z=dux*(0.5+SQR(0.25-K/0.9))
=155*(0.5+SQR(0.25-0.032153/0.9))
=149.25 mm,
but must not exceed 0.95*dux=
0.95*155 =147.25 mm
i.e. take lever arm
z=147.25 mm
Area of tension steel required
Asxe=msxe*10^6/(fy/gammaS*z)
=139.05*10^6/(500/1.15*147.25)
=2171.9 mm2
Thus steel reqd.to resist bending Ascal=Asxe=2171.9 mm2
As 3*dux is less than 750 mm, maximum clear distance between bars
for tension steel
maxcsp=3*dux=3*155=465 mm, and
maximum pitch (c.to c.of bars)
pchm=3*dux+diaux=485 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 086. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC086 BS

Office: 1007
Required pitch of tension bars
pchxe=1000*mstrwy*PI*diaux^2/(4*Asxe)
=1000*6*3.1416*20^2/(4*2171.9)
=867.9 mm
As this exceeds maximum permissible spacing of 485 mm, employ
spacing pchxe of
485 mm
=480 mm (rounded)
Chosen pitch for tension steel
pitchC=480 mm (centre to centre)
=480 mm (rounded)
Number of bars required
Noxe=INT(1000*mstrwy/pchxe)+1
=INT(1000*6/480)+1
=13
Area of tension steel provided
Aspxe=Noxe*PI*diaux^2/4
=13*3.1416*20^2/4
=4084.1 mm2
Spacing and proportion of steel (Clause 3.12.11.2.7):
Tension steel provided
per=Aspxe/(10*mstrwy*h)
=4084.1/(10*6*200)
=0.34034 % of gross section.
As this is within Code limits of 0.13 % and 4%, this is satisfactory.
As the slab depth does not exceed 200 mm, no check on the spacing
of bars is required [Clause 3.12.11.2.7(a2)].
Actual stress in steel
fs=fy/gammaS*Ascal/Aspxe
=500/1.15*2171.9/4084.1
=231.21 N/mm2
Min.anchorage-bond length reqd.
lb=diaux*fs/(4*fbu)
=20*231.21/(4*2.7386)
=422.13 mm
=425 mm (rounded)
Long span ly at continuous edges

Design moment
msye=betsyn*n*mstrwx*lx^2
=0.032*13.6*4.5*6^2
=70.502 kNm
Resistance-moment factor
K'=0.156
As applied-moment factor
K=msye*1000/(mstrwx*duy^2*fcu)
=70.502*1000/(4.5*137^2*30)
=0.027825
does not exceed resistance-moment factor K' the section is satisfactory.
Calculated lever arm
z=duy*(0.5+SQR(0.25-K/0.9))
=137*(0.5+SQR(0.25-0.027825/0.9))
=132.62 mm,
but must not exceed 0.95*duy=
0.95*137 =130.15 mm
i.e. take lever arm
z=130.15 mm
Area of tension steel required
Asye=msye*10^6/(fy/gammaS*z)
=70.502*10^6/(500/1.15*130.15)
=1245.9 mm2
Thus steel reqd.to resist bending Ascal=Asye=1245.9 mm2
As 3*duy is less than 750 mm, maximum clear distance between bars
for tension steel
maxcsp=3*duy=3*137=411 mm, and
maximum pitch (c.to c.of bars)
pchm=3*duy+diauy=427 mm
Reqd.pitch of tension bars
pchye=1000*mstrwx*PI*diauy^2/(4*Asye)
=1000*4.5*3.1416*16^2/(4*1245.9)
=726.2 mm
As this exceeds maximum permissible spacing of 427 mm, employ
spacing pchye of
427 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 086. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC086 BS

Office: 1007
=420 mm (rounded)
Chosen pitch for tension steel
pitchC=420 mm (centre to centre)
Number of bars required
Noye=INT(1000*mstrwx/pchye)+1
=INT(1000*4.5/420)+1
=11
Area of tension steel provided
Aspye=Noye*PI*diauy^2/4
=11*3.1416*16^2/4
=2211.7 mm2
Spacing and proportion of steel (Clause 3.12.11.2.7):
Tension steel provided
per=Aspye/(10*mstrwx*h)
=2211.7/(10*4.5*200)
=0.24574 % of gross section.
As this is within Code limits of 0.13 % and 4%, this is satisfactory.
As the slab depth does not exceed 200 mm, no check on the spacing
of bars is required [Clause 3.12.11.2.7(a2)].
Actual stress in steel
fs=fy/gammaS*Ascal/Aspye
=500/1.15*1245.9/2211.7
=244.93 N/mm2
Min.anchorage-bond length reqd.
lb=diauy*fs/(4*fbu)
=16*244.93/(4*2.7386)
=357.74 mm
=360 mm (rounded)
Short span lx at midspan

Design moment
msxm=betsxp*n*mstrwy*lx^2
=0.035667*13.6*6*6^2
=104.77 kNm
Resistance-moment factor
K'=0.156
As applied-moment factor
K=msxm*10^6/(1000*mstrwy*dx^2*fcu)
=104.77*10^6/(1000*6*155^2*30)
=0.024228
does not exceed resistance-moment factor K' the section is satisfactory.
Calculated lever arm
z=dx*(0.5+SQR(0.25-K/0.9))
=155*(0.5+SQR(0.25-0.024228/0.9))
=150.71 mm,
but must not exceed 0.95*dx=0.95*155 =147.25 mm
i.e. take lever arm
z=147.25 mm
Area of tension steel required
Asxm=msxm*10^6/(fy/gammaS*z)
=104.77*10^6/(500/1.15*147.25)
=1636.5 mm2
Thus steel reqd.to resist bending Ascal=Asxm=1636.5 mm2
As 3*dx is less than 750 mm, maximum clear distance between bars
for tension steel
maxcsp=3*dx=3*155=465 mm, and
maximum pitch (c.to c.of bars)
pchm=3*dx+diax=485 mm
Reqd.pitch of tension bars
pchxm=1000*mstrwy*PI*diax^2/(4*Asxm)
=1000*6*3.1416*20^2/(4*1636.5)
=1151.8 mm
As this exceeds maximum permissible spacing of 485 mm, employ
spacing pchxe of
485 mm
=480 mm (rounded)
Chosen pitch for tension steel
pitchC=480 mm (centre to centre)
Number of bars required
Noxm=INT(1000*mstrwy/pchxm)+1
=INT(1000*6/480)+1
=13

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 086. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC086 BS

Office: 1007
Area of tension steel provided
Aspxm=Noxm*PI*diax^2/4
=13*3.1416*20^2/4
=4084.1 mm2
Spacing and proportion of steel (Clause 3.12.11.2.7):
Tension steel provided
per=Aspxm/(10*mstrwy*h)
=4084.1/(10*6*200)
=0.34034 % of gross section.
As this is within Code limits of 0.13 % and 4%, this is satisfactory.
As the slab depth does not exceed 200 mm, no check on the spacing
of bars is required [Clause 3.12.11.2.7(a2)].
Actual stress in steel
fs=fy/gammaS*Ascal/Aspxm
=500/1.15*1636.5/4084.1
=174.22 N/mm2
Min.anchorage-bond length reqd.
lb=diax*fs/(4*fbu)
=20*174.22/(4*2.7386)
=318.09 mm
=320 mm (rounded)
Long span ly at midspan

Design moment
msym=betsyp*n*mstrwx*lx^2
=0.024*13.6*4.5*6^2
=52.877 kNm
Resistance-moment factor
K'=0.156
As applied-moment factor
K=msym*1000/(mstrwx*dy^2*fcu)
=52.877*1000/(4.5*137^2*30)
=0.020868
does not exceed resistance-moment factor K' the section is satisfactory.
Calculated lever arm
z=dy*(0.5+SQR(0.25-K/0.9))
=137*(0.5+SQR(0.25-0.020868/0.9))
=133.75 mm,
but must not exceed 0.95*dy=0.95*137 =130.15 mm
i.e. take lever arm
z=130.15 mm
Area of tension steel required
Asym=msym*10^6/(fy/gammaS*z)
=52.877*10^6/(500/1.15*130.15)
=934.43 mm2
Thus steel reqd.to resist bending Ascal=Asym=934.43 mm2
Min.tension area (Table 3.25)
Asmin=permin/100*1000*mstrwx*h
=0.13/100*1000*4.5*200
=1170 mm2
As this exceeds the calculated area, make Asym=1170 mm2.
As 3*dy is less than 750 mm, maximum clear distance between bars
for tension steel
maxcsp=3*dy=3*137=411 mm, and
maximum pitch (c.to c.of bars)
pchm=3*dy+diay=427 mm
Reqd.pitch for tension steel
pchym=1000*mstrwx*PI*diay^2/(4*Asym)
=1000*4.5*3.1416*16^2/(4*1170)
=773.32 mm
As this exceeds maximum permissible spacing of 427 mm, employ
spacing pchym of
427 mm
=420 mm (rounded)
Chosen pitch for tension steel
pitchC=420 mm (centre to centre)
Number of bars required
Noym=INT(1000*mstrwx/pchym)+1
=INT(1000*4.5/420)+1
=11
Area of tension steel provided
Aspym=Noym*PI*diay^2/4
=11*3.1416*16^2/4
=2211.7 mm2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 086. (ans=1)


Page: 6
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC086 BS

Office: 1007
Spacing and proportion of steel (Clause 3.12.11.2.7):
Tension steel provided
per=Aspym/(10*mstrwx*h)
=2211.7/(10*4.5*200)
=0.24574 % of gross section.
As this is within Code limits of 0.13 % and 4%, this is satisfactory.
As the slab depth does not exceed 200 mm, no check on the spacing
of bars is required [Clause 3.12.11.2.7(a2)].
Actual stress in steel
fs=fy/gammaS*Ascal/Aspym
=500/1.15*934.43/2211.7
=183.7 N/mm2
Min.anchorage-bond length reqd.
lb=diay*fs/(4*fbu)
=16*183.7/(4*2.7386)
=268.3 mm
=270 mm (rounded)
Check on span/effective-depth ratio (in lx direction)

Basic ratio for continuous span


bs'd=26 (see Table 3.9.)
Area of tension steel provided
Aspxm=4084.1 mm2
Service stress
fs=2*fy*Asxm/(3*Aspxm)
=2*500*1636.5/(3*4084.1)
=133.57 N/mm2
Mod.factor for tension steel:
As applied-moment factor
M'bd2=msxm*10^6/(1000*mstrwy*dx^2)
=104.77*10^6/(1000*6*155^2)
=0.72684
From equation 7 (Table 3.10)
modf1=0.55+(477-fs)/(120*(0.9+M'bd2))
=0.55+(477-133.57)/(120*(0.9
+0.72684))
=2.3092
but this cannot exceed 2, so
modf1=2
Mod.factor for no comp.steel
modf2=1
Thus maximum permissible
span/effective-depth ratio
ps'd=bs'd*modf1*modf2=26*2*1
=52
Slab span
span=lx=6 m
Actual span/effective-depth ratio as'd=1000*span/dx=1000*6/155
=38.71
This does not exceed permiss.ratio of 52, and is thus acceptable.
SUMMARY OF REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED ( fy=500 N/mm2 )

At edges in x-direction:
Characteristic strength
Area of steel required Asxe
Area of steel provided Aspxe
Percentage of steel provided
Size of bars
Number of bars provided
Spacing of bars
Minimum bond length required
Effective depth adopted
Weight of steel provided

500 N/mm2
2171.9 mm2
4084.1 mm2
0.34034 %
20 mm
13
480 mm centres
425 mm
155 mm
32.06 kg/m run

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 086. (ans=1)


Page: 7
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC086 BS

Office: 1007
At midspan in x-direction:
Characteristic strength
Area of steel required Asxm
Area of steel provided Aspxm
Percentage of steel provided
Size of bars
Number of bars provided
Spacing of bars
Minimum bond length required
Effective depth adopted
Weight of steel provided

500 N/mm2
1636.5 mm2
4084.1 mm2
0.34034 %
20 mm
13
480 mm centres
320 mm
155 mm
32.06 kg/m run

At edges in y-direction:
Characteristic strength
Area of steel required Asye
Area of steel provided Aspye
Percentage of steel provided
Size of bars
Number of bars provided
Spacing of bars
Minimum bond length required
Effective depth adopted
Weight of steel provided

500 N/mm2
1245.9 mm2
2211.7 mm2
0.24574 %
16 mm
11
420 mm centres
360 mm
137 mm
17.362 kg/m run

At midspan in y-direction:
Characteristic strength
Area of steel required Asym
Area of steel provided Aspym
Percentage of steel provided
Size of bars
Number of bars provided
Spacing of bars
Minimum bond length required
Effective depth adopted
Weight of steel provided

500 N/mm2
1170 mm2
2211.7 mm2
0.24574 %
16 mm
11
420 mm centres
270 mm
137 mm
17.362 kg/m run

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 086. (ans=1)


Page: 8
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC086 BS

Office: 1007
Minimum tension reinforcement in edge strips

Min.tension area (Table 3.25)


Asmin=permin/100*1000*h
=0.13/100*1000*200
=260 mm2 per metre
Diameter of distribution bars
diamin=12 mm
Maximum pitch (c.to c.of bars)
pchm=3*duy+diamin=3*137+12
=423 mm,
As this is less than 750 mm, this is satisfactory.
Reqd.pitch for distribution bars pchmin=1000*PI*diamin^2/(4*Asmin)
=1000*3.1416*12^2/(4*260)
=434.99 mm
As this exceeds maximum pitch found above, set pchmin=423 mm
=420 mm (rounded)
Chosen pitch for tension steel
pitchC=420 mm (centre to centre)
Area of dist.steel provided
Asmpro=1000*PI*diamin^2/(4*pchmin)
=1000*3.1416*12^2/(4*420)
=269.28 mm2/m
Minimum lap length reqd.
lb=295 mm
=300 mm (rounded)
Minimum reinforcement in edge strips:
Characteristic strength
Minimum area required Asmin
Steel area provided Asmpro
Percentage of steel provided
Size of bars
Spacing of bars
Minimum lap length required
Weight of steel provided

500 N/mm2
260 mm2 per m
269 mm2 per m
0.1345 %
12 mm
420 mm centres
300 mm
2.1117 kg/m2

No torsion reinforcement is required (see Rule 7 in Clause 3.5.3.5).


No 86

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 086. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC086 EC

Office: 1007
Location: Ex1 - Typical two-way slab with all edges fixed
Design of two-way slabs rectangular slabs supporting uniform loads

The following design calculations are based on EC2 Part 1:2004 and the
ISE "Manual for the design of concrete building structures to EC2".
Partial safety factor for steel
gams=1.15
Partial safety factor for conc.
gamc=1.5
Partial safety factor for bond
gamb=1.5

gk kN/m2

lx

qk kN/m2



ly

gk = permanent load
qk = variable load

Length of shorter side


Length of longer side
Constant
Characteristic permanent load
Characteristic variable load
Permanent load factor
Variable load factor
Total design ultimate load

lx=6 m
ly=8 m
k'=ly/lx=1.3333
gk=4 kN/m2
qk=5 kN/m2
gamG=1.35
gamQ=1.5
n=gamG*gk+gamQ*qk=1.35*4+1.5*5
=12.9 kN/m2
The slab middle strips will be taken as three-quarters of the width and
each edge strip one-eighth of the width.
Middle strip width (short side)
mstrwx=0.75*lx=4.5 m
Middle strip width (long side)
mstrwy=0.75*ly=6 m
Overall depth of slab
h=200 mm
Char cylinder compress strength
fck=25 N/mm2 (concrete)
Char yield strength of reinft.
fyk=500 N/mm2
Mean value axial tensile strength fctm=0.3*fck^(2/3)=0.3*25^(2/3)
=2.565 N/mm2 (concrete)
Size
Size
Size
Size

of
of
of
of

upper
lower
upper
lower

bars
bars
bars
bars

in
in
in
in

x-direction
x-direction
y-direction
y-direction

diaux=20 mm
diax=20 mm
diauy=16 mm
diay=16 mm

Reinforcement at top of slab:


Durability and cover to reinforcement

Life of structure
50 years
Exposure class
XC2
Designed concrete
C 25 /30
Minimum cover
covern=25 mm
Fixing tolerance
tol=10 mm
Nominal cover (Cl. 4.4.1.1(2))
cover=35 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 086. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC086 EC

Office: 1007
Chosen fire resistance period
fire=2 hours
The slab thickness 200 mm and selected 35 mm nominal cover will
provide a fire period of 2 hour/s, hence satisfactory.
Reinforcement at bottom of slab:
Durability and cover to reinforcement

Life of structure
50 years
Exposure class
XC2
Designed concrete
C 25 /30
Minimum cover
covern=25 mm
Fixing tolerance
tol=10 mm
Nominal cover (Cl. 4.4.1.1(2))
cover=35 mm
Chosen fire resistance period
fire=2 hours
The slab thickness 200 mm and selected 35 mm nominal cover will
provide a fire period of 2 hour/s, hence satisfactory.
Nominal cover at top of slab
tcover=35 mm
Nominal cover at bottom of slab
bcover=35 mm
Effective depths:
Of top steel:

in x-direction dux=155 mm
in y-direction duy=dux-(diaux+diauy)/2
=155-(20+16)/2
=137 mm
Of bottom steel: in x-direction dx=155 mm
in y-direction dy=dx-(diax+diay)/2=155-(20+16)/2
=137 mm
/ / / / / / / / / /
//
/
gk kN/m2
/

/
/ lx=6 m
/
qk kN/m2
/

//
/ / / / / / / / / /

ly=8 m

Negative mt.coefft.at cont.edges


Positive mt.coefft.at midspan
Long-span coefft.at cont edges
Long-span coefft.at midspan

All four edges continuous

Coefficients from the ISE


Manual to EC2, Table 5.3.

betsxn=TABLE 5.3 for row=1, k'=1.3333


=0.047333
betsxp=TABLE 5.3 for row=2, k'=1.3333
=0.035667
betsyn=0.032
betsyp=0.024

Short span lx at continuous edges

Design moment
M=betsxn*n*mstrwy*lx^2
=0.047333*12.9*6*6^2
=131.89 kNm
Size of upper bars
dia=20 mm
Breadth of section
b=1000 mm
Effective depth of section
d=dux=155 mm
Width of middle strip
wms=6 m

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 086. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC086 EC

Office: 1007
Design yield strength of reinft. fyd=fyk/gams=500/1.15=434.8 N/mm2
Redistribution ratio
delta=1
It is usual practice in the UK to restrict x/d to 0.45
Limit on factor
delta=0.85
Factor
K'=0.597*delta-0.18*delta^2-0.209
=0.597*0.85-0.18*0.85^2-0.209
=0.1684
Factor
K=M*1E6/(b*wms*d^2*fck)
=131.9*1E6/(1000*6*155^2*25)
=0.0366
Lever arm
z=d/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*K))
=155/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*0.0366))
=149.8 mm
Reduce lever arm to
z=0.95*d=0.95*155=147.3 mm
Tension reinforcement required
Asxe=M*1E6/(fyd*z)
=131.9*1E6/(434.8*147.3)
=2060 mm2
Mean width of the tension zone
bt=b*wms=1000*6=6000 mm
Minimum reinforcement required
Asmin=0.26*fctm*bt*d/fyk
=0.26*2.565*6000*155/500
=1240 mm2
Maximum reinforcement permitted
Asmax=0.04*bt*h=0.04*6000*200
=48000 mm2
Minimum pitch
pchmn=75 mm
Maximum pitch of bars (<3h)
pchmx=400 mm
Calculated pitch of tension bars pchxe=1000*mstrwy*PI*dia^2/(4*Asxe)
=1000*6*3.142*20^2/(4*2060)
=915 mm
Rounded spacing (c.to c.of bars) 900 mm
As this exceeds the maximum permissible spacing 400 mm, employ
spacing pchxe of
400 mm (maximum value)
Chosen spacing of tension bars
pchxe=400 mm
Number of bars required
Noxe=INT(1000*mstrwy/pchxe)+1
=INT(1000*6/400)+1
=16
Area of tension steel provided
Aspxe=Noxe*PI*dia^2/4=16*3.142*20^2/4
=5027 mm2
Ratio Areq/Aprov
rareas=Asxe/Aspxe=2060/5027
=0.4098
Tension steel provided
per=Aspxe/(10*mstrwy*h)
=5027/(10*6*200)
=0.4189 % of gross section.
Char axial tensile strength
fctk=0.7*fctm
=0.7*2.565
=1.795 N/mm2 (concrete)
Char anchorage bond strength
fbd=2.25*eta1*eta2*fctk/gamc
=2.25*1*1*1.795/1.5
=2.693 N/mm2
compute ratio Areq/Aprov
rareas=0.4098
Actual design stress in steel
fyd'=fyd*rareas=434.8*0.4098
=178.2 N/mm2
Anchorage bond length
lb=INT(dia*fyd'/(4*fbd))
=INT(20*178.2/(4*2.693))
=330 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 086. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC086 EC

Office: 1007
Long span ly at continuous edges

Design moment
M=betsyn*n*mstrwx*lx^2
=0.032*12.9*4.5*6^2
=66.87 kNm
Size of upper bars
dia=16 mm
Breadth of section
b=1000 mm
Effective depth of section
d=duy=137 mm
Width of middle strip
wms=4.5 m
Design yield strength of reinft. fyd=fyk/gams=500/1.15=434.8 N/mm2
Redistribution ratio
delta=1
It is usual practice in the UK to restrict x/d to 0.45
Limit on factor
delta=0.85
Factor
K'=0.597*delta-0.18*delta^2-0.209
=0.597*0.85-0.18*0.85^2-0.209
=0.1684
Factor
K=M*1E6/(b*wms*d^2*fck)
=66.87*1E6/(1000*4.5*137^2*25)
=0.0317
Lever arm
z=d/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*K))
=137/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*0.0317))
=133.1 mm
Reduce lever arm to
z=0.95*d=0.95*137=130.2 mm
Tension reinforcement required
Asye=M*1E6/(fyd*z)
=66.87*1E6/(434.8*130.2)
=1182 mm2
Mean width of the tension zone
bt=b*wms=1000*4.5=4500 mm
Minimum reinforcement required
Asmin=0.26*fctm*bt*d/fyk
=0.26*2.565*4500*137/500
=822.3 mm2
Maximum reinforcement permitted
Asmax=0.04*bt*h=0.04*4500*200
=36000 mm2
Minimum pitch
pchmn=75 mm
Maximum pitch of bars (<3h)
pchmx=400 mm
Calculated pitch of tension bars pchye=1000*mstrwx*PI*dia^2/(4*Asye)
=1000*4.5*3.142*16^2/(4*1182)
=765.6 mm
Rounded spacing (c.to c.of bars) 750 mm
As this exceeds the maximum permissible spacing 400 mm, employ
spacing pchye of
400 mm (maximum value)
Chosen spacing of tension bars
pchye=400 mm
Number of bars required
Noye=INT(1000*mstrwx/pchye)+1
=INT(1000*4.5/400)+1
=12
Area of tension steel provided
Aspye=Noye*PI*dia^2/4=12*3.142*16^2/4
=2413 mm2
Ratio Areq/Aprov
rareas=Asye/Aspye=1182/2413
=0.4898
Tension steel provided
per=Aspye/(10*mstrwx*h)
=2413/(10*4.5*200)
=0.2681 % of gross section.
Char axial tensile strength
fctk=0.7*fctm
=0.7*2.565
=1.795 N/mm2 (concrete)
Char anchorage bond strength
fbd=2.25*eta1*eta2*fctk/gamc
=2.25*1*1*1.795/1.5
=2.693 N/mm2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 086. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC086 EC

Office: 1007
compute ratio Areq/Aprov
rareas=0.4898
Actual design stress in steel
fyd'=fyd*rareas=434.8*0.4898
=213 N/mm2
Anchorage bond length
lb=INT(dia*fyd'/(4*fbd))
=INT(16*213/(4*2.693))
=316 mm
Short span lx at midspan

Design moment
M=betsxp*n*mstrwy*lx^2
=0.0357*12.9*6*6^2
=99.38 kNm
Size of upper bars
dia=20 mm
Breadth of section
b=1000 mm
Effective depth of section
d=dx=155 mm
Width of middle strip
wms=6 m
Design yield strength of reinft. fyd=fyk/gams=500/1.15=434.8 N/mm2
Redistribution ratio
delta=1
It is usual practice in the UK to restrict x/d to 0.45
Limit on factor
delta=0.85
Factor
K'=0.597*delta-0.18*delta^2-0.209
=0.597*0.85-0.18*0.85^2-0.209
=0.1684
Factor
K=M*1E6/(b*wms*d^2*fck)
=99.38*1E6/(1000*6*155^2*25)
=0.0276
Lever arm
z=d/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*K))
=155/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*0.0276))
=151.1 mm
Reduce lever arm to
z=0.95*d=0.95*155=147.3 mm
Tension reinforcement required
Asxm=M*1E6/(fyd*z)
=99.38*1E6/(434.8*147.3)
=1552 mm2
Mean width of the tension zone
bt=b*wms=1000*6=6000 mm
Minimum reinforcement required
Asmin=0.26*fctm*bt*d/fyk
=0.26*2.565*6000*155/500
=1240 mm2
Maximum reinforcement permitted
Asmax=0.04*bt*h=0.04*6000*200
=48000 mm2
Minimum pitch
pchmn=75 mm
Maximum pitch of bars (<3h)
pchmx=400 mm
Calculated pitch of tension bars pchxm=1000*mstrwy*PI*dia^2/(4*Asxm)
=1000*6*3.142*20^2/(4*1552)
=1214 mm
Rounded spacing (c.to c.of bars) 1200 mm
As this exceeds the maximum permissible spacing 400 mm, employ
spacing pchxm of
400 mm (maximum value)
Chosen spacing of tension bars
pchxm=400 mm
Number of bars required
Noxm=INT(1000*mstrwy/pchxm)+1
=INT(1000*6/400)+1
=16
Area of tension steel provided
Aspxm=Noxm*PI*dia^2/4=16*3.142*20^2/4
=5027 mm2
Ratio Areq/Aprov
rareas=Asxm/Aspxm=1552/5027
=0.3088
Tension steel provided
per=Aspxm/(10*mstrwy*h)
=5027/(10*6*200)
=0.4189 % of gross section.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 086. (ans=1)


Page: 6
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC086 EC

Office: 1007
Char axial tensile strength
fctk=0.7*fctm
=0.7*2.565
=1.795 N/mm2 (concrete)
Char anchorage bond strength
fbd=2.25*eta1*eta2*fctk/gamc
=2.25*1*1*1.795/1.5
=2.693 N/mm2
compute ratio Areq/Aprov
rareas=0.3088
Actual design stress in steel
fyd'=fyd*rareas=434.8*0.3088
=134.3 N/mm2
Anchorage bond length
lb=INT(dia*fyd'/(4*fbd))
=INT(20*134.3/(4*2.693))
=249 mm
Long span ly at midspan

Design moment
M=betsyp*n*mstrwx*lx^2
=0.024*12.9*4.5*6^2
=50.16 kNm
Size of upper bars
dia=16 mm
Breadth of section
b=1000 mm
Effective depth of section
d=dy=137 mm
Width of middle strip
wms=4.5 m
Design yield strength of reinft. fyd=fyk/gams=500/1.15=434.8 N/mm2
Redistribution ratio
delta=1
It is usual practice in the UK to restrict x/d to 0.45
Limit on factor
delta=0.85
Factor
K'=0.597*delta-0.18*delta^2-0.209
=0.597*0.85-0.18*0.85^2-0.209
=0.1684
Factor
K=M*1E6/(b*wms*d^2*fck)
=50.16*1E6/(1000*4.5*137^2*25)
=0.0238
Lever arm
z=d/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*K))
=137/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*0.0238))
=134.1 mm
Reduce lever arm to
z=0.95*d=0.95*137=130.2 mm
Tension reinforcement required
Asym=M*1E6/(fyd*z)
=50.16*1E6/(434.8*130.2)
=886.3 mm2
Mean width of the tension zone
bt=b*wms=1000*4.5=4500 mm
Minimum reinforcement required
Asmin=0.26*fctm*bt*d/fyk
=0.26*2.565*4500*137/500
=822.3 mm2
Maximum reinforcement permitted
Asmax=0.04*bt*h=0.04*4500*200
=36000 mm2
Minimum pitch
pchmn=75 mm
Maximum pitch of bars (<3h)
pchmx=400 mm
Calculated pitch of tension bars pchym=1000*mstrwx*PI*dia^2/(4*Asym)
=1000*4.5*3.142*16^2/(4*886.3)
=1021 mm
Rounded spacing (c.to c.of bars) 1000 mm
As this exceeds the maximum permissible spacing 400 mm, employ
spacing pchym of
400 mm (maximum value)
Chosen spacing of tension bars
pchym=400 mm
Number of bars required
Noym=INT(1000*mstrwx/pchym)+1
=INT(1000*4.5/400)+1
=12

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 086. (ans=1)


Page: 7
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC086 EC

Office: 1007
Area of tension steel provided
Aspym=Noym*PI*dia^2/4=12*3.142*16^2/4
=2413 mm2
Ratio Areq/Aprov
rareas=Asym/Aspym=886.3/2413
=0.3674
Tension steel provided
per=Aspym/(10*mstrwx*h)
=2413/(10*4.5*200)
=0.2681 % of gross section.
Char axial tensile strength
fctk=0.7*fctm
=0.7*2.565
=1.795 N/mm2 (concrete)
Char anchorage bond strength
fbd=2.25*eta1*eta2*fctk/gamc
=2.25*1*1*1.795/1.5
=2.693 N/mm2
compute ratio Areq/Aprov
rareas=0.3674
Actual design stress in steel
fyd'=fyd*rareas=434.8*0.3674
=159.7 N/mm2
Anchorage bond length
lb=INT(dia*fyd'/(4*fbd))
=INT(16*159.7/(4*2.693))
=237 mm
Check on span/effective-depth ratio (in lx direction)

Effective span
L=6 m
Percentage area of steel required rho=100*Asxm/(b*mstrwy*d)
=100*1552/(1000*6*137)
=0.1888 %
Actual span to depth ratio
l'd=L*1000/d=6*1000/137
=43.8
Reference reinforcement ratio
rho0=(fck^0.5)/10=(25^0.5)/10
=0.5 %
Basic span effective depth ratio terms (Clause 7.4.2)
N1=1.5*(fck^0.5)*rho0/rho
=1.5*(25^0.5)*0.5/0.1888
=19.86
N2=3.2*(fck^0.5)*(rho0/rho-1)^1.5
=3.2*(25^0.5)*(0.5/0.1888-1)^1.5
=33.84
N=11+N1+N2=11+19.86+33.84
=64.7
Factor for interior spans
k=1.5
Flange beam factor
F1=1
Factor for long spans
F2=1.0
Tensile steel stress factor
F3=500/(fyk*As/Aspr)
=500/(500*1552/5027)
=3.238 (conservative)
Use limiting value of
F3=1.5
Allowable span/depth ratio
l'da=k*N*F1*F2*F3=1.5*64.7*1*1*1.5
=145.6
Absolute value of span/depth
l'da=40*k=40*1.5=60

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 086. (ans=1)


Page: 8
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC086 EC

Office: 1007
DESIGN
SUMMARY
DEFLECTION

Actual l/d ratio


43.8
Basic l/d ratio
64.7
Span factor
1.5
Flange beam factor F1
1
Long spans factor F2
1
Steel stress factor F3
1.5
Allowable l/d ratio
60
Note: If the percentage reinforcement is less than 0.4% care should
be taken with the EC2 values as the deflection equations used give
unrealistically high values. Both EC2 Part 1:2004 Table 7.4N and
NA Table NA.5 give span/effective depth ratios for C30/37 concrete
and reinforcement percentage, =0.5% as follows:
Simply supported spans
20
End spans
26
Interior spans
30
SUMMARY OF REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED ( fy=500 N/mm2 )

At edges in x-direction:
Characteristic strength
Area of steel required Asxe
Area of steel provided Aspxe
Percentage of steel provided
Size of bars
Number of bars provided
Spacing of bars
Minimum bond length required
Effective depth adopted

500 N/mm2
2060 mm2
5027 mm2
0.4189 %
20 mm
16
400 mm centres
330 mm
155 mm

At midspan in x-direction:
Characteristic strength
Area of steel required Asxm
Area of steel provided Aspxm
Percentage of steel provided
Size of bars
Number of bars provided
Spacing of bars
Minimum bond length required
Effective depth adopted

500 N/mm2
1552 mm2
5027 mm2
0.4189 %
20 mm
16
400 mm centres
249 mm
155 mm

At edges in y-direction:
Characteristic strength
Area of steel required Asye
Area of steel provided Aspye
Percentage of steel provided
Size of bars
Number of bars provided
Spacing of bars
Minimum bond length required
Effective depth adopted

500 N/mm2
1182 mm2
2413 mm2
0.2681 %
16 mm
12
400 mm centres
316 mm
137 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 086. (ans=1)


Page: 9
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC086 EC

Office: 1007
At midspan in y-direction:
Characteristic strength
Area of steel required Asym
Area of steel provided Aspym
Percentage of steel provided
Size of bars
Number of bars provided
Spacing of bars
Minimum bond length required
Effective depth adopted

500 N/mm2
886.3 mm2
2413 mm2
0.2681 %
16 mm
12
400 mm centres
237 mm
137 mm

Minimum tension reinforcement in edge strips

Mean width of the tension zone


b=1000 mm
Minimum reinforcement required
Asmin=0.26*fctm*b*d/fyk
=0.26*2.565*1000*155/500
=206.7 mm2 per metre
Diameter of distribution bars
diamin=12 mm
Minimum pitch
pchmn=75 mm
Maximum pitch of bars (<3h)
pchmx=400 mm
Calculated pitch of tension bars pchmin=1000*PI*diamin^2/(4*Asmin)
=1000*3.142*12^2/(4*206.7)
=547.1 mm
Rounded spacing (c.to c.of bars) 500 mm
As this exceeds the maximum permissible spacing 400 mm, employ
spacing pchmin of
400 mm (maximum value)
Chosen spacing of tension bars
pchmin=400 mm
Area of dist.steel provided
Asmpro=1000*PI*diamin^2/(4*pchmin)
=1000*3.142*12^2/(4*400)
=282.7 mm2/m
Minimum reinforcement in edge strips:
Characteristic strength
Minimum area required Asmin
Steel area provided Asmpro
Size of bars
Spacing of bars

500 N/mm2
206 mm2 per m
282 mm2 per m
12 mm
400 mm centres

No torsion reinforcement is required (see ISE Manual, Section 5.2.3.3).


Shear check

Case 1

Area of steel required


Area of tension steel provided
Effective depth of section
Location for shear calculation:
Shear force due to ultimate load
Effective breadth for shear
Maximum concrete strut capacity

As=2060 mm2
Aspr=5027 mm2
d=155 mm
Shear on long side of slab
VEd=55 kN
bw=b=1000 mm
VRdm=0.2*fck*(1-fck/250)*bw*d/10^3
=0.2*25*(1-25/250)*1000*155/10^3
=697.5 kN
Consider 100% of tension reinforcement at the shear section.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 086. (ans=1)


Page: 10
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC086 EC

Office: 1007
Area of reinforcement at section Asl=Aspr=5027 mm2/m
Percentage area
rho1=100*Asl/(bw*d)
=100*5027/(1000*155)
=3.243 %
Ratio Asl/(bw*d) exceeds the upper limit of 2.0%.
No 86

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 092. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Slender rectangular column - biaxial bending
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC092 BS

Office: 1007
Location: Column C1 (Ground to 1st floor)
Slender rectangular column subjected to biaxial bending and thrust

Design to BS8110(1997) with partial safety factor for steel gammaS=1.15


Y
Additional moments are calculated

in accordance with Clause 3.8.3
o

o
of BS8110, and section design is

undertaken using data similar to


that used to prepare the design


h X X
charts in the IStructE/ICE 'Manual
h'

for the design of reinforced


concrete building structures'



o

Y
b'
b
Depth of cross-section
h=500 mm
Width of cross-section
b=300 mm
Size of main bars
dia=25 mm
Chosen size of links
dial=8 mm
Characteristic concrete strength fcu=30 N/mm2
Characteristic steel strength
fy=500 N/mm2
Designed concrete mix to be used. Cover data from Tables A.4 & A.5 of
BS8500-1:2006.
Intended life of structure (for durability considerations) is 50 years.
Designated exposure class is XC2
Specified fixing tolerance
tol=10 mm
Chosen fire resistance (-4 hrs) fire=2 hours
From Table 3.4 of BS8110: Part 1, minimum cover required for column
with a fire period of 2 hour/s is 25 mm
Min.nominal cover to all steel is 35 mm
Nominal concrete cover
cover=35 mm
From Figure 3.2 of BS8110: Part 1, minimum possible dimension for
fully-exposed column with fire period of 2 hour/s is 300 mm
Breadth provided complies with fire regulations (Fig. 3.2 of Code).
Effective depth about X-X axis
h'=444.5 mm
Effective depth about Y-Y axis
b'=244.5 mm
Clear height between restraints
lo=6 m
Design ultimate axial load
N=1000 kN
Moments about X-X axis:
Larger initial end mt (positive) M2x=100 kNm
Smaller initial end moment
M1x=-60 kNm
Moments about Y-Y axis:
Larger initial end mt (positive) M2y=80 kNm
Smaller initial end moment
M1y=-50 kNm
About X-X axis:
Fixity condition at top (1-4)
ctx=2
Fixity condition at bottom (1-3) cbx=3
and column is unbraced about X-X axis.
About Y-Y axis:
Fixity condition at top (1-4)
cty=1
Fixity condition at bottom (1-3) cby=1
and column is braced about Y-Y axis.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 092. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Slender rectangular column - biaxial bending
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC092 BS

Office: 1007
Calculation of effective heights

X-X axis: -value from Table 3.20 betx=1.8


Effective height
lex=betx*lo=10.8 m
Y-Y axis: -value from Table 3.19 bety=0.75
Effective height
ley=bety*lo=4.5 m
Slenderness ratio in YY-plane
lex/h=21.6
Slenderness ratio in XX-plane
ley/b=15
Calculation of Nuz and reduction factor K

'Balanced' load
Nbl=0.25*fcu*b*h/1E3
=0.25*30*300*500/1E3
=1125 kN
Area assumed for this calculation Ase=600 mm2
'Pure' axial resistance
Nuz=(0.45*fcu*b*h+fy/gammaS*Ase)/1E3
=(0.45*30*300*500+500/1.15*600)/1E3
=2285.9 kN
As reduction factor
K=(Nuz-N)/(Nuz-Nbl)
=(2285.9-1000)/(2285.9-1125)
=1.1077
exceeds 1, take reduction factor K=1
Bending about minor axis (in X-X plane, to resist moment My)

Column is not slender in X-X plane,


minor-axis design moment
My=M2y=80 kNm
Bending about major axis (in Y-Y plane, to resist moment Mx)

Column is unbraced in Y-Y plane (about X-X axis), so Cl.3.8.3.7 applies.


Ultimate limit-state deflection
au=K*h*(lex/h)^2/2
=1*500*(10.8/500)^2/2
=0.11664 m
and additional moment
Madd=N*au=1000*0.11664=116.64 kNm
Assume M2x acts at the stiffer end, i.e.
major-axis design moment
Mx=M2x+Madd=100+116.64=216.64 kNm
Section design ratios for chart entry

(Note: it is assumed that the maximum design moments Mx and My occur at


the same point along the column. If this assumption is incorrect
the error is on the side of safety.
Axial load ratio
Nratio=N*1000/(b*h*fcu)
=1000*1000/(300*500*30)
=0.22222
From Table 3.22, -coefficient
beta=TABLE 3.24 for Nratio=0.22222
=0.74333
As Mx/h' exceeds My/b', calculate Mx'=Mx*10^6+beta*h'*My*10^6/b'
=216.64*10^6+0.74333*444.5*80
*10^6/244.5
=324.75E6 Nmm
and
Mratio=Mx'/(b*h^2*fcu)
=324.75E6/(300*500^2*30)
=0.14433

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 092. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Slender rectangular column - biaxial bending
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC092 BS

Office: 1007
with
d'h=h'/h=444.5/500=0.889
Design of main bars

From tables corresponding to the charts given in the IStructE/ICE


'Manual for the design of reinforced concrete building structures':
With cover ratio of 0.90
per1=TABLE 8110.2 for Nratio
=0.22222, Mratio=0.14433
=0.26252
With cover ratio of 0.85
per2=TABLE 8110.3 for Nratio
=0.22222, Mratio=0.14433
=0.3047
Interpolating, we obtain
per=per1+(per2-per1)*(0.90-d'h)/0.05
=0.26252+(0.3047-0.26252)*(0.90
-0.889)/0.05
=0.2718
Actual steel percentage required p=100*alpha*fcu/fy=100*0.2718*30/500
=1.6308 %
Required area of reinforcement
Asc=p*b*h/100=1.6308*300*500/100
=2446.2 mm2
Area of two 25 mm diameter bars
area=981.75 mm2
Number of 25 mm bars required
nmin=2*INT(Asc/area)+2
=2*INT(2446.2/981.75)+2
=6
Number of bars provided
nbars=6
Percentage of steel provided
perpro=100*nbars*PI*dia^2/(4*b*h)
=100*6*3.1416*25^2/(4*300*500)
=1.9635 %
As this does not exceed the Code limit of 6%, this is acceptable.
Distributing the main bars uniformly along the b-faces gives a spacing
for a single layer of spabrx=INT(b''/(nbars/2-1))=INT(189/(6/2-1))
=94 mm
Spacing of main bars

Along the b-faces, the bar spacing (c.to c.) is 94 mm


Along the h-faces, the bar spacing (c.to c.) is 389 mm
Design of links

Required spacing of links

spalk=10*INT(12*dia/10)
=10*INT(12*25/10)
=300 mm (rounded)
This is satisfactory, as spacing does not exceed min.column dimension.
MAIN
REINFORCEMENT
SUMMARY

Characteristic strength
Area of steel required
Area of steel provided
Percentage provided
Weight of steel provided
Diameter of bars
Number of bars
to be placed along b-faces (spaced at 94 mm, assuming one

500 N/mm2
2446.2 mm2
2945.2 mm2
1.9635 %
23.12 kg/m
25 mm
6
layer).

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 092. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Slender rectangular column - biaxial bending
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC092 BS

Office: 1007
LINK
REINFORCEMENT
SUMMARY

Characteristic strength
Diameter of links
Max.longitudinal spacing
Approx.weight of links

500 N/mm2
8 mm
300 mm
1.8623 kg/m

Approx.total wt.of steel

24.982 kg/m
No 92

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 092. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Slender rectangular column - biaxial bending
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC092 EC

Office: 1007
Location: Biaxial bending example
Isolated rectangular section subject bending and thrust

Design to EN 1992 -1 -1:2004,


Eurocode 2: Design of concrete
structures.
The main reinforcement design is
based on balancing, by iterative
means, of the two derived expressions
for areas of reinforcing steel one for axial load and the other
for bending.
One layer of steel is assumed for
the axis of bending.
Materials

Partial safety factor for steel


Partial safety factor for conc.
Char cylinder compress strength
Char yield strength of reinft.
Design yield strength of reinft.
Max.aggregate size (for bar spc.)
Diameter of compression bars
Diameter of link legs

Z

o

h Y Y
d

Z
b'
b

gams=1.15
gamc=1.5
fck=30 N/mm2 (concrete)
fyk=500 N/mm2
fyd=fyk/gams=500/1.15=434.78 N/mm2
hagg=25 mm
dia=32 mm
dial=8 mm

Durability and cover to reinforcement

Life of structure
50 years
Exposure class
XC1
Designed concrete
C 30 /37
Minimum cover
covern=35 mm
Fixing tolerance
tol=10 mm
Nominal cover (Cl. 4.4.1.1(2))
cover=45 mm
Section properties

Overall depth of section


Overall breadth of section
Depth to comp. reinforcement
Effective depth of section
Effective breadth of section

h=350 mm
b=350 mm
d2=69 mm
d=h-d2=350-69=281 mm
b'=b-d2=350-69=281 mm

Loading details

Clear height between restraints


Design ultimate axial load
Larger initial end mt.(y-y axis)
Smaller initial end moment
Larger initial end mt.(z-z axis)
Smaller initial end moment

l=3.2 m
N=1650 kN
M2y=146.1 kNm
M1y=0 kNm
M2z=114.5 kNm
M1z=0 kNm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 092. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Slender rectangular column - biaxial bending
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC092 EC

Office: 1007
Material values

Value
eta=1-(fck-50)/200=1-(30-50)/200
=1.1
As eta>1 then
eta=1
Design strength concrete
fcd=0.85*fck/gamc*eta=0.85*30/1.5*1
=17 N/mm2
Factor
lam=0.8
Slenderness - Clause 5.8.3.2

About Y-Y axis:


Column is considered to be braced.
Fixity condition at top (1-3)
cty=2
Fixity condition at bottom (1-3) cby=2
-value
bety=0.85
Effective height
loy=bety*l*1000=0.85*3.2*1000
=2720 mm
About Z-Z axis:
Column is considered to be braced.
Fixity condition at top (1-3)
ctz=2
Fixity condition at bottom (1-3) cbz=2
-value
betz=0.85
Effective height
loz=betz*l*1000=0.85*3.2*1000
=2720 mm
Check slenderness

For Y-Y stronger axis:


Radius of gyration
Slenderness
Factor
Assume 8 /32 mm bars
Steel area

iy=h/(12)^0.5=350/(12)^0.5
=101.04 mm
lamy=loy/iy=2720/101.04=26.921
A=0.7 default

Asest=no*PI/4*dia^2=8*3.1416/4*32^2
=6434 mm2
Ratio of loads
w=Asest*fyd/(b*h*fcd)
=6434*434.78/(350*350*17)
=1.3433
Factor
B=(1+2*w)^0.5=(1+2*1.3433)^0.5
=1.92
Factor
C=1.7-M1y/M2y=1.7-0/146.1
=1.7
Relative normal force
n=NEd/(b*h*fcd)=1.65E6/(350*350*17)
=0.79232
Limiting slenderness
lamly=20*A*B*C/n^0.5
=20*0.7*1.92*1.7/0.79232^0.5
=51.338
Column is classified as being short in accordance with EC2 Part 1-1.
For Z-Z weaker axis:
Radius of gyration
Slenderness
Factor
Factor

iz=b/(12)^0.5=350/(12)^0.5
=101.04 mm
lamz=loz/iz=2720/101.04=26.921
A=0.7 default
B=1.92

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 092. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Slender rectangular column - biaxial bending
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC092 EC

Office: 1007
Factor
C=1.7-M1z/M2z=1.7-0/114.5
=1.7
Relative normal force
n=NEd/(b*h*fcd)=1.65E6/(350*350*17)
=0.79232
Limiting slenderness
lamlz=20*A*B*C/n^0.5
=20*0.7*1.92*1.7/0.79232^0.5
=51.338
Column is classified as being short in accordance with EC2 Part 1-1.
Design moments - Clause 5.8.8.2

Consider Y-Y axis:


Imperfections eccentricity
Load NEd eccentricity
Minimum eccentricity
Design bending moment
Design bending moment
Equivalent first order moment
Moment for 2nd. order effects
Design moment
Consider Z-Z axis:
Imperfections eccentricity
Load eccentricity
Minimum eccentricity
Design bending moment

e1=loy/400=2720/400=6.8 mm
e0=h/30=350/30=11.667 mm
e0=20 mm
Mo2=M2y*10^6+e1*NEd
=146.1*10^6+6.8*1.65E6
=157.32E6 Nmm
Mo1=ABS(M1y*10^6)+e1*NEd
=ABS(0*10^6)+6.8*1.65E6
=11.22E6 Nmm
Moe=0.6*Mo2+0.4*Mo1
=0.6*157.32E6+0.4*11.22E6
=98.88E6 Nmm
M2=0 (as column is not slender)
MEdy=Mo2=157.32E6 Nmm

e1=loz/400=2720/400=6.8 mm
e0=b/30=350/30=11.667 mm
e0=20 mm
Mo2=M2z*10^6+e1*NEd
=114.5*10^6+6.8*1.65E6
=125.72E6 Nmm
Design bending moment
Mo1=ABS(M1z*10^6)+e1*NEd
=ABS(0*10^6)+6.8*1.65E6
=11.22E6 Nmm
Equivalent first order moment
Moe=0.6*Mo2+0.4*Mo1
=0.6*125.72E6+0.4*11.22E6
=79.92E6 Nmm
Moment for 2nd. order effects
M2=0 (as column is not slender)
Design moment (z-z axis)
MEdz=Mo2=125.72E6 Nmm
One axis of bending only used to determine reinforcement, then
check for biaxial bending.
Moment ratio y-y axis
raty=MEdy/(b*h^2*fck)
=157.32E6/(350*350^2*30)
=0.12231
Moment ratio z-z axis
ratz=MEdz/(b^2*h*fck)
=125.72E6/(350^2*350*30)
=0.097741
Consider moment about y-y axis ( 157.32E6 Nmm ) and axial load.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 092. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Slender rectangular column - biaxial bending
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC092 EC

Office: 1007
Axial load and moment considerations

Effective/overall-depth ratio
d2h=d2/h=69/350=0.19714
Axial load ratio
Nrat=NEd/(b*h*fck)
=1.65E6/(350*350*30)
=0.44898
Moment ratio
Mrat=MEd/(b*h^2*fck)
=157.32E6/(350*350^2*30)
=0.12231
Longitudinal reinforcement

Chart data for rectangular columns is taken from 'The Concrete Centre'
publication entitled 'Worked Examples to Eurocode 2: Volume 1'.
Ratio of d2/h
d2h=0.19714
From table with d2/h=0.20
NEd/(b.h.fck)=0.44898
MEd/(b.h^2.fck)=0.12231
Look-up value
As.fyk/(b.h.fck)=0.36224
From table with d2/h=0.15
NEd/(b.h.fck)=0.44898
MEd/(b.h^2.fck)=0.12231
Look-up value
As.fyk/(b.h.fck)=0.31565
Interpolating, we obtain
val=0.35958
Area of steel required
As=val*fck/fyk*b*h
=0.35958*30/500*350*350
=2642.9 mm2
Area of two 32 mm diameter bars is 1608.5 mm2
Number of 32 mm bars required
nbar=2*INT(As/area)+2
=2*INT(2642.9/1608.5)+2
=4
Number of bars provided
nbars=8
Area of steel provided
Aspro=nbars*PI*dia^2/4
=8*3.1416*32^2/4
=6434 mm2
Percentage of steel provided
perpro=100*Aspro/(b*h)
=100*6434/(350*350)
=5.2522 %
Permitted minimum & maximum areas of longitudinal reinforcement

Minimum area of reinforcement


Asmin=379.5 mm2
Maximum area of reinforcement
Asmax=0.04*b*h=0.04*350*350
=4900 mm2
Transverse reinforcement (links)

Minimum of one quarter main bar


Maximum spacing is the minimum of
Based on main bar diameter
Minimum column dimension
Maximum dimension
Maximum spacing
This spacing should be reduced by
equal to the larger dimension of
below a beam or slab.

ldia=dia/4=32/4=8 mm
the three following distances.
smx1=20*dia=20*32=640 mm
smx2=b=350 mm
smx3=400 mm
smx=350 mm
a factor of 0.6 within a distance
the column cross-section above or

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 092. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Slender rectangular column - biaxial bending
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC092 EC

Office: 1007
Check for biaxial bending

Ratio of slenderness
sl=lamz/lamy=26.921/26.921
=1
Ratio 2, however check eccentricity condition.
Eccentricity (along y-y axis)
ey=MEdz/NEd=125.72E6/1.65E6
=76.194 mm
Eccentricity (along z-z axis)
ez=MEdy/NEd=157.32E6/1.65E6
=95.345 mm
Radius of gyration (y-y axis)
iy=(h^2/12)^0.5=(350^2/12)^0.5
=101.04 mm
Radius of gyration (z-z axis)
iz=(b^2/12)^0.5=(350^2/12)^0.5
=101.04 mm
Equivalent b dimension
beq=iy*12^0.5=101.04*12^0.5
=350 mm
Equivalent h dimension
heq=iz*12^0.5=101.04*12^0.5
=350 mm
Relative eccentricity (y-y axis) ey'h=ey/heq=76.194/350=0.2177
Relative eccentricity (z-z axis) ez'b=ez/beq=95.345/350=0.27242
Ratio of eccentricities
recc=ey'h/ez'b=0.2177/0.27242
=0.79914
As recc > 0.2 further check is required for biaxial bending.
Axial load
NEd=1.65E6 N
Axial resistance of section
NRd=b*h*fcd+Aspro*fyd
=350*350*17+6434*434.78
=4.8799E6 N
Ratio of load terms
Nr=NEd/NRd=1.65E6/4.8799E6
=0.33812
Value of power
a=TABLE 5 for Nr=0.33812
=1.1984
Moment of resistance

Depth to neutral axis


Load carried by concrete
Strain in the concrete
Strain in compression steel
Stress steel based on strain
Limit to steel stress
Force carried by comp. bars
Strain in tension steel
Steel stress based on strain
Bending term
Axial load term

x=210.7 mm
Nc=0.85*fck/1.5*b*lam*x
=0.85*30/1.5*350*0.8*210.7
=1.0029E6 N
esu=0.0035
esc=esu*(x-d2)/x
=0.0035*(210.7-69)/210.7
=0.0023538
sigsc=esc*200000=0.0023538*200000
=470.76 N/mm2
sigsc=fyk/1.15=500/1.15=434.78
Ns=Aspro/2*sigsc=6434/2*434.78
=1.3987E6 N
est=esu*(h-x-d2)/x
=0.0035*(350-210.7-69)/210.7
=0.0011678
sigst=est*200000=0.0011678*200000
=233.55 N/mm2
mrd1=(sigst+sigsc)*Aspro/2*(h/2-d2)
=(233.55+434.78)*6434/2*(350/2-69)
=227.9E6 Nmm
mrd2=Nc*(h/2-lam*x/2)
=1.0029E6*(350/2-0.8*210.7/2)
=90.986E6 Nmm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 092. (ans=1)


Page: 6
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Slender rectangular column - biaxial bending
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC092 EC

Office: 1007
Moment of resistance
MRd=mrd1+mrd2=227.9E6+90.986E6
=318.89E6 N/mm
Expression for biaxial bending
factor=(MEdy/MRdy)^a+(MEdz/MRdz)^a
=(157.32E6/318.89E6)^1.1984
+(125.72E6/318.89E6)^1.1984
=0.75655
Section suitable no additional reinforcement required to account for
biaxial bending.
DESIGN SUMMARY

Clear column height


Slenderness (Y-Y axis)
Column is short (Y-Y)
Slenderness (Z-Z axis)
Column is short (Z-Z)
Design axial load
Design bending moments:
Y-Y axis
Z-Z axis
Designed area of steel
Area of steel provided
Minimum area of steel
Maximum area of steel
Link diameter
Maximum link spacing
Resistance moment (Y-Y)
Resistance moment (Z-Z)
Biaxial bending factor

3.2 m
26.921
26.921
1650 kN
157.32 kNm
125.72 kNm
2642.9 mm2
6434 mm2
379.5 mm2
4900 mm2
8 mm
350 mm
318.89 kNm
318.89 kNm
0.75655

NOTE: Designed steel exceeds 4% of gross area. However the maximum


area can be increased provided that the concrete can be placed and
compacted sufficiently.
No 92

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 102. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rectangular beam/slab section
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC102 BS

Office: 1007
Design to BS8110(1997) with partial safety factor for steel gammaS=1.15
b

d' o
o

d h


o o o

Moment before redistribution


Shear force due to ultimate loads
Axial load due to ultimate loads
Length of beam/slab
Overall depth of concrete section
Breadth of concrete section
Cover to all reinforcement
Eff.depth of concrete section
Depth to compression steel
BM at section after redistrib.
Characteristic concrete strength
Characteristic strength of links
Char.strength of longitud.bars
Bar is deformed round
Diameter of tension bars
Diameter of links
Section under consideration is at
Main reinforcement

Moment redistribution

Rectangular beam/slab section

Calculations for reinforcement


are in accordance with BS8110.
Normal-weight concrete only.
Mbefor=181.42 kNm
V=50 kN
N=0 kN
len=5 m
h=400 mm
b=200 mm
cover=20 mm
d=357.5 mm
d'=40 mm
M=127 kNm
fcu=40 N/mm2
fyv=500 N/mm2
fy=500 N/mm2
Type=2
dia=25 mm
dial=10 mm
a support.

percnt=100*ABS((Mbefor-M)/Mbefor)
=100*ABS((181.42-127)/181.42)
=29.997 %
Betab ratio in Clause 3.4.4.3
betab=M/Mbefor=127/181.42
=0.70003
Limiting factor for comp steel
K'=0.402*(betab-0.4)-0.18*(betab
-0.4)^2
=0.402*(0.70003-0.4)-0.18*(0.70003
-0.4)^2
=0.10441
Compute
K=M*10^6/(b*d^2*fcu)
=127*10^6/(200*357.5^2*40)
=0.12421
As K exceeds K', compression reinforcement is required and
lever arm
z=d*(0.5+SQR(0.25-K'/0.9))
=357.5*(0.5+SQR(0.25-0.10441/0.9))
=309.61 mm
Depth to neutral axis
x=(d-z)/0.45=(357.5-309.61)/0.45
=106.42 mm
Area of compression reinforcement As'=(K-K')*fcu*b*d^2/(fy/gammaS*(d
-d'))
=(0.12421-0.10441)*40*200*357.5^2
/(500/1.15*(357.5-40))
=146.67 mm2
Increase compression reinforcement to comply with minimum percentage

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 102. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rectangular beam/slab section
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC102 BS

Office: 1007
given in Table 3.25
As'=0.2*b*h/100=0.2*200*400/100
=160 mm2
Diameter of compression bars
diac=12 mm
Number of compression bars reqd. nbarc=INT(As'/(PI*diac^2/4))+1
=INT(160/(3.1416*12^2/4))+1
=2
Area provided
As'pr=nbarc*PI*diac^2/4
=2*3.1416*12^2/4
=226.19 m2
Force in one fully-stressed bar
Fs=fy/gammaS*PI*diac^2/4
=500/1.15*3.1416*12^2/4
=49173 N
Bond coefficient
beta=TABLE 3.28 for Type=2, column=2
=0.63
Ultimate anchorage bond stress
fbu=beta*SQR(fcu)=0.63*SQR(40)
=3.9845 N/mm2
Minimum anchorage length
l=Fs/(PI*diac*fbu)
=49173/(3.1416*12*3.9845)
=327.36 mm
COMPRESSION
Characteristic strength
500 N/mm2
REINFORCEMENT
Diameter of bars
12 mm
SUMMARY
Number of bars
2
Area required
160 mm2
Area provided
226.19 mm2
See BS 8110 ( Anchorage length
330 mm
Cl.3.12.8.15 ( Lap length
410 mm
Area of tension reinforcement

Minimum area of reinforcement


Number of tension bars required

As=K'*fcu*b*d^2/(fy/gammaS*z)+As'
=0.10441*40*200*357.5^2/(500/1.15
*309.61)+160
=953.04 mm2
Asmin=0.13*b*h/100=0.13*200*400/100
=104 mm2 from Table 3.25
nbart=INT(As/(PI*dia^2/4))+1
=INT(953.04/(3.1416*25^2/4))+1
=2

Section under design is a beam.


Edge dist. of reinforcement
Clear distance between bars

edge=cover+dial=20+10=30
clear=(b-nbart*dia-2*edge)/(nbart-1)
=(200-2*25-2*30)/(2-1)
=90 mm
Max.permissible clear distance
pclear=75000*betab/fy
=75000*0.70003/500
=105 mm
Clear distance within permissible ( 90 mm 105 mm ).
Area of tension steel provided
Bond coefficient
Ultimate anchorage bond stress
Force in one fully-stressed bar
Based on bars at full stress:

Asprov=nbart*PI*dia^2/4
=2*3.1416*25^2/4
=981.75 mm2
beta=TABLE 3.28 for Type=2, column=1
=0.5
fbu=beta*SQR(fcu)=0.5*SQR(40)
=3.1623 N/mm2
Fs=fy/gammaS*PI*dia^2/4
=500/1.15*3.1416*25^2/4
=213423 N

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 102. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rectangular beam/slab section
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC102 BS

Office: 1007
Anchor length and tension lap
l=Fs/(PI*dia*fbu)
=213423/(3.1416*25*3.1623)
=859.31 mm
TENSION
REINFORCEMENT
SUMMARY

Characteristic strength
Diameter of bars
Number of bars
Area required
Area provided
See BS 8110 ( Anchorage & tension lap
: Part 1 : ( 1.4 * tension lap
Cl.3.12.8.13 ( 2.0 * tension lap

500 N/mm2
25 mm
2
953.04 mm2
981.75 mm2
860 mm
1210 mm
1730 mm

Shear reinforcement

Breadth of section for shear


Design shear stress

bv=b=200 mm
v=V*1000/(bv*d)=50*1000/(200*357.5)
=0.6993 N/mm2
Number of longitudinal bars in accordance with Clause 3.4.5.4.
No.of long.bars eff.for shear
nbars=2
Area of tens.steel prov.for shear Aspros=nbars*PI*dia^2/4
=2*3.1416*25^2/4
=981.75 mm2
Percentage provided
percnt=100*Aspros/(bv*d)
=100*981.75/(200*357.5)
=1.3731 %
Assuming at least nominal shear reinforcement is to be provided.
As eff.depth does not exceed 400 mm, depth-factor f00d=(400/d)^.25
=(400/357.5)^.25
=1.0285
Then from formula in Note 2 below Table 3.8, with pcnt=100*As/(bv*d),
Design shear stress in concrete
vc=0.79*pcnt^(1/3)*f00d/1.25
=0.79*1.3731^(1/3)*1.0285/1.25
=0.72246 N/mm2
As characteristic concrete strength exceeds 25 N/mm2
therefore increase vc according to footnote in Table 3.8.
Modified design shear stress
vc=vc*(40/25)^(1/3)
=0.72246*(40/25)^(1/3)
=0.84499 N/mm2
2
Design shear stress of 0.6993 N/mm does not exceed critical shear
stress of 0.84499 N/mm2 , so only nominal links need be provided.
Area of two legs of a link

Asv=nlegs*PI*dial^2/4=2*3.1416*10^2/4
=157.08 mm2
Provide minimum links to meet requirements of Table 3.7.
Spacing of links along member
sv=fyv/gammaS*Asv/(0.4*bv)
=500/1.15*157.08/(0.4*200)
=853.69 mm
Limit spacing to sv=0.75*d=268.13 mm in accordance with Clause 3.4.5.5.
Spacing limit for comp.bars
sv=12*diac=12*12=144 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 102. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rectangular beam/slab section
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC102 BS

Office: 1007
SHEAR
Characteristic strength
500 N/mm2
REINFORCEMENT
Diameter of bars
10 mm
SUMMARY
Number of legs
2
Spacing
140 mm
Ensure that no longitudinal bar is
more than 150 mm from vertical leg
No102

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 102. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rectangular beam/slab section
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC102 EC

Office: 1007
Location: Default example
Rectangular beam/slab design

Calculations are based on EN1992-1-1:2004


Eurocode 2:Design of concrete structures
and assume the use of a simplified
rectangular concrete stress-block, and
that the depth to the neutral axis is
restricted to 0.45*d.

d2 b

(o) (o)

As2

d h

As

o o o

Moment before redistribution


Mbef=221 kNm
Shear force due to ultimate loads VEd=102 kN
Axial load due to ultimate loads NEd=0 kN
Length of beam/slab
L=5 m
Overall depth of concrete section h=500 mm
Breadth of concrete section
b=250 mm
The member containing the section being considered is supported
at both ends and is continuous at one or both ends.
Section considered has a hogging moment (support condition).
Materials

Char cylinder compress strength


Char yield strength of reinft
Max.aggregate size (for bar spc.)
Diameter of tension bars
Diameter of link legs

fck=30 N/mm2 (concrete)


fyk=500 N/mm2
hagg=20 mm
dia=25 mm
dial=10 mm

Durability and cover to reinforcement

Life of structure
50 years
Exposure class
XC1
Designed concrete
C 30 /37
Minimum cover
covern=30 mm
Fixing tolerance
tol=5 mm
Nominal cover (Cl. 4.4.1.1(2))
cover=35 mm
Effective values

BM after redistribution
Effective depth
Main reinforcement

Partial safety factor for steel


Char yield strength of reinft.
Partial safety factor for conc.
Char cylinder compress strength
Design yield strength of reinft.
It is usual practice in the UK to
Limit on factor
Factor

M=221 kNm
d=415 mm

gams=1.15
fyk=fy=500 N/mm2
gamc=1.5
fck=30 N/mm2 (concrete)
fyd=fyk/gams=500/1.15=434.8 N/mm2
restrict x/d to 0.45
delta=0.85
K'=0.597*delta-0.18*delta^2-0.209
=0.597*0.85-0.18*0.85^2-0.209
=0.1684

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 102. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rectangular beam/slab section
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC102 EC

Office: 1007
Factor
K=M*1E6/(b*d^2*fck)
=221*1E6/(250*415^2*30)
=0.1711
Lever arm
z=d/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*K'))
=415/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*0.1684))
=339.7 mm
Depth to neutral axis
x=2.5*(d-z)=2.5*(415-339.7)
=188.3 mm
Diameter of compression bars
diac=20 mm
Depth to compression steel
d2=55 mm
Stress
fsc=700*(x-d2)/x=700*(188.3-55)/188.3
=495.6 N/mm2
Limit fsc to fyd
fsc=fyd=434.8 N/mm2
Area of comp.steel required
As2=(K-K')*fck*b*d^2/(fsc*(d-d2))
=(0.1711-0.1684)*30*250*415^2
/(434.8*(415-55))
=22.23 mm2
Tension reinforcement
As=K'*fck*b*d^2/(fyd*z)+As2*fsc/fyd
=0.1684*30*250*415^2/(434.8*339.7)
+22.23*434.8/434.8
=1495 mm2
Mean width of the tension zone
bt=bw=250 mm
Mean value axial tensile strength fctm=0.3*fck^(2/3)=0.3*30^(2/3)
=2.896 N/mm2
Minimum reinforcement required
Asmin=0.26*fctm*bt*d/fyk
=0.26*2.896*250*415/500
=156.3 mm2
Minimum compression steel
As2min=0.002*b*h=0.002*250*500
=250 mm2
Revised compression steel area
As2=As2min=250 mm2
Breadth of section
bw=250 mm
Maximum reinforcement permitted
Asmax=0.04*bw*h=0.04*250*500
=5000 mm2
Percentage area steel required
rho=100*As/(bw*d)=100*1495/(250*415)
=1.441 %
Number of tension bars required
nbart=INT(As/(PI*dia^2/4))+1
=INT(1495/(3.142*25^2/4))+1
=4
Area of tension steel provided
Aspr=nbart*PI*dia^2/4=4*3.142*25^2/4
=1963 mm2
Number of compression bars
nbarc=INT(As2/(PI*diac^2/4))+1
=INT(250/(3.142*20^2/4))+1
=1
Adopt a minimum of nbarc=2
Area of compression steel
Asprc=nbarc*PI*diac^2/4
=2*3.142*20^2/4
=628.3 mm2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 102. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rectangular beam/slab section
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC102 EC

Office: 1007
DESIGN
SUMMARY
FLEXURE
TENSION REINFORCEMENT

COMPRESSION REINFORCEMENT

Overall depth
Effective depth
Width of section
Parameter K
Parameter K'
Lever arm ratio z/d
Steel area provided
Diameter of bars
Number of bars
Steel area required
Steel percentage req.
Minimum area of steel
Maximum area of steel
Steel area provided
Diameter of bars
Number of bars
Steel area required
Minimum area required

500 mm
415 mm
250 mm
0.1711
0.1684
0.8185
1963 mm2
25 mm
4
1495 mm2
1.441 %
156.3 mm2
5000 mm2
628.3 mm2
20 mm
2
22.23 mm2
250 mm2

Spacing of bars - tension reinforcement

Clear spacing between bars


clearm=hagg+5=20+5=25 mm
Modified clear spacing
clearm=dia+1=25+1=26 mm
In accordance with the "Standard Method of Detailing Structural
Concrete" the minimum clear distance between bars
Minimum spacing (hogging moment) clearm=75 mm
Layers of reinforcement
layers=2
Maximum number of bars/layer
nbars=2
Clear spacing
clear=(b-2*(cover+dial)-nbars*dia)/(nbars-1)
=(250-2*(35+10)-2*25)/(2-1)
=110 mm
Spacing of bars - compression reinforcement

Minimum spacing (hogging moment) clearm=75 mm


Compute
comp1=(b-2*(cover+dial)-nbarc*diac)
=(250-2*(35+10)-2*20)
=120
Compute
comp2=(nbarc-1)=(2-1)=1
Clear spacing
clear=comp1/comp2=120/1=120 mm
Shear reinforcement

Maximum concrete strut capacity


Percentage compression steel
Design shear stress
Strength reduction factor
Concrete strut capacity

VRdm=0.2*fck*(1-fck/250)*bw*d/10^3
=0.2*30*(1-30/250)*250*415/10^3
=547.8 kN
rho'=100*As2/(bw*d)=100*250/(250*415)
=0.241 %
vEd=VEd*10^3/(0.9*bw*d)
=102*10^3/(0.9*250*415)
=1.092 N/mm2
v=0.6*(1-fck/250)=0.6*(1-30/250)
=0.528 N/mm2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 102. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rectangular beam/slab section
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC102 EC

Office: 1007
Term for angle theta
vRdm=0.138*fck*(1-fck/250)
=0.138*30*(1-30/250)
=3.643 N/mm2
Ratio shear area to spacing
Asw's=vEd*bw/(fyd*2.5)
=1.092*250/(434.8*2.5)
=0.2512
Minimum ratio area to spacing
Aswm=0.08*bw*fck^0.5/fy
=0.08*250*30^0.5/500
=0.2191
Number of shear legs
nsl=2
Area of shear legs
Asw=nsl*PI/4*dial^2=2*3.142/4*10^2
=157.1 mm2
Spacing of links
smax=INT(Asw/Asw's)=INT(157.1/0.2512)
=625 mm
Maximum spacing limited
smax=0.75*d=0.75*415=311.3 mm
Chosen spacing
s=300 mm
SHEAR SUMMARY

Shear force
Design shear strength
Concrete strut capacity
Area/spacing ratio
Diameter of links
Area of links
Maximum spacing
(based on 0.75d)
Actual spacing

102 kN
1.092 N/mm2
3.643 N/mm2
0.2512
10 mm
157 mm2
311.3 mm
300 mm
No102

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 104. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Biaxially bent stocky column
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC104 BS

Office: 1007
Location: Columns C2-C6, D2-D6, E4 & E5
Design to BS8110(1997), partial safety factor for steel gammaS=1.15




h h'


z z

y
b'
b

Design ult.moment about z-axis


Shear force in y-direction
Design ultimate axial load
Effective height of column
Depth of column cross-section
Width of column cross-section
Design ult.moment about y-axis
Cover to all reinforcement
Effective depth in y-direction
Effective depth in z-direction
Characteristic strength of conc.
Characteristic strength of steel

Biaxially bent stocky column

Calculations for reinforcement

are in accordance with BS 8110


Clause 3.8.4.5 and ISE 'Manual
for the design of reinforced
concrete building structures'.
For effective height of column
see Clause 3.8.1.6 of BS8110.
Mz=160 kNm
Fy=100 kN
N=2460 kN
l=2.5 m
h=450 mm
b=250 mm
My=0 kNm
cover=20 mm
h'=394 mm
b'=194 mm
fcu=50 N/mm2
fy=500 N/mm2

Slenderness and eccentricity of axial load

Column is braced as defined in Clause 3.8.1.5.


Limiting slenderness ratio
slender=15
Allowable effective height
he=b*slender=250*15=3750 mm
Effective height of column within allowable for a stocky column.
Minimum eccentricity from z-axis
for application of axial load
ecc=20 mm
Axial load at nominal eccentricity is less than design ultimate moment
about the z-axis.
Minimum eccentricity from y-axis
for application of axial load
ecc=b*0.05=250*0.05=12.5 mm
Design for an ultimate moment about y-axis caused by axial load
at nominal eccentricity
My=N*ecc/1000=2460*12.5/1000
=30.75 kNm
Axial load considerations

Axial load ratio

Nratio=N*1000/(b*h*fcu)
=2460*1000/(250*450*50)
=0.43733
Ratio N/b.h.fcu is greater than 0.1 and design as a column is
appropriate.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 104. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Biaxially bent stocky column
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC104 BS

Office: 1007
Equivalent moment about one axis

Coefficient
beta=TABLE 3.24 for Nratio=0.43733
=0.48893
Increased moment about one axis
Mz'=Mz*10^6+beta*h'*My*10^6/b'
=160*10^6+0.48893*394*30.75*10^6
/194
=190.53E6 Nmm
Effective/overall depth ratio
d'h=h'/h=394/450=0.87556
Moment ratio
Mratio=Mz'/(b*h^2*fcu)
=190.53E6/(250*450^2*50)
=0.075273
Round down for chart reading
d'h=INT(20*d'h)*0.05
=INT(20*0.87556)*0.05
=0.85
Main bars

Ratio p.fy/fcu obtained from column charts similar to those given in


'Manual for the design of reinforced concrete building structures'
published by the Institution of Structural Engineers.
Ratio read from ISE-type charts
p=per*fcu/fy=0.23016*50/500
=0.023016
Calculated area of reinforcement Asc=p*b*h=0.023016*250*450
=2589.3 mm2
Bar diameter for main steel
dia=32 mm
Area of two bars
area=2*PI*dia^2/4=2*3.1416*32^2/4
=1608.5 mm2
No.of bars required
nbar=2*INT(Asc/area)+2
=2*INT(2589.3/1608.5)+2
=4
Nett area of concrete
Ac=b*h-nbar*area/2=250*450-4*1608.5/2
=109283 mm2
Axial load is less than 0.2 x fcu x Ac and sufficient bars should
be provided at a spacing of not more than 250mm. See Clauses 3.8.6
and 3.12.11 for recommendations regarding spacing of bars.
Shear in column - Clause 3.8.4.6

Allowable shear stress

vc=5 N/mm2

Calc.shear stress in y-direction

vy=Fy*1000/(b*h')=100*1000/(250*394)
=1.0152 N/mm2
No shear reinforcement is required to resist shear in y-direction.

Links

Minimum diameter of links


Make diameter of links
Spacing of links

Diam=dia/4=32/4=8 mm
8 mm
spac=10*INT(12*dia/10)
=10*INT(12*32/10)
=380 mm
spac=b=250 mm, as must not exceed
width.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 104. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Biaxially bent stocky column
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC104 BS

Office: 1007
SUMMARY OF REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED
500 N/mm2
4
32 mm

VERTICAL
REINFORCEMENT
SUMMARY

Characteristic strength
Number of bars
Diameter of bars

LINK
REINFORCEMENT
SUMMARY

Diameter of links
8 mm
Spacing
250 mm
Links round every corner bar and each
alternate bar. Included angle must not
exceed 135 deg. No bar must be more
than 150 mm from a bar restrained by
a link. See Clause 3.12.7.2.
Due to the column being lightly loaded
sufficient longitudinal steel must be
provided to control cracking.
No104

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 104. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Biaxially bent stocky column
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC104 EC

Office: 1007
Location: Biaxial bending example
Isolated rectangular section subject bending and thrust

Design ult.moment about y-axis


Shear force in z-direction
Design ultimate axial load
Effective height of column
Depth of column cross-section
Width of column cross-section

Z

o

h Y Y
d

Z
b'
b
Myy=146.1 kNm
VEd=0 kN
N=1650 kN
l=3.2 m
h=350 mm
b=350 mm

Materials

Char cylinder compress strength


Char yield strength of reinft
Max.aggregate size (for bar spc.)
Diameter of compression bars
Diameter of link legs

fck=30 N/mm2 (concrete)


fyk=500 N/mm2
hagg=25 mm
dia=32 mm
dial=8 mm

Design is based on EN 1992-1-1:2004,


Eurocode 2: Design of concrete
structures.
The main reinforcement design is
based on balancing, by iterative
means, of the two derived expressions
for areas of reinforcing steel one for axial load and the other
for bending.
One layer of steel is assumed for
the axis of bending.

Durability and cover to reinforcement

Life of structure
50 years
Exposure class
XC1
Designed concrete
C 30 /37
Minimum cover
covern=35 mm
Fixing tolerance
tol=10 mm
Nominal cover (Cl. 4.4.1.1(2))
cover=45 mm
Section properties

Depth to comp. reinforcement


Effective depth of section
Effective breadth of section

d2=88 mm
d=h-d2=350-88=262 mm
b'=b-d2=350-88=262 mm

Loading details

Larger initial end mt.(y-y axis)


Smaller initial end moment
Larger initial end mt.(z-z axis)
Smaller initial end moment

M2y=Myy=146.1 kNm
M1y=0 kNm
M2z=114.5 kNm
M1z=0 kNm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 104. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Biaxially bent stocky column
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC104 EC

Office: 1007
Material values

Partial safety factor for steel


gams=1.15
Characteristic yield strength
fyk=fy=500 N/mm2 steel
Design steel strength
fyd=fyk/gams=500/1.15=434.78 N/mm2
Partial safety factor for conc.
gamc=1.5
Value
eta=1-(fck-50)/200=1-(30-50)/200
=1.1
As eta>1 then
eta=1
Design strength concrete
fcd=0.85*fck/gamc*eta=0.85*30/1.5*1
=17 N/mm2
Factor
lam=0.8
Check slenderness - Clause 5.8.3.2

About Y-Y axis:


Column under consideration is braced.
Fixity condition at top
cty=2
Fixity condition at bottom
cby=2
-value from Table 3.19
bety=0.85
Effective height
loy=bety*l*1000=0.85*3.2*1000
=2720 mm
About Z-Z axis:
Column under consideration is braced.
Fixity condition at top
ctz=2
Fixity condition at bottom
cbz=2
-value from Table 3.19
betz=0.85
Effective height
loz=betz*l*1000=0.85*3.2*1000
=2720 mm
For y-y axis - (stronger axis)
Radius of gyration
Slenderness
Factor
Assume 8 /32 mm bars
Steel area
Ratio of loads
Factor
Factor
Relative normal force
Limiting slenderness

iy=h/(12)^0.5=350/(12)^0.5
=101.04 mm
lamy=loy/iy=2720/101.04=26.921
A=0.7 default
Asest=no*PI/4*dia^2=8*3.1416/4*32^2
=6434 mm2
w=Asest*fyd/(b*h*fcd)
=6434*434.78/(350*350*17)
=1.3433
B=(1+2*w)^0.5=(1+2*1.3433)^0.5
=1.92
C=1.7-M1y/M2y=1.7-0/146.1
=1.7
n=NEd/(b*h*fcd)=1.65E6/(350*350*17)
=0.79232
lamly=20*A*B*C/n^0.5
=20*0.7*1.92*1.7/0.79232^0.5
=51.338

Column is short
For z-z axis - (weaker axis)
Radius of gyration

iz=b/(12)^0.5=350/(12)^0.5
=101.04 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 104. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Biaxially bent stocky column
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC104 EC

Office: 1007
Slenderness
lamz=loz/iz=2720/101.04=26.921
Factor
A=0.7 default
Factor
B=1.92
Factor
C=1.7-M1z/M2z=1.7-0/114.5
=1.7
Relative normal force
n=NEd/(b*h*fcd)=1.65E6/(350*350*17)
=0.79232
Limiting slenderness
lamlz=20*A*B*C/n^0.5
=20*0.7*1.92*1.7/0.79232^0.5
=51.338
Column is short
Design moments - Clause 5.8.8.2

Y-Y axis:
Nominal eccentricity of axial load NEd,
Due to imperfections
e1=l*1000/400=3.2*1000/400
=8 mm
Due to eccentricity of load
e0=h/30=350/30=11.667 mm
Minimum eccentricity
e0=20 mm
Design bending moment
Mo2=M2y*10^6+e1*NEd
=146.1*10^6+8*1.65E6
=159.3E6 Nmm
Design bending moment
Mo1=ABS(M1y*10^6)+e1*NEd
=ABS(0*10^6)+8*1.65E6
=13.2E6 Nmm
Equivalent first order moment
Moe=0.6*Mo1+0.4*Mo2
=0.6*13.2E6+0.4*159.3E6
=71.64E6 Nmm
Column not slender
Moment for 2nd. order effects
M2=0
Design moment
MEdy=Mo2=159.3E6 Nmm
Z-Z axis:
Nominal eccentricity of axial load NEd,
Due to imperfections
e1=l*1000/400=3.2*1000/400
=8 mm
Due to eccentricity of load
e0=b/30=350/30=11.667 mm
Minimum eccentricity
e0=20 mm
Design bending moment
Mo2=M2z*10^6+e1*NEd
=114.5*10^6+8*1.65E6
=127.7E6 Nmm
Design bending moment
Mo1=ABS(M1z*10^6)+e1*NEd
=ABS(0*10^6)+8*1.65E6
=13.2E6 Nmm
Equivalent first order moment
Moe=0.6*Mo1+0.4*Mo2
=0.6*13.2E6+0.4*127.7E6
=59E6 Nmm
Column not slender
Moment for 2nd. order effects
M2=0
Design moment (z-z axis)
MEdz=Mo2=127.7E6 Nmm
One axis of bending only used to determine reinforcement, then
check for bi-axial bending
Moment ratio y-y axis
raty=MEdy/(b*h^2*fck)
=159.3E6/(350*350^2*30)
=0.12385

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 104. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Biaxially bent stocky column
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC104 EC

Office: 1007
Moment ratio z-z axis
ratz=MEdz/(b^2*h*fck)
=127.7E6/(350^2*350*30)
=0.099281
Consider moment about y-y axis ( 159.3E6 Nmm ) and axial load
Main reinforcement

Two expressions have been derived for the area of reinforcing steel
required, one for axial load the other for moments. These can only
be solved iteratively, the last iteration to balance the expressions
based on the position of neutral axis depth "x" gives:
Depth to neutral axis
x=234.1 mm
Load carried by concrete
Nc=0.85*fck/1.5*b*lam*x
=0.85*30/1.5*350*0.8*234.1
=1.1143E6 N
Strain in the concrete
esu=0.0035
Strain in compression steel
esc=esu*(x-d2)/x
=0.0035*(234.1-88)/234.1
=0.0021843
Stress steel based on strain
sigsc=esc*200000=0.0021843*200000
=436.86 N/mm2
Limit to steel stress
sigsc=fyk/1.15=500/1.15=434.78
Strain in tension steel
est=esu*(h-x-d2)/x
=0.0035*(350-234.1-88)/234.1
=0.41713E-3
Steel stress based on strain
sigst=est*200000=0.41713E-3*200000
=83.426 N/mm2
Net stresses
sign=ABS(sigst-sigsc)
=ABS(83.426-434.78)
=351.36 N/mm2
Sum of steel stresses
sigt=sigst+sigsc=83.426+434.78
=518.21 N/mm2
Axial load term
AsN2=(NEd-Nc)/(sign)
=(1.65E6-1.1143E6)/(351.36)
=1524.6 mm2
compute
comp1=(MEd-Nc*(h/2-lam*x/2))
=(159.3E6-1.1143E6*(350/2-0.8
*234.1/2))
=68.639E6
compute
comp2=((h/2-d2)*sigt)
=((350/2-88)*518.21)
=45084
Bending moment term
AsM2=comp1/comp2=68.639E6/45084
=1522.5 mm2
Area of steel required
As=AsN2+AsM2=1524.6+1522.5
=3047.1 mm2
Longitudinal reinforcement

Required area of reinforcement


As=3047.1 mm2
Area of two 32 mm diameter bars is 1608.5 mm2
Number of 32 mm bars required
nbar=2*INT(As/area)+2
=2*INT(3047.1/1608.5)+2
=4
Number of bars provided
nbars=8

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 104. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Biaxially bent stocky column
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC104 EC

Office: 1007
Area of steel provided
Aspro=nbars*PI*dia^2/4
=8*3.1416*32^2/4
=6434 mm2
Percentage of steel provided
perpro=100*Aspro/(b*h)
=100*6434/(350*350)
=5.2522 %
Minimum area of longitudinal reinforcement

Minimum area is the greater of:


Expression 1
Asm1=0.1*NEd/fyd=0.1*1.65E6/434.78
=379.5 mm2
Expression 2
Asm2=0.002*b*h=0.002*350*350
=245 mm2
Minimum area
Asmin=Asm1=379.5 mm2
Maximum area of steel
Asmax=0.04*b*h=0.04*350*350
=4900 mm2
Transverse reinforcement (links)

Minimum of one quarter main bar


ldia=dia/4=32/4=8 mm
Maximum spacing is the minimum of the following distances:
Based on main bar diameter
smx1=20*dia=20*32=640 mm
Minimum column dimension
smx2=b=350 mm
Maximum dimension
smx3=400 mm
Maximum spacing
smx=350 mm
This spacing should be reduced by a factor of 0.6 within a distance
equal to the larger dimension of the column cross-section above or
below a beam or slab.
Check for biaxial bending

Ratio of slenderness

sl=lamz/lamy=26.921/26.921
=1
Ratio < 2, however check eccentricity condition
Eccentricity (y-y axis)
ey=MEdy/NEd=159.3E6/1.65E6
=96.545 mm
Eccentricity (z-z axis)
ez=MEdz/NEd=127.7E6/1.65E6
=77.394 mm
Radius of gyration (y-y axis)
iy=(h^2/12)^0.5=(350^2/12)^0.5
=101.04 mm
Radius of gyration (z-z axis)
iz=(b^2/12)^0.5=(350^2/12)^0.5
=101.04 mm
Equivalent b dimension
beq=iy*12^0.5=101.04*12^0.5
=350 mm
Equivalent h dimension
heq=iz*12^0.5=101.04*12^0.5
=350 mm
Relative eccentricity (y-y axis) ey'h=ey/heq=96.545/350=0.27584
Relative eccentricity (z-z axis) ez'b=ey/beq=96.545/350=0.27584
Ratio of eccentricities
recc=ey'h/ez'b=0.27584/0.27584
=1
Further check required for biaxial bending
Axial load
NEd=1.65E6 N
Axial resistance of section
NRd=b*h*fcd+Aspro*fyd
=350*350*17+6434*434.78
=4.8799E6 N

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 104. (ans=1)


Page: 6
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Biaxially bent stocky column
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC104 EC

Office: 1007
Ratio of load terms
Nr=NEd/NRd=1.65E6/4.8799E6
=0.33812
Value of power
a=TABLE 5 for Nr=0.33812
=1.1984
Moment of resistance

Depth to neutral axis


x=205.7 mm
Load carried by concrete
Nc=0.85*fck/1.5*b*lam*x
=0.85*30/1.5*350*0.8*205.7
=979132 N
Strain in the concrete
esu=0.0035
Strain in compression steel
esc=esu*(x-d2)/x
=0.0035*(205.7-88)/205.7
=0.0020027
Stress steel based on strain
sigsc=esc*200000=0.0020027*200000
=400.53 N/mm2
Force carried by comp. bars
Ns=Aspro/2*sigsc=6434/2*400.53
=1.2885E6 N
Strain in tension steel
est=esu*(h-x-d2)/x
=0.0035*(350-205.7-88)/205.7
=0.95795E-3
Steel stress based on strain
sigst=est*200000=0.95795E-3*200000
=191.59 N/mm2
Bending term
mrd1=(sigst+sigsc)*Aspro/2*(h/2-d2)
=(191.59+400.53)*6434/2*(350/2-88)
=165.72E6 Nmm
Axial load term
mrd2=Nc*(h/2-lam*x/2)
=979132*(350/2-0.8*205.7/2)
=90.785E6 Nmm
Moment of resistance
MRd=mrd1+mrd2=165.72E6+90.785E6
=256.51E6 N/mm
Expression for biaxial bending
factor=(MEdy/MRdy)^a+(MEdz/MRdz)^a
=(159.3E6/256.51E6)^1.1984
+(127.7E6/256.51E6)^1.1984
=0.99851
Section suitable no additional reinforcement required to account for
bi-axial bending.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 104. (ans=1)


Page: 7
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Biaxially bent stocky column
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC104 EC

Office: 1007
DESIGN SUMMARY

Clear column height


3.2 m
Slenderness (y-y axis)
26.921
Column is short (y-y)
Slenderness (z-z axis)
26.921
Column is short (z-z)
Design axial load
1650 kN
Design bending moments:
Y-Y axis
159.3 kNm
Z-Z axis
127.7 kNm
Designed area of steel
3047.1 mm2
Area of steel provided
6434 mm2
Minimum area of steel
379.5 mm2
Maximum area of steel
4900 mm2
Link diameter
8 mm
Maximum link spacing
350 mm
Resistance moment (y-y) 256.51 kNm
Resistance moment (z-z) 256.51 kNm
Biaxial bending factor
0.99851
Designed steel exceeds 4% of gross
area. However the maximum area can
be increased provided that the
concrete can be placed and
compacted sufficiently.
No104

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 105. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rectangular column section checking aid
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC105 BS

Office: 1007
REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN CHECKING AID TO BS 8110
Parameters: fcu=37 fck=30 fy=500 b=300 h=300 d'=45
Every corner bar and each alternate bar in the outer layer should be
supported by a link passing around the bar. No bar should be more than
150 mm from a restrained bar. Link sizes and spacing follow:
Main steel diameter
12
16
20
25
32
40
Minimum link diameter
6
6
6
8
8
10
Maximum link spacing
140
190
240
300
300
300
In the chart below: A,B,C etc. denote axial loads of values given.
When low value is not shown, the section should be designed as a beam.
Read along from moment to intercept with A,B,C etc. then down to
selection of bars (which may be restricted by depth to reinforcement).
180BCD
U

B C

D
l
B= 600 kN

B
C
D

t
C= 900 kN

B
C
D

i
160D=1200 kNBCD
m
E=1500 kN

B C

D
E
a
F=1800 kN

B
C
D

E
t
G=2100 kN

B
C
D
E

e
140H=2400 kNBCDE

B C
D

B
C
D
E

B
C
D
E

F
B
120BCDEF
e

B C
D
E

B C
D
E

B C
D

E
F

i
100BCDEFG
n

B C
D
E

G
g

B C

D
E

F
G

B C
D

E
F

80BCDEFG

B C

D
E

F
G

BC
D

E
F

H
o

C
D
E

H
m
60CDEFGH
e

C D

F
G

E
F

D
E

40DEFGH

D
E

N
20EFGH

1%2%3%
Area(mm)
400
800
1200
1600
2000
2400
2800
3200
3600
Number of
1
1
1
bars reqd
4
4
8
6 40
28
6 0 4
/
/
/
/
/ //
//
/ / /
Diameter
1
2
1
2 21
12
2 2 3
of bar(mm)
6
0
6
0 56
60
5 0 2
No105

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 105. (ans=2)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rectangular column section checking aid
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC105 BS

Office: 1007
REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN CHECKING AID TO BS 8110
Parameters: fcu=37 fck=30 fy=500 b=300 h=350 d'=50
Every corner bar and each alternate bar in the outer layer should be
supported by a link passing around the bar. No bar should be more than
150 mm from a restrained bar. Link sizes and spacing follow:
Main steel diameter
12
16
20
25
32
40
Minimum link diameter
6
6
6
8
8
10
Maximum link spacing
140
190
240
300
300
300
In the chart below: A,B,C etc. denote axial loads of values given.
When low value is not shown, the section should be designed as a beam.
Read along from moment to intercept with A,B,C etc. then down to
selection of bars (which may be restricted by depth to reinforcement).
300
U
A= 400 kN

B
A
l
B= 800 kN

B
A C
t
275C=1200 kNBAC
i
D=1600 kN

B
A C

m
E=2000 kN

B
A C

a
250F=2400 kNBAC
t
G=2800 kN

B
A C

D
e

B
A C

D
225BACD

B
A C

B
AC

B
200BACDE
e

B
A C

D
E

B
AC

D
E

d
175BACDE
i

B
AC

D
E

B
AC
D

F
g
150BACDEF

B
AC

D
E

B
C
D

125BCDEF
M

CA

D
E

CA
D

G
m
100CADEFG
e

CA

D
E

CA
D

t
75CDEFG

C
D

E
F

A D

50DEFG
k

25DEFG
m

1%2%3%4%
Area(mm)
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
Number of
1
1
1
bars reqd
4
64
8
640
2 8
6 0 4
8
/
/
//
/
///
/ /
/ / /
/
Diameter
1
12
1
221
1 2
2 2 3
2
of bar(mm)
6
60
6
056
6 0
5 0 2
5
No105

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 105. (ans=3)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rectangular column section checking aid
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC105 BS

Office: 1007
REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN CHECKING AID TO BS 8110
Parameters: fcu=37 fck=30 fy=500 b=300 h=400 d'=50
Every corner bar and each alternate bar in the outer layer should be
supported by a link passing around the bar. No bar should be more than
150 mm from a restrained bar. Link sizes and spacing follow:
Main steel diameter
12
16
20
25
32
40
Minimum link diameter
6
6
6
8
8
10
Maximum link spacing
140
190
240
300
300
300
In the chart below: A,B,C etc. denote axial loads of values given.
When low value is not shown, the section should be designed as a beam.
Read along from moment to intercept with A,B,C etc. then down to
selection of bars (which may be restricted by depth to reinforcement).
450
U

B
l
B= 800 kN

B C
t
C=1200 kN

B
C
i
400D=1600 kNBC
m
E=2000 kN

B C

a
F=2400 kN

B
C
D
t
G=2800 kN

B C

D
e
350H=3200 kNBCD

B
C
D

B C

D
E

B C
D

E
B
300BCDE
e

B C

D
E

B C
D
E

F
d

B
C
D
E
F

i
250BCDEF
n

B C
D
E

B C
D
E
F

B C
D

E
F

G
200BCDEFG

B C
D
E
F

B C
D

E
F

B C
D
E

F
G

H
m
150BCDEFGH
e

BC
D

E
F

G
H

BC
D
E

F
G

C
D
E
F

100CDEFGH

D
E

F
G

D
E
F

D
E
F

G
H

N
50EFGH

G
H

G
H

G
H

1%2%3%4%
Area(mm)
600
1200
1800
2400
3000
3600
4200
4800
5400
Number of
1
1
1
1
1
bars reqd
4
4
8 640
28
6 04
2 8
604
/
/
/
/ ///
//
/ //
/ /
///
Diameter
1
2
1 221
12
2 23
2 2
324
of bar(mm)
6
0
6 056
60
5 02
0 5
250
No105

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 105. (ans=4)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rectangular column section checking aid
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC105 BS

Office: 1007
REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN CHECKING AID TO BS 8110
Parameters: fcu=37 fck=30 fy=500 b=300 h=450 d'=50
Every corner bar and each alternate bar in the outer layer should be
supported by a link passing around the bar. No bar should be more than
150 mm from a restrained bar. Link sizes and spacing follow:
Main steel diameter
12
16
20
25
32
40
Minimum link diameter
6
6
6
8
8
10
Maximum link spacing
140
190
240
300
300
300
In the chart below: A,B,C etc. denote axial loads of values given.
When low value is not shown, the section should be designed as a beam.
Read along from moment to intercept with A,B,C etc. then down to
selection of bars (which may be restricted by depth to reinforcement).
450BC
U
A= 500 kN

B
C

l
B=1000 kN

B
C

t
C=1500 kN

B
C

D
i
400D=2000 kNBCD
m
E=2500 kN

B
C
D

a
F=3000 kN

B
C
D

t
G=3500 kN

B
C

e
350BCDE

B
C
D

B
C

D
E

B
C

D
E

B
300BCDE
e

B
C
D

B
C

D
E

F
d

B
C
D

F
i
250BCDEF
n

D
E

C
D

C
D

200CDEF

C
D

G
M

C
D

G
o

E
F

m
150CDEFG
e

CA
D

C
D

C
D
E

100ADEFG

AD

D
E

N
50DEFG

1%2%3%
Area(mm)
600
1200
1800
2400
3000
3600
4200
4800
5400
Number of
1
1
1
1
1
bars reqd
4
4
8 640
28
6 04
2 8
604
/
/
/
/ ///
//
/ //
/ /
///
Diameter
1
2
1 221
12
2 23
2 2
324
of bar(mm)
6
0
6 056
60
5 02
0 5
250
No105

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 105. (ans=5)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rectangular column section checking aid
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC105 BS

Office: 1007
REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN CHECKING AID TO BS 8110
Parameters: fcu=37 fck=30 fy=500 b=300 h=500 d'=50
Every corner bar and each alternate bar in the outer layer should be
supported by a link passing around the bar. No bar should be more than
150 mm from a restrained bar. Link sizes and spacing follow:
Main steel diameter
12
16
20
25
32
40
Minimum link diameter
6
6
6
8
8
10
Maximum link spacing
140
190
240
300
300
300
In the chart below: A,B,C etc. denote axial loads of values given.
When low value is not shown, the section should be designed as a beam.
Read along from moment to intercept with A,B,C etc. then down to
selection of bars (which may be restricted by depth to reinforcement).
700BA
U
A= 600 kN

B A
C
l
B=1200 kN

B
A
C
t
C=1800 kN

B
A C

i
D=2400 kN

B A
C

m
600E=3000 kNBACD
a
F=3600 kN

B
A C

D
t
G=4200 kN

B A
C
D

B A
C
D

B
A C

500BACDE

B A
C
D

E
B

B
A
C
D
E

B
A C

D
E

B A C
D

d
400BACDEF
i

B
A C

D
E

F
n

B
A C
D

E
F

B A C
D

E
F

B
A C

D
E

300BACDEF

B A C
D

E
F

G
M

B A C

D
E

G
o

B
AC
D

F
G

B
AC
D

E
F

e
200BACDEFG
n

B C
D

C
D

F
G

C
D

E
F

A D

100DEFG
k

E
F

D
E

D
E

D
E

1%2%3%4%
Area(mm)
800
1600
2400
3200
4000
4800
5600
6400
7200
Number of
1
1
bars reqd
4 4
8 64
8
6 04
2 8
64
8
/
/ /
/ //
/
/ //
/ /
//
/
Diameter
1 2
1 22
2
2 23
2 2
34
3
of bar(mm)
6 0
6 05
0
5 02
0 5
20
2
No105

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 105. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rectangular column section checking aid
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC105 EC

Office: 1007
REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN CHECKING AID TO EUROCODE 2
Parameters: fcu=37 fck=30 fy=500 b=300 h=300 d'=45
Every corner bar and each alternate bar in the outer layer should be
supported by a link passing around the bar. No bar should be more than
150 mm from a restrained bar. Link sizes and spacing follow:
Main steel diameter
12
16
20
25
32
40
Minimum link diameter
6
6
6
8
8
10
Maximum link spacing
140
190
240
300
300
300
In the chart below: A,B,C etc. denote axial loads of values given.
When low value is not shown, the section should be designed as a beam.
Read along from moment to intercept with A,B,C etc. then down to
selection of bars (which may be restricted by depth to reinforcement).
180BC
U

B
C

l
B= 600 kN

C
D
t
C= 900 kN

B
C

D
i
160D=1200 kNBCD
m
E=1500 kN

B
C
D

a
F=1800 kN

B
C

D
E
t
G=2100 kN

B
C
D

E
e
140H=2400 kNBCDE

B C

D
E

B
C
D

B
C
D
E

F
B
120BCDEF
e

B
C
D

E
F

B
C
D
E

B
C
D
E

i
100BCDEFG
n

B
C
D
E

G
g

B
C
D
E

F
G

B C
D

E
F

80BCDEFG

B C
D
E

BC
D

E
F

B C
D
E

H
m
60BCDEFGH
e
BC D

F
G

n
BC D
E

t
BCD
E

40BCDEFGH
BCD
E

BCD E

k
BCD E

N
20BCDEFGH

BCD E

m
BCD E

BCD E

1%2%3%
Area(mm)
400
800
1200
1600
2000
2400
2800
3200
3600
Number of
1
1
1
bars reqd
4
4
8
6 40
28
6 0 4
/
/
/
/
/ //
//
/ / /
Diameter
1
2
1
2 21
12
2 2 3
of bar(mm)
6
0
6
0 56
60
5 0 2
No105

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 105. (ans=2)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rectangular column section checking aid
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC105 EC

Office: 1007
REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN CHECKING AID TO EUROCODE 2
Parameters: fcu=37 fck=30 fy=500 b=300 h=350 d'=50
Every corner bar and each alternate bar in the outer layer should be
supported by a link passing around the bar. No bar should be more than
150 mm from a restrained bar. Link sizes and spacing follow:
Main steel diameter
12
16
20
25
32
40
Minimum link diameter
6
6
6
8
8
10
Maximum link spacing
140
190
240
300
300
300
In the chart below: A,B,C etc. denote axial loads of values given.
When low value is not shown, the section should be designed as a beam.
Read along from moment to intercept with A,B,C etc. then down to
selection of bars (which may be restricted by depth to reinforcement).
300B
U
A= 400 kN

B A
l
B= 800 kN

B A
t
275C=1200 kNBA
i
D=1600 kN

B A
C
m
E=2000 kN

B A
C
a
250F=2400 kNBAC
t
G=2800 kN

B A
C

B A C

D
225BACD

B A
C
D

B
A
C
D

B
200BACDE
e

B A
C
D

E
n

B
A C

D
E

d
175BACDE
i

B A C
D

B
A C

D
E

F
g
150BACDEF

B A C
D

E
F

B
A C

D
E

125BACDEF
M

B C

D
E

B
C
D

G
m
100BCADEFG
e

B CA

D
E

n
B CA
D

t
75BCADEFG
BC
D
E

BC D

50BCDEFG
k
BCD

N
BCD
E

25BCDEFG
m
BCD
E

BCD
E

1%2%3%4%
Area(mm)
500
1000
1500
2000
2500
3000
3500
4000
4500
Number of
1
1
1
bars reqd
4
64
8
640
2 8
6 0 4
8
/
/
//
/
///
/ /
/ / /
/
Diameter
1
12
1
221
1 2
2 2 3
2
of bar(mm)
6
60
6
056
6 0
5 0 2
5
No105

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 105. (ans=3)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rectangular column section checking aid
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC105 EC

Office: 1007
REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN CHECKING AID TO EUROCODE 2
Parameters: fcu=37 fck=30 fy=500 b=300 h=400 d'=50
Every corner bar and each alternate bar in the outer layer should be
supported by a link passing around the bar. No bar should be more than
150 mm from a restrained bar. Link sizes and spacing follow:
Main steel diameter
12
16
20
25
32
40
Minimum link diameter
6
6
6
8
8
10
Maximum link spacing
140
190
240
300
300
300
In the chart below: A,B,C etc. denote axial loads of values given.
When low value is not shown, the section should be designed as a beam.
Read along from moment to intercept with A,B,C etc. then down to
selection of bars (which may be restricted by depth to reinforcement).
450
U

B
l
B= 800 kN

B
t
C=1200 kN

i
400D=1600 kNBC
m
E=2000 kN

B
C
a
F=2400 kN

B
C

t
G=2800 kN

B
C

e
350H=3200 kNBCD

B
C
D

B
C
D

B
C
D
E
B
300BCDE
e

B
C
D
E

B
C
D
E

B
C
D

E
F
i
250BCDEF
n

B C
D

E
F

B
C
D
E

B
C
D
E
F

G
200BCDEFG

B
C
D
E

F
G

B C
D
E
F

B C
D
E

F
G

H
m
150BCDEFGH
e

B C
D

E
F

G
H

BC
D
E

F
G

t
BC
D
E
F

100CDEFGH
C D
E

F
G

CD
E
F

k
CD E

G
H

N
50CDEFGH

CD E

G
H

m
CD E

G
H

CD E

G
H

1%2%3%4%
Area(mm)
600
1200
1800
2400
3000
3600
4200
4800
5400
Number of
1
1
1
1
1
bars reqd
4
4
8 640
28
6 04
2 8
604
/
/
/
/ ///
//
/ //
/ /
///
Diameter
1
2
1 221
12
2 23
2 2
324
of bar(mm)
6
0
6 056
60
5 02
0 5
250
No105

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 105. (ans=4)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rectangular column section checking aid
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC105 EC

Office: 1007
REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN CHECKING AID TO EUROCODE 2
Parameters: fcu=37 fck=30 fy=500 b=300 h=450 d'=50
Every corner bar and each alternate bar in the outer layer should be
supported by a link passing around the bar. No bar should be more than
150 mm from a restrained bar. Link sizes and spacing follow:
Main steel diameter
12
16
20
25
32
40
Minimum link diameter
6
6
6
8
8
10
Maximum link spacing
140
190
240
300
300
300
In the chart below: A,B,C etc. denote axial loads of values given.
When low value is not shown, the section should be designed as a beam.
Read along from moment to intercept with A,B,C etc. then down to
selection of bars (which may be restricted by depth to reinforcement).
450BAC
U
A= 500 kN

B
A
C
l
B=1000 kN

B A
C

t
C=1500 kN

B A
C

i
400D=2000 kNBAC
m
E=2500 kN

B
A C

D
a
F=3000 kN

B A
C

D
t
G=3500 kN

B
A
C
D

e
350BACD

B
A C

D
E

B A
C
D

B
A C

D
E

B
300BACDE
e

B A C
D

B
A C
D

B
AC

D
E

F
i
250BACDEF
n

B AC
D

E
F

B
C
D

B
C
D

200BCADEF

B
CA

D
E

B
CA
D

G
o

B C A
D

E
F

m
150BCADEFG
e
B C A
D

n
BC A
D

t
BC D

100BCDEFG
BCD

BCD
E

k
BCD
E

N
50BCDEFG

BCD
E

m
BCD
E

BCD
E

1%2%3%
Area(mm)
600
1200
1800
2400
3000
3600
4200
4800
5400
Number of
1
1
1
1
1
bars reqd
4
4
8 640
28
6 04
2 8
604
/
/
/
/ ///
//
/ //
/ /
///
Diameter
1
2
1 221
12
2 23
2 2
324
of bar(mm)
6
0
6 056
60
5 02
0 5
250
No105

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 105. (ans=5)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Rectangular column section checking aid
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC105 EC

Office: 1007
REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN CHECKING AID TO EUROCODE 2
Parameters: fcu=37 fck=30 fy=500 b=300 h=500 d'=50
Every corner bar and each alternate bar in the outer layer should be
supported by a link passing around the bar. No bar should be more than
150 mm from a restrained bar. Link sizes and spacing follow:
Main steel diameter
12
16
20
25
32
40
Minimum link diameter
6
6
6
8
8
10
Maximum link spacing
140
190
240
300
300
300
In the chart below: A,B,C etc. denote axial loads of values given.
When low value is not shown, the section should be designed as a beam.
Read along from moment to intercept with A,B,C etc. then down to
selection of bars (which may be restricted by depth to reinforcement).
700BA
U
A= 600 kN

B A

l
B=1200 kN

B A

t
C=1800 kN

B A
C
i
D=2400 kN

B A

C
m
600E=3000 kNBAC
a
F=3600 kN

B A
C

t
G=4200 kN

B A
C
D
e

B A
C

B A
C
D

500BACD

B A
C

B A
C
D

E
e

B A
C
D
E

B A
C

D
E

d
400BACDE
i

B A
C
D
E

F
n

B A C

D
E

F
g

B A
C
D

E
F

B A
C
D
E

300BACDEF

B A C
D

E
F

B A C

D
E

G
o

B
AC
D

G
m

B
A C
D

E
F

e
200BACDEFG
n
B
C
D

t
B C
D

F
G

BC
D
E

BC D

100BCDEFG
k
BCD

E
F

N
BCD
E

BCD
E

m
BCD
E

1%2%3%4%
Area(mm)
800
1600
2400
3200
4000
4800
5600
6400
7200
Number of
1
1
bars reqd
4 4
8 64
8
6 04
2 8
64
8
/
/ /
/ //
/
/ //
/ /
//
/
Diameter
1 2
1 22
2
2 23
2 2
34
3
of bar(mm)
6 0
6 05
0
5 02
0 5
20
2
No105

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 109. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Ground-supported concrete slab for industrial bldg
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC109

Office: 1007
Design of ground-supported concrete slabs: Pallet loading

CBR of subgrade
CBR=10 %
Type of sub-base is granular material.
Sub-base thickness
sbb=150 mm
>From Figure 1 of TR550, with CBR value for subgrade of 10
modulus of subgrade reaction
K=TABLE 2 for CBR=10
=53
>From Table given by Packard, with subgrade modulus K of 53 and
granular subbase, enhanced value of K=60.143 MN/m3.
Thus
K=K1=60.143 MN/m3
This is PALLET RACKING type of loading.
Loading category (1-5)
Lcat=2
Specified concrete grade
fcu=40 N/mm2
From Figure 2 in TR550 with fcu=40 N/mm2,
28-day modulus of rupture
mrupt=4.77 MN/m2
Allowable 90-day modulus of rupture
Amrupt=mrupt*1.1*1000
=4.77*1.1*1000
=5247 kN/m2
As concrete is made with crushed or angular aggregate, enhance
allowable 90-day modulus of rupture to Amrupt=1.2*Amrupt=1.2*5247
=6296.4 kN/m2
Poisson's ratio
u=0.15
From Figure 2 in TR550 with fcu=40 N/mm2,
static modulus of elasticity
E=31 kN/m2
Safety factor for load
Lsf=1.5
Leg load
Lload=4 tonnes
Depth of rack
d=900 mm
Leg spacing centre to centre
Lcc=2700 mm
Dist.from edge to first rack leg Defr=150 mm
Dist.between double rack legs
Dbr=300 mm
Aisle width
A=1500 mm
Design load for rack(single leg) Sld=Lload*Lsf=4*1.5=6 tonnes
Design load for rack(double leg) Dld=Lload*2*Lsf=4*2*1.5=12 tonnes
Length of base plate (in X-dir.) L=100 mm
Breadth of base plate (in Y-dir.) b=100 mm
Base
plate
Y


o
o

100 mm
o
o

100

Capacity of forklift truck


fcap=2.5 tonnes
Number of wheels per axle
naxle=2
Thousands of load repetitions
nrpt=120
Radius of equivalent circ. area
Rw=100 mm
Axle load
Aload=6 tonnes
Load per wheel
LW=Aload/naxle=6/2=3 tonnes
>From Table 2 in TR550, with 120000 repetitions of load,
wheel-load safety-factor
wsf=1.81
Design load per wheel
Dlw=LW*wsf=3*1.81=5.43 tonnes

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 109. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Ground-supported concrete slab for industrial bldg
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC109

Office: 1007
Rad.of equiv.semi-circ.area (wheel at edge) SRw=SQR(Rw^2*2)
=SQR(100^2*2)
=141.42 mm
Wheel spacing centre-to-centre
Wcc=1500 mm
Radius of relative stiffness
l=(E*h^3*1E6/(12*(1-u^2)*K))^0.25
=(31*175^3*1E6/(12*(1-0.15^2)
*60.143))^0.25
=696.62 mm
STRESS CALCULATIONS
Stress influences
a) Rack positioned at edge of slab - Arrangement 1
Radius of equiv.semi-circ.area
R1=rde1=225.68 mm
Since R1 is less than 1.72h,
Equivalent radius of loaded area b1=SQR(1.6*(R1)^2+h^2)-0.675*h
=SQR(1.6*(225.68)^2+175^2)-0.675*175
=216.71 mm
Radius of equiv.circular area
R2=rdi=112.84 mm
Since R2 is less than 1.72h,
Equivalent radius of loaded area b2=SQR(1.6*(R2)^2+h^2)-0.675*h
=SQR(1.6*(112.84)^2+175^2)-0.675*175
=107.7 mm
Radius of equiv.semi-circ.area
R3=rse=112.84 mm
Since R3 is less than 1.72h,
Equivalent radius of loaded area b3=SQR(1.6*(R3)^2+h^2)-0.675*h
=SQR(1.6*(112.84)^2+175^2)-0.675*175
=107.7 mm
Radius of equiv.semi-circ.area
R4=rse=112.84 mm
Since R4 is less than 1.72h,
Equivalent radius of loaded area b4=SQR(1.6*(R4)^2+h^2)-0.675*h
=SQR(1.6*(112.84)^2+175^2)-0.675*175
=107.7 mm
900
300
900

R3
R1
R4
All dimensions are in millimetres
R1 and R2 have double legs
R3 and R4 have single legs
R2

150

2700

LEG STRESSES i.e. from racks (from formulae 1-3 in TR550)


1. Edge stress beneath double-leg loaded point R1:
pe1=5.19*(1+0.54*u)*(Dld/h^2)=5.19*(1+0.54*0.15)*(12/175^2)
=0.0021984
and
qe1=pe1*(1.73718*LOG(l/b1)+0.43429*LOG(b1/25.4))*1E6
=0.0021984*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/216.71)+0.43429*LOG(216.71/25.4))*1E6
=6506.1 kN/m2
2. Internal stress beneath double-leg loaded point R2:

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 109. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Ground-supported concrete slab for industrial bldg
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC109

Office: 1007
qi2=2.7*(1+u)*(Dld/h^2)*(1.73718*LOG(l/b2)+1.069)*1E6
=2.7*(1+0.15)*(12/175^2)*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/107.7)+1.069)*1E6
=5246.4 kN/m2
3. Edge stress beneath single-leg loaded point R3:
p3=5.19*(1+0.54*u)*(Sld/h^2)=5.19*(1+0.54*0.15)*(6/175^2)
=0.0010992
and
qe3=p3*(1.73718*LOG(l/b3)+0.43429*LOG(b3/25.4))*1E6
=0.0010992*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/107.7)+0.43429*LOG(107.7/25.4))*1E6
=4254.4 kN/m2
4. Edge stress beneath single-leg loaded point R4:
p4=5.19*(1+0.54*u)*(Sld/h^2)=5.19*(1+0.54*0.15)*(6/175^2)
=0.0010992
and
qe4=p4*(1.73718*LOG(l/b4)+0.43429*LOG(b4/25.4))*1E6
=0.0010992*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/107.7)+0.43429*LOG(107.7/25.4))*1E6
=4254.4 kN/m2
Displacement of R2 from R1
D21=Defr+Lcc-R2=150+2700-112.84
=2737.2 mm
Displacement of R3 from R1
D31=Dbr/2+d-R3=300/2+900-112.84
=937.16 mm
Displacement of R4 from R1
D41=Dbr/2+d-R4=300/2+900-112.84
=937.16 mm
Ratio of displacement of R2 to l R21=D21/l=2737.2/696.62=3.9292
Ratio of displacement of R3 to l R31=D31/l=937.16/696.62=1.3453
Ratio of displacement of R4 to l R41=D41/l=937.16/696.62=1.3453
>From Figure 5 of TR550, with R21=3.9292, R31=1.3453 and R41=1.3453
Percentage effect at R1 due to R2 P21=0 %
Percentage effect at R1 due to R3 P31=-10.596 %
Percentage effect at R1 due to R4 P41=-10.596 %
Stress at R1 due to R2
qi21=qi2*P21/100=5246.4*0/100
=0 kN/m2
Stress at R1 due to R3
qe31=qe3*P31/100=4254.4*-10.596/100
=-450.77 kN/m2
Stress at R1 due to R4
qe41=qe4*P41/100=4254.4*-10.596/100
=-450.77 kN/m2
Total stress at R1
Tqe1=(qe1+qi21+qe31+qe41)*0.85
=(6506.1+0+-450.77+-450.77)*0.85
=4763.9 kN/m2
where 0.85 is the load-transfer factor at the edge.
b) Rack positioned at edge of slab - Arrangement 2
Radius of equiv.semi-circ.area
R1=rde2=178.41 mm
Since R1 is less than 1.72h,
Equivalent radius of loaded area b1=SQR(1.6*(R1)^2+h^2)-0.675*h
=SQR(1.6*(178.41)^2+175^2)-0.675*175
=167.45 mm
Radius of equiv.circular area
R2=rsi=56.419 mm
Since R2 is less than 1.72h,
Equivalent radius of loaded area b2=SQR(1.6*(R2)^2+h^2)-0.675*h
=SQR(1.6*(56.419)^2+175^2)-0.675*175
=70.867 mm
Radius of equiv.semi-circ.area
R3=rde2=178.41 mm
Since R3 is less than 1.72h,

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 109. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Ground-supported concrete slab for industrial bldg
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC109

Office: 1007
Equivalent radius of loaded area b3=SQR(1.6*(R3)^2+h^2)-0.675*h
=SQR(1.6*(178.41)^2+175^2)-0.675*175
=167.45 mm
Radius of equiv.semi-circ.area
R4=rde2=178.41 mm
Since R4 is less than 1.72h,
Equivalent radius of loaded area b4=SQR(1.6*(R4)^2+h^2)-0.675*h
=SQR(1.6*(178.41)^2+175^2)-0.675*175
=167.45 mm
2700
2700

150
R3
R1
R4

300

900

All dimensions are in millimetres.

R1, R3 and R4 have double legs.


R2

R2 has single leg.


LEG STRESSES i.e. from racks (from formulae 1-3 in TR550)
1. Edge stress beneath double-leg loaded point R1:
pe1=5.19*(1+0.54*u)*(Dld/h^2)=5.19*(1+0.54*0.15)*(12/175^2)
=0.0021984
and
qe1=pe1*(1.73718*LOG(l/b1)+0.43429*LOG(b1/25.4))*1E6
=0.0021984*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/167.45)+0.43429*LOG(167.45/25.4))*1E6
=7244.6 kN/m2
2. Internal stress beneath single-leg loaded point R2:
qi2=2.7*(1+u)*(Sld/h^2)*(1.73718*LOG(l/b2)+1.069)*1E6
=2.7*(1+0.15)*(6/175^2)*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/70.867)+1.069)*1E6
=3065.5 kN/m2
3. Edge stress beneath double-leg loaded point R3:
p3=5.19*(1+0.54*u)*(Dld/h^2)=5.19*(1+0.54*0.15)*(12/175^2)
=0.0021984
and
qe3=p3*(1.73718*LOG(l/b3)+0.43429*LOG(b3/25.4))*1E6
=0.0021984*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/167.45)+0.43429*LOG(167.45/25.4))*1E6
=7244.6 kN/m2
4. Edge stress beneath double-leg loaded point R4:
p4=5.19*(1+0.54*u)*(Dld/h^2)=5.19*(1+0.54*0.15)*(12/175^2)
=0.0021984
and
qe4=p4*(1.73718*LOG(l/b4)+0.43429*LOG(b4/25.4))*1E6
=0.0021984*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/167.45)+0.43429*LOG(167.45/25.4))*1E6
=7244.6 kN/m2
Displacement of R2 from R1
D21=Defr+Dbr+d-R2=150+300+900-56.419
=1293.6 mm
Displacement of R3 from R1
D31=Lcc-R3=2700-178.41=2521.6 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 109. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Ground-supported concrete slab for industrial bldg
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC109

Office: 1007
Displacement of R4 from R1
D41=Lcc-R4=2700-178.41=2521.6 mm
Ratio of displacement of R2 to l R21=D21/l=1293.6/696.62=1.8569
Ratio of displacement of R3 to l R31=D31/l=2521.6/696.62=3.6197
Ratio of displacement of R4 to l R41=D41/l=2521.6/696.62=3.6197
>From Figure 5 of TR550, with R21=1.8569, R31=3.6197 and R41=3.6197
Percentage effect at R1 due to R2 P21=2.5584 %
Percentage effect at R1 due to R3 P31=-3.6972 %
Percentage effect at R1 due to R4 P41=-3.6972 %
Stress at R1 due to R2
qi21=qi2*P21/100=3065.5*2.5584/100
=78.428 kN/m2
Stress at R1 due to R3
qe31=qe3*P31/100=7244.6*-3.6972/100
=-267.85 kN/m2
Stress at R1 due to R4
qe41=qe4*P41/100=7244.6*-3.6972/100
=-267.85 kN/m2
Total stress at R1
Tqe2=(qe1+qi21+qe31+qe41)*0.85
=(7244.6+78.428+-267.85+-267.85)
*0.85
=5769.3 kN/m2
where 0.85 is the load-transfer factor at the edge.
c) Rack positioned at corner of slab - Arrangement 1
Radius of equiv.circular area
R1=rdc1=178.41 mm
Since R1 is less than 1.72h,
Equivalent radius of loaded area b1=SQR(1.6*(R1)^2+h^2)-0.675*h
=SQR(1.6*(178.41)^2+175^2)-0.675*175
=167.45 mm
Radius of equiv.semi-circ.area
R2=rse=112.84 mm
Since R2 is less than 1.72h,
Equivalent radius of loaded area b2=SQR(1.6*(R2)^2+h^2)-0.675*h
=SQR(1.6*(112.84)^2+175^2)-0.675*175
=107.7 mm
Radius of equiv.semi-circ.area
R3=rse=112.84 mm
Since R3 is less than 1.72h,
Equivalent radius of loaded area b3=SQR(1.6*(R3)^2+h^2)-0.675*h
=SQR(1.6*(112.84)^2+175^2)-0.675*175
=107.7 mm
Radius of equiv.semi-circ.area
R4=rde1=225.68
Since R4 is less than 1.72h,
Equivalent radius of loaded area b4=SQR(1.6*(R4)^2+h^2)-0.675*h
=SQR(1.6*(225.68)^2+175^2)-0.675*175
=216.71 mm
Point of max.stress from corner
Cr=2*SQR(SQR(2)*R1*l)
=2*SQR(SQR(2)*178.41*696.62)
=838.49 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 109. (ans=1)


Page: 6
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Ground-supported concrete slab for industrial bldg
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC109

Office: 1007
900
1500
900



/
R2
R3
R4
R1 /
838.49
/
/
/

150

150

300

All dimensions are in millimetres.


R1 and R4 have double legs.
R2 and R3 have single legs.
Critical position is at a radius of 838.49 mm from corner
LEG STRESSES i.e. from racks (from formulae 1-3 in TR550)
1. Corner stress beneath double-leg loaded point R1:
qc1=41.2*(Dld/h^2)*(1-(SQR(R1/l))/(0.925+0.22*R1/l))*1E6
=41.2*(12/175^2)*(1-(SQR(178.41/696.62))/(0.925+0.22*178.41
/696.62))*1E6
=7818.5 kN/m2
2. Edge stress beneath single-leg loaded point R2:
p2=5.19*(1+0.54*u)*(Sld/h^2)=5.19*(1+0.54*0.15)*(6/175^2)
=0.0010992
and
qe2=p2*(1.73718*LOG(l/b2)+0.43429*LOG(b2/25.4))*1E6
=0.0010992*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/107.7)+0.43429*LOG(107.7/25.4))*1E6
=4254.4 kN/m2
3. Edge stress beneath single-leg loaded point R3:
p3=5.19*(1+0.54*u)*(Sld/h^2)=5.19*(1+0.54*0.15)*(6/175^2)
=0.0010992
and
qe3=p3*(1.73718*LOG(l/b3)+0.43429*LOG(b3/25.4))*1E6
=0.0010992*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/107.7)+0.43429*LOG(107.7/25.4))*1E6
=4254.4 kN/m2
4. Edge stress beneath double-leg loaded point R4:
p4=5.19*(1+0.54*u)*(Dld/h^2)=5.19*(1+0.54*0.15)*(12/175^2)
=0.0021984
and
qe4=p4*(1.73718*LOG(l/b4)+0.43429*LOG(b4/25.4))*1E6
=0.0021984*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/216.71)+0.43429*LOG(216.71/25.4))*1E6
=6506.1 kN/m2
Displacement of R2 from Cr
Displacement of R3 from Cr

D2Cr=Defr+Dbr+d-R2-Cr
=150+300+900-112.84-838.49
=398.67 mm
D3Cr=Defr+Dbr+d+A-R3-Cr
=150+300+900+1500-112.84-838.49
=1898.7 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 109. (ans=1)


Page: 7
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Ground-supported concrete slab for industrial bldg
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC109

Office: 1007
Displacement of R4 from Cr
D4Cr=Defr+Dbr+d+A+d+Dbr/2-R4-Cr
=150+300+900+1500+900+300/2
-225.68-838.49
=2835.8 mm
Ratio of displacement of R2 to l R2Cr=D2Cr/l=398.67/696.62
=0.57229
Ratio of displacement of R3 to l R3Cr=D3Cr/l=1898.7/696.62
=2.7255
Ratio of displacement of R4 to l R4Cr=D4Cr/l=2835.8/696.62
=4.0708
>From Figure 5 of TR550, with R2Cr=0.57229 R3Cr=2.7255 and R4Cr=4.0708
Percentage effect at Cr due to R2 P2Cr=4.4037 %
Percentage effect at Cr due to R3 P3Cr=-7.9272 %
Percentage effect at Cr due to R4 P4Cr=-1.8026 %
Stress at Cr due to R2
qe2Cr=qe2*P2Cr/100=4254.4*4.4037/100
=187.35 kN/m2
Stress at Cr due to R3
qe3Cr=qe3*P3Cr/100=4254.4*-7.9272/100
=-337.26 kN/m2
Stress at Cr due to R4
qe4Cr=qe4*P4Cr/100=6506.1*-1.8026/100
=-117.28 kN/m2
Total stress at Cr
Tqc1=0.7*(qc1+ABS(qe2Cr)+ABS(qe3Cr)+ABS(qe4Cr))
=0.7*(7818.5+ABS(187.35)+ABS(-337.26)+ABS(
-117.28))
=5922.3 kN/m2
where 0.7 is the factor for load transfer at the corner.
d) Rack positioned at corner of slab - Arrangement 2
Radius of equiv.circular area
R1=rdc2=178.41 mm
Since R1 is less than 1.72h,
Equivalent radius of loaded area b1=SQR(1.6*(R1)^2+h^2)-0.675*h
=SQR(1.6*(178.41)^2+175^2)-0.675*175
=167.45 mm
Radius of equiv.semi-circ.area
R2=rde2=178.41 mm
Since R2 is less than 1.72h,
Equivalent radius of loaded area b2=SQR(1.6*(R2)^2+h^2)-0.675*h
=SQR(1.6*(178.41)^2+175^2)-0.675*175
=167.45 mm
Radius of equiv.semi-circ.area
R3=rde2=178.41 mm
Since R3 is less than 1.72h,
Equivalent radius of loaded area b3=SQR(1.6*(R3)^2+h^2)-0.675*h
=SQR(1.6*(178.41)^2+175^2)-0.675*175
=167.45 mm
Point of max.stress from corner
Cr=2*SQR(SQR(2)*R1*l)
=2*SQR(SQR(2)*178.41*696.62)
=838.49 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 109. (ans=1)


Page: 8
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Ground-supported concrete slab for industrial bldg
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC109

Office: 1007
2700
2700

150

/


R1 /
R2
R3
300
838.49 /

/
/

150
All dimensions are in millimetres.
R1, R2 and R4 have double legs.
Critical position is at a radius of 838.49 mm from corner
LEG STRESSES i.e. from racks (from formulae 1-3 in TR550)
1. Corner stress beneath double-leg loaded point R1:
qc1=41.2*(Dld/h^2)*(1-(SQR(R1/l))/(0.925+0.22*R1/l))*1E6
=41.2*(12/175^2)*(1-(SQR(178.41/696.62))/(0.925+0.22*178.41
/696.62))*1E6
=7818.5 kN/m2
2. Edge stress beneath double-leg loaded point R2:
p2=5.19*(1+0.54*u)*(Dld/h^2)=5.19*(1+0.54*0.15)*(12/175^2)
=0.0021984
and
qe2=p2*(1.73718*LOG(l/b2)+0.43429*LOG(b2/25.4))*1E6
=0.0021984*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/167.45)+0.43429*LOG(167.45/25.4))*1E6
=7244.6 kN/m2
3. Edge stress beneath double-leg loaded point R3:
p3=5.19*(1+0.54*u)*(Dld/h^2)=5.19*(1+0.54*0.15)*(12/175^2)
=0.0021984
and
qe3=p3*(1.73718*LOG(l/b3)+0.43429*LOG(b3/25.4))*1E6
=0.0021984*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/167.45)+0.43429*LOG(167.45/25.4))*1E6
=7244.6 kN/m2
Displacement of R2 from Cr

D2Cr=Defr+Lcc-R2-Cr
=150+2700-178.41-838.49
=1833.1 mm
Displacement of R3 from Cr
D3Cr=Defr+Lcc+Lcc-R3-Cr
=150+2700+2700-178.41-838.49
=4533.1 mm
Ratio of displacement of R2 to l R2Cr=D2Cr/l=1833.1/696.62
=2.6314
Ratio of displacement of R3 to l R3Cr=D3Cr/l=4533.1/696.62
=6.5072
>From Figure 5 of TR550, with R2Cr=2.6314 and R3Cr=6.5072
Percentage effect at Cr due to R2 P2Cr=-8.4167 %
Percentage effect at Cr due to R3 P3Cr=0 %
Stress at Cr due to R2
qe2Cr=qe2*P2Cr/100=7244.6*-8.4167/100
=-609.76 kN/m2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 109. (ans=1)


Page: 9
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Ground-supported concrete slab for industrial bldg
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC109

Office: 1007
Stress at Cr due to R3
qe3Cr=qe3*P3Cr/100=7244.6*0/100
=0 kN/m2
Total stress at Cr
Tqc2=0.7*(qc1+ABS(qe2Cr)+ABS(qe3Cr))
=0.7*(7818.5+ABS(-609.76)+ABS(0))
=5899.8 kN/m2
where 0.7 is the factor for load transfer at the corner.
e) Rack positioned internally
Radius of equiv.circular area
Since R1 is less than 1.72h,
Equivalent radius of loaded area
Radius of equiv.circular area
Since R2 is less than 1.72h,
Equivalent radius of loaded area
Radius of equiv.circular area
Since R3 is less than 1.72h,
Equivalent radius of loaded area
Radius of equiv.circular area
Since R4 is less than 1.72h,
Equivalent radius of loaded area
Radius of equiv.circular area
Since R5 is less than 1.72h,
Equivalent radius of loaded area

R1=rdi=112.84 mm
b1=SQR(1.6*(R1)^2+h^2)-0.675*h
=SQR(1.6*(112.84)^2+175^2)-0.675*175
=107.7 mm
R2=rsi=56.419 mm
b2=SQR(1.6*(R2)^2+h^2)-0.675*h
=SQR(1.6*(56.419)^2+175^2)-0.675*175
=70.867 mm
R3=rsi=56.419 mm
b3=SQR(1.6*(R3)^2+h^2)-0.675*h
=SQR(1.6*(56.419)^2+175^2)-0.675*175
=70.867 mm
R4=rdi=112.84 mm
b4=SQR(1.6*(R4)^2+h^2)-0.675*h
=SQR(1.6*(112.84)^2+175^2)-0.675*175
=107.7 mm
R5=rdi=112.84 mm

b5=SQR(1.6*(R5)^2+h^2)-0.675*h
=SQR(1.6*(112.84)^2+175^2)-0.675*175
=107.7 mm
LEG STRESSES i.e. from racks (from formulae 1-3 in TR550)
1. Internal stress beneath double-leg loaded point R1:
qi1=2.7*(1+u)*(Dld/h^2)*(1.73718*LOG(l/b1)+1.069)*1E6
=2.7*(1+0.15)*(12/175^2)*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/107.7)+1.069)*1E6
=5246.4 kN/m2
2. Internal stress beneath single-leg loaded point R2:
qi2=2.7*(1+u)*(Sld/h^2)*(1.73718*LOG(l/b2)+1.069)*1E6
=2.7*(1+0.15)*(6/175^2)*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/70.867)+1.069)*1E6
=3065.5 kN/m2
3. Internal stress beneath single-leg loaded point R3:
qi3=2.7*(1+u)*(Sld/h^2)*(1.73718*LOG(l/b3)+1.069)*1E6
=2.7*(1+0.15)*(6/175^2)*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/70.867)+1.069)*1E6
=3065.5 kN/m2
4. Internal stress beneath double-leg loaded point R4:
qi4=2.7*(1+u)*(Dld/h^2)*(1.73718*LOG(l/b4)+1.069)*1E6
=2.7*(1+0.15)*(12/175^2)*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/107.7)+1.069)*1E6
=5246.4 kN/m2
5. Internal stress beneath double-leg loaded point R5:

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 109. (ans=1)


Page: 10
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Ground-supported concrete slab for industrial bldg
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC109

Office: 1007
qi5=2.7*(1+u)*(Dld/h^2)*(1.73718*LOG(l/b5)+1.069)*1E6
=2.7*(1+0.15)*(12/175^2)*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/107.7)+1.069)*1E6
=5246.4 kN/m2
300

R2
Y

2700

2700


R4
900

R1
R3


R5

R1, R4 and R5 have double legs.


R2 and R3 have single legs.
All dimensions are in millimetres.

Displacement of R2 from R1 D21=d+Dbr/2-R2=900+300/2-56.419


=993.58 mm
Displacement of R3 from R1 D31=d+Dbr/2-R3=900+300/2-56.419
=993.58 mm
Displacement of R4 from R1 D41=Lcc-R4=2700-112.84=2587.2 mm
Displacement of R5 from R1 D51=Lcc-R5=2700-112.84=2587.2 mm
Ratio of displacement of R2 to l R21=D21/l=993.58/696.62=1.4263
Ratio of displacement of R3 to l R31=D31/l=993.58/696.62=1.4263
Ratio of displacement of R4 to l R41=D41/l=2587.2/696.62=3.7139
Ratio of displacement of R5 to l R51=D51/l=2587.2/696.62=3.7139
Orientated about X-X axis
>From Figure 5 of TR550, with R21=1.4263 and R31=1.4263
and R41=3.7139 and R51=3.7139
Percentage effect on R1 due to R2 P21=-5.5397 %
Percentage effect on R1 due to R3 P31=-5.5397 %
Percentage effect on R1 due to R4 P41=0 %
Percentage effect on R1 due to R5 P51=0 %
Stress at R1 due to R2
qi21x=qi2*P21x/100=3065.5*-5.5397/100
=-169.82 kN/m2
Stress at R1 due to R3
qi31x=qi3*P31x/100=3065.5*-5.5397/100
=-169.82 kN/m2
Stress at R1 due to R4
qi41x=qi4*P41x/100=5246.4*0/100
=0 kN/m2
Stress at R1 due to R5
qi51x=qi5*P51x/100=5246.4*0/100
=0 kN/m2
Total internal stress at R1
Tqix=qi1+qi21x+qi31x+qi41x+qi51x
=5246.4+-169.82+-169.82+0+0
=4906.7 kN/m2
Orientated about Y-Y axis
>From Figure 5 of TR550, with R21=1.4263 and R31=1.4263
and R41=3.7139 and R51=3.7139
Percentage effect on R1 due to R2 P21=6.1846 %
Percentage effect on R1 due to R3 P31=6.1846 %
Percentage effect on R1 due to R4 P41=-2.6873 %
Percentage effect on R1 due to R5 P51=-2.6873 %

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 109. (ans=1)


Page: 11
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Ground-supported concrete slab for industrial bldg
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC109

Office: 1007
Stress at R1 due to R2
qi21y=qi2*P21y/100=3065.5*6.1846/100
=189.59 kN/m2
Stress at R1 due to R3
qi31y=qi3*P31y/100=3065.5*6.1846/100
=189.59 kN/m2
Stress at R1 due to R4
qi41y=qi4*P41y/100=5246.4*-2.6873/100
=-140.99 kN/m2
Stress at R1 due to R5
qi51y=qi5*P51y/100=5246.4*-2.6873/100
=-140.99 kN/m2
Total internal stress at R1
Tqiy=qi1+qi21y+qi31y+qi41y+qi51y
=5246.4+189.59+189.59+-140.99+
-140.99
=5343.6 kN/m2
WHEEL LOADING
WHEEL STRESSES i.e. from forklift or other trucks
Since radius of equivalent circular area is less than 1.72h,
equivalent radius of circular area bw1=SQR(1.6*Rw^2+h^2)-0.675*h
=SQR(1.6*100^2+175^2)-0.675*175
=97.803 mm
Since radius of equivalent semi-circular area is less than 1.72h,
equivalent radius of semi-circ. area bw=SQR(1.6*SRw^2+h^2)-0.675*h
=SQR(1.6*141.42^2+175^2)-0.675
*175
=132.12 mm
1. Edge stress due to wheel load:
ew=5.19*(1+0.54*u)*(Dlw/h^2)=5.19*(1+0.54*0.15)*(5.43/175^2)
=0.99476E-3
and
qew=ew*(1.73718*LOG(l/bw)+0.43429*LOG(bw/25.4))*1E6
=0.99476E-3*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/132.12)+0.43429*LOG(132.12/25.4))
*1E6
=3585.3 kN/m2
2. Corner stress due to wheel load:
qcw=41.2*(Dlw/h^2)*(1-(SQR(Rw/l))/(0.925+0.22*Rw/l))*1E6
=41.2*(5.43/175^2)*(1-(SQR(100/696.62))/(0.925+0.22*100/696.62))*1E6
=4411.7 kN/m2
3. Internal stress due to rack leg beneath double-leg point R1:
Radius of equiv.circular area
R1=rdi=112.84 mm
Since R1 is less than 1.72h,
Equivalent radius of loaded area b1=SQR(1.6*(R1)^2+h^2)-0.675*h
=SQR(1.6*(112.84)^2+175^2)-0.675*175
=107.7 mm
Since R1=112.84 mm and b1=107.7 mm for double-leg located internally,
qi1=2.7*(1+u)*(Dld/h^2)*(1.73718*LOG(l/b1)+1.069)*1E6
=2.7*(1+0.15)*(12/175^2)*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/107.7)+1.069)*1E6
=5246.4 kN/m2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 109. (ans=1)


Page: 12
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Ground-supported concrete slab for industrial bldg
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC109

Office: 1007
Wheel loads
a) Wheel stress at the edge
141.42
1500

W2
W1

500
W1 and W2 are wheel loads.

R1 is a double rack leg.

All dimensions are in millimetres.


R1
Displacement of W2 from W1

Dw2w1=Wcc-SRw=1500-141.42
=1358.6 mm
Displacement of R1 from W1
D1w1=500-R1=500-112.84=387.16 mm
Ratio of displacement of W2 to l Rw2w1=Dw2w1/l=1358.6/696.62
=1.9502
Ratio of displacement of R1 to l R1w1=D1w1/l=387.16/696.62
=0.55577
>From Figure 5 of TR550, with Dw2w1/l=1.9502 and D1w1/l=0.55577
percentage effect of W2 on W1
Pw2w1=-11.36 %
percentage effect of R1 on W1
p1w1=27.412 %
Stress at W1 due to W2
qw2w1=qew*Pw2w1/100=3585.3*-11.36/100
=-407.28 kN/m2
Stress at W1 due to R1
q1w1=qi1*p1w1/100=5246.4*27.412/100
=1438.2 kN/m2
Total stress at W1
Tqwe=(qew+qw2w1+q1w1)*0.85
=(3585.3+-407.28+1438.2)*0.85
=3923.7 kN/m2
where 0.85 is the load-transfer factor at the edge.
b) Wheel stress at the corner
Dist.of critical point from corner Cr=2*SQR(SQR(2)*Rw*l)
=2*SQR(SQR(2)*100*696.62)
=627.75 mm
100
1500
141.42


W1
/
W2
627.75
/

/
All dimensions are in millimetres.
/
W1 and W2 are wheel loads

Displacement of W2 from crit.point Dw2s=Wcc+Rw-SRw-Cr


=1500+100-141.42-627.75
=830.83 mm
Ratio of displacement W2 to l
Rw2s=Dw2s/l=830.83/696.62
=1.1927
>From Figure 5 of TR550, with Dw2s/l=1.1927
percentage effect of W2 on Cr
Pw2s=-9.4806 %

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 109. (ans=1)


Page: 13
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Ground-supported concrete slab for industrial bldg
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC109

Office: 1007
Stress at Cr due to W2
qw2s=qcw*Pw2s/100=4411.7*-9.4806/100
=-418.25 kN/m2
Total corner stress
Tqwc=(qcw+qw2s)*0.7
=(4411.7+-418.25)*0.7
=2795.4 kN/m2
where 0.7 is the load-transfer factor at the edge.
SUMMARY OF RESULTS
Concrete grade specified
Allowable 90-day modulus of rupture
Thus the calculated stresses are:
Edge stress in slab due to rack 1
Edge stress in slab due to rack 2
Corner stress in slab due to rack 1
Corner stress in slab due to rack 2
Internal stress in slab due to rack
Internal stress in slab due to rack
Edge stress in slab due to wheel
Corner stress in slab due to wheel
Minimum suitable slab thickness

fcu=40 N/mm2
Amrupt=6296.4 kN/m2
REstress1=4763.9
REstress2=5769.3
RCstress1=5922.3
RCstress2=5899.8
RIstressx=4906.7
RIstressy=5343.6
WEstress =3923.7
WCstress =2795.4
h=175 mm

kN/m2
kN/m2
kN/m2
kN/m2
kN/m2
kN/m2
kN/m2
kN/m2
No109

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 110. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC110 BS

Office: 1007
Location: Typical problem
Design of r.c.pad footing with shear checks

Design to BS8110(1997), partial safety factor for steel gammaS=1.15


All calculations to requirements
in Clauses 3.4.4.4 and 3.11 of
BS8110: Part 1.
Moment & shear are positive in
directions shown.

M
N
V

A
B

lx

lx

cx

cy

ly



la
lb

Ultimate axial force in column


N=1606 kN
Ultimate moment in column
M=163.6 kNm
Ultimate shear force at base top V=73 kN
Column dimension in X-direction
cx=450 mm
Column dimension in Y-direction
cy=450 mm
Base length [in bending (X) dir.] lx=3.6 m
Width of base (i.e. in Y-dir.)
ly=2.8 m
Note: A separate check should be made to ensure the resistance of the
base against sliding due to this shear force.
Left distance to edge of column
la=lm-cx/2000=1.8-450/2000
=1.575 m
Right distance to edge of column lb=lx-lm-cx/2000=3.6-1.8-450/2000
=1.575 m
Characteristic steel strength
fy=500 N/mm2
Characteristic concrete strength fcu=35 N/mm2
High-yield reinforcement
Ultimate bond stress (3.12.8.4)
fbu=0.50*SQR(fcu)=0.50*SQR(35)
=2.958 N/mm2
Overall thickness of base
h=500 mm
Assuming self-weight of reinforced concrete conc=24 kN/m3
Self-weight of base (factored)
Swt=1.4*conc*lx*ly*h/1000
=1.4*24*3.6*2.8*500/1000
=169.34 kN
Designed concrete mix to be used. Cover data from Tables A.4 & A.5 of
BS8500-1:2006.
Intended life of structure (for durability considerations) is 50 years.
Designated exposure class is XC2
Specified fixing tolerance
tol=10 mm
Cover to reinforcement
cover=35 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 110. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC110 BS

Office: 1007
Ground pressures

Note: As these pressures are calculated from factored loads and moments
they are also factored values and thus not true bearing pressures
Taking moments about left edge
Mlh=N*(la+cx/2E3)+Swt*lx/2+V*h/1E3+M
=1606*(1.575+450/2E3)+169.34*3.6
/2+73*500/1E3+163.6
=3395.7 kNm
Distance of line of action
from left edge of base
y=Mlh/(N+Swt)=3395.7/(1606+169.34)
=1.9127 m
N
:

e
:
AB

< y ->
since y>lx/2, eccentricity
e=y-lx/2=1.9127-3.6/2=0.11271 m
Since eccentricity does not exceed lx/6, centroid of load lies within
the middle-third, giving a trapezoidal distribution of pressure, which
varies linearly from pa=143.04 kN/m2 at A to pb=209.21 kN/m2 at B.

pa

pb

Elastic modulus of base in plan


Uniform pressure due to self wt.
Pressure at end A

Pressure at end B

z=ly*lx^2/6=2.8*3.6^2/6=6.048 m3
ps=Swt/(lx*ly)=169.34/(3.6*2.8)
=16.8 kN/m2
pa=(N+Swt)/(lx*ly)-(N+Swt)*e/z
=(1606+169.34)/(3.6*2.8)-(1606
+169.34)*0.11271/6.048
=143.04 kN/m2
pb=(N+Swt)/(lx*ly)+(N+Swt)*e/z
=(1606+169.34)/(3.6*2.8)+(1606
+169.34)*0.11271/6.048
=209.21 kN/m2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 110. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC110 BS

Office: 1007
Ultimate moments and shears

For initial shear calculations,


assume effective depth
ds=0.85*h/1000=0.85*500/1000=0.425 m
Ultimate moment (at left face of column)
Mda=(3*(pa-ps)+(pb-pa)*la/lx)*ly*la^2/6
=(3*(143.04-16.8)+(209.21-143.04)*1.575/3.6)
*2.8*1.575^2/6
=471.93 kNm
Ultimate moment (at right face of column)
Mdb=(3*(pb-ps)-(pb-pa)*lb/lx)*ly*lb^2/6
=(3*(209.21-16.8)-(209.21-143.04)*1.575/3.6)
*2.8*1.575^2/6
=634.71 kNm
Ultimate shear (near left face of column)
Vda=(2*(pa-ps)+(pb-pa)*(la-ds)/lx)*ly*(la-ds)/2
=(2*(143.04-16.8)+(209.21-143.04)*(1.575
-0.425)/3.6)*2.8*(1.575-0.425)/2
=440.52 kN
Ultimate shear (near right face of column)
Vdb=(2*(pb-ps)-(pb-pa)*(lb-ds)/lx)*ly*(lb-ds)/2
=(2*(209.21-16.8)-(209.21-143.04)*(1.575
-0.425)/3.6)*2.8*(1.575-0.425)/2
=585.53 kN
Design for
Vdx=585.53
and
Mdx=634.71
The maximum moment is reduced to one-half of
317.41 kNm at a distance of 0.47 m from the

kN
kNm
this value (i.e. about
RH face of the column.

Reinforcement to resist bending in X-direction

Diameter of X-direction bars


diax=16 mm
Since specified bar size does not exceed cover,
Effective depth
dx=h-cover-0.5*diax=500-35-0.5*16
=457 mm
Crit.dist.for curtailment calcs. lc=((1000*lx-cx)/2+lcx-lcxc)/1000
=((1000*3.6-450)/2+457-930)/1000
=1.102 m from edge
At this point, soil pressure
px=pb-(pb-pa)*lc/lx
=209.21-(209.21-143.04)*1.102/3.6
=188.96 kN/m2
and total bending moment
Md=lc^2/6*(2*pb+px)*ly
=1.102^2/6*(2*209.21+188.96)*2.8
=344.21 kNm
Min.anchorage-bond
length required with 90-bob lcx1=INT(fy*diax/(fbu*4*gammaS))+1-12*diax
=INT(500*16/(2.958*4*1.15))+1-12*16
=396 mm
As this is less than effective depth, increase as per Cl.3.12.9.1(a).
Thus min.length required beyond theoretical termination=929 mm
Min. 50%-bar-curtailment point
lcxp=0.929 m from column face.
Specified bar-curtailment point
lcxcm=0.93 m from column face so OK
Applied-moment factor

K=Mdx*10^6/(1000*ly*dx^2*fcu)
=634.71*10^6/(1000*2.8*457^2*35)
=0.031011

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 110. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC110 BS

Office: 1007
This does not exceed resistance-moment factor K'=0.156 so section is OK
Lever arm
z=dx*(0.5+SQR(0.25-K/0.9))
=457*(0.5+SQR(0.25-0.031011/0.9))
=440.67 mm,
but must not exceed
0.95*dx= 0.95*457 =434.15 mm,
i.e. take
z=434.15 mm
Area of tension steel required
Asx=Mdx*10^6/(fy/gammaS*z)
=634.71*10^6/(500/1.15*434.15)
=3362.5 mm2
Since base width ( ly=2.8 m ) exceeds ( 1.5*cy+4.5*dx=2.7315 m )
Clause 3.11.3.2 requires that two-thirds of the required reinforcement
must be concentrated within a width (3d+cy) located centrally under the
column.
Thus over central strip
Asx1=2/3*Asx=2/3*3362.5=2241.7 mm2,
and over remainder of base
Asx2=Asx/3=3362.5/3=1120.8 mm2
Width of central strip
widY1=(cy+3*dx)/1000=(450+3*457)/1000
=1.821 m
Total width of outer edge strips widY2=ly-widY1=2.8-1.821
=0.979 m
Reinforcement: central strip of width 1.821 m

Since 3*dx is not less than 750 mm, maximum clear distance between
bars for tension steel
maxcsp=750 mm, and
maximum pitch (c.to c.of bars)
pchm=750+diax=766 mm
Calculated bar spacing (c.to c.) pitch=1000*widY*PI*diax^2/(4*Asx)
=1000*1.821*3.1416*16^2/(4
*2241.7)
=163.33 mm
Since this does not exceed maximum permissible spacing of 766 mm,
adopt this value.
Round bar spacing (c.to c.) to
160 mm (rounded)
Revised number of bars required
Nox=INT(1000*widY1/pchx)+1
=INT(1000*1.821/160)+1
=12
Revised width of edge strip steel wdY2=ly*1000-(Nox-1)*pchx
=2.8*1000-(12-1)*160
=1040 mm
Area of tension steel provided
Asprx=Nox*PI*diax^2/4
=12*3.1416*16^2/4
=2412.7 mm2
Check spacing and proportion of steel (Clause 3.12.11.2.7)

Percentage of steel provided


per=Asprx/(10*widY*h)
=2412.7/(10*1.821*500)
=0.26499 % of gross section.
As this is within Code limits of 0.13 % and 4%, this is satisfactory.
As the area of tension steel provided does not exceed 0.3%, no check
on the spacing of bars is needed [see Clause 3.12.11.2.7(a3)].
Since percentage of steel provided is at least twice the minimum
permissible proportion, 50% of these bars will be curtailed at a
distance of 930 mm from the face of the column.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 110. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC110 BS

Office: 1007
Reinforcement: edge strips, each of width 0.4895 m

Since 3*dx is not less than 750 mm, maximum clear distance between
bars for tension steel
maxcsp=750 mm, and
maximum pitch (c.to c.of bars)
pchm=750+diax=766 mm
Calculated bar spacing (c.to c.) pitch=1000*widY*PI*diax^2/(4*Asx)
=1000*0.979*3.1416*16^2/(4
*1120.8)
=175.62 mm
Since this does not exceed maximum permissible spacing of 766 mm,
adopt this value.
Round bar spacing (c.to c.) to
175 mm (rounded)
Revised number of bars required
Nox=2*INT(wdY2/pchx/2)+2
=2*INT(1040/175/2)+2
=6
Area of tension steel provided
Asprx=Nox*PI*diax^2/4=6*3.1416*16^2/4
=1206.4 mm2
Check spacing and proportion of steel (Clause 3.12.11.2.7)

Percentage of steel provided


per=Asprx/(10*widY*h)
=1206.4/(10*0.979*500)
=0.24645 % of gross section.
As this is within Code limits of 0.13 % and 4%, this is satisfactory.
As the area of tension steel provided does not exceed 0.3%, no check
on the spacing of bars is needed [see Clause 3.12.11.2.7(a3)].
Since percentage of steel provided is less than twice the minimum
permissible proportion, bar curtailment is not possible.
Shear across base in X-direction

Since 0.8*fcu is less than 5 N/mm2,


Absolute maximum shear stress
Vmax=0.8*SQR(fcu)=0.8*SQR(35)
=4.7329 N/mm2
Dist.to critical shear plane
avX=alphX*dx
=1.5*457
=685.5 mm from col.face
Shear: central strip of width 1.821 m

Percentage of steel provided


pcnt=Asprx/(10*widY*dx)
=2412.7/(10*1.821*457)
=0.28992 %
Assuming no specific shear reinforcement is to be provided
Using the appropriate formula given in Note 2 below Table 3.8,
Design concrete shear stress
vc=0.45261 N/mm2
Since dist.from col.face is less than 2*dx, enhance as per Cl.3.4.5.8.
Enhanced design shear stress
0.60348 N/mm2
Ultimate shear stress
v=Vdx/(ly*dx)=585.53/(2.8*457)
=0.45759 N/mm2
As actual shear stress (v=0.45759 N/mm2 does not exceed design stress
(vc=0.60348 N/mm2 , no shear steel is needed across Y-direction faces.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 110. (ans=1)


Page: 6
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC110 BS

Office: 1007
Shear: edge strips, each of width 0.4895 m

Percentage of steel provided


pcnt=Asprx/(10*widY*dx)
=1206.4/(10*0.979*457)
=0.26964 %
Assuming no specific shear reinforcement is to be provided
Using the appropriate formula given in Note 2 below Table 3.8,
Design concrete shear stress
vc=0.4418 N/mm2
Since dist.from col.face is less than 2*dx, enhance as per Cl.3.4.5.8.
Enhanced design shear stress
0.58906 N/mm2
Ultimate shear stress
v=Vdx/(ly*dx)=585.53/(2.8*457)
=0.45759 N/mm2
As actual shear stress (v=0.45759 N/mm2 does not exceed design stress
(vc=0.58906 N/mm2 , no shear steel is needed across Y-direction faces.
Reinforcement to resist bending in Y-direction

As eccentricity of load is within middle-third, it seems reasonable to


design for a uniform moment in Y-direction. Hence
Ultimate bending moment
Mdy=N*(ly-cy/1000)^2/(8*ly)
=1606*(2.8-450/1000)^2/(8*2.8)
=395.94 kNm
For initial shear calculations,
assume effective depth
ds=0.85*h/1000=0.85*500/1000
=0.425 m
Ultimate shear force
Vdy=N*(ly-cy/1000-2*ds)/(2*ly)
=1606*(2.8-450/1000-2*0.425)/(2
*2.8)
=430.18 kN
The maximum moment is reduced to one-half of this value (i.e. 197.97
kNm) at a distance of 0.9326 m from the column face.
Diameter of Y-direction bars
Actual effective depth
Crit.dist.for curtailment calcs.

diay=12 mm
dy=dx-diax/2-diay/2=457-16/2-12/2
=443 mm
lc=((1000*ly-cy)/2+lcy-lcyc)/1000
=((1000*2.8-450)/2+443-920)/1000
=0.698 m from edge
Md=Mdy/2=395.94/2=197.97 kNm

Total bending moment


Min.anchorage-bond
length required with 90-bob lcy1=INT(fy*diay/(fbu*4*gammaS))+1-12*diay
=INT(500*12/(2.958*4*1.15))+1-12*12
=297 mm
As this is less than effective depth, increase as per Cl.3.12.9.1(a).
Thus min.length required beyond theoretical termination=915 mm
Min. 50%-bar-curtailment point
lcyp=0.915 m from column face.
Specified bar-curtailment point
lcycm=0.92 m from column face so OK
Applied-moment factor

K=Mdy*10^6/(1000*lx*dy^2*fcu)
=395.94*10^6/(1000*3.6*443^2*35)
=0.016012
This does not exceed resistance-moment factor K'=0.156 so section is OK
Lever arm
z=dy*(0.5+SQR(0.25-K/0.9))
=443*(0.5+SQR(0.25-0.016012/0.9))
=434.97 mm,
but must not exceed
0.95*dy= 0.95*443 =420.85 mm,
i.e. take
z=420.85 mm.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 110. (ans=1)


Page: 7
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC110 BS

Office: 1007
Area of tension steel required
Asy=Mdy*10^6/(fy/gammaS*z)
=395.94*10^6/(500/1.15*420.85)
=2163.9 mm2
Since base width ( lx=3.6 m ) exceeds ( 1.5*cx+4.5*dy=2.6595 m )
Clause 3.11.3.2 requires that two-thirds of the required reinforcement
must be concentrated within a width (3d+cx) located centrally under the
column.
Thus over central strip
Asy1=2/3*Asy=2/3*2163.9=1442.6 mm2
and over remainder of base
Asy2=Asy/3=2163.9/3=721.29 mm2
Width of central strip
widX1=(cx+3*dy)/1000=(450+3*443)/1000
=1.779 m
Total width of outer edge strips widX2=lx-widX1=3.6-1.779
=1.821 m
Reinforcement: central strip of width 1.779 m

Since 3*dy is not less than 750 mm, maximum clear distance between
bars for tension steel
maxcsp=750 mm, and
maximum pitch (c.to c.of bars)
pchm=750+diay=762 mm
Calculated bar spacing (c.to c.) pitch=1000*widX*PI*diay^2/(4*Asy)
=1000*1.779*3.1416*12^2/(4
*1442.6)
=139.47 mm
Since this does not exceed maximum permissible spacing of 762 mm,
adopt this value.
Round bar spacing (c.to c.) to
130 mm (rounded)
Revised number of bars required
Noy=INT(1000*widX1/pchy)+1
=INT(1000*1.779/130)+1
=14
Revised width of edge strip steel wdX2=lx*1000-(Noy-1)*pchy
=3.6*1000-(14-1)*130
=1910 mm
Area of tension steel provided
Aspry=Noy*PI*diay^2/4
=14*3.1416*12^2/4
=1583.4 mm2
Check spacing and proportion of steel (Clause 3.12.11.2.7)

Percentage of steel provided


per=Aspry/(10*widX*h)
=1583.4/(10*1.779*500)
=0.17801 % of gross section.
As this is within Code limits of 0.13 % and 4%, this is satisfactory.
As the area of tension steel provided does not exceed 0.3%, no check
on the spacing of bars is needed [see Clause 3.12.11.2.7(a3)].
Since percentage of steel provided is less than twice the minimum
permissible proportion, bar curtailment is not possible.
Reinforcement: edge strips, each of width 0.9105 m

Minimum steel area (Table 3.25)


Asmin=Pmin1*1000*widX*h
=0.0013*1000*1.821*500
=1183.7 mm2
Since calculated area required is less than this value, provide
Asy=1183.7 mm2
Since 3*dy is not less than 750 mm, maximum clear distance between
bars for tension steel
maxcsp=750 mm, and

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 110. (ans=1)


Page: 8
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC110 BS

Office: 1007
maximum pitch (c.to c.of bars)
pchm=750+diay=762 mm
Calculated bar spacing (c.to c.) pitch=1000*widX*PI*diay^2/(4*Asy)
=1000*1.821*3.1416*12^2/(4
*1183.7)
=174 mm
Since this does not exceed maximum permissible spacing of 762 mm,
adopt this value.
Round bar spacing (c.to c.) to
170 mm (rounded)
Revised number of bars required
Noy=2*INT(wdX2/pchy/2)+2
=2*INT(1910/170/2)+2
=12
Area of tension steel provided
Aspry=Noy*PI*diay^2/4
=12*3.1416*12^2/4
=1357.2 mm2
Check spacing and proportion of steel (Clause 3.12.11.2.7)

Percentage of steel provided


per=Aspry/(10*widX*h)
=1357.2/(10*1.821*500)
=0.14906 % of gross section.
As this is within Code limits of 0.13 % and 4%, this is satisfactory.
As the area of tension steel provided does not exceed 0.3%, no check
on the spacing of bars is needed [see Clause 3.12.11.2.7(a3)].
Shear across base in Y-direction

Dist.to critical shear plane

avY=alphY*dy
=1.5*443
=664.5 mm from column face.

Shear: central strip of width 1.779 m

Percentage of steel provided


pcnt=Aspry/(10*widX*dy)
=1583.4/(10*1.779*443)
=0.20091 %
Assuming no specific shear reinforcement is to be provided
Using the appropriate formula given in Note 2 below Table 3.8,
Design concrete shear stress
vc=0.40365 N/mm2
Since dist.from col.face is less than 2*dy, enhance as per Cl.3.4.5.8.
Enhanced design shear stress
0.5382 N/mm2
Ultimate shear stress
v=Vdy/(lx*dy)=430.18/(3.6*443)
=0.26974 N/mm2
As actual shear stress (v=0.26974 N/mm2 does not exceed design stress
(vc=0.5382 N/mm2 , no shear steel is needed across X-direction faces.
Shear: edge strips, each of width 0.9105 m

Percentage of steel provided


pcnt=Aspry/(10*widX*dy)
=1357.2/(10*1.821*443)
=0.16824 %
Assuming no specific shear reinforcement is to be provided
Using the appropriate formula given in Note 2 below Table 3.8,
Design concrete shear stress
vc=0.38046 N/mm2
Since dist.from col.face is less than 2*dy, enhance as per Cl.3.4.5.8.
Enhanced design shear stress
0.50729 N/mm2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 110. (ans=1)


Page: 9
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC110 BS

Office: 1007
Ultimate shear stress
v=Vdy/(lx*dy)=430.18/(3.6*443)
=0.26974 N/mm2
As actual shear stress (v=0.26974 N/mm2 does not exceed design stress
(vc=0.50729 N/mm2 , no shear steel is needed across X-direction faces.
Check punching shear at critical plane (Clause 3.11.3.4)

In X-direction:
Dist.from col.face to crit.plane avX=1.5*dx=1.5*457=685.5 mm
Punching-shear-perimeter length
PerY=cy+3*dy=450+3*443=1779 mm
Punching-shear-perimeter length does not exceed central-strip width so
Punching-shear-perimeter length of over central strip PerY1=1779 mm
Punching-shear-perimeter length of over edge strips
PerY2=0 mm
Over central strip:
Area of steel provided
AsProv=Asprx=2412.7 mm2
Breadth of section
EffB=widY1*1000=1.821*1000
=1821 mm
Assuming no specific shear reinforcement is to be provided
Using the appropriate formula given in Note 2 below Table 3.8,
Design concrete shear stress
vc=0.45261 N/mm2
Over edges of base:
Area of steel provided
AsProv=Asprx=1206.4 mm2
Breadth of section
EffB=widY2*1000=0.979*1000
=979 mm
Assuming no specific shear reinforcement is to be provided
Using the appropriate formula given in Note 2 below Table 3.8,
Design concrete shear stress
vc=0.4418 N/mm2
In Y-direction:
Dist.from col.face to crit.plane avY=1.5*dy=1.5*443=664.5 mm
Punching-shear-perimeter length
PerX=cx+3*dx=450+3*457=1821 mm
Length of punching-shear perimeter exceeds width of central strip, so
Punching-shear-perimeter length over central strip PerX1=1779 mm
Punching-shear-perimeter length over edge strips
PerX2=42 mm
Over central strip:
Area of steel provided
AsProv=Aspry=1583.4 mm2
Breadth of section
EffB=widX1*1000=1.779*1000
=1779 mm
Assuming no specific shear reinforcement is to be provided
Using the appropriate formula given in Note 2 below Table 3.8,
Design concrete shear stress
vc=0.40365 N/mm2
Over edges of base:
Area of steel provided
AsProv=Aspry=1357.2 mm2
Breadth of section
EffB=widX2*1000=1.821*1000
=1821 mm
Assuming no specific shear reinforcement is to be provided
Using the appropriate formula given in Note 2 below Table 3.8,
Design concrete shear stress
vc=0.38046 N/mm2
If
Vprx=dx*(vcX1*PerY1+vcX2*PerY2)
=457*(0.45261*1779+0.4418*0)
=367973 N
and
Vpry=dy*(vcY1*PerX1+vcY2*PerX2)
=443*(0.40365*1779+0.38046*42)
=325196 N
Punching-shear resistance prov.
Vprov=2*(Vprx+Vpry)/1000
=2*(367973+325196)/1000
=1386.3 kN

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 110. (ans=1)


Page: 10
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC110 BS

Office: 1007
Ultimate effective shear force at critical
plane (taking account of moment) Veff=N*(1+1.5*ABS(M)/(N*PerY/1000))
=1606*(1+1.5*ABS(163.6)/(1606
*1779/1000))
=1743.9 kN
Av.bearing stress below column
pf=pa-(pa-pb)*(la+cx/2000)/lx
=143.04-(143.04-209.21)*(1.575+450
/2000)/3.6
=176.13 kN/m2
Reduction in punching load due to
direct load transfer to subbase
Vred=pf*(cy+2*avX)*(cx+2*avY)/1E6
=176.13*(450+2*685.5)*(450+2
*664.5)/1E6
=570.57 kN
Punching-shear resistance reqd.
Vreq=Veff-Vred=1743.9-570.57
=1173.4 kN
As the resistance required (Vreq=1173.4 kN does not exceed that
provided (Vprov=1386.3 kN), no punching shear reinforcement is needed.
Check punching shear at column face

Length of column perimeter


uo=2*(cx+cy)=2*(450+450)
=1800 mm
Punching-shear resistance prov.
VpRes=Vmax*uo*(dx+dy)/2000
=4.7329*1800*(457+443)/2000
=3833.6 kN
Punching-shear resistance reqd.
N=1606 kN
Punching-shear stress on perimeter of column is satisfactory.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 110. (ans=1)


Page: 11
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC110 BS

Office: 1007
SUMMARY OF REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED IN X-DIRECTION
Since base width ( 2.8 m ) exceeds ( 3cy/2+9dx/2)=2.7315 m )
according to Cl.3.11.3.2, two-thirds of steel must be concentrated
within central zone extending 1d from each column face ( i.e. total
width =1.821 m ).

CENTRAL ZONE

EDGE ZONES

ACROSS ENTIRE BASE

Characteristic strength 500 N/mm2


Diameter of bars
16 mm
Number of bars required 12
Alternate bars curtailed at 930
mm from either side of column face.
Max spacing of bars
160 mm
Area required
2241.7 mm2
Area provided
2412.7 mm2
Percentage provided
0.26 %
Number of bars required 6
Max spacing of bars
175 mm
(Note: reduce spacing of outermost
bars to obtain side cover.)
Area required
1120.8 mm2
Area provided
1206.4 mm2
Percentage provided
0.25 %
Total number of bars
18
Effective depth
457 mm
Total steel area reqd.
3362.5 mm2
Total steel area prov.
3619.1 mm2
Av.percentage provided
0.26 %
Av.weight of steel prov. 10.146 kg/m2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 110. (ans=1)


Page: 12
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC110 BS

Office: 1007
SUMMARY OF REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED IN Y-DIRECTION
Since base width ( 3.6 m ) exceeds ( 3cx/2+9dy/2=2.6685 m ),
according to Cl.3.11.3.2, two-thirds of steel must be concentrated
within central zone extending 1d from each column face ( i.e.total
width =1.779 m ).

CENTRAL ZONE

EDGE ZONES

ACROSS ENTIRE BASE

QUANTITIES

Total
Total
Total
Total

Characteristic strength 500 N/mm2


Diameter of bars
12 mm
Number of bars required 14
Max spacing of bars
130 mm
Area required
1442.6 mm2
Area provided
1583.4 mm2
Percentage provided
0.18 %
Number of bars required 12
Max spacing of bars
170 mm
(Note: reduce spacing of outermost
bars to obtain side cover.)
Area required
1183.7 mm2
Area provided
1357.2 mm2
Percentage provided
0.15 %
(Note: steel area required is minimum
permitted by Table 3.25.)
Total number of bars
26
Effective depth
443 mm
Total steel area reqd.
2626.2 mm2
Total steel area prov.
2940.5 mm2
Av.percentage provided
0.16 %
Av.weight of steel prov. 6.412 kg/m2
volume of concrete required
area of formwork (base sides only)
volume of reinforcement
weight of reinforcement

5.04 m3
6.4 m2
18486 cm3
145.11 kg

No shear reinforcement is required.


No110

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 110. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC110 EC

Office: 1007
Location: Typical problem
Design of reinforced concrete pad footing with shear checks

All calculations to EC2 Part 1-1


and IStructE Manual to EC2.
Moment & shear are positive in
directions shown.

MEd
NEd
VEd'

A
B

lx

lx

cx

cy

ly



la
lb

Ultimate axial force in column


NEd=1606 kN
Ultimate moment in column
MEd=163.6 kNm
Ultimate shear force at base top VEd'=73 kN
Column dimension in X-direction
cx=450 mm
Column dimension in Y-direction
cy=450 mm
Base length (bending in X-dir.)
lx=3.6 m
Width of base (i.e. in Y-dir.)
ly=2.8 m
Partial safety factor for steel
gams=1.15
Partial safety factor for conc.
gamc=1.5
Note: A separate check should be made to ensure the resistance of the
base against sliding due to this shear force.
Left distance to edge of column
la=lm-cx/2000=1.8-450/2000
=1.575 m
Right distance to edge of column lb=lx-lm-cx/2000=3.6-1.8-450/2000
=1.575 m
Char cylinder compress strength
fck=28 N/mm2 (concrete)
Char yield strength of reinft.
fyk=500 N/mm2
Design yield strength of reinft. fyd=fyk/gams=500/1.15=434.78 N/mm2
Mean value axial tensile strength fctm=0.3*fck^(2/3)=0.3*28^(2/3)
=2.7663 N/mm2 (concrete)
All reinft. in pad footing to be high-yield ribbed bars Grade 500.
Char axial tensile strength
fctk=0.7*fctm=0.7*2.7663
=1.9364 N/mm2 (concrete)
Char anchorage bond strength
fbd=2.25*eta1*eta2*fctk/gamc
=2.25*1*1*1.9364/1.5
=2.9046 N/mm2
Overall thickness of base
h=550 mm
Assuming self-weight of reinforced concrete conc=25 kN/m3
Self-weight of base (factored)
Swt=1.35*conc*lx*ly*h/1000
=1.35*25*3.6*2.8*550/1000
=187.11 kN
Diameter of X-direction bars
diax=16 mm
Diameter of Y-direction bars
diay=12 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 110. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC110 EC

Office: 1007
Durability and cover to reinforcement

Life of structure
50 years
Exposure class
XC2
Designed concrete
C 28 /35
Minimum cover
covern=25 mm
Fixing tolerance
tol=10 mm
Nominal cover (Cl. 4.4.1.1(2))
cover=35 mm
Ground pressures

The pressures below will be calculated from factored loads and moments
and they are not allowable bearing pressures.
Taking moments about left edge
Mlh=NEd*(la+cx/2E3)+Swt*lx/2+VEd'*h
/1E3+MEd
=1606*(1.575+450/2E3)+187.11*3.6
/2+73*550/1E3+163.6
=3431.3 k
Distance of line of action
from left edge of base
y=Mlh/(NEd+Swt)=3431.3/(1606+187.11)
=1.9136 m
NEd
:

e
:
AB

< y ->
since y>lx/2, eccentricity
e=y-lx/2=1.9136-3.6/2=0.11363 m
Since eccentricity does not exceed lx/6, centroid of load lies within
the middle-third, giving a trapezoidal distribution of pressure, which
varies linearly from pa=144.2 kN/m2 at A to pb=211.58 kN/m2 at B.

pa

pb

Elastic modulus of base in plan


Uniform pressure due to self wt.
Pressure at end A

Pressure at end B

z=ly*lx^2/6=2.8*3.6^2/6=6.048 m3
ps=Swt/(lx*ly)=187.11/(3.6*2.8)
=18.563 kN/m2
pa=(NEd+Swt)/(lx*ly)-(NEd+Swt)*e/z
=(1606+187.11)/(3.6*2.8)-(1606
+187.11)*0.11363/6.048
=144.2 kN/m2
pb=(NEd+Swt)/(lx*ly)+(NEd+Swt)*e/z
=(1606+187.11)/(3.6*2.8)+(1606
+187.11)*0.11363/6.048
=211.58 kN/m2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 110. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC110 EC

Office: 1007
Ultimate moments and shears

For initial shear calculations,


assume effective depth
ds=0.85*h/1000=0.85*550/1000=0.4675 m
Ultimate moment (at left face of column)
Mda=(3*(pa-ps)+(pb-pa)*la/lx)*ly*la^2/6
=(3*(144.2-18.563)+(211.58-144.2)*1.575/3.6)
*2.8*1.575^2/6
=470.44 kNm
Ultimate moment (at right face of column)
Mdb=(3*(pb-ps)-(pb-pa)*lb/lx)*ly*lb^2/6
=(3*(211.58-18.563)-(211.58-144.2)*1.575
/3.6)*2.8*1.575^2/6
=636.19 kNm
Ultimate shear (near left face of column)
Vda=(2*(pa-ps)+(pb-pa)*(la-ds)/lx)*ly*(la-ds)/2
=(2*(144.2-18.563)+(211.58-144.2)*(1.575
-0.4675)/3.6)*2.8*(1.575-0.4675)/2
=421.74 kN
Ultimate shear (near right face of column)
Vdb=(2*(pb-ps)-(pb-pa)*(lb-ds)/lx)*ly*(lb-ds)/2
=(2*(211.58-18.563)-(211.58-144.2)*(1.575
-0.4675)/3.6)*2.8*(1.575-0.4675)/2
=566.4 kN
Effective depth X-direction

dx=h-cover-0.5*diax=550-35-0.5*16
=507 mm
Design shear force at 1.0dx
Vdx=566.4 kN
Design moment at RH column face
Mdx=636.19 kNm
The maximum moment is reduced to one-half of this value ( i.e. about
318.01 kNm ) at a distance of 0.47 m from the RH face of the column.
Reinforcement to resist bending in X-direction

Diameter of X-direction bars


diax=16 mm
Since specified bar size does not exceed cover,
Effective depth
dx=507 mm
Redistribution ratio
delta=1.0
It is usual practice in the UK to restrict x/d to 0.45
Limit on factor
delta=0.85
Factor
K'=0.597*delta-0.18*delta^2-0.209
=0.597*0.85-0.18*0.85^2-0.209
=0.1684
Factor
K=Mdx*10^6/(1000*ly*dx^2*fck)
=636.2*10^6/(1000*2.8*507^2*28)
=0.0316
Lever arm
z=dx/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*K))
=507/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*0.0316))
=492.5 mm
Reduce lever arm to
z=0.95*dx=0.95*507=481.7 mm
Area of tension steel required
Asx=Mdx*10^6/(fyk/gams*z)
=636.2*10^6/(500/1.15*481.7)
=3038 mm2
Since base width ( ly=2.8 m ) does not exceed ( 1.5*cy+4.5*dx=2.957 m )
no bar re-spacing is necessary in X-direction.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 110. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC110 EC

Office: 1007
Calculated bar spacing (c.to c.) pitch=1000*widY*PI*diax^2/(4*Asx)
=1000*2.8*3.142*16^2/(4*3038)
=185.3 mm
Since this does not exceed maximum permissible spacing of 300 mm,
adopt this value.
Round bar spacing (c.to c.) to
180 mm (rounded)
Revised number of bars required
Nox=INT(1000*ly/pchx)+1
=INT(1000*2.8/180)+1
=16
Area of tension steel provided
Asprx=Nox*PI*diax^2/4
=16*3.142*16^2/4
=3217 mm2
Check spacing and proportion of steel

Percentage of steel provided


per=Asprx/(10*widY*h)
=3217/(10*2.8*550)
=0.2089 % of gross section.
As this is within Code limits of 0.15 % and 4%, this is satisfactory.
Furthermore as the area of tension steel provided does not exceed 0.5%,
the bar spacing of 180 mm is satisfactory (refer to IStructE Standard
Method of Detailing Structural Concrete for further information).
Shear across base in X-direction

Distance to critical shear plane


Shear enhancement
Design shear force @ 1.0dx
Maximum concrete strut capacity
Area of reinforcement at section
Percentage area
Partial concrete safety factor
Factor
Factor
Term for shear resistance
Shear resistance
Minimum stress
Minimum shear resistance
Modified shear resistance

avX=dx=507 mm (from column face)


beta'=2*dx/avX=2*507/507
=2
VEd=Vdx=566.4 kN
VRdm=0.2*fck*(1-fck/250)*bw*d/10^3
=0.2*28*(1-28/250)*2800*507/10^3
=7059 kN
Asl=Aspr=3217 mm2
rho1=100*Asl/(bw*d)
=100*3217/(2800*507)
=0.2266 %
gamc=1.5
CRdc=0.18/gamc=0.18/1.5=0.12
ks=1+(200/d)^0.5=1+(200/507)^0.5
=1.628
vRdc=(rho1*fck)^(1/3)
=(0.2266*28)^(1/3)
=1.851
VRdc=beta'*CRdc*ks*vRdc*bw*d/1000
=2*0.12*1.628*1.851*2800*507/1000
=1027 kN
vmin=beta'*0.035*ks^1.5*fck^0.5
=2*0.035*1.628^1.5*28^0.5
=0.7695 N/mm2
VRdm=vmin*bw*d/1000
=0.7695*2800*507/1000
=1092 kN
VRdc=VRdm=1092 kN

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 110. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC110 EC

Office: 1007
SHEAR SUMMARY

Shear force
Shear resistance

566.4 kN
1092 kN

Hence section is satisfactory, no shear reinforcement is required.


Reinforcement to resist bending in Y-direction

As eccentricity of load is within middle-third, it seems reasonable to


design for a uniform moment in Y-direction. Hence
Ultimate bending moment
Mdy=NEd*(ly-cy/1000)^2/(8*ly)
=1606*(2.8-450/1000)^2/(8*2.8)
=395.9 kNm
For initial shear calculations,
assume effective depth
ds=0.85*h/1000=0.85*550/1000
=0.4675 m
Ultimate shear force @ 1.0ds
Vdy=NEd*(ly-cy/1000-2*ds)/(2*ly)
=1606*(2.8-450/1000-2*0.4675)/(2
*2.8)
=405.8 kN
The maximum moment is reduced to one-half of this value (i.e. 198
kNm) at a distance of 0.9326 m from the column face.
Diameter of Y-direction bars
Actual effective depth

diay=12 mm
dy=dx-diax/2-diay/2=507-16/2-12/2
=493 mm
Redistribution ratio
delta=1.0
It is usual practice in the UK to restrict x/d to 0.45
Limit on factor
delta=0.85
Factor
K'=0.597*delta-0.18*delta^2-0.209
=0.597*0.85-0.18*0.85^2-0.209
=0.1684
Factor
K=Mdy*10^6/(1000*lx*dy^2*fck)
=395.9*10^6/(1000*3.6*493^2*28)
=0.0162
Lever arm
z=dy/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*K))
=493/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*0.0162))
=485.9 mm
Reduce lever arm to
z=0.95*dy=0.95*493=468.4 mm
Area of tension steel required
Asy=Mdy*10^6/(fyk/gams*z)
=395.9*10^6/(500/1.15*468.4)
=1944 mm2
Since base width ( lx=3.6 m ) exceeds ( 1.5*cx+4.5*dy=2.885 m )
two-thirds of the required reinforcement must be concentrated within
a width (3d+cx) located centrally under the column.
Thus over central strip
Asy1=2/3*Asy=2/3*1944=1296 mm2
and over remainder of base
Asy2=Asy/3=1944/3=648.1 mm2
Width of central strip
widX1=(cx+3*dy)/1000=(450+3*493)/1000
=1.929 m
Total width of outer edge strips widX2=lx-widX1=3.6-1.929
=1.671 m
Reinforcement: central strip of width 1.929 m

Min area of main steel required


Asy=Pmin1*1000*widX*h
=0.0015*1000*1.929*550
=1591 mm2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 110. (ans=1)


Page: 6
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC110 EC

Office: 1007
Calculated bar spacing (c.to c.) pitch=1000*widX*PI*diay^2/(4*Asy)
=1000*1.929*3.142*12^2/(4*1591)
=137.1 mm
Since this does not exceed maximum permissible spacing of 300 mm,
adopt this value.
Round bar spacing (c.to c.) to
130 mm (rounded)
Revised number of bars required
Noy=INT(1000*widX1/pchy)+1
=INT(1000*1.929/130)+1
=15
Revised width of edge strip steel wdX2=lx*1000-(Noy-1)*pchy
=3.6*1000-(15-1)*130
=1780 mm
Area of tension steel provided
Aspry=Noy*PI*diay^2/4
=15*3.142*12^2/4
=1696 mm2
Check spacing and proportion of steel

Percentage of steel provided


per=Aspry/(10*widX*h)
=1696/(10*1.929*550)
=0.1599 % of gross section.
As this is within Code limits of 0.15 % and 4%, this is satisfactory.
Furthermore as the area of tension steel provided does not exceed 0.5%,
the bar spacing of 130 mm is satisfactory (refer to IStructE Standard
Method of Detailing Structural Concrete for further information).
Reinforcement: edge strips, each of width 0.8355 m

Min area of main steel required


Asy=Pmin1*1000*widX*h
=0.0015*1000*1.671*550
=1379 mm2
Calculated bar spacing (c.to c.) pitch=1000*widX*PI*diay^2/(4*Asy)
=1000*1.671*3.142*12^2/(4*1379)
=137.1 mm
Since this does not exceed maximum permissible spacing of 300 mm,
adopt this value.
Round bar spacing (c.to c.) to
130 mm (rounded)
Revised number of bars required
Noy=2*INT(wdX2/pchy/2)+2
=2*INT(1780/130/2)+2
=14
Area of tension steel provided
Aspry=Noy*PI*diay^2/4
=14*3.142*12^2/4
=1583 mm2
Check spacing and proportion of steel

Percentage of steel provided


per=Aspry/(10*widX*h)
=1583/(10*1.671*550)
=0.1723 % of gross section.
As this is within Code limits of 0.15 % and 4%, this is satisfactory.
Furthermore as the area of tension steel provided does not exceed 0.5%,
the bar spacing of 130 mm is satisfactory (refer to IStructE Standard
Method of Detailing Structural Concrete for further information).

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 110. (ans=1)


Page: 7
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC110 EC

Office: 1007
Shear across base in Y-direction

Distance to critical shear plane

avY=dy=493 mm (from column face)

Shear: central strip of width 1.929 m

Percentage of steel provided


pcnt=Aspry/(10*widX*dy)
=1696/(10*1.929*493)
=0.1784 %
Shear enhancement
beta'=2*dy/avY=2*493/493
=2
Design shear force @ 1.0dy
VEd=Vdy=405.8 kN (from column face)
Maximum concrete strut capacity
VRdm=0.2*fck*(1-fck/250)*bw*d/10^3
=0.2*28*(1-28/250)*1929*493/10^3
=4729 kN
Area of reinforcement at section Asl=Aspr=1696 mm2
Percentage area
rho1=100*Asl/(bw*d)
=100*1696/(1929*493)
=0.1784 %
Partial concrete safety factor
gamc=1.5
Factor
CRdc=0.18/gamc=0.18/1.5=0.12
Factor
ks=1+(200/d)^0.5=1+(200/493)^0.5
=1.637
Term for shear resistance
vRdc=(rho1*fck)^(1/3)
=(0.1784*28)^(1/3)
=1.709
Shear resistance
VRdc=beta'*CRdc*ks*vRdc*bw*d/1000
=2*0.12*1.637*1.709*1929*493/1000
=638.6 kN
Minimum stress
vmin=beta'*0.035*ks^1.5*fck^0.5
=2*0.035*1.637^1.5*28^0.5
=0.7758 N/mm2
Minimum shear resistance
VRdm=vmin*bw*d/1000
=0.7758*1929*493/1000
=737.7 kN
Modified shear resistance
VRdc=VRdm=737.7 kN
SHEAR SUMMARY

Shear force
Shear resistance

405.8 kN
737.7 kN

Hence section is satisfactory, no shear reinforcement is required.


Shear: edge strips, each of width 0.8355 m

Percentage of steel provided


pcnt=Aspry/(10*widX*dy)
=1583/(10*1.671*493)
=0.1922 %
Shear enhancement
beta'=2*dy/avY=2*493/493
=2
Design shear force @ 1.0dy
VEd=Vdy=405.8 kN (from column face)
Maximum concrete strut capacity
VRdm=0.2*fck*(1-fck/250)*bw*d/10^3
=0.2*28*(1-28/250)*1671*493/10^3
=4097 kN
Area of reinforcement at section Asl=Aspr=1583 mm2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 110. (ans=1)


Page: 8
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC110 EC

Office: 1007
Percentage area
rho1=100*Asl/(bw*d)
=100*1583/(1671*493)
=0.1922 %
Partial concrete safety factor
gamc=1.5
Factor
CRdc=0.18/gamc=0.18/1.5=0.12
Factor
ks=1+(200/d)^0.5=1+(200/493)^0.5
=1.637
Term for shear resistance
vRdc=(rho1*fck)^(1/3)
=(0.1922*28)^(1/3)
=1.752
Shear resistance
VRdc=beta'*CRdc*ks*vRdc*bw*d/1000
=2*0.12*1.637*1.752*1671*493/1000
=567.2 kN
Minimum stress
vmin=beta'*0.035*ks^1.5*fck^0.5
=2*0.035*1.637^1.5*28^0.5
=0.7758 N/mm2
Minimum shear resistance
VRdm=vmin*bw*d/1000
=0.7758*1671*493/1000
=639.1 kN
Modified shear resistance
VRdc=VRdm=639.1 kN
SHEAR SUMMARY

Shear force
Shear resistance

405.8 kN
639.1 kN

Hence section is satisfactory, no shear reinforcement is required.


Check punching shear at column face

Eccentricity factor
beta=1.15
Punching shear at column face
VEd=beta*NEd=1.15*1606=1847 kN
Column perimeter
uo=2*(cx+cy)=2*(450+450)
=1800 mm
Strength reduction factor
v=0.6*(1-fck/250)=0.6*(1-28/250)
=0.5328
Design concrete compress strength fcd=fck/gamc=28/1.5=18.67 N/mm2
Average effective depth
dav=(dx+dy)/2=(507+493)/2
=500 mm
Maximum shear resistance
VRdmax=0.5*v*fcd*uo*dav/1000
=0.5*0.5328*18.67*1800*500/1000
=4476 kN
The punching shear at column face ( VEd=1847 kN ) is less than the
maximum shear resistance ( VRdmax=4476 kN ), hence OK.
Check punching shear at critical plane

Av.bearing stress below column


pf=pa-(pa-pb)*(la+cx/2000)/lx
=144.2-(144.2-211.6)*(1.575+450
/2000)/3.6
=177.9 kN/m2
compute
comp=2*(2*dav*cx+2*dav*cy)
=2*(2*500*450+2*500*450)
=1800000
Upward force within control per. Vup=pf*(cx*cy+PI*(2*dav)^2+comp)/1E6
=177.9*(450*450+3.142*(2*500)^2
+1800000)/1E6
=915.1 kN

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 110. (ans=1)


Page: 9
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC110 EC

Office: 1007
Punching-shear resistance reqd.
VEd=pf*lx*ly-Vup=177.9*3.6*2.8-915.1
=878 kN
Basic control perimeter at 2d
u1=2*(cx+cy)+2*PI*(2*dav)
=2*(450+450)+2*3.142*(2*500)
=8083 mm
Shear stress at control perimeter vEd=beta*VEd*1000/(u1*dav)
=1.15*878*1000/(8083*500)
=0.2498 N/mm2
compute
k=1+(200/dav)^0.5=1+(200/500)^0.5
=1.632
Reinforcement ratio
p1=0.0021
Design punching shear resistance vRdc=(0.18/gamc)*k*(100*p1*fck)^0.333
=(0.18/1.5)*1.632*(100*0.0021
*28)^0.333
=0.3534 N/mm2
Shear enhancement 2d/av
senh=1
Enhanced punching shear resist.
vRdc=senh*vRdc=1*0.3534
=0.3534 N/mm2
The min design punching shear resistance governs and will be adopted.
Design punching shear resistance vRdc=senh*0.035*k^1.5*fck^0.5
=1*0.035*1.632^1.5*28^0.5
=0.3863 N/mm2
As vEd vRdc punching shear reinforcement is not necessary.
SUMMARY OF REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED IN X-DIRECTION
Since base width ( 2.8 m ) does not exceed ( 3cy/2+9dx/2=4.2 m )
bars should be spaced uniformly across base.

ACROSS ENTIRE BASE

Characteristic strength 500 N/mm2


Diameter of bars
16 mm
Total number of bars
16
Max spacing of bars
180 mm
(Note: reduce spacing as necessary
to accommodate bars required)
Effective depth
507 mm
Total steel area reqd.
3038 mm2
Total steel area prov.
3217 mm2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 110. (ans=1)


Page: 10
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC110 EC

Office: 1007
SUMMARY OF REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED IN Y-DIRECTION
Since base width ( 3.6 m ) exceeds ( 3cx/2+9dy/2=2.894 m )
two-thirds of steel must be concentrated within central zone
extending 1d from each column face ( i.e.total width =1.929 m ).

CENTRAL ZONE

EDGE ZONES

ACROSS ENTIRE BASE

QUANTITIES

Characteristic strength 500 N/mm2


Diameter of bars
12 mm
Number of bars required 15
Max spacing of bars
130 mm
Area required
1591 mm2
Area provided
1696 mm2
Percentage provided
0.16 %
Number of bars required 14
Max spacing of bars
130 mm
(Note: reduce spacing as necessary
to accommodate bars required)
Area required
1379 mm2
Area provided
1583 mm2
Percentage provided
0.17 %
Total number of bars
29
Effective depth
493 mm
Total steel area reqd.
2970 mm2
Total steel area prov.
3280 mm2
Total concrete volume
Total area of formwork
(base sides only).

5.544 m3
7.04 m2
No110

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 111. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Deep beams - Kong's method
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC111

Office: 1007
Design of deep beam using Kong simplified method

Location: Typical uniformly-loaded deep beam with high-yield steel.


See Table 148 of Reinforced Concrete Designer's Handbook 10th edition.

a1
CLine


.


opening
:
opening

h
if

.
if


provided
:
provided


l
Span between centres of supports l=3 m
Overall depth of beam
h=2 m
Breadth of beam
b=0.5 m
Total self-weight of beam
SelfWt=24*b*h*l=24*0.5*2*3
=72 kN
Uniform load:
Load per unit length
w=500 kN/m
Total applied load
F=w*l=500*3=1500 kN
Dist. to point of application
a1=l/4=3/4=0.75 m
Maximum bending moment
M=(F+SelfWt)*l/8=(1500+72)*3/8
=589.5 kNm
Maximum shearing force
V=(F+SelfWt)/2=(1500+72)/2
=786 kN
Principal diagonal crack acts at 69 degrees to the horizontal.
Grade of concrete
fcu=30 N/mm2
Yield strength of reinforcement
fy=500 N/mm2
Normal-weight concrete is used.
Value of concrete constant
k1=0.7
From table of data given by Kong, Robins and Sharp, concrete cylinder
splitting tensile strength
Ft=2.74 N/mm2
Reinforcement assumed to consist of deformed high-yield bars.
Value of reinforcement constant
k2=225
Designed concrete mix to be used. Cover data from Tables A.4 & A.5 of
BS8500-1:2006.
Intended life of structure (for durability considerations) is 50 years.
Designated exposure class is XC1
Specified fixing tolerance
tol=10 mm
Chosen fire resistance period
fire=2 hours
From Table 3.4 of BS8110, minimum cover needed to all steel for simply
supported beam with a fire period of 2 hour/s is 35 mm.
Cover to all bars
cover=35 mm
From Figure 3.2 of BS8110, minimum possible beam width complying
with a fire period of 2 hour/s is 200 mm
Breadth provided complies with fire regulations (Figure 3.2 of Code).

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 111. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Deep beams - Kong's method
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC111

Office: 1007
Main reinforcement

shear bars above opening (if required)

TYPICAL STEEL

ARRANGEMENT

: provide nominal

opening
:
opening
vertical links


throughout span

:

(max. diameter
assumed to be
12 mm
in this
proforma)
horizontal shear bars (or links) below opening (if required)

main reinforcement
Note:If shear steel is needed, bars must be
provided both above and below opening.
From Table 148 in RCD Handbook using formulae A and B.
Calculated steel area
Asreq=1900*M/(fy*h)
=1900*589.5/(500*2)
=1120.1 mm2
Minimum breadth of beam required bmin=650*V/(k1*1000*(h-0.35*a1)*Ft)
=650*786/(0.7*1000*(2-0.35*0.75)
*2.74)
=153.31 mm
Calculated area of main steel is less than minimum percentage of 0.13 %,
i.e. 1300 mm2 , as specified in Table 3.25 of BS8110:
Part 1 (or equivalent) and must be increased accordingly.
Area of main tension steel reqd
Asreq=AsMin=1300 mm2
Steel corresponding to minimum allowable proportion only needed.
Diameter of main tension bars
dia=12 mm
Number of main bars
NumBar=12
Steel area provided
AsProv=NumBar*PI*(dia)^2/4
=12*3.1416*(12)^2/4
=1357.2 mm2
Effective depth of main bars
d=1925 mm
MAIN TENSION
REINFORCEMENT
SUMMARY

Characteristic strength
Diameter of bars
Number of bars
Area required
Area provided
Percentage provided

500 N/mm2
12 mm
12
1300 mm2
1357.2 mm2
0.13572 %

Shearing reinforcement

From Table 148 in RCD Handbook using formulae C and D


with
Vx1=k1*(h-0.35*a1)*Ft*b*1000^2/1000
=0.7*(2-0.35*0.75)*2.74*0.5*1000^2/1000
=1666.3 kN
and
Vx2=k2*AsProv*d*(SIN(ThetaL))^2/(1000*1000*h)
=225*1357.2*1925*(SIN(1.212))^2/(1000*1000*2)
=257.68 kN

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 111. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2
Made by: IFB
Deep beams - Kong's method
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC111

Office: 1007
Shear resistance from main bars
V1=Vx1+Vx2=1666.3+257.68
=1923.9 kN
As this value exceeds the applied shear force of 786 kN, no
specific shearing reinforcement is needed. Provide nominal steel only.
Anti-cracking steel

Diameter of anti-cracking bars


Ldia=12 mm
As the overall beam depth exceeds 750 mm, Clauses 3.12.5.4 and
3.12.11.2.6 of BS8110 require 11 No. 12 mm horizontal bars to be
provided at 130 mm centres near each face over a height of 1333.3 mm
from the bottom of the section. The main tension steel and any shear
bars provided may be considered to contribute to this reinforcement.
According to Clause 3.12.5.4 of BS8110, as beam breadth is less than
500 mm, take a value of b of 500 mm.
Minimum bar diameter
mDia=SQR(sb*bEquiv/fy)
=SQR(130*500/500)
=11.402 mm
As the diameter of the horizontal bars provided is 12 mm
the requirements of BS8110 in this respect are met.
ANTI-CRACKING
REINFORCEMENT
SUMMARY

Characteristic strength
Diameter of bars
Number of bars (each face)
Spacing

500 N/mm2
12 mm
11
130 mm
No111

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 250. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Rectangular section with axial load and bending
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC250 BS

Office: 1007
Location: Rectangular section with axial load and bending
y

z
z d

Rectangular timber member

subject to axial load and

bending about z-z axis

Calculations in accordance
with BS5268-2:2002.

b
Design BM about zz (positive)
Design shear force in y direction
Design axial load (+ve compress)
Member is in compression.
Eff length for bending about zz
Depth of section
Width of section
Eff length for bending about yy

Mz=0.5 kNm
V=0 kN
F=5 kN
Lez'=2.346 m
d=97 mm
b=97 mm
Lez=Lez'*1000=2.346*1000
=2346 mm
Ley'=0 m
Ley=Ley'*1000=0*1000=0 mm

Strength class C18 to Table 8


Section properties

Largest section dimension


Inertia about zz axis
Inertia about yy axis
Area of cross section
Radius of gyration about zz axis
Radius of gyration about yy axis
Slenderness

Slenderness ratio about zz axis


Slenderness ratio about yy axis
zz axis controls SR

h=b=97 mm
Iz=b*d^3/12=97*97^3/12=7.3774E6 mm4
Iy=d*b^3/12=97*97^3/12=7.3774E6 mm4
A=b*d=97*97=9409 mm2
iz=SQR(Iz/A)=SQR(7.3774E6/9409)
=28.001 mm
iy=SQR(Iy/A)=SQR(7.3774E6/9409)
=28.001 mm

lambdz=Lez/iz=2346/28.001
=83.781
lambdy=Ley/iy=0/28.001=0
lambda=lambdz=83.781

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 250. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Rectangular section with axial load and bending
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC250 BS

Office: 1007
Grade stresses

Compression parallel to grain


cparg=7.1 N/mm2
Bending parallel to grain
bparg=5.8 N/mm2
Shear parallel to grain
sparg=0.67 N/mm2
Mean modulus of elasticity
Emean=9100 N/mm2
Minimum modulus of elasticity
Emin=6000 N/mm2
Modification factors

Timber service class adopted


Timber service class modification
Modification factors:
Bending parallel to grain
Tension parallel to grain
Compression parallel to grain
Compression to grain
Shear parallel to grain
Mean & min modulus of elasticity
Duration of loading
Depth factor

tmclass=1
factor K2=1 as Table 16.

K2ben=1.0
K2ten=1.0
K2com=1.0
K2per=1.0
K2shr=1.0
K2mod=1.0
K3=1.25
K7=(300/d)^0.11=(300/97)^0.11
=1.1322
Member is not in a load-sharing system as defined by Clause 2.9.
Modulus of elasticity
E=Emin*K2mod=6000*1=6000 N/mm2
Load-sharing modification factor K8=1.0
For compression members with slenderness ratios equal to or greater
than 5, the permissible stress should be calculated as the product
of the grade compression parallel to the grain stress, modified as
appropriate for size, moisture content, duration of load and
load sharing, and the modification factor K12 given by table, or
calculated as follows using the equation in annex B. The value
of modulus of elasticity should be the minimum modulus of elasticity.
The compression parallel to the grain stress required for entry to
annex B should be the grade stress modified only for moisture
content and duration of load.
Compr. parallel to grain stress
sigc=K2com*K3*cparg=1*1.25*7.1
=8.875 N/mm2
Modulus of elasticity
E=Emin*K2mod=6000*1=6000 N/mm2
Factor for annex B
C=PI^2*E/(1.5*lambda^2*sigc)
=3.1416^2*6000/(1.5*83.781^2*8.875)
=0.63372
Eccentricity factor
eta=0.005*lambda=0.005*83.781
=0.41891
Modification factor
K12=(0.5+(1+eta)*C/2)-((0.5+(1+eta)*C/2)^2-C)^0.5
=(0.5+(1+0.41891)*0.63372/2)-((0.5+(1
+0.41891)*0.63372/2)^2-0.63372)^0.5
=0.4319

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 250. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Rectangular section with axial load and bending
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC250 BS

Office: 1007
Permissible stresses

Permissible compression stress


sigcad=K2com*K3*K8*K12*cparg
=1*1.25*1*0.4319*7.1
=3.8331 N/mm2
Permissible bending stress
sigmad=K2ben*K3*K7*K8*bparg
=1*1.25*1.1322*1*5.8
=8.2087 N/mm2
Axial compression

The limitation on bow in most stress grading rules are inadequate


for the selection of material for columns. Particular attention
should therefore be paid to the straightness of columns, e.g. by
limiting bow to approximately 1/300 of the length.
Applied compression stress
sigca=F*1000/A=5*1000/9409
=0.53141 N/mm2
Bending

Applied bending stress

sigma=Mz*1E6*(d/2)/Iz
=0.5*1E6*(97/2)/7.3774E6
=3.287 N/mm2
Euler critical stress
sige=PI^2*E/lambda^2
=3.1416^2*6000/83.781^2
=8.4364 N/mm2
Bending stress modification fact bsmf=1-1.5*sigca*K12/sige
=1-1.5*0.53141*0.4319/8.4364
=0.95919
Interaction factor
factor=sigma/(sigmad*bsmf)+sigca
/sigcad
=3.287/(8.2087*0.95919)
+0.53141/3.8331
=0.55611
Interaction factor less than or equal to unity therefore OK.
DESIGN
SUMMARY

Depth of section
97 mm
Width of section
97 mm
Strength class C18 to Table 8
Timber moisture class
1
Applied comprn stress
0.53141 N/mm2
Permiss comprn stress
3.8331 N/mm2
Applied bending stress 3.287 N/mm2
Permiss bending stress 8.2087 N/mm2
Interaction factor
0.55611
No250

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 250. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Rectangular section with axial load and bending
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC250 EC

Office: 1007
Location: Rectangular section with axial load and bending
z

y
y h

Rectangular timber section

With axial load and bending


about y-y axis, in accordance
with Eurocode 5 incorporating
National Annex Amendment No.2.

b
Design BM about yy (positive)
Design shear force in z direction
Design axial load (+ve compress)
The member under consideration is
Eff length for bending about yy
Depth of section
Width of section
Eff length for bending about zz

Md=0.725 kNm
Vd=0 kN
Nd=7.25 kN
in compression.
ley=2.346 m
h=97 mm
b=97 mm
Ley=ley*1000=2.346*1000=2346 mm
lez=0 m
Lez=lez*1000=0*1000=0 mm

Timber strength class C18.


Section properties

Largest section dimension


Inertia about yy axis
Inertia about zz axis
Area of cross section
Radius of gyration about yy axis
Radius of gyration about zz axis
Slenderness

Slenderness ratio about yy axis


Slenderness ratio about zz axis
Controlling slenderness ratio

lardim=97 mm
Iy=b*h^3/12=97*97^3/12=7.3774E6 mm4
Iz=h*b^3/12=97*97^3/12=7.3774E6 mm4
A=b*h=97*97=9409 mm2
iy=SQR(Iy/A)=SQR(7.3774E6/9409)
=28.001 mm
iz=SQR(Iz/A)=SQR(7.3774E6/9409)
=28.001 mm

lambdy=Ley/iy=2346/28.001
=83.781
lambdz=Lez/iz=0/28.001=0
lambda=lambdy=83.781

Characteristic strength properties - Table 1 in BS EN 338:2009(E)

Compression parallel to grain


fc0k=18 N/mm2
Bending parallel to grain
fmk=18 N/mm2
Shear parallel to grain
fvk=3.4 N/mm2
Mean modulus of elasticity
E0mean=9000 N/mm2
5th percentile mod of elasticity E005=6000 N/mm2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 250. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Rectangular section with axial load and bending
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC250 EC

Office: 1007
Modification factors

Timber service class 1 : Internal use, continuously heated or similar


with a max moisture content of 12%.
Medium-term duration factor
kmod=0.8
Depth factor (Clause 3.2)
kh=(150/h)^0.2=(150/97)^0.2
=1.0911
Member is not in a load-sharing system as defined by Clause 6.6.
Load-sharing modification factor ksys=1.0
For compression members the compressive strength needs to be be modified
by the following instability factors (EC5 Clause 6.3.2):
Relative slenderness ratio yy
rsry=lambdy/PI*(fc0k/E005)^0.5
=83.781/3.1416*(18/6000)^0.5
=1.4607
Relative slenderness ratio zz
rsrz=lambdz/PI*(fc0k/E005)^0.5
=0/3.1416*(18/6000)^0.5
=0
From eq 6.27 and 6.28 of EC5,
Factor for yy axis
ky=0.5*(1+0.2*(rsry-0.3)+rsry^2)
=0.5*(1+0.2*(1.4607-0.3)+1.4607^2)
=1.6829
Factor for zz axis
kz=0.5*(1+0.2*(rsrz-0.3)+rsrz^2)
=0.5*(1+0.2*(0-0.3)+0^2)
=0.47
Instability factor
kcy=1/(ky+(ky^2-rsry^2)^0.5)
=1/(1.6829+(1.6829^2-1.4607^2)^0.5)
=0.39704
Instability factor
kcz=1/(kz+(kz^2-rsrz^2)^0.5)
=1/(0.47+(0.47^2-0^2)^0.5)
=1.0638
Max instability factor
kcz=1
The shear strength parallel to the grain will be reduced by 33% to
allow for possible drying splits and glue-line failure (refer to EC5
Part 1-1 Clause 6.1.7(2) for further clarification).
Shear reduction factor
ksh=0.67
Lateral stability factor - Clause 6.3.3

The lateral stability needs to be considered for members subjected to


bending in the evaluation of bending parallel to grain.
Effective length about zz
Le=0 m
The effective length about zz will be taken as 0.1 m.
Critical bending stress
cbs=0.78*b^2*E005/(h*Le*1000)
=0.78*97^2*6000/(97*0.1*1000)
=4539.6 N/mm2
Relative slenderness (bending)
rsb=(fmk/cbs)^0.5=(18/4539.6)^0.5
=0.062969
Reduced bending strength factor
kcrit=1.0

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 250. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Rectangular section with axial load and bending
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC250 EC

Office: 1007
Design strengths

Material partial factor M


gamM=1.3 (individually marked)
Design compressive strength
fc0d=ksys*kmod*fc0k/gamM=1*0.8*18/1.3
=11.077 N/mm2
Design bending strength
fmd=kh*ksys*kmod*fmk/gamM
=1.0911*1*0.8*18/1.3
=12.086 N/mm2
Design compression strength

The limitation on bow in most stress grading rules are inadequate


for the selection of material for columns. Particular attention
should therefore be paid to the straightness of columns, e.g. by
limiting bow to approximately 1/300 of the length.
Design compression stress
sc0d=Nd*1000/A=7.25*1000/9409
=0.77054 N/mm2
2
Since sc0d fc0d ( 0.77054 N/mm 11.077 N/mm2 ) design
compression stress is within the design compression strength.
Design bending strength

Design bending stress

smd=Md*1E6*(h/2)/Iy
=0.725*1E6*(97/2)/7.3774E6
=4.7662 N/mm2
Column is non-stocky hence use Clause 6.3.2 and 6.3.3 of EC5,
Interaction factor
fact1=sc0d/(kcy*fc0d)+smd/fmd
=0.77054/(0.39704*11.077)
+4.7662/12.086
=0.56956
Interaction factor
fact2=(smd/(kcrit*fmd))^2+sc0d/(kcz*fc0d)
=(4.7662/(1*12.086))^2+0.77054/(1
*11.077)
=0.22508
Governing interaction factor
factor=0.56956
Interaction equation is satisfied, therefore OK.
DESIGN
SUMMARY

Depth of section
97 mm
Width of section
97 mm
Timber strength class C18.
Timber moisture class
1
Design compr. stress
0.77054 N/mm2
Design compr. strength
11.077 N/mm2
Design bending stress
4.7662 N/mm2
Design bending strength 12.086 N/mm2
Interaction factor
0.56956 1
No250

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 251. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Rectangular Glulam column/tie with axial load
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC251 BS

Office: 1007
Location: Glulam section with axial load & bending

z z d

tp

y
b

Rectangular Glulam member

subject to axial load and

bending about axis zz with

horizontal laminations.

Calculations in accordance
with BS5268-2:2002.

Design BM about zz (+ve only)


Mz'=21.5 kNm
Design shear force in y direction V'=25 kN
Design axial load (+ve compress) F'=30.9 kN
Mz=21.5E6 Nmm
V=25000 N
F=30900 N
Member is in compression.
Eff length for bending about zz
Lez'=4.5 m
Number of laminates in section
np=10
Thickness of laminates in section tp=45 mm
Width of section
b=135 mm
Depth of section
d=tp*np=45*10=450 mm
Glulam beam laterally restrained with support restraint as Table 19.
Eff length for bending about yy
Ley'=0 m
Grade stresses

For horizontally glue laminated members the grade stresses should be


taken as the product of the strength class stresses given in Table 8
for the relevant grade and species and the modification factors of
Table 24.
Chosen species is a Softwood.
Strength class C22 to Table 8
Section properties

Largest section dimension


Inertia about zz axis
Inertia about yy axis
Area of cross section
Radius of gyration about zz axis
Radius of gyration about yy axis

h=d=450 mm
Iz=b*d^3/12=135*450^3/12
=1.0252E9 mm4
Iy=d*b^3/12=450*135^3/12
=92.264E6 mm4
A=b*d=135*450=60750 mm2
iz=SQR(Iz/A)=SQR(1.0252E9/60750)
=129.9 mm
iy=SQR(Iy/A)=SQR(92.264E6/60750)
=38.971 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 251. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Rectangular Glulam column/tie with axial load
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC251 BS

Office: 1007
Slenderness

Slenderness ratio about zz axis


lambdz=Lez/iz=4500/129.9
=34.641
Slenderness ratio about yy axis
lambdy=Ley/iy=0/38.971
=0
zz axis controls slenderness ratio lambda=lambdz=34.641

Grade stresses

Compression parallel to grain


Bending parallel to grain
Shear parallel to grain
Mean modulus of elasticity
Minimum modulus of elasticity
Modification factors

Timber service class adopted


Timber service class modification
Modification factors:
Bending parallel to grain
Tension parallel to grain
Compression parallel to grain
Compression to grain
Shear parallel to grain
Mean & min modulus of elasticity
Duration of loading
Depth factor

cparg=7.5 N/mm2
bparg=6.8 N/mm2
sparg=0.71 N/mm2
Emean=9700 N/mm2
Emin=6500 N/mm2

tmclass=1
factor K2=1 as Table 16.

K2ben=1.0
K2ten=1.0
K2com=1.0
K2per=1.0
K2shr=1.0
K2mod=1.0
K3=1.25
K7=0.81*(d^2+92300)/(d^2+56800)
=0.81*(450^2+92300)/(450^2+56800)
=0.92089
Member is not in a load-sharing system as defined by Clause 2.9
Load-sharing modification factor K8=1.0
Modification
Modification
Modification
Modification

factor
factor
factor
factor

K15
K17
K19
K20

K15=1.42
K17=1.04
K19=2.34
K20=1.07

The mean modulus of elasticity modified by K20 should be used


to calculate deflections and displacements under both dead and
imposed loads.
Modulus of elasticity
E=Emean*K2mod*K20=9700*1*1.07
=10379 N/mm2
For compression members with slenderness ratios equal to or greater
than 5, the permissible stress should be calculated as the product
of the grade compression parallel to the grain stress, modified as
appropriate for size, moisture content, duration of load and
load sharing, and the modification factor K12 given by table, or
calculated as follows using the equation in annex B. The value
of modulus of elasticity should be the mean modulus of elasticity
modified by K20.
The compression parallel to the grain stress required for entry to
annex B should be the grade stress modified only for moisture
content and duration of load.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 251. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Rectangular Glulam column/tie with axial load
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC251 BS

Office: 1007
Compress parallel to grain stress sigc=K2com*K3*cparg=1*1.25*7.5
=9.375 N/mm2
Modified modulus of elasticity
10379 N/mm2
Factor for annex B
C=PI^2*E/(1.5*lambda^2*sigc)
=3.1416^2*10379/(1.5*34.641^2*9.375)
=6.0703
Eccentricity factor
eta=0.005*lambda=0.005*34.641
=0.17321
Modification factor
K12=(0.5+(1+eta)*C/2)-((0.5+(1+eta)*C/2)^2-C)^0.5
=(0.5+(1+0.17321)*6.0703/2)-((0.5+(1+0.17321)
*6.0703/2)^2-6.0703)^0.5
=0.83282
Permissible stresses

Permissible compression stress


sigcad=K2com*K3*K8*K12*K17*cparg
=1*1.25*1*0.83282*1.04*7.5
=8.1199 N/mm2
Permissible bending stress
sigmad=K2ben*K3*K7*K8*K15*bparg
=1*1.25*0.92089*1*1.42*6.8
=11.115 N/mm2
Permissible shear stress
torad=K2shr*K3*K8*K19*sparg
=1*1.25*1*2.34*0.71
=2.0768 N/mm2
Axial compression

The limitation on bow in most stress grading rules are inadequate


for the selection of material for columns. Particular attention
should therefore be paid to the straightness of columns, e.g. by
limiting bow to approximately 1/300 of the length.
Applied compression stress
sigca=F/A=30900/60750=0.50864 N/mm2
Bending stress

Applied bending stress

sigma=Mz*(d/2)/Iz
=21.5E6*(450/2)/1.0252E9
=4.7188 N/mm2
Euler critical stress
sige=PI^2*E/lambda^2
=3.1416^2*10379/34.641^2
=85.364 N/mm2
Bending stress modification fact bsmf=1-1.5*sigca*K12/sige
=1-1.5*0.50864*0.83282/85.364
=0.99256
Interaction factor
factor=sigma/(sigmad*bsmf)+sigca
/sigcad
=4.7188/(11.115*0.99256)
+0.50864/8.1199
=0.49036
Interaction factor less than or equal to unity therefore OK.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 251. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Rectangular Glulam column/tie with axial load
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC251 BS

Office: 1007
Shear stress

Shear stress (No notches)


tora=3*V/(2*b*d)=3*25000/(2*135*450)
=0.61728 N/mm2
2
Since tora torad ( 0.61728 N/mm 2.0768 N/mm2 ) shear stress
does not exceed permissible therefore OK.
DESIGN
SUMMARY

Laminate Thickness
Number of laminates
Depth of section
Width of section

45 mm
10
450 mm
135 mm

GRADE STRESSES
Bending
6.8 N/mm2
Compression // to grain 7.5 N/mm2
Shear
0.71 N/mm2
Modulus of elasticity
9700 N/mm2
Strength class C22 to Table 8
Moisture service class
1
Dry stresses are appropriate
Applied comprn stress
Permiss comprn stress
Applied bending stress
Permiss bending stress
Interaction factor
Applied shear stress
Permiss shear stress

0.50864 N/mm2
8.1199 N/mm2
4.7188 N/mm2
11.115 N/mm2
0.49036
0.61728 N/mm2
2.0768 N/mm2
No251

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 251. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Rectangular Glulam column/tie with axial load
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC251 EC

Office: 1007
Location: Glulam section with axial load & bending

y y h

tp

z
b

Rectangular Glulam member

subject to axial load and


bending about yy axis with
horizontal laminations.
Design is based on EC5
incorporating National
Annex Amendment No.2.

Design BM about yy (+ve only)


Md'=31.175 kNm
Design shear force in z direction Vd'=36.25 kN
Design axial load (+ve compress) Nd'=44.805 kN
Member under consideration is in compression.
Eff length for bending about yy
ley'=4.5 m
Number of laminates in section
np=10
Thickness of laminates in section tp=45 mm
Width of section
b=135 mm
Depth of section
h=tp*np=45*10=450 mm
Eff length for bending about zz
lez'=0 m
Glulam strength class GL36h
Section properties

Largest section dimension


Inertia about yy axis
Inertia about zz axis
Area of cross section
Radius of gyration about yy axis
Radius of gyration about zz axis
Slenderness

Slenderness ratio about yy axis


Slenderness ratio about zz axis
Controlling slenderness ratio

lardim=450 mm
Iy=b*h^3/12=135*450^3/12
=1.0252E9 mm4
Iz=h*b^3/12=450*135^3/12
=92.264E6 mm4
A=b*h=135*450=60750 mm2
iy=SQR(Iy/A)=SQR(1.0252E9/60750)
=129.9 mm
iz=SQR(Iz/A)=SQR(92.264E6/60750)
=38.971 mm

lambdy=Ley/iy=4500/129.9
=34.641
lambdz=Lez/iz=0/38.971=0
lambda=lambdy=34.641

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 251. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Rectangular Glulam column/tie with axial load
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC251 EC

Office: 1007
Characteristic strength properties - BS EN 1194:1999

Compression parallel to grain


fc0k=31 N/mm2
Bending parallel to grain
fmk=36 N/mm2
Shear parallel to grain
fvk=4.3 N/mm2
Mean modulus of elasticity
E0mean=14700 N/mm2
5th percentile mod of elasticity E005=11900 N/mm2
Modification factors

Timber service class 1 : Internal use, continuously heated or similar


with a max moisture content of 12%.
Medium-term duration factor
kmod=0.8
Depth factor (Clause 3.3)
kh=(600/h)^0.1=(600/450)^0.1
=1.0292
Member is in a load-sharing system as defined by Clause 6.6
Load-sharing modification factor ksys=1.2
For compression members the compressive strength needs to be be modified
by the following instability factors (EC5 Clause 6.3.2):
Relative slenderness ratio yy
rsry=lambdy/PI*(fc0k/E005)^0.5
=34.641/3.1416*(31/11900)^0.5
=0.56279
Relative slenderness ratio zz
rsrz=lambdz/PI*(fc0k/E005)^0.5
=0/3.1416*(31/11900)^0.5
=0
From expressions 6.27 and 6.28 of EC5,
Factor for yy axis
ky=0.5*(1+0.1*(rsry-0.3)+rsry^2)
=0.5*(1+0.1*(0.56279-0.3)+0.56279^2)
=0.67151
Factor for zz axis
kz=0.5*(1+0.1*(rsrz-0.3)+rsrz^2)
=0.5*(1+0.1*(0-0.3)+0^2)
=0.485
Instability factor
kcy=1/(ky+(ky^2-rsry^2)^0.5)
=1/(0.67151+(0.67151^2
-0.56279^2)^0.5)
=0.96356
Instability factor
kcz=1/(kz+(kz^2-rsrz^2)^0.5)
=1/(0.485+(0.485^2-0^2)^0.5)
=1.0309
Max instability factor
kcz=1
The shear strength parallel to the grain will be reduced by 33% to
allow for possible drying splits and glue-line failure (refer to EC5
Part 1-1 Clause 6.1.7(2) for further clarification).
Shear reduction factor
ksh=0.67
Lateral stability factor - EC5 Clause 6.3.3

The lateral stability needs to be considered for members subjected to


bending in the evaluation of bending parallel to grain.
Effective length about zz
Le=3.6 m
Critical bending stress
cbs=0.78*b^2*E005/(h*Le*1000)
=0.78*135^2*11900/(450*3.6*1000)
=104.42 N/mm2
Relative slenderness (bending)
rsb=(fmk/cbs)^0.5=(36/104.42)^0.5
=0.58716

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 251. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Rectangular Glulam column/tie with axial load
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC251 EC

Office: 1007
Reduced bending strength factor
kcrit=1.0
Design strengths

Material partial factor


Design compression strength
Design bending strength
Design shear strength

gamM=1.25
fc0d=ksys*kmod*fc0k/gamM
=1.2*0.8*31/1.25
=23.808 N/mm2
fmd=kh*ksys*kmod*fmk/gamM
=1.0292*1.2*0.8*36/1.25
=28.455 N/mm2
fvd=ksh*ksys*kmod*fvk/gamM
=0.67*1.2*0.8*4.3/1.25
=2.2126 N/mm2

Design axial compression

The limitation on bow in most stress grading rules are inadequate


for the selection of material for columns. Particular attention
should therefore be paid to the straightness of columns, e.g. by
limiting bow to approximately 1/300 of the length.
Design compression stress
sc0d=Nd/A=44805/60750=0.73753 N/mm2
Design bending strength

Design bending stress

smd=Md*(h/2)/Iy
=31.175E6*(450/2)/1.0252E9
=6.8422 N/mm2
Column is non-stocky hence use EC5 Clause 6.3.2 & 6.3.3.
Interaction factor
fact1=sc0d/(kcy*fc0d)+smd/fmd
=0.73753/(0.96356*23.808)
+6.8422/28.455
=0.27261
Interaction factor
fact2=(smd/(kcrit*fmd))^2+sc0d/(kcz
*fc0d)
=(6.8422/(1*28.455))^2+0.73753
/(1*23.808)
=0.088799
Governing interaction factor
factor=0.27261
Interaction equation is satisfied, therefore OK.
Design Shear strength

Shear stress (No notches)

svd=Vd/(0.67*b*h)
=36250/(0.67*135*450)
=0.89061 N/mm2
Since svd fvd ( 0.89061 N/mm2 2.2126 N/mm2 ) design shear stress
does not exceed the design shear strength, therefore OK.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 251. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Rectangular Glulam column/tie with axial load
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC251 EC

Office: 1007
DESIGN
SUMMARY

Laminate thickness
Number of laminates
Depth of section
Width of section

45 mm
10
450 mm
135 mm

CHARACTERISTIC GRADE STRENGTHS


Bending
36 N/mm2
Compression // to grain 31 N/mm2
Shear
4.3 N/mm2
Modulus of elasticity
14700 N/mm2
Glulam strength class GL36h
Moisture service class
1
Dry stresses are appropriate
Design comprn stress
Design comprn strength
Design bending strength
Design bending strength
Interaction factor
Design shear stress
Design shear strength

0.73753 N/mm2
23.808 N/mm2
6.8422 N/mm2
28.455 N/mm2
0.27261
0.89061 N/mm2
2.2126 N/mm2
No251

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 253. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Biaxial bending of timber section
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC253 BS

Office: 1007
Location: Biaxial bending of timber section
Dead+imposed

_ _
_ _
///
ooo
L

Timber beam subject to

bi-axial bending to

BS5268-2:2002

Beam span
L=2.2 m
Depth of section
d=172 mm
Width of section
b=63 mm
Beam laterally restrained with support restraint as Table 19.
Strength class C18 to Table 8
Timber service class adopted
tmclass=1
Timber service class modification factor K2=1 as Table 16.
Modification factors:
Bending parallel to grain
K2ben=1.0
Tension parallel to grain
K2ten=1.0
Compression parallel to grain
K2com=1.0
Compression to grain
K2per=1.0
Shear parallel to grain
K2shr=1.0
Mean & min modulus of elasticity K2mod=1.0
Loading

Theta is the angle between


force W and axis Y-Y, and
also as shown in the diagram.
Load W is applied vertically
and is to be resolved into
components in each of the axes
X-X and Y-Y.
Load W is applied in the
vertical direction only.

____
X

_)_theta__

Dead vertical load W


Wvd=0.44 kN/m
Live vertical load W
Wvl=0.44 kN/m
Total Vertical load W
W=Wvd+Wvl=0.44+0.44=0.88 kN/m
Angle of X-X axis of rafter to horizontal
theta=30 degrees
Force resolved along Y-Y axis
Wx=W*COS(RAD(theta))
=0.88*COS(RAD(30))
=0.7621 kN/m
Force resolved along X-X axis
Wy=W*SIN(RAD(theta))
=0.88*SIN(RAD(30))
=0.44 kN/m
Axial load (+ve Compress)
Fa'=0 kN
Fa=0 N

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 253. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Biaxial bending of timber section
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC253 BS

Office: 1007
Section properties

Inertia about x-x axis


Ix=b*d^3/12=63*172^3/12=26.714E6 mm4
Inertia about y-y axis
Iy=d*b^3/12=172*63^3/12=3.584E6 mm4
Area of cross section
A=b*d=63*172=10836 mm2
Radius of gyration abt x-x axis
ix=SQR(Ix/A)=SQR(26.714E6/10836)
=49.652 mm
Radius of gyration abt y-y axis
iy=SQR(Iy/A)=SQR(3.584E6/10836)
=18.187 mm
Bending moments and reactions

Max span BM about X-X


Max span BM about Y-Y
Max SF in direction of X-X axis
Max SF in direction of Y-Y axis
Design shear force

Grade stresses

Compression parallel to grain


Bending parallel to grain
Shear parallel to grain
Compression to grain
Mean modulus of elasticity
Minimum modulus of elasticity

Mx=Wx*L^2/8=0.7621*2.2^2/8
=0.46107 kNm
My=Wy*L^2/8=0.44*2.2^2/8
=0.2662 kNm
Rx=Wx*L/2=0.7621*2.2/2=0.83831 kN
Ry=Wy*L/2=0.44*2.2/2=0.484 kN
Fve=SQR(Rx^2+Ry^2)
=SQR(0.83831^2+0.484^2)
=0.968 kN

cparg=7.1 N/mm2
bparg=5.8 N/mm2
sparg=0.67 N/mm2
cperd=2.2 N/mm2
Emean=9100 N/mm2
Emin=6000 N/mm2

Modification factors

Duration of loading
K3=1
For bending about X-X axis depth factor based on depth d
Depth factor
Kx7=(300/d)^0.11=(300/172)^0.11
=1.0631
For bending about Y-Y axis depth factor based on width b
Depth factor
Ky7=1.17
Member is not in a load-sharing system as defined by Clause 2.9.
Modulus of elasticity
E=Emin*K2mod=6000*1=6000 N/mm2
Load-sharing modification factor K8=1.0
Permissible stresses

Permissible bending stress X-X


Permissible bending stress Y-Y
Shear parallel to grain

xsigmad=K2ben*K3*Kx7*K8*bparg
=1*1*1.0631*1*5.8
=6.166 N/mm2
ysigmad=K2ben*K3*Ky7*K8*bparg
=1*1*1.17*1*5.8
=6.786 N/mm2
torad=K2shr*K3*K8*sparg=1*1*1*0.67
=0.67 N/mm2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 253. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Biaxial bending of timber section
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC253 BS

Office: 1007
Bending

Applied bending stress about X-X sigmax=Mx*1E6*(d/2)/Ix


=0.46107*1E6*(172/2)/26.714E6
=1.4843 N/mm2
Applied bending stress about Y-Y sigmay=My*1E6*(b/2)/Iy
=0.2662*1E6*(63/2)/3.584E6
=2.3396 N/mm2
Factor due to bending about X-X
factx=sigmax/xsigmad=1.4843/6.166
=0.24072
Factor due to bending about Y-Y
facty=sigmay/ysigmad=2.3396/6.786
=0.34478
Interaction factor
factor=factx+facty=0.24072+0.34478
=0.5855
Interaction factor less than or equal to unity therefore combined
stresses are satisfactory.
Check for deflection (including shear defln as reqd by Clause 2.10.7)

Deflection based on E =6000 N/mm2


Deflect about X-X axis without shear
Delx=5*Wx*L^4*1E12/384/E/Ix
=5*0.7621*2.2^4*1E12/384/6000/26.714E6
=1.4503 mm
Deflect about Y-Y axis without shear
Dely=5*Wy*L^4*1E12/384/E/Iy=5*0.44*2.2^4*1E12/384/6000/3.584E6
=6.2411 mm
Modulus of rigidity
G=E/16=6000/16=375 N/mm2
Shape factor for rect section
KF=1.2
Shear area for beam
Ay=d*b/KF=172*63/1.2=9030 mm2
Add X-X deflect due to shear
dsux=Wx*L^2*10^6/(8*Ay*G)
=0.7621*2.2^2*10^6/(8*9030*375)
=0.13616 mm
Add Y-Y deflect due to shear
dsuy=Wy*L^2*10^6/(8*Ay*G)
=0.44*2.2^2*10^6/(8*9030*375)
=0.078612 mm
Total deflection about X-X
Defx=Delx+dsux=1.4503+0.13616
=1.5864 mm
Total deflection about Y-Y
Defy=Dely+dsuy=6.2411+0.078612
=6.3197 mm
Resultant deflection
DEL=SQR(Defx^2+Defy^2)
=SQR(1.5864^2+6.3197^2)
=6.5158
Limiting deflection
DELlim=0.003*L*10^3=0.003*2.2*10^3
=6.6 mm
Since DEL DELlim ( 6.5158 mm 6.6 mm ), deflection OK.
Shear and bearing

Shear stress (no notches)

tora=Fve*1E3/(0.67*b*d)
=0.968*1E3/(0.67*63*172)
=0.13333 N/mm2
0.67 N/mm2 ), shear stress

As tora torad ( 0.13333 N/mm2


does not exceed permissible.
Length of bearing
lb=100 mm
From BS5268-2 Table 18, bearing is < 75 mm from joist end.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 253. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Biaxial bending of timber section
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC253 BS

Office: 1007
Bearing Modification factor
K4=1.0
Member assumed to have support over the full depth 'd' and width 'b'.
Bearing stress from load Wx
sigba1=Rx*1000/(lb*b)
=0.83831*1000/(100*63)
=0.13307 N/mm2
Bearing stress from load Wy
sigba2=Ry*1000/(lb*d)
=0.484*1000/(100*172)
=0.02814 N/mm2
Compress to grain (no wane)
sigbad=K2per*K3*K4*K8*cperd
=1*1*1*1*2.2
=2.2 N/mm2
As sigba1 sigbad ( 0.13307 N/mm2 2.2 N/mm2 ), bearing
stress does not exceed permissible from load Wx.
As sigba2 sigbad ( 0.02814 N/mm2 2.2 N/mm2 ), bearing
stress does not exceed permissible from load Wy.

DESIGN
SUMMARY

Member: 172 mm x 63 mm
Strength class C18 to Table 8
Bending stress X-X 1.4843 N/mm2
Bending stress Y-Y 2.3396 N/mm2
Permiss bending X-X 6.166 N/mm2
Permiss bending Y-Y 6.786 N/mm2
Interaction factor 0.5855
Deflection
6.5158 mm
Limiting deflection 6.6 mm
Shear stress
0.13333 N/mm2
Permissible shear
0.67 N/mm2
Wx Bearing stress
0.13307 N/mm2
Wy Bearing stress
0.02814 N/mm2
Permissible bearing 2.2 N/mm2
No253

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 253. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Biaxial bending of timber section
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC253 EC

Office: 1007
Location: Biaxial bending of timber section
Permanent + imposed

_ _
_ _
///
ooo
L

Timber beam subject to

bi-axial bending to EC5

incorporating National

Annex Amendment No.2

Beam span
L=2.2 m
Depth of section
h=172 mm
Width of section
b=63 mm
Bearing length
lb=100 mm
Beam laterally restrained with support restraint.
Timber strength class C18.
Timber service class 1 : Internal use, continuously heated or similar
with a max moisture content of 12%.
Partial safety factors

Permanent actions factor


Variable actions factor
Material partial factor M

gamG=1.35
gamQ=1.5
gamM=1.3 (individually marked)

Ultimate loads

GkQk

Loads Gk and Qk are to be


resolved into yy and zz
components.

____
y

_)_theta__

Permanent load
Variable load
Design vertical load
Angle of yy axis to horizontal
Design load (bending about yy)
Design load (bending about zz)
Permanent axial load (+ve Comp)

Gk=0.44 kN/m
Qk=0.44 kN/m
Fv=Gk*gamG+Qk*gamQ=0.44*1.35+0.44*1.5
=1.254 kN/m
theta=30 degrees
Fyd=Fv*COS(RAD(theta))
=1.254*COS(RAD(30))
=1.086 kN/m
Fzd=Fv*SIN(RAD(theta))
=1.254*SIN(RAD(30))
=0.627 kN/m
Nper=0 kN

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 253. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Biaxial bending of timber section
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC253 EC

Office: 1007
Variable axial load (+ve Comp)
Nvar=0 kN
Design axial load (+ve Comp)
Nd'=Nper*gamG+Nvar*gamQ=0*1.35+0*1.5
=0 kN
Nd= Nd'*1000= 0*1000=0 N
Section properties

Inertia about yy axis


Inertia about zz axis
Area of cross section
Radius of gyration yy axis
Radius of gyration zz axis

Iy=b*h^3/12=63*172^3/12=26.714E6 mm4
Iz=h*b^3/12=172*63^3/12=3.584E6 mm4
A=b*h=63*172=10836 mm2
iy=SQR(Iy/A)=SQR(26.714E6/10836)
=49.652 mm
iz=SQR(Iz/A)=SQR(3.584E6/10836)
=18.187 mm

Ultimate bending moments and reactions

Design bending moment about yy


Myd=Fyd*L^2/8=1.086*2.2^2/8
=0.65703 kNm
Design bending moment about zz
Mzd=Fzd*L^2/8=0.627*2.2^2/8
=0.37934 kNm
Max SF in direction of yy axis
Vyd=Fyd*L/2=1.086*2.2/2=1.1946 kN
Max SF in direction of zz axis
Vzd=Fzd*L/2=0.627*2.2/2=0.6897 kN
Design shear force (resultant)
Vrd=SQR(Vyd^2+Vzd^2)
=SQR(1.1946^2+0.6897^2)
=1.3794 kN
Characteristic strength properties - Table 1 in BS EN 338:2009(E)

Compression parallel to grain


fc0k=18 N/mm2
Bending parallel to grain
fmk=18 N/mm2
Shear parallel to grain
fvk=3.4 N/mm2
Compression to grain
fc90k=2.2 N/mm2
Mean modulus of elasticity
E0mean=9000 N/mm2
5th percentile mod.of elasticity E005=6000 N/mm2
Modification factors

Permanent duration factor


kmod=0.6
Bearing modification factor
kc90=1.5
Creep deformation factor
kdef=0.6
For bending about yy axis the depth factor will be based on depth h.
Depth factor (Clause 3.3)
kyh=1.0
For bending about zz axis the depth factor will be based on width b.
Depth factor (Clause 3.2)
kzh=(150/b)^0.2=(150/63)^0.2
=1.1895
Member is not in a load-sharing system as defined by Clause 6.6.
Load-sharing modification factor ksys=1.0
The shear strength parallel to the grain will be reduced by 33% to
allow for possible drying splits and glue-line failure (refer to EC5
Part 1-1 Clause 6.1.7(2) for further clarification).
Shear reduction factor
ksh=0.67

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 253. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Biaxial bending of timber section
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC253 EC

Office: 1007
Lateral stability factor - EC5 Part 1-1, Clause 6.3.3

The lateral stability needs to be considered for members subjected to


bending in the evaluation of bending parallel to grain.
Effective length about zz
Le=1.76 m
Critical bending stress
cbs=0.78*b^2*E005/(h*Le*1000)
=0.78*63^2*6000/(172*1.76*1000)
=61.36 N/mm2
Relative slenderness (bending)
rsb=(fmk/cbs)^0.5=(18/61.36)^0.5
=0.54162
Reduced bending strength factor
kcrit=1.0
Design strengths

Design bending strength yy


Design bending strength zz
Design shear strength
parallel to grain

Design bending strength

Design bending stress about yy


Design bending stress about zz

fmyd=kyh*ksys*fmk*kmod/gamM
=1*1*18*0.6/1.3
=8.3077 N/mm2
fmzd=kzh*ksys*fmk*kmod/gamM
=1.1895*1*18*0.6/1.3
=9.8817 N/mm2
fvd=ksh*ksys*fvk*kmod/gamM
=0.67*1*3.4*0.6/1.3
=1.0514 N/mm2

smyd=Myd*1E6*(h/2)/Iy
=0.65703*1E6*(172/2)/26.714E6
=2.1151 N/mm2
smzd=Mzd*1E6*(b/2)/Iz
=0.37934*1E6*(63/2)/3.584E6
=3.334 N/mm2

Factor due to bending about yy

facty=smyd/fmyd=2.1151/8.3077
=0.2546
Factor due to bending about zz
factz=smzd/fmzd=3.334/9.8817
=0.33739
Interaction factor
fact1=0.7*facty+factz
=0.7*0.2546+0.33739
=0.51561
Interaction factor
fact2=facty+0.7*factz
=0.2546+0.7*0.33739
=0.49077
Interaction factor
factor=fact1=0.51561
Interaction factor less than or equal to unity therefore combined
stresses are satisfactory.
Check for deflection (shear and creep effects considered)

Total Vertical load


F=Gk*(1+kdef)+Qk*(1+0.3*kdef)
=0.44*(1+0.6)+0.44*(1+0.3*0.6)
=1.2232 kN/m

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 253. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Biaxial bending of timber section
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC253 EC

Office: 1007
Force resolved along zz axis
Fy=F*COS(RAD(theta))
=1.2232*COS(RAD(30))
=1.0593 kN/m
Force resolved along yy axis
Fz=F*SIN(RAD(theta))
=1.2232*SIN(RAD(30))
=0.6116 kN/m
Mean modulus of elasticity
E0mean=9000 N/mm2
Deflection about yy axis without shear but including creep effects;
Dely=5*Fy*L^4*1E12/384/E0mean/Iy
=5*1.0593*2.2^4*1E12/384/9000/26.714E6
=1.3439 mm
Deflection about zz axis without shear but including creep effects;
Delz=5*Fz*L^4*1E12/384/E0mean/Iz
=5*0.6116*2.2^4*1E12/384/9000/3.584E6
=5.7834 mm
Mean value of shear modulus
Gmean=E0mean/16=9000/16=562.5 N/mm2
Shape factor for rect section
KF=1.2
Shear area for beam
Az=h*b/KF=172*63/1.2=9030 mm2
Actual deflection including shear and creep effects
Add yy deflect due to shear
dsuy=Fy*L^2*10^6/(8*Az*Gmean)
=1.0593*2.2^2*10^6/(8*9030*562.5)
=0.12617 mm
Add zz deflect due to shear
dsuz=Fz*L^2*10^6/(8*Az*Gmean)
=0.6116*2.2^2*10^6/(8*9030*562.5)
=0.072847 mm
Total deflection about yy
Defy=Dely+dsuy=1.3439+0.12617
=1.4701 mm
Total deflection about zz
Defz=Delz+dsuz=5.7834+0.072847
=5.8563 mm
Resultant deflection
DEL=SQR(Defy^2+Defz^2)
=SQR(1.4701^2+5.8563^2)
=6.038
Limiting deflection
DELlim=L/250*10^3=2.2/250*10^3
=8.8 mm
Since DEL DELlim ( 6.038 mm 8.8 mm ), deflection OK.
Design Shear and bearing strengths

Design shear stress (no notches) svd=Vrd*1E3/(0.67*b*h)


=1.3794*1E3/(0.67*63*172)
=0.19 N/mm2
Since svd fvd ( 0.19 N/mm2 1.0514 N/mm2 ), shear stress
does not exceed the design shear strength.
Member assumed to have support over the full depth 'h' and width 'b'.
Design bearing stress from Fyd
sc90d1=Vyd*1000/(lb*b)
=1.1946*1000/(100*63)
=0.18962 N/mm2
Design bearing stress from Fzd
sc90d2=Vzd*1000/(lb*h)
=0.6897*1000/(100*172)
=0.040099 N/mm2
Design bearing strength
fc90d=kc90*ksys*fc90k=1.5*1*2.2
=3.3 N/mm2
2
As sc90d1 fc90d ( 0.18962 N/mm 3.3 N/mm2 ), design bearing
stress is within the design strength from load Fyd.
As sc90d2 fc90d ( 0.040099 N/mm2 3.3 N/mm2 ), design bearing
stress is within the design strength from load Fzd.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 253. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Biaxial bending of timber section
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC253 EC

Office: 1007
Member: 172 mm x 63 mm
Timber strength class C18.
Bending stress yy
2.1151 N/mm2
Bending stress zz
3.334 N/mm2
Design bending strength yy 8.3077 N/mm2
Design bending strength zz 9.8817 N/mm2
Interaction factor
0.51561
Deflection
6.038 mm
DESIGN
Limiting deflection
8.8 mm
SUMMARY
Shear stress
0.19 N/mm2
Design shear strength
1.0514 N/mm2
Fyd Bearing stress
0.18962 N/mm2
Fzd Bearing stress
0.040099 N/mm2
Design bearing strength
3.3 N/mm2
No253

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 273. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Bolted joint
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC273 BS

Office: 1007
Location: Bolt design
Bolted joint comprising 2 members with bolts in single shear

Axial load to be carried by joint F=4.55 kN


F

(2)
:

(1)

ELEVATION

PLAN

(1)
t1


t2
(2)

Member 1:
Thickness of thinner member
Strength class C24 to Table 8
Timber characteristic density
Angle between grain and load
Member:2
Thickness of other member
Strength class C24 to Table 8
Timber characteristic density
Angle between grain and load

F
In line connection
alp1'= 0 & alp2'= 0
(1) = member 1
(2) = member 2

t1=47 mm
pk1=350 kg/m3
alp1'=0 degrees
alp1=RAD(alp1')=0 radians
t2=47 mm

pk2=350 kg/m3
alp2'=0 degrees
alp2=RAD(alp2')=0 radians
Joint to be connected by bolts
K2b=1.33
Fixing diameter (8 to 36 mm)
bd=16 mm
Bolts should comply with BS EN 20898-2 and washers with BS4320. Bolts
to have a minimum tensile strength of 400N/mm2. Bolt holes should be
drilled to as near as practicable to 16 mm diameter, but in no case
should bolt holes exceed 18 mm diameter.
Nominal diameter of washer
48 mm
Nominal washer thickness
4 mm
Bolts should protrude one complete thread from the nut.
Bolt shear capacities

Basic loads in kN will be derived from formula given in Annex G.3


Constant
Kd=1
Load duration for bolt/dowel connection = Medium term.
Fixing spacing parallel to the grain alphapar=64 mm
K90 factor
K90=1.35+0.015*bd=1.35+0.015*16
=1.59
Embedded strength for timber 1
K factor for timber 1
Ka=0.75593
Embedding strength
fhod=0.050*(1-0.01*bd)*pk1*Ka
=0.050*(1-0.01*16)*350*0.75593
=11.112
Embedding strength (Timb 1) fhd1=fhod/((K90*SIN(alp1)^2)+COS(alp1)^2)
=11.112/((1.59*SIN(0)^2)+COS(0)^2)
=11.112

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 273. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Bolted joint
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC273 BS

Office: 1007
Embedded strength for timber 2
K factor for timber 2
Ka=0.75593
Embedding strength
fhod=0.050*(1-0.01*bd)*pk2*Ka
=0.050*(1-0.01*16)*350*0.75593
=11.112
Embedding strength (Timb 2) fhd2=fhod/((K90*SIN(alp2)^2)+COS(alp2)^2)
=11.112/((1.59*SIN(0)^2)+COS(0)^2)
=11.112
Factor
beta=fhd2/fhd1=11.112/11.112
=1
Equations G1
G2
G3
G4
G5
G6
8356.4
8356.4
4603.5
6628.7
6628.7
9197.5
Minimum value of equations G1 to G6 Gmin=4603.5
Basic bolt shear capacity
Mod factor for moisture content
Mod factor for number of bolts
Permissible bolt load
Number of bolts required

basic=1*Gmin/(Fd*Kd)
=1*4603.5/(1400*1)
=3.2882 kN
K56=1
K57=1
pbl=basic*K56*K57=3.2882*1*1
=3.2882 kN
n=INT(F/pbl)+1=INT(4.55/3.2882)+1
=2

Minimum bolt/dowel spacing

The fixing spacing in the direction of load should be not less than
64 mm. For loading parallel to the grain, the spacing across the
grain between fixings or rows of fixings should be not less than
64 mm.
For loading perpendicular to the grain, the spacing parallel to the
grain between fixings or rows of fixings should be not less than
79 mm.
When two timber members are fixed together at right-angles to each
other, the minimum bolt/dowel spacing should be 80 mm.
The distance from the end of the timber to the centre of the nearest
bolt/dowel hole for parallel to the grain loading should be not less
than 64 mm where the bolts/dowels are bearing away from the end of
the member, or 112 mm where bolts/dowels are bearing towards the
end of the member.
The distance from the edge of the timber to the centre of the nearest
bolt/dowel hole should be not less than 24 mm except when
loading is perpendicular to the grain and then the distance from the
edge of the timber towards which the fixings are bearing and the
centre of the nearest fixing hole, should be not less than 64 mm.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 273. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Bolted joint
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC273 BS

Office: 1007
DESIGN
SUMMARY

Axial load to be carried by joint


Permissible load on each bolt
Number of bolts required per joint
Load capacity of the joint

4.55 kN
3.2882 kN
2
6.5765 kN
No273

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 273. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Bolted joint
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC273 EC

Office: 1007
Location: Bolt design
Joint comprising 2 members (fasteners in single shear)

Design axial load at joint


Fd'=5.8 kN
Fd'

(2)
:

(1)

ELEVATION

PLAN

(1)
t1


t2
(2)

Member 1:
Thickness of thinner member
Timber strength class C24.
Timber characteristic density
Angle between grain and load
Member 2:
Thickness of other member
Timber strength class C24.
Timber characteristic density
Angle between grain and load

Fd'
In line connection
alp1'= 0 & alp2'=0
(1) = member 1
(2) = member 2

t1=47 mm
pk1=350 kg/m3
alp1'=0 degrees
alp1=RAD(alp1')=0 radians
t2=47 mm

pk2=350 kg/m3
alp2'=0 degrees
alp2=RAD(alp2')=0 radians
Bolt/dowel diameter (8 to 30 mm) bd=16 mm
Fasteners should comply with BS EN 20898-2 and have a minimum tensile
strength of 400 N/mm2 as per EN 1993-1-8 Table 3.1 (i.e. class 4.6).
Bolt holes should be drilled to as near as practicable to 16 mm
diameter, but in no case should bolt holes exceed 17 mm diameter.
Dowel pre-bored holes in timber members should have 16 mm diameter.
Minimum diameter of bolt washer
48 mm
Minimum washer thickness
4.8 mm
Bolts should protrude one complete thread from the nut. Washers should
always be fitted beneath the bolt head and the nut (EC5 10.4.3(2)).
Fastener shear capacities

Timber service class 1 : Internal use, continuously heated or similar


with a max moisture content of 12%.
Long-term duration factor
kmod=0.7
Basic loads are in kN and will be derived from EC5 Section 8.
Charact fastener yield moment
MyRk=0.3*400*bd^2.6=0.3*400*16^2.6
=162141 Nmm
K90 factor
K90=1.35+0.015*bd=1.35+0.015*16
=1.59
Timber 1 Embedded strength:
Charact.embedment strength
fhok1=0.082*(1-0.01*bd)*pk1
=0.082*(1-0.01*16)*350
=24.108 N/mm2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 273. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Bolted joint
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC273 EC

Office: 1007
Denominator (expression 8.31)
denom1=((K90*SIN(alp1)^2)+COS(alp1)^2)
=((1.59*SIN(0)^2)+COS(0)^2)
=1
Embedment strength (Timber 1)
fh1k=fhok1/denom1=24.108/1
=24.108 N/mm2
Timber 2 Embedded strength:
Charact.embedment strength
fhok2=0.082*(1-0.01*bd)*pk1
=0.082*(1-0.01*16)*350
=24.108 N/mm2
Denominator (expression 8.31)
denom2=((K90*SIN(alp2)^2)+COS(alp2)^2)
=((1.59*SIN(0)^2)+COS(0)^2)
=1
Embedment strength (Timber 2)
fh2k=fhok2/denom2=24.108/1
=24.108 N/mm2
Factor
beta=fh2k/fh1k=24.108/24.108
=1
Equations a
b
c
d
e
f
18129
18129
7509.4
9560.3
9560.3
12862
Min value of equations (a)-(f)
Gmin=7509.4
Char fastener shear resistance
basic=Gmin/1000=7509.4/1000
=7.5094 kN
Material factor for connections
Design resistance per fastener

gamM=1.3
pbl=kmod*basic/gamM=0.7*7.5094/1.3
=4.0435 kN
Number of fasteners required
n=INT(Fd'/pbl)+1=INT(5.8/4.0435)+1
=2
As fasteners will be positioned in one or more rows parallel to the
grain direction, the load carrying capacity parallel to the grain
should be calculated using the effective number of fasteners as per
EC5 expression 8.34.
Total No of fasteners at joint
n=2
Number of fasteners per row
nfpr=2
Lines of fasteners to be adopted rpl=1
Spacing between fasteners
a1=80 mm
Effect No of fasteners per row
nef=nfpr^0.9*(a1/(13*bd))^0.25
=2^0.9*(80/(13*16))^0.25
=1.4695
The effective lateral load design capacity of the connection parallel
to the grain is given by the following expression:
Effective joint design capacity
Fvef=rpl*nef*pbl=1*1.4695*4.0435
=5.9421 kN
Since Fd' n*pbl ( 5.8 8.087 ) the design axial load at
the joint is within the joint design resistance. Hence OK.
Minimum bolt spacings

Minimum values of spacing and edge/end distances for bolts in


accordance with EC5 Table 8.4. Refer to EC5 Figure 8.7 for key
to symbols used below.
Angle alpha
alpha=0 radians
Spacing parallel to grain
a1=(4+COS(alpha))*bd=(4+COS(0))*16
=80 mm
Spacing perpendicular to grain
a2=4*bd=4*16=64 mm
End distance (loaded end)
a3t=7*bd=7*16=112 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 273. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5
Made by: IFB
Bolted joint
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC273 EC

Office: 1007
End distance (unloaded end)
a3c=4*bd=4*16=64 mm
Edge distance (loaded edge)
a4t=3*bd=3*16=48 mm
Edge distance (unloaded edge)
a4c=3*bd=3*16=48 mm
DESIGN
SUMMARY

Design axial load at joint


Number of fasteners per joint
Effective joint design capacity

5.8 kN
2
5.9421 kN
No273

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 410. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
I beam section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC410 BS

Office: 1007
Location: Ex1 - 'Steelwork Design Guide' Example 4
y




z z
>t<

T

y

I section beam

Calculations in accordance
with BS5950-1:2000.
All loads and moments are
factored.

B
Design
Design
Design
Length

moment about z-z axis


shear force
axial load (+ve comp)
of member

Mz=282 kNm
Fv=152 kN
F=0 kN
L=9 m

Steel section properties

457 x 152 x 52 UB.


Dimensions (mm): D=449.8 B=152.4 t=7.6 T=10.9 r=10.2
Properties (cm): Iz=21400 Iy=645 Sz=1100 Sy=133 J=21.4
A=66.6 ry=3.112
Strength of steel - Clause 3.1.1

The material thickness is 10.9 mm and the steel grade is S 275.


Young's Modulus
E=205 kN/mm2
Classification - Clause 3.5.2

Classify outstand element of compression flange:


Parameter (Table 11 Note b)
e=(275/py)^0.5=(275/275)^0.5
=1
Outstand
b=B/2=152.4/2=76.2 mm
Ratio
b'T=b/T=76.2/10.9=6.9908
As b/T 9e ( 9 ), outstand element of compression
flange is classified as Class 1 plastic.
Classify web of section:
Depth between fillets
d=D-2*(T+r)=449.8-2*(10.9+10.2)
=407.6 mm
Ratio
d't=d/t=407.6/7.6=53.632
For sections with neutral axis at mid-depth
As d/t 80e ( 80 ), web is classified as Class 1 plastic.
Shear buckling

Since d/t 70e no check for shear buckling is required.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 410. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
I beam section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC410 BS

Office: 1007
Shear capacity - Clause 4.2.3

Shear area
Av=t*D=7.6*449.8=3418.5 mm2
Shear capacity
Pv=0.6*py*Av/10^3=0.6*275*3418.5/10^3
=564.05 kN
Design shear force
Fv=152 kN
Since Fv Pv ( 152 kN 564.05 kN ) applied shear force
within the shear capacity.
Moment capacity - Clause 4.2.5

Elastic modulus

Zz=Iz/(D/20)=21400/(449.8/20)
=951.53 cm3

Since Fv < 0.6 Pv


Moment capacity for compact sec

Mc=py*Sz/10^3=275*1100/10^3
=302.5 kNm
Since Mz Mc ( 282 kNm 302.5 kNm ) applied moment within
the moment capacity.
Restraint assumptions

As the member is not provided with full lateral restraint its


resistance to lateral-torsional buckling must be checked
The member is provided with intermediate restraints to each flange
and will be checked using the procedure of Clause 4.3.5.2
Resistance to lateral-torsional buckling - Section 4.3

Effective length - Clause 4.3.5.2

In considering lateral torsional buckling the effective length, Le,


for the minor axis of the member is taken as follows:
Length between restraints
LT=3 m
Compression flange laterally restrained.
Nominal torsional restraint about longitudinal axis.
Both flanges fully restrained against rotation on plan.
Normal loading conditions therefore
Effective length (Table 13)
Le=0.7*LT=0.7*3=2.1 m
Lateral torsional resistance moment - Clause 4.3.6

Slenderness of section
lambda=Le*100/ry=2.1*100/3.112
=67.48
Buckling parameter
u=(4*Sz^2*(1-Iy/Iz)/(A^2*((D-T)
/10)^2))^0.25
=(4*1100^2*(1-645/21400)/(66.6^2
*((449.8-10.9)/10)^2))^0.25
=0.86093
Torsional index
x=0.566*((D-T)/10)*(A/J)^0.5
=0.566*((449.8-10.9)/10)*(66.6
/21.4)^0.5
=43.824
Ratio
ratio=lambda/x=67.48/43.824
=1.5398
Slenderness factor
v=1/((1+0.05*ratio^2)^0.25)
=1/((1+0.05*1.5398^2)^0.25)
=0.97238

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 410. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
I beam section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC410 BS

Office: 1007
Ratio w
betaw=1.0
Equivalent slenderness
lamLT=u*v*lambda*(betaw)^0.5
=0.86093*0.97238*67.48*(1)^0.5
=56.491
Limiting slenderness
lamlo=0.4*((PI^2*E*10^3)/py)^0.5
=0.4*((3.1416^2*205*10^3)
/275)^0.5
=34.31
Perry coefficient
etaLT=0.007*(lamLT-lamlo)
=0.007*(56.491-34.31)
=0.15527
Elastic strength
pe=PI^2*E*10^3/(lamLT^2)
=3.1416^2*205*10^3/(56.491^2)
=634 N/mm2
Factor
phiLT=(py+(etaLT+1)*pe)/2
=(275+(0.15527+1)*634)/2
=503.72 N/mm2
Factor
pey=pe*py=634*275=174351
Bending strength
pb=(pey)/(phiLT+((phiLT^2-pey)^0.5))
=(174351)/(503.72+((503.72^2
-174351)^0.5))
=221.97 N/mm2
Buckling resistance moment
Mb=Sz*pb/10^3=1100*221.97/10^3
=244.17 kNm
Clause 4.3.6.6 and Table 18

The member is not loaded between restraints.


Maximum moment on segment
MLT=282 kNm
Far end BM
betaM=-158 kNm
Table 18 beta factor
beta=betaM/MLT=-158/282=-0.56028
Equivalent uniform moment factor mLT=TABLE 18 for beta=-0.56028
=0.44
Since Mz Mb/mLT ( 282 kNm 554.92 kNm ), section OK for
lateral torsional buckling resistance.
UNIVERSAL BEAM
SECTION
SUMMARY
DESIGN
SUMMARY

457 x 152 x 52 UKB Grade S 275


Section is satisfactory for axial,
bending, shear, and local capacity,
and overall buckling checks.
Factored shear force
152 kN
Shear capacity
564.05 kN
Factored moment
282 kNm
Moment capacity
302.5 kNm
Buckling resistance
244.17 kNm
Moment factor mLT
0.44
Resistance (Mb/mLT)
554.92 kNm
No410

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 410. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
I beam section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC410 EC

Office: 1007
Location: Example 12 Steel Building Design
z



y y
tw
tf

z

Design
Design
Design
Length

Open Section Beam

Calculations in accordance
with BS EN 1993-1-1:2005.
Internal forces and moments
have been determined by
elastic global analysis.

All forces and moments are


factored.

moment about major axis


shear force
axial load (+ve comp)
of member

MyEd=146 kNm
VzEd=46 kN
NEd=1100 kN
L=6 m

NOTE: The steel beam design axial load is compressive.


Steel section properties

457 x 191 x 67 UKB


Dimensions (mm): h=453.4 b=189.9 tw=8.5 tf=12.7 r=10.2
Properties (cm): Iy=29400 Iz=1450 Wply=1470 Wplz=237 It=37.1
A=85.5 iy=18.543 iz=4.1181
Strength of steel - Table 3.1 (amended by N.A.)

The material thickness is 12.7 mm and steel grade is S 355.


Yield strength
fy=355 N/mm2
Ultimate strength
fu=470 N/mm2
Young's modulus
E=210000 N/mm2
Section Classification

Classify outstand element of compression flange:


Parameter (Table 5)
e=(235/fy)^0.5=(235/355)^0.5
=0.81362
Outstand
c=(b-tw-2*r)/2=(189.9-8.5-2*10.2)/2
=80.5 mm
Ratio
c't=c/tf=80.5/12.7=6.3386
As c/tf 9e ( 7.3225 ), outstand element of compression
flange is classified as Class 1 plastic.
Classify web element of section:
Depth between fillets
d=h-2*(tf+r)=453.4-2*(12.7+10.2)
=407.6 mm
Ratio
c'tw=d/tw=407.6/8.5=47.953
Ratio
ad=0.5*(1+NEd*10^3/(fy*tw*d))
=0.5*(1+1100*10^3/(355*8.5*407.6))
=0.94718

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 410. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
I beam section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC410 EC

Office: 1007
Factor
psic=2*NEd*10/(A*fy)-1
=2*1100*10/(85.5*355)-1
=-0.27518
Limiting ratio
c't3=42*e/(0.67+0.33*psic)
=42*0.81362/(0.67+0.33*-0.27518)
=59
Web is semi-compact.
Moment resistance - Clause 6.2.5

Elastic modulus about y-y axis

Wely=Iy/(h/20)=29400/(453.4/20)
=1296.9 cm3
Moment resistance
McRd=Wely*fy/10^3=1296.9*355/10^3
=460.39 kNm
Unity factor
unity=MyEd/McRd=146/460.39
=0.31712
Section chosen is considered suitable.
Shear plastic resistance - Clause 6.2.6

In the absence of torsion the shear plastic resistance depends on:


Shear area
Avz=A*100-2*b*tf+(tw+2*r)*tf
=85.5*100-2*189.9*12.7+(8.5+2
*10.2)*12.7
=4093.6 mm2
Shear plastic resistance
VplRd=Avz*fy/SQR(3)/1000
=4093.6*355/SQR(3)/1000
=839.02 kN
Unity factor
Unity=VzEd/VplRd=46/839.02
=0.054826
Section chosen is considered suitable.
Note: No M-V interaction has to be considered as actual shear force
is less than 0.5VplRd ( 46 kN < 419.51 kN )
Shear buckling - Clause 6.2.6(6)

Depth between the flanges


hw=h-2*tf=453.4-2*12.7=428 mm
Buckling ratio
hw't=hw/tw=428/8.5=50.353
As hw/tw 72e ( 58.58 ), no check for shear buckling is required.
Bending and axial force - Clause 6.2.9

Design axial resistance


NRd=A*fy/10=85.5*355/10=3035.3 kN
Maximum longitudinal stress
sigmax=MyEd*10^3/Wely+NEd*10/A
=146*10^3/1296.9+1100*10/85.5
=241.23 N/mm2
Section is suitable for the combination of bending and axial force.
Effective lengths for compressive resistance

Length between restraints (y-y)


Ly=6 m (major axis bending)
Length between restraints (z-z)
Lz=3 m (minor axis bending)
Effective length about y-y axis
Lcry=1.0*Ly*1000=1.0*6*1000
=6000 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 410. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
I beam section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC410 EC

Office: 1007
Effective length about z-z axis
Lcrz=1.0*Lz*1000=1.0*3*1000
=3000 mm
Elastic critical force

Buckling force about y-y axis

Buckling force about z-z axis

Non-dimensional slenderness

Slenderness about y-y axis


Slenderness about z-z axis

Reduction factor

For buckling about y-y axis

Imperfection factor
Factor

Reduction factor y-y axis

For buckling about z-z axis

Imperfection factor
Factor

Reduction factor z-z axis


Reduction factor

Ncry=PI^2*E*Iy*10^7/(Lcry*10^3)^2
=3.1416^2*210000*29400*10^7
/(6000*10^3)^2
=16926 kN
Ncrz=PI^2*E*Iz*10^7/(Lcrz*10^3)^2
=3.1416^2*210000*1450*10^7/(3000
*10^3)^2
=3339.2 kN

lamy=SQR(A*10^2*fy/(Ncry*10^3))
=SQR(85.5*10^2*355/(16926*10^3))
=0.42346
lamz=SQR(A*10^2*fy/(Ncrz*10^3))
=SQR(85.5*10^2*355/(3339.2*10^3))
=0.9534

alpha=0.21 (curve a)
phiy=0.5*(1+alpha*(lamy-0.2)+lamy^2)
=0.5*(1+0.21*(0.42346-0.2)
+0.42346^2)
=0.61312
chiy=1/(phiy+SQR(phiy^2-lamy^2))
=1/(0.61312+SQR(0.61312^2
-0.42346^2))
=0.9465
alpha=0.34 (curve b)
phiz=0.5*(1+alpha*(lamz-0.2)+lamz^2)
=0.5*(1+0.34*(0.9534-0.2)
+0.9534^2)
=1.0826
chiz=1/(phiz+SQR(phiz^2-lamz^2))
=1/(1.0826+SQR(1.0826^2-0.9534^2))
=0.62681
chi=0.62681

Design buckling resistance of compression member

Design buckling resistance


NbRd=chi*A*fy/(gamM1*10)
=0.62681*85.5*355/(1*10)
=1902.5 kN
Unity factor
unity=NEd/NbRd=1100/1902.5
=0.57818
Section chosen is suitable.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 410. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
I beam section design
Date: 02/04/14
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Ref No: SC410 EC

Office: 1007
Lateral torsional buckling

Effective length parameter


K=1
Length for LTB
LT=3 m
Shear modulus
G=80770 N/mm2
Warping constant
Iw=Iz/4*((h-tf)/10)^2
=1450/4*((453.4-12.7)/10)^2
=704035 cm6
Terms for Critical moment Mcr:
Euler term
Et=PI^2*E*Iz/((K*LT)^2*100)
=3.1416^2*210000*1450/((1*3)^2*100)
=3.3392E6 N
Load to shear centre distance
zg=h/2=453.4/2=226.7 mm
Shear modulus term
Gt=(K*LT)^2*G*It/(PI^2*E*Iz)*10^6
=(1*3)^2*80770*37.1/(3.1416^2
*210000*1450)*10^6
=8973.9 mm2
Square root term
Sr=(K^2*Iw*100/Iz+Gt)^0.5
=(1^2*704035*100/1450+8973.9)^0.5
=239.85 mm
Maximum moment on section
M=146 kNm
Far end moment
psiM=0 kNm
Factor
psi=psiM/M=0/146=0
Coefficient C1
C1=TABLE 3.1 for psi=0
=1.77
Factor
kc=1/(1.33-0.33*psi)=1/(1.33-0.33*0)
=0.75188
Critical moment
Mcr=C1*Et*Sr/10^6
=1.77*3.3392E6*239.85/10^6
=1417.6 kNm
Non-dimensional slenderness
lamLT=(Wely*fy/(Mcr*10^3))^0.5
=(1296.9*355/(1417.6*10^3))^0.5
=0.56988
Limiting slenderness value
lamLT0=0.4
As MyEd/Mcr 0.16 ( 0.10299 0.16 )
Lateral torsional buckling effects are ignored.
Modification factor
ChiLT=1.0
Design buckling resistance moment MybRd=ChiLT*Wely*fy/(gamM1*10^3)
=1*1296.9*355/(1*10^3)
=460.39 kNm
Coefficients C and interaction factors k

Factor Cmy

Member under consideration is loaded between lateral restraints.


Maximum end moment
Mh(1)=0 kNm
Maximum span moment
Ms(1)=146 kNm
End moment
pMh(1)=0 kNm
Factor
ah=Mh(i)/Ms(i)=0/146=0
Factor
psi=1
Equivalent uniform moment factor Cm=0.9+0.1*ah=0.9+0.1*0=0.9
Equivalent uniform moment factor Cmy=Cm=0.9

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 410. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
I beam section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC410 EC

Office: 1007
Factor CmLT

Member under consideration is loaded between lateral restraints.


Maximum end moment
Mh(2)=146 kNm
Maximum span moment
Ms(2)=79 kNm
End moment
pMh(2)=0 kNm
Factor
as=Ms(i)/Mh(i)=79/146=0.5411
Factor
psi=pMh(i)/Mh(i)=0/146=0
Equivalent uniform moment factor Cm=0.2+0.8*as=0.2+0.8*0.5411
=0.63288
Equivalent uniform moment factor CmLT=Cm=0.63288
Interaction factors kij

Interaction factor

Interaction factor
Interaction factor
Term for factor
Interaction factor

Interaction factor
Interaction factor

kyy1=Cmy*(1+0.6*lamy*NEd/(chiy*NRd))
=0.9*(1+0.6*0.42346*1100/(0.9465
*3035.3))
=0.98756
kyy2=Cmy*(1+0.6*NEd/(chiy*NRd))
=0.9*(1+0.6*1100/(0.9465*3035.3))
=1.1068
kyy=0.98756
Nr=NEd/(chiz*NRd)
=1100/(0.62681*3035.3)
=0.57818
kzy1=1-0.05*lamz/(CmLT-0.25)*Nr
=1-0.05*0.9534/(0.63288-0.25)
*0.57818
=0.92801
kzy2=1-0.05/(CmLT-0.25)*Nr
=1-0.05/(0.63288-0.25)*0.57818
=0.9245
kzy=0.92801

Interaction equations

NEd
MyEd
+ kyy 1
y.NRd
LT.McRd
compute
Unity factor

comp1=kyy*MyEd/(ChiLT*McRd)
=0.98756*146/(1*460.39)
=0.31318
Unity1=NEd/(chiy*NRd)+comp1
=1100/(0.9465*3035.3)+0.31318
=0.69607

Section chosen is suitable.


NEd
MyEd
+ kzy 1
z.NRd
LT.McRd
compute

comp2=kzy*MyEd/(ChiLT*McRd)
=0.92801*146/(1*460.39)
=0.2943

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 410. (ans=1)


Page: 6
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
I beam section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC410 EC

Office: 1007
Unity factor
Unity2=NEd/(chiz*NRd)+comp2
=1100/(0.62681*3035.3)+0.2943
=0.87247
Section chosen is suitable.
SECTION
DESIGN
SUMMARY

457 x 191 x 67 UKB Grade


Design compression load
Axial resistance
Buckling resistance
Design BM y-y axis
Moment resistance (y-y)
Interaction factors

S 355
1100 kN
3035.3 kN
1902.5 kN
146 kNm
460.39 kNm
0.69607 1
0.87247 1
No410

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 411. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Portal frame rafter design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC411 BS

Office: 1007
Location: Example 13, 'Steelwork Design Guide'
y


a'

z z

>t<

T
y
B

Rafter stability

Calculations in accordance
BS5950-1 : 2000 Clause 5.3
Annex G - Members with one
laterally restrained. All
and moments are factored.

with
and
flange
loads

Uniform section of rafter

Design
Design
Design
Length

moment about z-z axis


shear force
axial load (+ve comp)
of member

Mz=283.8 kNm
Fv=150 kN
F=92.615 kN
L=12.145 m

Section properties

406 x 178 x 60 UB.


Dimensions (mm): D=406.4 B=177.9 t=7.9 T=12.8 r=10.2
Properties (cm): Iz=21600 Iy=1200 Sz=1200 Sy=209 J=33.3
A=76.5 rz=16.803 ry=3.9606
Strength of steel - Clause 3.1.1

The material thickness is 12.8 mm and the steel grade is S 275.


Young's Modulus
E=205 kN/mm2
Classification - Clause 3.5.2

Classify outstand element of compression flange:


Parameter (Table 11 Note b)
e=(275/py)^0.5=(275/275)^0.5
=1
Outstand
b=B/2=177.9/2=88.95 mm
Ratio
b'T=b/T=88.95/12.8=6.9492
As b/T 9e ( 9 ), outstand element of compression
flange is classified as Class 1 plastic.
Classify web of section:
Depth between fillets
d=D-2*(T+r)=406.4-2*(12.8+10.2)
=360.4 mm
Ratio
d't=d/t=360.4/7.9=45.62
Stress ratios for use with Table 11 limiting values defined in 3.5.4
Ratio
r1=F*10^3/(d*t*py)
=92.615*10^3/(360.4*7.9*275)
=0.11829

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 411. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Portal frame rafter design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC411 BS

Office: 1007
Limiting value for Class 1
d'tl1=80*e/(1+r1)=80*1/(1+0.11829)
=71.538
As d/t d'tl1, web is classified as Class 1 plastic.
Shear buckling

Since d/t < 70e no check for shear buckling is required.


Shear capacity - Clause 4.2.3

Shear area
Shear capacity

Av=t*D=7.9*406.4=3210.6 mm2
Pv=0.6*py*Av/10^3=0.6*275*3210.6/10^3
=529.74 kN
Design shear force
Fv=150 kN
Since Fv Pv ( 150 kN 529.74 kN ) applied shear force
within the shear capacity.
Moment capacity - Clause 4.2.5

Elastic modulus

Z=Iz/(D/20)=21600/(406.4/20)
=1063 cm3

Since Fv < 0.6 Pv


Moment capacity for compact sec

Mcz=py*Sz/10^3=275*1200/10^3
=330 kNm
Since Mz Mcz ( 283.8 kNm 330 kNm ) applied moment within
the moment capacity.
Adjacent to the plastic hinge - Clause 5.3.3

Maximum distance from


plastic hinge to the
adjacent restraint

Lu

Axial load at hinge position


Radius of gyration
Torsional index

Average compressive stress


Ratio
Ratio
Ratio
Max dist from hinge to restraint

Coefficient

38 ry

fc
py ^2 x ^2 ^0.5
+ .

130
275
36

F'=89.537 kN
ry=(Iy/A)^0.5=(1200/76.5)^0.5
=3.9606 cm
x=0.566*((D-T)/10)*(A/J)^0.5
=0.566*((406.4-12.8)/10)*(76.5
/33.3)^0.5
=33.766
fc=F'*10/A=89.537*10/76.5
=11.704 N/mm2
rfc'=fc/130=11.704/130=0.090032
rpy'=py/275=275/275=1
rx'=x/36=33.766/36=0.93795
Lu=38*ry*10/(rfc'+rpy'^2*rx'^2)^0.5
=38*3.9606*10/(0.090032+1^2
*0.93795^2)^0.5
=1528.3 mm
betau=0.44+x/270-fc/200
=0.44+33.766/270-11.704/200
=0.50654

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 411. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Portal frame rafter design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC411 BS

Office: 1007
Coefficient
Ko=(180+x)/300=(180+33.766)/300
=0.71255
Coefficient
K=0.8+0.08*x-(x-10)*fc/2000
=0.8+0.08*33.766-(33.766-10)*11.704
/2000
=3.3622
Far end bending moment value
Mf=279.1 kNm
Ratio of moments
beta=Mf/Mz=279.1/283.8=0.98344
Coefficient
phi=1.0
Max dist from hinge to restraint Lm'=phi*Lu=1*1528.3=1528.3 mm
Provide a restraint at
Lm=1100 mm below plastic hinge
and check member beyond this restraint as given in Section 4 of BS5950.
Away from the plastic hinge position

For buckling about the y-y axis distance between:


Lateral restraints
Ly=1500 mm
Torsional restraints
Lyt=4500 mm
Local capacity check - Clause 4.8.3.2

One purlin down from the plastic hinge position


Design moment
M1=279.1 kNm
Design axial load
F1=92.615 kN
F

A.py

Mz

Mcz

Unity factor

uf=F1*10/(A*py)+M1/Mcz
=92.615*10/(76.5*275)+279.1/330
=0.88978
The interaction formula is satisfied.
Effective length z-z axis

In considering the compressive resistance, Pcz, and major axis


flexural buckling the effective length Lz will be taken as the
actual length of the rafter.
Length of rafter
Lz=15524 mm
Compressive resistance - Section 4.7

Compressive strength: Perry strut formula from Annex C

Limiting slenderness
lamb0=0.2*(PI^2*E*1000/py)^0.5
=0.2*(3.1416^2*205*1000/275)^0.5
=17.155
For buckling about y-y axis
Slenderness
lambdy=Ly/(ry*10)=1500/(3.9606*10)
=37.873
Robertson constant for I section a=3.5 for table 24(b)
Perry factor
eta=0.001*a*(lambdy-lamb0)
=0.001*3.5*(37.873-17.155)
=0.072514

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 411. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Portal frame rafter design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC411 BS

Office: 1007
Euler strength
pe=PI^2*E*1000/lambdy^2
=3.1416^2*205*1000/37.873^2
=1410.6 N/mm2
Factor
phi=(py+(eta+1)*pe)/2
=(275+(0.072514+1)*1410.6)/2
=893.92 N/mm2
Compressive strength
pcy=pe*py/(phi+(phi^2-pe*py)^0.5)
=1410.6*275/(893.92+(893.92^2
-1410.6*275)^0.5)
=252.68 N/mm2
Compression resistance
Pcy=A*pcy/10=76.5*252.68/10
=1933 kN
For buckling about z-z axis
Radius of gyration
rz=(Iz/A)^0.5=(21600/76.5)^0.5
=16.803 cm
Slenderness
lambdx=Lz/(rz*10)=15524/(16.803*10)
=92.386
Robertson constant for I section a=2.0 for table 24(a)
Perry factor
eta=0.001*a*(lambdx-lamb0)
=0.001*2*(92.386-17.155)
=0.15046
Euler strength
pe=PI^2*E*1000/lambdx^2
=3.1416^2*205*1000/92.386^2
=237.05 N/mm2
Factor
phi=(py+(eta+1)*pe)/2
=(275+(0.15046+1)*237.05)/2
=273.86 N/mm2
Compressive strength
pcz=pe*py/(phi+(phi^2-pe*py)^0.5)
=237.05*275/(273.86+(273.86^2
-237.05*275)^0.5)
=174.82 N/mm2
Compression resistance
Pcz=A*pcz/10=76.5*174.82/10
=1337.3 kN
Compressive resistance
Pc=1337.3 kN
Since F Pc ( 92.615 kN 1337.3 kN ), design axial compressive
load does not exceed compression resistance.
Clause 4.3.6.6 and Table 18

The member is not loaded between lateral restraints.


Maximum moment on segment
MLT=M1=279.1 kNm
Far end BM
betaM=247.83 kNm
Table 18 beta factor
beta=betaM/MLT=247.83/279.1
=0.88796
Equivalent uniform moment factor mLT=TABLE 18 for beta=0.88796
=0.95518
Resistance to lateral-torsional buckling - Section 4.3

Effective length - Clause 4.3.5.2

In considering lateral torsional buckling the effective length, LT,


for the major axis of the member is taken as follows:
Effective length
LT=Ly=1500 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 411. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Portal frame rafter design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC411 BS

Office: 1007
Lateral-torsional resistance moment - Clause 4.3.6

Slenderness of section
lambda=LT/(ry*10)=1500/(3.9606*10)
=37.873
Torsional index
x=0.566*((D-T)/10)*(A/J)^0.5
=0.566*((406.4-12.8)/10)*(76.5
/33.3)^0.5
=33.766
Ratio
ratio=lambda/x=37.873/33.766
=1.1216
Slenderness factor
v=1/((1+0.05*ratio^2)^0.25)
=1/((1+0.05*1.1216^2)^0.25)
=0.98486
Ratio w
betaw=1.0
Buckling parameter
u=(4*Sz^2*(1-Iy/Iz)/(A^2*((D-T)
/10)^2))^0.25
=(4*1200^2*(1-1200/21600)/(76.5^2
*((406.4-12.8)/10)^2))^0.25
=0.88012
Equivalent slenderness
lamLT=u*v*lambda*(betaw)^0.5
=0.88012*0.98486*37.873*(1)^0.5
=32.828
Limiting slenderness
lamlo=0.4*((PI^2*E*10^3)/py)^0.5
=0.4*((3.1416^2*205*10^3)
/275)^0.5
=34.31
As the equivalent slenderness is less than the limiting slenderness
Bending strength
pb=py=275 N/mm2
Buckling resistance moment
Mb=Sz*pb/10^3=1200*275/10^3
=330 kNm
Major axis flexural buckling - Table 26

The factor 'mz' is over the segment length Lz governing Pcz


Length between restraints z axis Lz=15524 mm
The member is loaded between restraints and the equation given in the
notes to Table 26 is used to determine mz.
Moments on member segment
Quarter point
m2=-162.85 kNm
Mid-span
m3=131.77 kNm
Three quarter point
m4=273.69 kNm
Maximum Moment on segment
Mz'=573.68 kNm
Maximum moment on central half
M24=273.69 kNm
Equivalent uniform moment factor mz=0.2+(0.1*m2+0.6*m3+0.1*m4)/Mz'
=0.2+(0.1*-162.85+0.6*131.77+0.1
*273.69)/573.68
=0.35714
Limiting value of m
mzlim=0.8*M24/Mz'=0.8*273.69/573.68
=0.38166
Revised moment factor
mz=mzlim=0.38166

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 411. (ans=1)


Page: 6
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Portal frame rafter design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC411 BS

Office: 1007
Member buckling resistance

Overall buckling check - Clause 4.8.3.3.2

For members with moments about major axis only


For major axis in-plane buckling
F

Pcz

mz.M

Mcz

F
1 + 0.5

Pcz

Unity relationship

unity=F/Pcz+mz*M1/Mcz*(1+0.5*F/Pcz)
=92.615/1337.3+0.38166*279.1
/330*(1+0.5*92.615/1337.3)
=0.40322
The unity relationship is satisfied.
For out-of-plane buckling:
Fc

Pcy

mLT.MLT

Mb

Unity relationship

ufy=F/Pcy+mLT*ABS(MLT)/Mb
=92.615/1933+0.95518*ABS(279.1)/330
=0.85577
The unity relationship is satisfied.
Hogging moment region

Section properties - haunch cutting

533 x 210 x 101 UB.


Dimensions (mm): Da=536.7 Ba=210 ta=10.8 Ta=17.4 ra=12.7
da=476.5
Properties (cm): Ja=101 Aa=129 xh=33.218
Vertical overall depth of section Do=810 mm
Restrictions to haunch

The haunch section will be made by welding a T-section of varying depth


to the uniform doubly symmetrical I-section.
The additional T-section
should be obtained from a similar or larger I-section.
Area of uniform flange
Auf=B*T=177.9*12.8=2277.1 mm2
Area of haunch flange
Ahf=Ba*Ta=210*17.4=3654 mm2
Geometry of the haunch

Spacing of lateral restraints


Ly=1500 mm
Length measured on slope
Lh=3000 mm
Distance to 1st lateral restraint Lp=1226.6 mm from eaves connection
Distance between effective torsional restraints to both flanges
eaves to 1st. torsional restraint Lty1=1226.6 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 411. (ans=1)


Page: 7
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Portal frame rafter design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC411 BS

Office: 1007
Load and moment values at eaves

Maximum applied moment


BM1=573.68 kNm
Axial load
Fc1=126.2 kN
Combined section properties at eaves

Note: the section properties are calculated on the basis of a


cross-section normal to the axis of the parent (unhaunched) member
Section properties are based on the smallest section depth between
restraints.
Overall depth
Do'=Do*COS(theta)=810*COS(0.2606)
=782.65 mm
Depth of smallest section
Dr=Do'-(Do'-D)*Lty1/Lh
=782.65-(782.65-406.4)*1226.6/3000
=628.81 mm
At section where moment is applied:
Total plastic modulus
Sx=3617.6 cm3
At minimum section between restraints:
Depth of haunch section
Dc=Dr-D=628.81-406.4=222.41 mm
Area of haunch
Ah=59.374 cm2
Total area
At=A+Ah=76.5+59.374=135.87 cm2
Total second moment of area
Ixx=71183 cm4
Total second moment of area
Iyy=2545.9 cm4
Radius gyration about minor axis ryy=SQR(Iyy/At)=SQR(2545.9/135.87)
=4.3286 cm
Torsional constant haunch
Ja=(Ba*Ta^3+(Dc-Ta)*ta^3)/30000
=(210*17.4^3+(222.41-17.4)*10.8^3)
/30000
=45.485 cm4
Torsional constant
Jt=Ja+J=45.485+33.3=78.785 cm3
Dist between flange shear crs
hs=(Dr*COS(theta)-T/2-Ta/2)/10
=(628.81*COS(0.2606)-12.8/2-17.4
/2)/10
=59.248 cm
Torsional index
xt=(0.566*hs)*(At/Jt)^0.5
=(0.566*59.248)*(135.87/78.785)^0.5
=44.039
Lateral buckling resistance - Annex G Section G.2

For a tapered or haunched section with one flange laterally restrained


and a non-restrained compression flange, its resistance to overall outof-plane buckling should be checked as follows:
Mx(i) Mb(i)(1-Fc/Pc)
Compressive strength: Perry strut formula from Annex C

For buckling about the y-y axis


Slenderness
lambda=LTy/(ry*10)=1226.6/(3.9606*10)
=30.97
Distance between ref. axes
a'=245 mm
Term from Annex G.2.3
y'=1+((2*a')/(hs*10))^2
=1+((2*245)/(59.248*10))^2
=1.684

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 411. (ans=1)


Page: 8
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Portal frame rafter design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC411 BS

Office: 1007
y''=(1/20)*((lambda/xt)^2)
=(1/20)*((30.97/44.039)^2)
=0.024727
y=(y'/(y'+y''))^0.5
=(1.684/(1.684+0.024727))^0.5
=0.99274
Minor axis slenderness ratio
lambTC=y*lambda=0.99274*30.97
=30.745
Limiting slenderness
lamb0=0.2*(PI^2*E*1000/py)^0.5
=0.2*(3.1416^2*205*1000/275)^0.5
=17.155
Robertson constant for I section a=3.5 for table 24(b)
Perry factor
eta=0.001*a*(lambTC-lamb0)
=0.001*3.5*(30.745-17.155)
=0.047566
Euler strength
pe=PI^2*E*1000/lambTC^2
=3.1416^2*205*1000/30.745^2
=2140.4 N/mm2
Factor
phi=(py+(eta+1)*pe)/2
=(275+(0.047566+1)*2140.4)/2
=1258.6 N/mm2
Compressive strength
pc=pe*py/(phi+(phi^2-pe*py)^0.5)
=2140.4*275/(1258.6+(1258.6^2
-2140.4*275)^0.5)
=260.87 N/mm2
Compressive resistance
Pc=pc*At/10=260.87*135.87/10
=3544.5 kN
Since Fc Pc ( 126.2 kN 3544.5 kN ), design axial compressive
load does not exceed compressive resistance.
Equivalent uniform moment factor - Annex G Section G.4.2

Slenderness correction factor


nt=1.0
As the member is not loaded between torsional restraints use the
procedure of Annex G.4.2
Larger end moment
BM=573.68 kNm
Smaller end moment
Ms=419.19 kNm
Ratio of moments
betat=Ms/BM=419.19/573.68
=0.7307
Equivalent uniform moment factor mt=TABLE 39 for betat=0.7307, y
=0.99274
=0.85535
Term from Annex G Section G.2.4.2 vt'=4*a'/(hs*10)=4*245/(59.248*10)
=1.6541
yh=0.02*(lambda/xh)^2
=0.02*(30.97/33.218)^2
=0.017385
vt=(vt'/(y'+y''+yh))^0.5
=(1.6541/(1.684+0.024727
+0.017385))^0.5
=0.97891
In accordance with Figure G.3 the segment is defined as
a tapered segment.
Maximum depth within length Lty
Dmax=Do'=782.65 mm
Minimum depth within length Lty
Dmin=Dr=628.81 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 411. (ans=1)


Page: 9
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Portal frame rafter design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC411 BS

Office: 1007
Taper factor G.2.5
c=1+3/(xt-9)*(Dmax/Dmin-1)^2/3
=1+3/(44.039-9)*(782.65/628.81-1)^2/3
=1.0017
Equivalent slenderness
lamTB=c*nt*vt*lambda
=1.0017*1*0.97891*30.97
=30.369
Limiting slenderness
lamlo=0.4*((PI^2*E*10^3)/py)^0.5
=0.4*((3.1416^2*205*10^3)
/275)^0.5
=34.31
The equivalent slenderness is less than the limiting slenderness.
Bending strength
pb=py=275 N/mm2
Buckling resistance moment
Mb=Sx*pb/10^3=3617.6*275/10^3
=994.83 kNm
Mx(i) Mb(i)(1-Fc/Pc)
Resistance moment

Mbi=Mb*(1-Fc/Pc)
=994.83*(1-126.2/3544.5)
=959.41 kNm
Applied moment
Mxi=BM=573.68 kNm
The relationship is satisfied, thus the stability is ensured between
effective torsional restraints for the section chosen.
Between first and second torsional restraints

Distance between effective torsional restraints to both flanges


1st to 2nd torsional restraint
Lty2=1500 mm
Load and moment

Maximum applied moment


Axial load

BM2=419.19 kNm
Fc2=122.77 kN

Section properties along the haunch

Overall depth
Do'=Dr=628.81 mm
Depth of smallest section
Dr=Do'-(Do'-D)*Lty2/(Lh-Lty1)
=628.81-(628.81-406.4)*1500/(3000
-1226.6)
=440.69 mm
At section where moment is applied:
Total plastic modulus
Sx=2569.6 cm3
At minimum section between restraints:
Depth of haunch section
Dc=Dr-D=440.69-406.4=34.289 mm
Area of haunch
Ah=39.056 cm2
Total area
At=A+Ah=76.5+39.056=115.56 cm2
Total second moment of area
Ixx=35031 cm4
Total second moment of area
Iyy=2543.9 cm4
Radius gyration about minor axis ryy=SQR(Iyy/At)=SQR(2543.9/115.56)
=4.6919 cm
Torsional constant haunch
Ja=(Ba*Ta^3+(Dc-Ta)*ta^3)/30000
=(210*17.4^3+(34.289-17.4)*10.8^3)
/30000
=37.585 cm4

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 411. (ans=1)


Page: 10
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Portal frame rafter design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC411 BS

Office: 1007
Torsional constant
Jt=Ja+J=37.585+33.3=70.885 cm3
Dist between flange shear crs
hs=(Dr*COS(theta)-T/2-Ta/2)/10
=(440.69*COS(0.2606)-12.8/2-17.4
/2)/10
=41.071 cm
Torsional index
xt=(0.566*hs)*(At/Jt)^0.5
=(0.566*41.071)*(115.56/70.885)^0.5
=29.68
Substituting values
BM=BM2=419.19 kNm
in equations
Fc=Fc2=122.77 kN
Lateral buckling resistance - Annex G Section G.2

For a tapered or haunched section with one flange laterally restrained


and a non-restrained compression flange, its resistance to overall outof-plane buckling should be checked as follows:
Mx(i) Mb(i)(1-Fc/Pc)
Compressive strength: Perry strut formula from Annex C

For buckling about the y-y axis


Slenderness
lambda=LTy/(ry*10)=1500/(3.9606*10)
=37.873
Distance between ref. axes
a'=245 mm
Term from Annex G.2.3
y'=1+((2*a')/(hs*10))^2
=1+((2*245)/(41.071*10))^2
=2.4234
y''=(1/20)*((lambda/xt)^2)
=(1/20)*((37.873/29.68)^2)
=0.081413
y=(y'/(y'+y''))^0.5
=(2.4234/(2.4234+0.081413))^0.5
=0.98361
Minor axis slenderness ratio
lambTC=y*lambda=0.98361*37.873
=37.253
Limiting slenderness
lamb0=0.2*(PI^2*E*1000/py)^0.5
=0.2*(3.1416^2*205*1000/275)^0.5
=17.155
Robertson constant for I section a=3.5 for table 24(b)
Perry factor
eta=0.001*a*(lambTC-lamb0)
=0.001*3.5*(37.253-17.155)
=0.070342
Euler strength
pe=PI^2*E*1000/lambTC^2
=3.1416^2*205*1000/37.253^2
=1457.9 N/mm2
Factor
phi=(py+(eta+1)*pe)/2
=(275+(0.070342+1)*1457.9)/2
=917.75 N/mm2
Compressive strength
pc=pe*py/(phi+(phi^2-pe*py)^0.5)
=1457.9*275/(917.75+(917.75^2
-1457.9*275)^0.5)
=253.42 N/mm2
Compressive resistance
Pc=pc*At/10=253.42*115.56/10
=2928.5 kN
Since Fc Pc ( 122.77 kN 2928.5 kN ), design axial compressive
load does not exceed compressive resistance.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 411. (ans=1)


Page: 11
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Portal frame rafter design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC411 BS

Office: 1007
Equivalent uniform moment factor - Annex G Section G.4.2

Slenderness correction factor


nt=1.0
As the member is not loaded between torsional restraints use the
procedure of Annex G.4.2
Larger end moment
BM=419.19 kNm
Smaller end moment
Ms=251 kNm
Ratio of moments
betat=Ms/BM=251/419.19=0.59877
Equivalent uniform moment factor mt=TABLE 39 for betat=0.59877, y
=0.98361
=0.78939
Term from Annex G Section G.2.4.2 vt'=4*a'/(hs*10)=4*245/(41.071*10)
=2.3861
yh=0.02*(lambda/xh)^2
=0.02*(37.873/33.218)^2
=0.025999
vt=(vt'/(y'+y''+yh))^0.5
=(2.3861/(2.4234+0.081413
+0.025999))^0.5
=0.97099
In accordance with Figure G.3 the segment is defined as
a tapered segment.
Maximum depth within length Lty
Dmax=Do'=628.81 mm
Minimum depth within length Lty
Dmin=Dr=440.69 mm
Taper factor G.2.5
c=1+3/(xt-9)*(Dmax/Dmin-1)^2/3
=1+3/(29.68-9)*(628.81/440.69-1)^2/3
=1.0088
Equivalent slenderness
lamTB=c*nt*vt*lambda
=1.0088*1*0.97099*37.873
=37.099
Limiting slenderness
lamlo=0.4*((PI^2*E*10^3)/py)^0.5
=0.4*((3.1416^2*205*10^3)
/275)^0.5
=34.31
Perry coefficient
etaLT=0.007*(lamTB-lamlo)
=0.007*(37.099-34.31)
=0.019521
Elastic strength
pe=PI^2*E*10^3/(lamTB^2)
=3.1416^2*205*10^3/(37.099^2)
=1470.1 N/mm2
Factor
phiLT=(py+(etaLT+1)*pe)/2
=(275+(0.019521+1)*1470.1)/2
=886.88 N/mm2
Factor
pey=pe*py=1470.1*275=404268
Bending strength
pb=(pey)/(phiLT+((phiLT^2-pey)^0.5))
=(404268)/(886.88+((886.88^2
-404268)^0.5))
=268.58 N/mm2
Buckling resistance moment
Mb=Sx*pb/10^3=2569.6*268.58/10^3
=690.17 kNm
Mx(i) Mb(i)(1-Fc/Pc)
Resistance moment

Mbi=Mb*(1-Fc/Pc)
=690.17*(1-122.77/2928.5)
=661.23 kNm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 411. (ans=1)


Page: 12
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Portal frame rafter design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC411 BS

Office: 1007
Applied moment
Mxi=BM=419.19 kNm
The relationship is satisfied, thus the stability is ensured between
effective torsional restraints for the section chosen.
The section is suitable.
DESIGN SUMMARY

1500
1500
1500
<><><>




810

leg
C.L

X
X
X
X

C.L. of member

*
1226.6 mm
Lateral restraint
<>

1226.6 mm
Torsional restraint
<>
X lateral restraint
* torsional restraint

UNIVERSAL BEAM
HAUNCH SECTION

406 x 178 x 60 UB Grade S 275


533 x 210 x 101 UB Grade S 275
Section is satisfactory for bending,
buckling resistance between intermediate
restraints and overall buckling between
torsional restraints.

Restraint spacing:
Adjacent to rafter hinge
Along the rafter
At eaves position

Lateral and torsional


Lateral restraints
Torsional restraints
Lateral restraint
Torsional restraint
Torsional restraint

1100 mm
1500 mm
4500 mm
1226.6 mm
1226.6 mm
2726.6 mm
No411

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 411. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Portal frame rafter design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC411 EC

Office: 1007
Location: Ex1 - Based on example 13, 'Steelwork Design Guide'
z




y y

tw


tf
z
b

Rafter stability

Calculations in accordance with


BS EN 1993-1-:2005 Clause 6.3.5
and Annex BB.3.
This proforma assumes that rafter
plastic hinge forms just below the
portal apex at the point of maximum
sagging moment.
Loads and moments are factored.

Uniform section of rafter

Design moment about major axis


MyEd=283.8 kNm
Design shear force
VzEd=150 kN
Design axial load (+ve comp)
NEd=92.615 kN
Length of member
L=12.145 m
NOTE: The length of member above is the uniform length and does not
include the length of the haunch.
Steel section properties

406 x 178 x 60 UKB


Dimensions (mm): h=406.4 b=177.9 tw=7.9 tf=12.8 r=10.2
Properties (cm): Iy=21600 Iz=1200 Wply=1200 Wplz=209 It=33.3
A=76.5 iy=16.803 iz=3.9606
Strength of steel - Table 3.1 (amended by N.A.)

The material thickness is 12.8 mm and steel grade is S 275.


Yield strength
fy=275 N/mm2
Ultimate strength
fu=410 N/mm2
Young's modulus
E=210000 N/mm2
Partial factors for resistance

Resistance partial factor


Resistance partial factor

gamM0=1.0
gamM1=1.0

Section classification

Classify outstand element of compression flange:


Parameter (Table 5)
e=(235/fy)^0.5=(235/275)^0.5
=0.92442
Outstand
c=(b-tw-2*r)/2=(177.9-7.9-2*10.2)/2
=74.8 mm
Ratio
c't=c/tf=74.8/12.8=5.8437
As c/tf 9e ( 8.3197 ), outstand element of compression
flange is classified as Class 1 plastic.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 411. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Portal frame rafter design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC411 EC

Office: 1007
Classify web element of section:
Depth between fillets
d=h-2*(tf+r)=406.4-2*(12.8+10.2)
=360.4 mm
Ratio
c'tw=d/tw=360.4/7.9=45.62
Ratio
ad=0.5*(1+NEd*10^3/(fy*tw*d))
=0.5*(1+92.615*10^3/(275*7.9*360.4))
=0.55914
Limiting ratio
c't1=396*e/(13*ad-1)
=396*0.92442/(13*0.55914-1)
=58.395
Web is Class 1 plastic.
Shear buckling

Depth between flanges


hw=h-2*tf=406.4-2*12.8=380.8 mm
Buckling ratio
hw'tw=hw/tw=380.8/7.9=48.203
Since hw/tw 72e ( 66.558 ) no check for shear buckling is required.
Shear plastic resistance - Clause 6.2.6

Shear Area
Avz=A*100-2*b*tf+(tw+2*r)*tf
=76.5*100-2*177.9*12.8+(7.9+2
*10.2)*12.8
=3458 mm2
Shear plastic resistance
VplRd=Avz*fy/SQR(3)/(gamM0*1000)
=3458*275/SQR(3)/(1*1000)
=549.03 kN
Design shear force
VzEd=150 kN
Since VzEd VplRd ( 150 kN 549.03 kN ) design shear force
within the shear plastic resistance.
Moment resistance - Clause 6.2.5

Design moment resistance

McRdy=fy*Wply/(gamM0*10^3)
=275*1200/(1*10^3)
=330 kNm
Since MyEd McRdy ( 283.8 kNm 330 kNm ) design moment within
the moment resistance.
Adjacent to the plastic hinge - Annex BB.3

At plastic hinge location lateral restraint to both flanges needs to be


provided. The maximum distance from the plastic hinge to the adjacent
lateral restraints is derived from the following expression:

Lm'

38 iz

1
NEd'
1
(Wply)^2 fy ^2 ^0.5
. + . .

57.4 A 756(C1)^2
A.It
235

Axial load at hinge position


Correction factor
Coefficient
compute

NEd'=89.537 kN
kc=1
C1=1/kc^2=1/1^2=1
comp1=NEd'*10/(A*57.4)
=89.537*10/(76.5*57.4)
=0.20391 N/mm2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 411. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Portal frame rafter design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC411 EC

Office: 1007
compute
comp2=Wply^2/(756*C1^2*A*It)
=1200^2/(756*1^2*76.5*33.3)
=0.74771
compute
comp3=(fy/235)^2=(275/235)^2
=1.3694
Max dist from hinge to restraint Lm'=38*iz*10/(comp1+comp2+comp3)^0.5
=38*3.9606*10/(0.20391+0.74771
+1.3694)^0.5
=987.88 mm
Max dist from hinge to restraint Lm'=Lm' mm
Provide a restraint at
Lm=975 mm below plastic hinge
and check member beyond this restraint as per Cl. 6.3 of EC3 Part 1-1.
Away from the plastic hinge position - uniform section

Consider buckling about the z-z axis (i.e. the minor axis).
Dist.between lateral restraints
Lz=1500 mm
Dist.between torsional restraints Lzt=4500 mm
Cross-section resistance - Clause 6.2(7)

Consider the first purlin down from the rafter plastic hinge position.
Design moment
MyEd1=279.1 kNm
Design axial load
NEd1=92.615 kN
NEd

A.fy

MyEd

McRdy

Unity factor

uf=NEd1*10/(A*fy)+MyEd1/McRdy
=92.615*10/(76.5*275)+279.1/330
=0.88978
The interaction formula is satisfied.
Effective length about y-y axis (major axis)

In considering the design buckling resistance, NbRd, and major axis


flexural buckling the effective length Ly will be taken as the actual
length of the rafter.
Length of the whole rafter
Ly=15524 mm
Elastic critical force

Effective length about y-y axis


Effective length about z-z axis
Buckling force about y-y axis

Lcry=1.0*Ly=1.0*15524=15524 mm
Lcrz=1.0*Lz=1.0*1500=1500 mm
Ncry=PI^2*E*Iy*10^7/(Lcry*10^3)^2
=3.1416^2*210000*21600*10^7
/(15524*10^3)^2
=1857.7 kN
Buckling force about z-z axis
Ncrz=PI^2*E*Iz*10^7/(Lcrz*10^3)^2
=3.1416^2*210000*1200*10^7/(1500
*10^3)^2
=11054 kN
As the ratio of applied load to buckling load is less than 0.4, then

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 411. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Portal frame rafter design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC411 EC

Office: 1007
Reduction factor z-z axis
chiz=1.0
Non-dimensional slenderness

Slenderness about y-y axis


Slenderness about z-z axis

lamy=SQR(A*10^2*fy/(Ncry*10^3))
=SQR(76.5*10^2*275/(1857.7*10^3))
=1.0642
lamz=SQR(A*10^2*fy/(Ncrz*10^3))
=SQR(76.5*10^2*275/(11054*10^3))
=0.43625

Reduction factor for buckling about y-y axis

Imperfection factor
alpha=0.21
Factor
phiy=0.5*(1+alpha*(lamy-0.2)+lamy^2)
=0.5*(1+0.21*(1.0642-0.2)
+1.0642^2)
=1.157
Reduction factor y-y axis
chiy=1/(phiy+SQR(phiy^2-lamy^2))
=1/(1.157+SQR(1.157^2-1.0642^2))
=0.62074
Reduction factor
chi=0.62074
Design buckling resistance

Design axial resistance


Design buckling resistance
Unity factor

NRd=A*fy/10=76.5*275/10=2103.8 kN
NbRd=chi*A*fy/(gamM1*10)
=0.62074*76.5*275/(1*10)
=1305.9 kN
unity=NEd1/NbRd=92.615/1305.9
=0.070921

Section chosen is suitable.


Lateral torsional buckling

Effective length parameter


Length for LTB
Shear modulus
Warping constant
Terms for Critical moment Mcr:
Euler term

Shear modulus term

Square root term


Maximum moment on member
Far end moment

K=1
LT=Lz/1000=1500/1000=1.5 m
G=80770 N/mm2
Iw=Iz/4*((h-tf)/10)^2
=1200/4*((406.4-12.8)/10)^2
=464763 cm6
Et=PI^2*E*Iz/((K*LT)^2*100)
=3.1416^2*210000*1200/((1*1.5)^2
*100)
=11.054E6 N
Gt=(K*LT)^2*G*It/(PI^2*E*Iz)*10^6
=(1*1.5)^2*80770*33.3/(3.1416^2
*210000*1200)*10^6
=2433.2 mm2
Sr=(K^2*Iw*100/Iz+Gt)^0.5
=(1^2*464763*100/1200+2433.2)^0.5
=202.89 mm
M=283.8 kNm
psiM=247 kNm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 411. (ans=1)


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Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Portal frame rafter design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC411 EC

Office: 1007
Factor
psi=psiM/M=247/283.8=0.87033
Coefficient C1
C1=TABLE 3.1 for psi=0.87033
=1.0726
Factor
kc=1/(1.33-0.33*psi)
=1/(1.33-0.33*0.87033)
=0.95897
Critical moment
Mcr=C1*Et*Sr/10^6
=1.0726*11.054E6*202.89/10^6
=2405.6 kNm
Non-dimensional slenderness
lamLT=(Wply*fy/(Mcr*10^3))^0.5
=(1200*275/(2405.6*10^3))^0.5
=0.37038
Limiting slenderness value
lamLT0=0.4
As lamLT lamLT0,
Lateral torsional buckling effects are ignored.
Modification factor
ChiLT=1.0
Design buckling resistance moment MybRd=ChiLT*Wply*fy/(gamM1*10^3)
=1*1200*275/(1*10^3)
=330 kNm
Coefficients C and interaction factors k

Factor Cmy

Member under consideration is loaded between lateral restraints.


Maximum end moment
Mh(1)=573 kNm
Maximum span moment
Ms(1)=-279 kNm
End moment
pMh(1)=-247 kNm
Factor
as=Ms(i)/Mh(i)=-279/573=-0.48691
Factor
psi=pMh(i)/Mh(i)=-247/573
=-0.43106
Equivalent uniform moment factor Cm=0.2*(-psi)-0.8*as
=0.2*(--0.43106)-0.8*-0.48691
=0.47574
Equivalent uniform moment factor Cmy=Cm=0.47574
Factor CmLT

Equivalent uniform moment factor


Interaction factors kij

Interaction factor

Interaction factor

Interaction factor
Term for factor
Interaction factor

CmLT=1.0

kyy1=Cmy*(1+(lamy-0.2)*NEd/(chiy*NRd))
=0.47574*(1+(1.0642-0.2)*92.615
/(0.62074*2103.8))
=0.5049
kyy2=Cmy*(1+0.8*NEd/(chiy*NRd))
=0.47574*(1+0.8*92.615/(0.62074
*2103.8))
=0.50273
kyy=0.50273
Nr=NEd/(chiz*NRd)=92.615/(1*2103.8)
=0.044024
kzy1=1-0.1*lamz/(CmLT-0.25)*Nr
=1-0.1*0.43625/(1-0.25)*0.044024
=0.99744

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 411. (ans=1)


Page: 6
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Portal frame rafter design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC411 EC

Office: 1007
Interaction factor
kzy2=1-0.1/(CmLT-0.25)*Nr
=1-0.1/(1-0.25)*0.044024
=0.99413
Interaction factor
kzy=0.99744
Interaction equations

NEd
MyEd
+ kyy 1
y.NRd
LT.McRdy
Unity factor

Unity1=NEd1/(chiy*NRd)+kyy*MyEd1/(ChiLT*McRdy)
=92.615/(0.62074*2103.8)+0.50273*279.1
/(1*330)
=0.49611
Section chosen is suitable.
NEd
MyEd
+ kzy 1
z.NRd
LT.McRdy
Unity factor

Unity2=NEd1/(chiz*NRd)+kzy*MyEd1/(ChiLT*McRdy)
=92.615/(1*2103.8)+0.99744*279.1/(1*330)
=0.88762
Section chosen is suitable.
Hogging moment region

Section properties - haunch cutting

533 x 210 x 101 UKB


Dimensions (mm): ha=536.7 ba=210 twa=10.8 tfa=17.4
ra=12.7 da=476.5
Properties (cm): Ita=101 Aa=129 xh=33.218
Vertical overall depth of section ho=810 mm
Haunch geometry

Spacing of lateral restraints


Lz=1500 mm
Haunch length measured on slope
Lh=3000 mm (from column face)
Distance to 1st lateral restraint Lp=1226.6 mm (from column face)
Distance between effective torsional restraints to both flanges,
eaves to end of haunch
Ltz1=Lp+Lz=1226.6+1500=2726.6 mm
Pitch of rafter
Theta=14.6 degrees
Pitch in radians
theta=RAD(Theta)=0.25482 radians
Overall depth
ho'=ho*COS(theta)=810*COS(0.25482)
=783.84 mm
Haunch stability - based on EC3 Part 1-1, Annex BB.3

Provide lateral restraint to both flanges at the end of the haunch. At


the face of the column the bolt connections provide lateral restraint to
both flanges. Based on Annex BB.3 lateral torsional buckling effects may
be ignored where the limiting length Ls and basic critical length Lk are
not exceeded.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 411. (ans=1)


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Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Portal frame rafter design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC411 EC

Office: 1007
1500 mm
1500 mm
1500 mm
1500 mm
1500 mm
<><><><><>




810

leg
C.L

X
X
X
X
X
X

C.L. of member

*
*

*
<Ls><Lk>
X lateral restraint
* torsional restraint

compute

comp1=((5.4*(fy/E)*(h/tf)^2-1))^0.5
=((5.4*(275/210000)*(406.4
/12.8)^2-1))^0.5
=2.4756
Basic critical length
Lk=(5.4+600*fy/E)*h/tf*iz*10/comp1
=(5.4+600*275/210000)*406.4/12.8
*3.9606*10/2.4756
=3142.1 mm
Vertical depth (unhaunched sect.) hs=h/COS(theta)=406.4/COS(0.25482)
=419.96 mm
Vertical depth of haunch
hh=ho-hs=810-419.96=390.04 mm
Length between points at which the compression flange is laterally
restrained (Annex BB.3.3.3)
Ly=Ltz1=2726.6 mm
Length of haunch within length Ly Lh'=Ltz1=2726.6 mm
Taper factor (Annex BB.3.3.3)
c=1+3/((h/tf)-9)*(hh/hs)^0.67*(Lh'
/Ly)^0.5
=1+3/((406.4/12.8)-9)*(390.04
/419.96)^0.67*(2726.6/2726.6)^0.5
=1.1255
From the I.Struct.E publication entitled 'Manual for the design of
steelwork building structures to EC3' conservatively the limiting
length between torsional restraints Ls can be taken as follows:
Limiting length
Ls=Lk/c=3142.1/1.1255=2791.7 mm
As Ls < Lh ( 2791.7 mm < 3000 mm ) the limiting length does not exceed
the length of the haunch, provide lateral restraint to both flanges at
mid-span and end of the haunch.
Point of contraflexure

Distance from the end of haunch to the point of contraflexure needs to


be less or equal to the basic critical length Lk.
Dist.to point of contraflexure
Lcon=2776 mm (from haunch end)
Basic critical length
Lk=3142.1 mm
As Lcon Lk ( 2776 mm 3142.1 mm ) the distance from the end of
haunch to the point of contraflexure is less or equal to the basic
critical length Lk=3142.1 mm and therefore no additional bottom flange
restrain is required.
The section is considered to be suitable.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 411. (ans=1)


Page: 8
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Portal frame rafter design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC411 EC

Office: 1007
DESIGN SUMMARY

UNIVERSAL BEAM
HAUNCH SECTION

406 x 178 x 60 UKB Grade S 275


533 x 210 x 101 UKB Grade S 275
Section is satisfactory for bending,
buckling resistance between intermediate
restraints and overall buckling between
torsional restraints.

Restraint spacing:
Adjacent to rafter hinge

Lateral and torsional

975 mm

Along the rafter

Lateral restraints
Torsional restraints

1500 mm
4500 mm

Restraint spacing (measured from column face):


At eaves position

Lateral restraint
Torsional restraint
Torsional restraint

1226.6 mm
1226.6 mm
2726.6 mm
No411

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 412. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
RHS beam section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC412 BS

Office: 1007
Location: Example 3 'SHS Design Examples'
y






z
z




T

y

Structural Hollow Section Design

Calculations in accordance
with BS5950-1:2000 Sections
4.7 and 4.8.
All loads and moments are
factored.

B
Factored bending moment axis zz
Factored SF in y direction
Axial load (+ve compression)
Length of member

Mz=5.04 kNm
Fv=5.6 kN
F=598 kN
L=3.6 m

Steel section properties

150 x 150 x 6.3 SHS - Hot finished.


Properties (cm): A=35.8 rx=5.85 Zx=163 Sx=192 Ix=1220 J=1910 C=240
Effective lengths - Clause 4.7.2

Length of member
Length between restraints z axis
Length between restraints y axis
Effective length about z-z axis
Effective length about y-y axis

3600 mm
Lz=3600 mm
Ly=1800 mm
Lez=Kz*Lz=0.85*3600=3060 mm
Ley=Ky*Ly=1*1800=1800 mm

Strength of steel - Clause 3.1.1

The material thickness is 6.3 mm and the steel grade is S 275.


Design strength
py=275 N/mm2
Young's Modulus
E=205 kN/mm2
Classification - Clause 3.5.2

Classify internal element of compression flange:


Parameter (Table 12 Note b)
e=(275/py)^0.5=(275/275)^0.5
=1
Internal flange size
b=B-3*t=150-3*6.3=131.1 mm
Ratio - local buckling of flange b't=b/t=131.1/6.3=20.81
Web depth
d=D-3*t=150-3*6.3=131.1 mm
Ratio - local buckling of web
d't=d/t=131.1/6.3=20.81
As b/t 28e or 80e - d/t ( 28 ), internal element of
compression flange is classified as Class 1 plastic.
Classify web of section:
Ratio
r1=F*10^3/(2*d*t*py)
=598*10^3/(2*131.1*6.3*275)
=1.3164

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 412. (ans=1)


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Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
RHS beam section design
Date: 02/04/14
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Ref No: SC412 BS

Office: 1007
Value limited
r1=1
Limiting local buckling ratio
d'tlim=40*e=40*1=40
As d't < 64e/(1+0.6r1) ( 40 ), web is classified
as class 1 plastic.
Web shear

Shear area
Shear
Shear
Since
shear

Av=(D/(D+B))*A*100
=(150/(150+150))*35.8*100
=1790 mm2
capacity
Pv=0.6*py*Av/10^3=0.6*275*1790/10^3
=295.35 kN
force
Fv=5.6 kN
Fv Pv ( 5.6 kN 295.35 kN ), shear force within
capacity.

Moment capacities

Since Fv < 0.6 Pv


Moment capacity for compact sec

Mc=py*Sz/10^3=275*192/10^3
=52.8 kNm
As Mz Mc ( 5.04 kNm 52.8 kNm ), applied moment is OK.
Local capacity check - Clause 4.8.3.2

Considering the simplified approach of 4.8.3.2,


F

A.py

Mz

Mc

1.0

Unity factor

uf=F*10/(A*py)+Mz/Mc
=598*10/(35.8*275)+5.04/52.8
=0.70287
The interaction formula is satisfied.
Slenderness - Clause 4.7.2

Slenderness (minor axis)


Slenderness (major axis)
Controlling slenderness ratio

lam'y=Ley/(ry*10)=1800/(5.85*10)
=30.769
lam'z=Lez/(rz*10)=3060/(5.85*10)
=52.308
lambda=52.308

Compressive strength: Perry strut formula from Annex C

Limiting slenderness
lamb0=0.2*(PI^2*E*1000/py)^0.5
=0.2*(3.1416^2*205*1000/275)^0.5
=17.155
For buckling about y-y axis
Robertson cont.for hollow sect.
a=2.0 for table 24(a) hot finished
Perry factor
eta=0.001*a*(lam'y-lamb0)
=0.001*2*(30.769-17.155)
=0.027228
Euler strength
pe=PI^2*E*1000/lam'y^2
=3.1416^2*205*1000/30.769^2
=2137.1 N/mm2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 412. (ans=1)


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Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
RHS beam section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC412 BS

Office: 1007
Factor
phi=(py+(eta+1)*pe)/2
=(275+(0.027228+1)*2137.1)/2
=1235.1 N/mm2
Compressive strength
pcy=pe*py/(phi+(phi^2-pe*py)^0.5)
=2137.1*275/(1235.1+(1235.1^2
-2137.1*275)^0.5)
=266.7 N/mm2
Compression resistance
Pcy=A*pcy/10=35.8*266.7/10
=954.8 kN
For buckling about z-z axis
Robertson cont.for hollow sect.
a=2.0 for table 24(a) hot finished
Perry factor
eta=0.001*a*(lam'z-lamb0)
=0.001*2*(52.308-17.155)
=0.070305
Euler strength
pe=PI^2*E*1000/lam'z^2
=3.1416^2*205*1000/52.308^2
=739.47 N/mm2
Factor
phi=(py+(eta+1)*pe)/2
=(275+(0.070305+1)*739.47)/2
=533.23 N/mm2
Compressive strength
pcz=pe*py/(phi+(phi^2-pe*py)^0.5)
=739.47*275/(533.23+(533.23^2
-739.47*275)^0.5)
=248.66 N/mm2
Compression resistance
Pcz=A*pcz/10=35.8*248.66/10
=890.21 kN
Compressive resistance
Pc=890.21 kN
Since F Pc ( 598 kN 890.21 kN ), design axial compressive
load does not exceed compression resistance, section OK.
Equivalent uniform moment factors - Clause 4.8.3.3.4

Clause 4.3.6.6 and Table 18

The member is loaded between restraints and the equation given in the
notes to Table 18 is used to determine mLT.
Moments on member segment
Quarter point
m2=0 kNm
Mid-span
m3=5.04 kNm
Three quarter point
m4=0 kNm
Maximum Moment on segment
Mz=5.04 kNm
Equivalent uniform moment factor mLT=0.2+(0.15*m2+0.5*m3+0.15*m4)/Mz
=0.2+(0.15*0+0.5*5.04+0.15*0)/5.04
=0.7
Major axis flexural buckling - Table 26

The factor 'mz' is over the segment length Lz governing Pcz


Length between restraints z axis Lz=3600 mm
The member is loaded between restraints and the equation given in the
notes to Table 26 is used to determine mz.
Moments on member segment
Quarter point
mz2=0 kNm
Mid-span
mz3=5.04 kNm
Three quarter point
mz4=0 kNm
Maximum Moment on segment
Mz=5.04 kNm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 412. (ans=1)


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Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
RHS beam section design
Date: 02/04/14
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Ref No: SC412 BS

Office: 1007
Maximum moment on central half
M24=5.04 kNm
Equivalent uniform moment factor mz=0.2+(0.1*mz2+0.6*mz3+0.1*mz4)/Mz
=0.2+(0.1*0+0.6*5.04+0.1*0)/5.04
=0.8
Limiting value of m
mzlim=0.8*M24/Mz=0.8*5.04/5.04
=0.8
Buckling resistance - Clause 4.3.6

In accordance with Clause 4.3.6.1 square hollow sections need


not be checked separately for resistance to lateral-torsional
buckling.
Buckling resistance moment
Mb=Mc=52.8 kNm
Clause 4.3.6.6 and Table 18

The member is loaded between restraints and the equation given in the
notes to Table 18 is used to determine mLT.
Moments on member segment
Quarter point
m2=0 kNm
Mid-span
m3=5.04 kNm
Three quarter point
m4=0 kNm
Maximum Moment on segment
Mz=5.04 kNm
Equivalent uniform moment factor mLT=0.2+(0.15*m2+0.5*m3+0.15*m4)/Mz
=0.2+(0.15*0+0.5*5.04+0.15*0)/5.04
=0.7
Since Mz < Mb/mLT ( 5.04 kNm < 75.429 kNm ), section is OK for
lateral torsional buckling resistance.
Member buckling resistance

Overall buckling check - Clause 4.8.3.3.3

For major axis in-plane buckling,


F

Pcz

mz.Mz
F
1 + 0.5
Mc

Pcz

1.0

Unity relationship

unity=F/Pcz+mz*Mz/Mc*(1+0.5*F/Pcz)
=598/890.21+0.8*5.04/52.8*(1
+0.5*598/890.21)
=0.77377
The unity relationship is satisfied.
For out-of-plane buckling,
Fc

Pcy

mLT.Mz
0.5
Mc

Unity relationship

1.0

ufy=F/Pcy+0.5*mLT*Mz/Mc
=598/954.8+0.5*0.7*5.04/52.8
=0.65972
The unity relationship is satisfied.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 412. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
RHS beam section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC412 BS

Office: 1007
HOT FINISHED
SQUARE HOLLOW SECTION
SECTION
SUMMARY

In accordance with EN 10210


150 x 150 x 6.3 SHS Grade S 275
Section is satisfactory for axial
load, and overall buckling check.
Axial load
598 kN
Compression resistance 890.21 kN
Maximum moment z axis
5.04 kNm
Moment capacity
52.8 kNm
Local capacity check
0.70287 1
Overall buckling checks 0.77377 < 1
0.65972 1
No412

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 412. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
RHS beam section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC412 EC

Office: 1007
Location: SCI example
z






y
y




t

z

Hollow section beam design

Calculations in accordance
with BS EN 1993-1-1:2005.
Internal forces and moments
have been determined by
elastic global analysis.
All forces and moments are
factored.

b
Moment about y-y axis
Shear force
Axial load (+ve compression)
Length of member

MyEd=10.1 kNm
VzEd=11.2 kN
NEd=525 kN
L=3.6 m

Steel section properties

150 x 150 x 5 SHS - Hot finished.


Properties (cm): A=28.7 iy=5.9 Wely=134 Wply=156 Iy=1000 It=1550
Wt=197
Axial load compressive
Strength of steel - Table 3.1 (amended by N.A.)

The material thickness is 5 mm and steel grade is S 355.


Yield strength
fy=355 N/mm2
Ultimate strength
fu=470 N/mm2
Young's modulus
E=210000 N/mm2
Section classification

The classification is conservatively determined by using the class


limits in the "part subject to compression" section of Table 5.2.
Parameter (Table 5.2)
e=(235/fy)^0.5=(235/355)^0.5
=0.81362
Depth between fillets
C=b-3*t=150-3*5=135 mm
Ratio
C't=C/t=135/5=27
Classify internal element of section:
As C/t 38e ( 30.917 ), internal element in compression is
classified as Class 2 compact.
Moment resistance

Moment resistance
Unity factor
Section chosen is suitable.

McRd=Wply*fy/10^3=156*355/10^3
=55.38 kNm
unity=MyEd/McRd=10.1/55.38
=0.18238

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 412. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
RHS beam section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC412 EC

Office: 1007
Shear plastic resistance

In the absence of torsion the shear plastic resistance depends on:


Shear area
Avz=A*100*h/(b+h)
=28.7*100*150/(150+150)
=1435 mm2
Shear plastic resistance
VplRd=Avz*fy/SQR(3)/1000
=1435*355/SQR(3)/1000
=294.12 kN
Unity factor
Unity=VzEd/VplRd=11.2/294.12
=0.03808
Section chosen is suitable.
M-V interaction

Shear force at maximum BM


V=11.2 kN
No M-V interaction has to be considered as actual shear force is less
than 0.5VplRd ( 11.2 kN < 147.06 kN ).
Bending and axial force - Clause 6.2.9

Design moment of resistance


MyRd=McRd=55.38 kNm
Axial ratio
n=NEd/(A*fy/10)=525/(28.7*355/10)
=0.51529
Area ratio
aw=(A-2*b*t/100)/A
=(28.7-2*150*5/100)/28.7
=0.47735
Moment resistance
MNRd=MyRd*(1-n)/(1-0.5*aw)
=55.38*(1-0.51529)/(1-0.5*0.47735)
=35.259 kNm
Section is suitable for the combination of bending and axial force.
Effective length

Length between restraints (y-y)


Length between restraints (z-z)
Effective length about y-y axis
Effective length about z-z axis
Elastic critical force

Buckling force about y-y axis

Buckling force about z-z axis

Ly=3.6 m
Lz=1.8 m
Lcry=1.0*Ly*1000=1.0*3.6*1000
=3600 mm
Lcrz=1.0*Lz*1000=1.0*1.8*1000
=1800 mm

Ncry=PI^2*E*Iy*10^7/(Lcry*10^3)^2
=3.1416^2*210000*1000*10^7/(3600
*10^3)^2
=1599.2 kN
Ncrz=PI^2*E*Iz*10^7/(Lcrz*10^3)^2
=3.1416^2*210000*1000*10^7/(1800
*10^3)^2
=6397 kN

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 412. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
RHS beam section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC412 EC

Office: 1007
Non-dimensional slenderness

Slenderness about y-y axis


lamy=SQR(A*10^2*fy/(Ncry*10^3))
=SQR(28.7*10^2*355/(1599.2*10^3))
=0.79817
Slenderness about z-z axis
lamz=SQR(A*10^2*fy/(Ncrz*10^3))
=SQR(28.7*10^2*355/(6397*10^3))
=0.39909
Reduction factor

For buckling about y-y axis

Hot finished imperfection factor


Factor

Reduction factor y-y axis

For buckling about z-z axis

Hot finished imperfection factor


Factor

Reduction factor z-z axis

Reduction factor
Design buckling resistance

Axial resistance
Design buckling resistance
Unity factor

alpha=0.21
phiy=0.5*(1+alpha*(lamy-0.2)+lamy^2)
=0.5*(1+0.21*(0.79817-0.2)
+0.79817^2)
=0.88135
chiy=1/(phiy+SQR(phiy^2-lamy^2))
=1/(0.88135+SQR(0.88135^2
-0.79817^2))
=0.79674
alpha=0.21
phiz=0.5*(1+alpha*(lamz-0.2)+lamz^2)
=0.5*(1+0.21*(0.39909-0.2)
+0.39909^2)
=0.60054
chiz=1/(phiz+SQR(phiz^2-lamz^2))
=1/(0.60054+SQR(0.60054^2
-0.39909^2))
=0.95303
chi=0.79674

NRd=A*fy/10=28.7*355/10=1018.9 kN
NbRd=chi*NRd=0.79674*1018.9
=811.76 kN
unity=NEd/NbRd=525/811.76
=0.64674

Section chosen is suitable.


Coefficient factor Cmy

Member under consideration is loaded between lateral restraints.


Maximum end moment
Mh(1)=10.1 kNm
Maximum span moment
Ms(1)=-10.1 kNm
End moment
pMh(1)=10.1 kNm
Factor
ah=Mh(i)/Ms(i)=10.1/-10.1
=-1
Factor
psi=1
Equivalent uniform moment factor Cm=0.9+0.1*ah=0.9+0.1*-1
=0.8

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 412. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
RHS beam section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC412 EC

Office: 1007
Equivalent uniform moment factor Cmy=Cm=0.8
Interaction factors kij

Interaction factor

Interaction factor
Interaction factor
Interaction factor
Lateral torsional buckling

Effective length parameter


Length for LTB
Shear modulus
Terms for critical moment Mcr:
Euler term

Shear modulus term

Maximum moment on section


Far end moment
Factor
Coefficient C1
Factor
Critical moment
Non-dimensional slenderness

kyy1=Cmy*(1+(lamy-0.2)*NEd/(chiy*NRd))
=0.8*(1+(0.79817-0.2)*525
/(0.79674*1018.9))
=1.1095
kyy2=Cmy*(1+0.8*NEd/(chiy*NRd))
=0.8*(1+0.8*525/(0.79674*1018.9))
=1.2139
kyy=1.1095
kzy=0.6*kyy=0.6*1.1095=0.66569

K=1
LT=1.8 m
G=80770 N/mm2
Et=PI^2*E*Iz/((K*LT)^2*100)
=3.1416^2*210000*1000/((1*1.8)^2
*100)
=6.397E6 N
Gt=(K*LT)^2*G*It/(PI^2*E*Iz)*10^6
=(1*1.8)^2*80770*1550/(3.1416^2
*210000*1000)*10^6
=195708 mm2
M=10.1 kNm
psiM=-10.1 kNm
psi=psiM/M=-10.1/10.1=-1
C1=TABLE 3.1 for psi=-1
=2.55
kc=1/(1.33-0.33*psi)=1/(1.33-0.33*-1)
=0.60241
Mcr=C1*Et*Gt^0.5/10^6
=2.55*6.397E6*195708^0.5/10^6
=7216.4 kNm
lamLT=(Wply*fy/(Mcr*10^3))^0.5
=(156*355/(7216.4*10^3))^0.5
=0.087603
lamLT0=0.4

Limiting slenderness value


As lamLT lamLT0,
The segment of the beam is not subject to lateral torsional buckling.
Modification factor
ChiLT=1.0
Design buckling resistance moment MybRd=ChiLT*Wply*fy/10^3
=1*156*355/10^3
=55.38 kNm
Interaction equations

NEd
MyEd
+ kyy 1.0
y.NRd
LT.McRd

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 412. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
RHS beam section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC412 EC

Office: 1007
Unity factor
Unity1=NEd/(chiy*NRd)+kyy*MyEd/(ChiLT*McRd)
=525/(0.79674*1018.9)+1.1095*10.1/(1
*55.38)
=0.84909
Section chosen is suitable.
NEd
MyEd
+ kzy 1.0
z.NRd
LT.McRd
Unity factor

Unity2=NEd/(chiz*NRd)+kzy*MyEd/(ChiLT*McRd)
=525/(0.95303*1018.9)+0.66569*10.1/(1
*55.38)
=0.66209
Section chosen is suitable.
HOT FINISHED
SQUARE HOLLOW SECTION
DESIGN
SUMMARY

In accordance with EN 10210


150 x 150 x 5 SHS Grade S 355
Design BM y-y axis
10.1 kNm
Moment resistance (y-y) 55.38 kNm
Design compression load 525 kN
Buckling resistance
811.76 kN
Interaction factors
0.84909 1
0.66209 1
No412

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 414. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
CHS beam and column section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC414 BS

Office: 1007
Location: Default example
y

D z
z

y
Design moment axis zz
Design SF in y direction
Axial load (+ve compression)
Length of member
Factored moment about axis yy

Circular Hollow Section

Calculations in accordance
with BS 5950:Part 1:2000
Sections 4.7 and 4.8.
All loads and moments
are factored.

Mz=5.04 kNm
Fv=5.6 kN
F=598 kN
L=3.6 m
My=0 kNm

Steel section properties

193.7 dia x 5 thick CHS - Hot finished.


Properties (cm): A=29.641 r=6.6739 Z=136.32 S=178.08 I=1320.2
Strength of steel - Clause 3.1.1

The material thickness is 5 mm and the steel grade is S 275.


Design strength
py=275 N/mm2
Young's Modulus
E=205 kN/mm2
Effective lengths - Clause 4.7.2

Length of member
Length between restraints z axis
Length between restraints y axis
Effective length about z-z axis
Effective length about y-y axis

3600 mm
Lz=3600 mm
Ly=1800 mm
Lez=Kz*Lz=0.85*3600=3060 mm
Ley=Ky*Ly=1*1800=1800 mm

Classification of cross section - Clause 3.5.2

Clause 4.8.1 - members with combined moment and axial forces states
that CHS should be classified separately for axial compression and
for bending.
Parameter (Table 12 Note b)
e=(275/py)^0.5=(275/275)^0.5
=1
Ratio for local buckling
D't=D/t=193.7/5=38.74
For axial load:
As D/t 80e^2 ( 80 ), the section is at least semi-compact.
For moment:
As D/t 40e^2 ( 40 ), the section is class 1 plastic.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 414. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
CHS beam and column section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC414 BS

Office: 1007
Web shear

Shear area

Av=0.6*A*100=0.6*29.641*100
=1778.5 mm2 Cl 4.2.3(g)
Shear capacity
Pv=0.6*py*Av/10^3=0.6*275*1778.5/10^3
=293.45 kN
Applied shear force
Fv=5.6 N
Since Fv Pv ( 5.6 kN 293.45 kN ), shear force within
shear capacity.
Moment capacities

Since Fv < 0.6 Pv


Moment capacity for compact sec

Mc=py*S/10^3=275*178.08/10^3
=48.972 kNm
Since Mz Mc ( 5.04 kNm 48.972 kNm ), applied moment within
moment capacity.
Local capacity check - Clause 4.8.3.2

A.py

Mz

Mc

My

Mc

1.0

Unity factor

uf=F*10/(A*py)+Mz/Mc+My/Mc
=598*10/(29.641*275)+5.04/48.972+0
/48.972
=0.83655
The interaction formula is satisfied.
Slenderness - Clause 4.7.2

Slenderness (minor axis)


Slenderness (major axis)
Controlling slenderness ratio

lam'y=Ley/(r*10)=1800/(6.6739*10)
=26.971
lam'z=Lez/(r*10)=3060/(6.6739*10)
=45.85
lambda=45.85

Compressive strength: Perry strut formula from Annex C

Limiting slenderness
lamb0=0.2*(PI^2*E*1000/py)^0.5
=0.2*(3.1416^2*205*1000/275)^0.5
=17.155
For buckling about y-y axis
Robertson cont.for hollow sect.
a=2.0 for table 24(a) hot finished
Perry factor
eta=0.001*a*(lam'y-lamb0)
=0.001*2*(26.971-17.155)
=0.019632
Euler strength
pe=PI^2*E*1000/lam'y^2
=3.1416^2*205*1000/26.971^2
=2781.4 N/mm2
Factor
phi=(py+(eta+1)*pe)/2
=(275+(0.019632+1)*2781.4)/2
=1555.5 N/mm2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 414. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
CHS beam and column section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC414 BS

Office: 1007
Compressive strength
pcy=pe*py/(phi+(phi^2-pe*py)^0.5)
=2781.4*275/(1555.5+(1555.5^2
-2781.4*275)^0.5)
=269.15 N/mm2
Compression resistance
Pcy=A*pcy/10=29.641*269.15/10
=797.79 kN
For buckling about z-z axis
Robertson cont.for hollow sect.
a=2.0 for table 24(a) hot finished
Perry factor
eta=0.001*a*(lam'z-lamb0)
=0.001*2*(45.85-17.155)
=0.057391
Euler strength
pe=PI^2*E*1000/lam'z^2
=3.1416^2*205*1000/45.85^2
=962.43 N/mm2
Factor
phi=(py+(eta+1)*pe)/2
=(275+(0.057391+1)*962.43)/2
=646.33 N/mm2
Compressive strength
pcz=pe*py/(phi+(phi^2-pe*py)^0.5)
=962.43*275/(646.33+(646.33^2
-962.43*275)^0.5)
=255.08 N/mm2
Compression resistance
Pcz=A*pcz/10=29.641*255.08/10
=756.09 kN
Compressive resistance
Pc=756.09 kN
Since F Pc ( 598 kN 756.09 kN ), design axial compressive
load does not exceed compression resistance, section OK.
Equivalent uniform moment factors - Clause 4.8.3.3.4

Clause 4.3.6.6 and Table 18

The member is loaded between restraints and the equation given in the
notes to Table 18 is used to determine mLT.
Moments on member segment
Quarter point
m2=0 kNm
Mid-span
m3=5.04 kNm
Three quarter point
m4=0 kNm
Maximum Moment on segment
Mz=5.04 kNm
Equivalent uniform moment factor mLT=0.2+(0.15*m2+0.5*m3+0.15*m4)/Mz
=0.2+(0.15*0+0.5*5.04+0.15*0)/5.04
=0.7
Major axis flexural buckling - Table 26

The factor 'mz' is over the segment length Lz governing Pcz


Length between restraints z axis Lz=3600 mm
The member is loaded between restraints and the equation given in the
notes to Table 26 is used to determine mz.
Moments on member segment
Quarter point
mz2=0 kNm
Mid-span
mz3=5.04 kNm
Three quarter point
mz4=0 kNm
Maximum Moment on segment
Mz=5.04 kNm
Maximum moment on central half
M24=5.04 kNm
Equivalent uniform moment factor mz=0.2+(0.1*mz2+0.6*mz3+0.1*mz4)/Mz
=0.2+(0.1*0+0.6*5.04+0.1*0)/5.04
=0.8

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 414. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
CHS beam and column section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC414 BS

Office: 1007
Limiting value of m
mzlim=0.8*M24/Mz=0.8*5.04/5.04
=0.8
Buckling resistance - Clause 4.3.6.1

For circular hollow sections resistance to lateral-torsional buckling


need not be checked separately and the buckling resistance moment is:
Buckling resistance
Mb=Mc=48.972 kNm
Member buckling resistance

Overall buckling check - Clause 4.8.3.3.3

For major axis in-plane buckling,


F

Pcz

mz.Mz
F
1 + 0.5
Mc

Pcz

1.0

Unity relationship

unity=F/Pcz+mz*Mz/Mc*(1+0.5*F/Pcz)
=598/756.09+0.8*5.04/48.972*(1
+0.5*598/756.09)
=0.90581
The unity relationship is satisfied.
For out-of-plane buckling,
Fc

Pcy

0.5

mLT.Mz

Mc

1.0

Unity relationship

ufy=F/Pcy+0.5*mLT*Mz/Mc
=598/797.79+0.5*0.7*5.04/48.972
=0.7856
The unity relationship is satisfied.
HOT FINISHED
CIRCULAR HOLLOW
SECTION & DESIGN
SUMMARY

In accordance with EN 10210


193.7 mm O.D. x 5 mm CHS Grade S 275
Section is satisfactory for bending
axial load, local capacity and
overall buckling check.
Axial load
598 kN
Compression resistance 756.09 kN
Maximum moment z zxis
5.04 kNm
Moment capacity
48.972 kNm
Local capacity check
0.83655 1
Overall buckling check 0.90581 1
No414

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 414. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
CHS beam and column section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC414 EC

Office: 1007
Location: Default example - intermediate column length
Z

Y
Y

Z
Moment about y-y axis
Shear force
Axial load (+ve compression)
Length of member
Moment about z-z axis
Accompanying shear force
Axial load is compressive.

Circular Hollow Section

Calculations in accordance
with BS EN 1993-1-1:2005.
Internal forces and moments
have been determined by
elastic global analysis.
All forces and moments are
factored.

MyEd=50
VzEd=22
NEd=760
L=7 m
MzEd=50
VyEd=22

kNm
kN
kN
kNm
kNm

Steel section properties

244.5 dia x 8 thick CHS - Hot finished.


Properties (cm): A=59.439 iy=8.3663 Wely=340.32 Wply=447.63 Iy=4160.4
It=8320.9
Strength of steel - Table 3.1 (amended by N.A.)

The material thickness is 8 mm and steel grade is S 355.


Yield strength
fy=355 N/mm2
Ultimate strength
fu=470 N/mm2
Young's modulus
E=210000 N/mm2
Section classification

Parameter (Table 5.2)

e=(235/fy)^0.5=(235/355)^0.5
=0.81362
Ratio for local buckling
C't=D/t=244.5/8=30.563
As C/t 50e^2 ( 33.099 ), the section is Class 1 plastic.
Moment resistance

Moment resistance
Unity factor
Section chosen is suitable.

McRd=Wply*fy/10^3=447.63*355/10^3
=158.91 kNm
unity=MyEd/McRd=50/158.91
=0.31465

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 414. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
CHS beam and column section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC414 EC

Office: 1007
Shear plastic resistance

In the absence of torsion the shear plastic resistance depends on:


Shear area
Avz=2*A*100/PI=2*59.439*100/3.1416
=3784 mm2
Shear plastic resistance
VplRd=Avz*fy/SQR(3)/1000
=3784*355/SQR(3)/1000
=775.57 kN
Unity factor
Unity=VzEd/VplRd=22/775.57
=0.028366
Section chosen is suitable.
Unity factor
Unity=VyEd/VplRd=22/775.57
=0.028366
Section chosen is suitable.
M-V interaction

Shear force at maximum BM


V=22 kN
No M-V interaction has to be considered as actual shear force is less
than 0.5VplRd ( 22 kN < 387.78 kN ).
Bending and axial force - Clause 6.2.9

Axial ratio
n=NEd/(A*fy/10)=760/(59.439*355/10)
=0.36018
Assumed ratio of area of
aw=0.5
Moment resistance
MNRd=McRd*(1-n)/(1-0.5*aw)
=158.91*(1-0.36018)/(1-0.5*0.5)
=135.56 kNm

2
MyEd
+
MNRd

2
MzEd

MNRd

1.0

Unity expression

unity=(MyEd/MNRd)^2+(MzEd/MNRd)^2
=(50/135.56)^2+(50/135.56)^2
=0.27207
Section is suitable for the combination of bending and axial force.
Effective length

Length between restraints (y-y)


Length between restraints (z-z)
Effective length about y-y axis
Effective length about z-z axis

Ly=7 m
Lz=7 m
Lcry=1.0*Ly*1000=1.0*7*1000
=7000 mm
Lcrz=1.0*Lz*1000=1.0*7*1000
=7000 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 414. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
CHS beam and column section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC414 EC

Office: 1007
Elastic critical force

Buckling force about y-y axis


Ncry=PI^2*E*Iy*10^7/(Lcry*10^3)^2
=3.1416^2*210000*4160.4*10^7
/(7000*10^3)^2
=1759.8 kN
Buckling force about z-z axis
Ncrz=PI^2*E*Iz*10^7/(Lcrz*10^3)^2
=3.1416^2*210000*4160.4*10^7
/(7000*10^3)^2
=1759.8 kN
Non-dimensional slenderness

Slenderness about y-y axis

Slenderness about z-z axis

Reduction factor

For buckling about y-y axis

Hot finished imperfection factor


Factor
Reduction factor y-y axis
For buckling about z-z axis

Hot finished imperfection factor


Factor
Reduction factor z-z axis
Reduction factor
Design buckling resistance

Axial resistance
Unity factor
Section chosen is suitable.

lamy=SQR(A*10^2*fy/(Ncry*10^3))
=SQR(59.439*10^2*355/(1759.8
*10^3))
=1.095
lamz=SQR(A*10^2*fy/(Ncrz*10^3))
=SQR(59.439*10^2*355/(1759.8
*10^3))
=1.095

alpha=0.21
phiy=0.5*(1+alpha*(lamy-0.2)+lamy^2)
=0.5*(1+0.21*(1.095-0.2)+1.095^2)
=1.1935
chiy=1/(phiy+SQR(phiy^2-lamy^2))
=1/(1.1935+SQR(1.1935^2-1.095^2))
=0.59943
alpha=0.21
phiz=0.5*(1+alpha*(lamz-0.2)+lamz^2)
=0.5*(1+0.21*(1.095-0.2)+1.095^2)
=1.1935
chiz=1/(phiz+SQR(phiz^2-lamz^2))
=1/(1.1935+SQR(1.1935^2-1.095^2))
=0.59943
chi=0.59943

NRd=A*fy/10=59.439*355/10
=2110.1 kN
unity=NEd/NRd=760/2110.1
=0.36018

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 414. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
CHS beam and column section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC414 EC

Office: 1007
Coefficient factor

Factor Cmy:
Member under consideration is not loaded between lateral restraints.
Maximum moment on segment
Mcm=50 kNm
Far end bending moment
pM(1)=-50 kNm
Table 3.1 psi factor
psi=pM(i)/Mcm=-50/50=-1
Moment factor
Cm=0.6+0.4*psi=0.6+0.4*-1
=0.2
Factor limited
Cm=0.4
Equivalent uniform moment factor Cmy=Cm=0.4
Factor Cmz:
Member under consideration is not loaded between lateral restraints.
Maximum moment on segment
Mcm=50 kNm
Far end bending moment
pM(2)=-50 kNm
Table 3.1 psi factor
psi=pM(i)/Mcm=-50/50=-1
Moment factor
Cm=0.6+0.4*psi=0.6+0.4*-1
=0.2
Factor limited
Cm=0.4
Equivalent uniform moment factor Cmz=Cm=0.4
Interaction factors kij

Interaction factor

Interaction factor
Interaction factor
Interaction factor
Interaction factor

Interaction factor
Interaction factor
Interaction factor
Lateral torsional buckling

Length for LTB


Effective length parameter
Shear modulus
Terms for Critical moment Mcr:
Euler term

Shear modulus term

kyy1=Cmy*(1+(lamy-0.2)*NEd/(chiy*NRd))
=0.4*(1+(1.095-0.2)*760/(0.59943
*2110.1))
=0.61511
kyy2=Cmy*(1+0.8*NEd/(chiy*NRd))
=0.4*(1+0.8*760/(0.59943*2110.1))
=0.59228
kyy=0.59228
kzy=0.6*kyy=0.6*0.59228=0.35537
kzz1=Cmz*(1+(lamz-0.2)*NEd/(chiz*NRd))
=0.4*(1+(1.095-0.2)*760/(0.59943
*2110.1))
=0.61511
kzz2=Cmz*(1+0.8*NEd/(chiz*NRd))
=0.4*(1+0.8*760/(0.59943*2110.1))
=0.59228
kzz=0.59228
kyz=0.6*kzz=0.6*0.59228=0.35537

LT=7 m
K=0.85
G=80770 N/mm2
Et=PI^2*E*Iz/(K*LT^2*100)
=3.1416^2*210000*4160.4/(0.85*7^2
*100)
=2.0704E6 N
Gt=K*LT^2*G*It/(PI^2*E*Iz)*10^6
=0.85*7^2*80770*8320.9/(3.1416^2
*210000*4160.4)*10^6
=3.2462E6 mm2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 414. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
CHS beam and column section design
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC414 EC

Office: 1007
Maximum moment on section
M=50 kNm
Far end moment
psiM=-50 kNm
Factor
psi=psiM/M=-50/50=-1
Coefficient C1
C1=TABLE 3.1 for psi=-1
=2.55
Factor
kc=1/(1.33-0.33*psi)=1/(1.33-0.33*-1)
=0.60241
Critical moment
Mcr=C1*Et*Gt^0.5/10^6
=2.55*2.0704E6*3.2462E6^0.5/10^6
=9512 kNm
Non-dimensional slenderness
lamLT=(Wply*fy/(Mcr*10^3))^0.5
=(447.63*355/(9512*10^3))^0.5
=0.12925
Limiting slenderness value
lamLT0=0.4
As lamLT lamLT0,
The segment of the beam is not subject to lateral torsional buckling.
Modification factor
ChiLT=1.0
Design buckling resistance moment MybRd=ChiLT*Wply*fy/10^3
=1*447.63*355/10^3
=158.91 kNm
Interaction equations

NEd
MyEd
MzEd
+ kyy + kyz 1.0
y.NRd
LT.McRd
McRd
Unity factor Unity1=NEd/(chiy*NRd)+kyy*MyEd/(ChiLT*McRd)+kyz*MzEd/McRd
=760/(0.59943*2110.1)+0.59228*50/(1*158.91)+0.35537
*50/158.91
=0.89904
Section chosen is suitable.
NEd
MyEd
MzEd
+ kzy + kzz 1.0
z.NRd
LT.McRd
McRd
Unity factor Unity2=NEd/(chiz*NRd)+kzy*MyEd/(ChiLT*McRd)+kzz*MzEd/McRd
=760/(0.59943*2110.1)+0.35537*50/(1*158.91)+0.59228
*50/158.91
=0.89904
Section chosen is suitable.
HOT FINISHED
CIRCULAR HOLLOW
DESIGN
SUMMARY

In accordance with EN 10210


244.5 mm O.D. x 8 mm CHS Grade S 355
Design BM y-y axis
50 kNm
Moment resistance (y-y) 158.91 kNm
Design BM z-z axis
50 kNm
Moment resistance (z-z) 158.91 kNm
Design compression load 760 kN
Axial resistance
2110.1 kN
Interaction factors
0.89904 1
0.89904 1
No414

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007
Location: Ex1 from 'Slim Floor Construction Using Deep Decking'

Simply supported beam

Slim floor construction


non-composite beam.
Calculations are in
accordance with BS5950
and SCI publication
entitled 'Slim Floor
Construction Using Deep
Decking'.

Assumptions:

No restraint is provided to the compression flange


during the construction stage
In the construction stage the beam is assumed to be
torsional fixed and warping free at the supports
For the imposed loading condition the beam is assumed
laterally restrained
The steel deck is propped by a central line of props.

Bay details

Beam span
Beam cross-centres

L1=7.5 m
L2=7.5 m

Beam properties

254 x 254 x 107 UC.


Dimensions (mm): D=266.7 B=258.8 T=20.5 t=12.8 r=12.7
Properties (cm): Ixx=17500 Iyy=5930 Juc=172 A=136
Strength of steel - Clause 3.1.1

The material thickness is 20.5 mm


Design strength
Young's modulus
Poisson's ratio
Shear modulus

and the steel grade is S 355.


py=345 N/mm2
E=205 kN/mm2
neu=0.3
G=E/(2*(1+neu))=205/(2*(1+0.3))
=78.846 kN/mm2

Plate properties




Tp
Bp
Thickness of plate
Width of plate
Area of plate

Tp=15 mm
Bp=460 mm
Ap=Tp*Bp/100=15*460/100=69 cm2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007
Concrete details

Concrete Grade
fcu=30 N/mm2
For buildings of normal usage the modular ratio is assumed to be 2/3
of the value due to short term loading and 1/3 of the value due to
long term loading.
Assuming light weight concrete
Modular ratio (LWC)
Alphae=15
Loading (unfactored)

Dead loads:
Self weight of beam:
UC section
Plate self weight
Self weight of beam + plate
Floor loading
Air dry density
Wet density for
Deck spans onto

wuc=serM*9.81/1000=107*9.81/1000
=1.0497 kN/m
wpl=wuc*Ap/A=1.0497*69/136
=0.53255 kN/m
ws=(wuc+wpl)/L2 kN/m2
=0.21 kN/m2

concrete
for concrete
Dc=18 kN/m3
concrete
D'c=19 kN/m3
the supporting beam.

<Ct>

- - mesh
_____________
_____________
/

\
/

\
__/
\_____________/
\__
<p>
Slab depth
Depth of profiling
Centres of profiles
Width at inside of profile
Width at outside of profile
Dry weight of slab + troughs
Wet weight of slab + troughs
Dry weight surrounding beam
Wet weight surrounding beam
Dry weight of concrete
Wet weight of concrete
Deck and end closures
Construction load

Dp

Ds

<b>
Ds=300 mm
Dp=285 mm
Ct=600 mm
b=548 mm
p=424 mm
wd=(Ds-Dp/(2*Ct)*(b+p))*Dc/1000
=(300-285/(2*600)*(548+424))*18/1000
=1.2447 kN/m2
ww=(Ds-Dp/(2*Ct)*(b+p))*D'c/1000
=(300-285/(2*600)*(548+424))*19/1000
=1.3139 kN/m2
wsd=Bp*Dp*Dc/(L1*L2*10^6)
=460*285*18/(7.5*7.5*10^6)
=0.041952 kN/m2
wsw=Bp*Dp*D'c/(L1*L2*10^6)
=460*285*19/(7.5*7.5*10^6)
=0.044283 kN/m2
wud=1.29 kN/m2
wuw=1.36 kN/m2
wg=0.2 kN/m2
wc=0.5 kN/m2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007
Floor & minor services
wf=0.25 kN/m2
Ceiling
wci=0 kN/m2
Imposed loads:
Occupancy
Partitions
Total imposed loading
Imposed load reduction
Revised imposed load

wo=3.5 kN/m2
wp=1 kN/m2
wi'=wo+wp=3.5+1=4.5 kN/m2
wr=L1*L2*wi'/1000=7.5*7.5*4.5/1000
=0.25312 kN/m2
wi=wi'-wr=4.5-0.25=4.25 kN/m2

Loading combinations

The load case combinations outlined below follow the design criteria
listed in the SCI publication.
Case 1 - Construction stage. Only one span constructed and subject to
construction load. This load combination is not applicable to
this type of construction.
Case 2(a) - Construction stage. Two spans constructed, one subject to
construction load. Deck props in position.
Eccentric loading (deck only)
Eccentric loading
Axial loading

W21=wg*1.4*L2/4*L1=0.2*1.4*7.5/4*7.5
=3.9375 kN
W22=((wuw+wg)*1.4+wc*1.6)*L1*L2/4
=((1.36+0.2)*1.4+0.5*1.6)*7.5*7.5/4
=41.963 kN
W23=ws*1.4*L2*L1=0.21*1.4*7.5*7.5
=16.538 kN


3.9375 kN

41.963 kN

16.538 kN
Total applied load

W2=W21+W22+W23=3.9375+41.963+16.538
=62.438 kN
Check: Lateral torsional buckling combined with torsion.
Case 2(b) - Construction stage (plastic capacity). Two spans
constructed, both subject to construction load.
Deck props in position.

41.963 kN

41.963 kN

16.538 kN
Total axial load

W2a=W23+2*W22=16.538+2*41.963
=100.46 kN

Check: Maximum loading for lateral torsional buckling.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007
Case 3(a) - In-service stage. Only one span subject to imposed load
This load case is not required.
Case 3(b) - In-service stage (ultimate combined bending check)
Axial loading
W33=(wi*1.6+(wud+ws+wf+wg+wci)*1.4)*L2*L1
=(4.25*1.6+(1.29+0.21+0.25+0.2+0)*1.4)
*7.5*7.5
=536.06 kN


536.06 kN
Check: Maximum loading for moment capacity.
Section classification

Parameter (Table 11 Note b)


Outstand
Ratio
Compact limiting value of ratio
b/T ratio within limiting value
Compact limiting value of ratio
Depth between fillets
Ratio
d/t ratio within limiting value

e=(275/py)^0.5=(275/345)^0.5
=0.89281
b'=B/2=258.8/2=129.4 mm
b'T=b'/T=129.4/20.5=6.3122
b'Tlim=10*e=10*0.89281=8.9281
of 10e.
d'tlim=100*e=100*0.89281
=89.281
d=D-2*(T+r)=266.7-2*(20.5+12.7)
=200.3 mm
d't=d/t=200.3/12.8=15.648
of 100e.

Section properties - (beam + plate)

The plate thickness is 15 mm and the steel grade is S 355.


Design strength
pyp=355 N/mm2
Torsional constant of plate
Jp=Tp^3*Bp/30000=15^3*460/30000
=51.75 cm4
Area of plate & bottom flange
Ab=Bp*Tp+B*T=460*15+258.8*20.5
=12205 mm2
Neutral axis is in plate
Top of plate to centre of area
hc=Tp-Ab/(2*Bp)=15-12205/(2*460)
=1.7333 mm
Distance between flange centroids hs=D-T/2+hc=266.7-20.5/2+1.7333
=258.18 mm
Total area
At=A+Ap=136+69=205 cm2
Taking area moments about bottom surface of plate
Distance to centroid
ybar=(A*(D/2+Tp)+Ap*Tp/2)/At
=(136*(266.7/2+15)+69*15/2)/205
=100.94 mm
Second moment of Area about neutral axis:
Ix=Ixx+A*((D/2-ybar+Tp)/10)^2+Ap*((ybar-Tp/2)/10)^2
=17500+136*((266.7/2-100.94+15)/10)^2+69*((100.94-15/2)
/10)^2
=26581 cm4

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007
Second moment of area
Iy=Iyy+Tp/10*(Bp/10)^3/12
=5930+15/10*(460/10)^3/12
=18097 cm4
Radius of gyration about y-y
ry=(Iy/At)^0.5=(18097/205)^0.5
=9.3956 cm
Equal area axis above the bottom flange

When the design strengths of the UC and the plate are not the same
the SCI Slim Floor publication adopts the approach that the different
design strengths should be used to determine the plastic modulus Sx.
Design strength of plate
pyp=355 N/mm2
Modified plate area
Ap=Ap*pyp/py=69*355/345=71 cm2
Modified total area
At=A+Ap=136+71=207 cm2
Depth between flanges of beam
df=D-2*T=266.7-2*20.5=225.7 mm
The Equal-Area axis lies in the flange of the beam.
Distance from top of plate
yea=(At/2-Ap)*100/B
=(207/2-71)*100/258.8
=12.558 mm
Distance to centre of areas
y1=T-yea=20.5-12.558=7.942 mm
y2=df/2+y1=225.7/2+7.942
=120.79 mm
y3=df+y1+T/2=225.7+7.942+20.5/2
=243.89 mm
Ignoring the fillets, the plastic modulus of the combined section is
Sx=(Ap*(yea+Tp/2)*100+B*yea^2/2+B*y1^2/2+t*df*y2+B*T*y3)/10^3
=(71*(12.558+15/2)*100+258.8*12.558^2/2+258.8*7.942^2/2+12.8*225.7
*120.79+258.8*20.5*243.89)/10^3
=1813.9 cm3
Transverse plate bending

Prop loads - Case 2b

Before proceeding further with design checks determine the biaxial


stress effects (if any) in the plate. In some instances the transverse moment may have such an effect as to reduce the moment capacity
for overall bending of the section.
Maximum transverse moment, M, in the plate is obtained from:
M

Mp

(c^2-sigma^2)

2.c.pyp

sigma=longitudinal bending stress


Mp=plate moment capacity
c =(4pyp^2-3sigma^2)^0.5

For transverse bending effects refer directly to the bottom flange.


Design strength
pyp=355 N/mm2
Bending moment
Mx=W2a*L1/8=100.46*7.5/8
=94.184 kNm
Longitudinal bending stress
sigma=Mx*10^3/Sx=94.184*10^3/1813.9
=51.924 N/mm2
Stress
c=(4*pyp^2-3*sigma^2)^0.5
=(4*355^2-3*51.924^2)^0.5
=704.28 N/mm2
Ratio of moments
M'Mp=(c^2-sigma^2)/(2*c*pyp)
=(704.28^2-51.924^2)/(2*704.28
*355)
=0.98655

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 6
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007
The ratio of plate transverse moment/ moment capacity of
plate must not exceed 0.98655 otherwise the longitudinal bending
capacity of the beam is reduced.
Assuming clearance of 25 mm between beam flange and floor slab
Distance to load W22
as=(Bp-B'-2*25)/4+25
=(460-260-2*25)/4+25
=62.5 mm
Plate transverse moment (total)
M'=W22*as/10^3=41.963*62.5/10^3
=2.6227 kNm
Unit length moment
M=M'/L1=2.6227/7.5=0.34969 kNm per m.
Plate section modulus (total)
Sxp'=Tp^2*L1/4=15^2*7.5/4
=421.88 cm3
Unit length section modulus
Sxp=Sxp'/L1
=421.88/7.5
=56.25 cm3 per m
Plate moment capacity
Mp=Sxp*pyp/10^3=56.25*355/10^3
=19.969 kNm per m
Ratio of moment
Mr=M/Mp=0.34969/19.969=0.017512
Since Mr M'Mp ( 0.017512 0.98655 ) biaxial bending has no
influence on the overall bending of the section.
Case 2a - Construction loading - One side loaded

Buckling Check

Mx
( fbyt + fw )
0.5 Mx
+ 1 + 1.0
Mb/mLT
py

Mb/mLT
Bending moment
Eccentricity of load
Torsional moment

Mx=W2*L1/8=62.438*7.5/8=58.535 kNm
ecc=B/2+as=258.8/2+62.5=191.9 mm
Tq=(W22-W21)*ecc/10^3
=(41.963-3.9375)*191.9/10^3
=7.297 kNm

Effective length - Clause 4.3.5.1

Compression flange laterally restrained.


Nominal torsional restraint about longitudinal axis.
Both flanges free to rotate on plan.
Normal loading conditions therefore
Effective length (Table 13)
Le=1.0*L1*1000=1.0*7.5*1000
=7500 mm
Resistance to lateral torsional buckling - Clause 4.3.6

Gamma of combined section


gamma=(1-Iy/Ix)=(1-18097/26581)
=0.31918
Buckling parameter
u=(4*Sx^2*gamma/(At^2*(hs/10)^2))^0.25
=(4*1813.9^2*0.31918/(207^2*(258.18
/10)^2))^0.25
=0.61927
Torsional constant of section
J=Juc+Jp=172+51.75=223.75 cm4
Torsional index of section
x=0.566*hs/10*(At/J)^0.5
=0.566*258.18/10*(207/223.75)^0.5
=14.056
Second moment of area of flanges in transverse bending

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 7
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
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Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007
Flange only
Icf=T*B^3/120000=20.5*258.8^3/120000
=2961.2 cm4
Flange and plate
Itf=Icf+Tp*Bp^3/120000
=2961.2+15*460^3/120000
=15128 cm4
Ratio of moment areas of flanges eta=Icf/(Icf+Itf)
=2961.2/(2961.2+15128)
=0.1637
Factor for psi
keta=1.0
Slenderness of section
lambda=Le/(ry*10)=7500/(9.3956*10)
=79.824
Ratio
ratio=lambda/x=79.824/14.056
=5.6792
Monosymmetry index
psi=keta*(2*eta-1)=1*(2*0.1637-1)
=-0.67261
Slenderness factor v=((4*eta*(1-eta)+1/20*ratio^2+psi^2)^0.5+psi)^-0.5
=((4*0.1637*(1-0.1637)+1/20*5.6792^2+
-0.67261^2)^0.5+-0.67261)^-0.5
=1.0294
Ratio w
betaw=1.0
Equivalent slenderness
lamLT=u*v*lambda*(betaw)^0.5
=0.61927*1.0294*79.824*(1)^0.5
=50.884
Limiting slenderness
lamlo=0.4*((PI^2*E*10^3)/py)^0.5
=0.4*((3.1416^2*205*10^3)
/345)^0.5
=30.632
Perry coefficient
etaLT=2*0.007*(lamLT-lamlo)
=2*0.007*(50.884-30.632)
=0.28353
Elastic strength
pe=PI^2*E*10^3/(lamLT^2)
=3.1416^2*205*10^3/(50.884^2)
=781.42 N/mm2
Factor
phiLT=(py+(etaLT+1)*pe)/2
=(345+(0.28353+1)*781.42)/2
=673.99 N/mm2
Factor
pey=pe*py=781.42*345=269592
Bending strength
pb=(pey)/(phiLT+((phiLT^2-pey)^0.5))
=(269592)/(673.99+((673.99^2
-269592)^0.5))
=244.26 N/mm2
Buckling resistance moment
Mb=Sx*pb/10^3=1813.9*244.26/10^3
=443.05 kNm
Equivalent uniform moment factor mLT=0.925
Warping constant
H=(hs/10)^2*Icf*Itf/Iy
=(258.18/10)^2*2961.2*15128/18097
=1.6501E6 cm6
Torsional bending constant
a=(E*H/(G*J))^0.5*10
=(205*1.6501E6/(78.846*223.75))^0.5
*10
=1384.7 mm
Length of beam
L=7500 mm
Distance along member
z=L/2=7500/2=3750 mm
Hyperbolic sine of z/a
t1=SNH(z/a)=SNH(3750/1384.7)
=7.4675

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 8
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007
Hyperbolic tangent of L/2a
t2=TNH(L/(2*a))=TNH(7500/(2*1384.7))
=0.99115
Hyperbolic cosine of z/a
t3=CSH(z/a)=CSH(3750/1384.7)
=7.5342
term
t4=L^2/(2*a^2)*(z/L-(z^2/L^2))
=7500^2/(2*1384.7^2)*(3750/7500
-(3750^2/7500^2))
=3.6671
Angle of twist
phi=Tq*a/(G*J*10)*a/L*(t4+t3-t2*t1-1)
=7.297*1384.7/(78.846*223.75*10)
*1384.7/7500*(3.6671+7.5342
-0.99115*7.4675-1)
=0.029606 rad
Torsional moment (y-y axis)
Myt=Mx*phi=58.535*0.029606
=1.733 kNm
Torsional bending stress (y-y)
fbyt=Myt*(B/2)/Iy*10^2
=1.733*(258.8/2)/18097*10^2
=1.2392 N/mm2
Distance bet. flange centroids
hs=258.18 mm
Centroid to top flange centroid
ht=D+Tp-T/2-ybar
=266.7+15-20.5/2-100.94
=170.51 mm
Centroid to bot. fl. centroid
hb=hs-ht=258.18-170.51=87.675 mm
Distance centroid to shear ctr.
yo=(hb*Itf-ht*Icf)/(Icf+Itf)
=(87.675*15128-170.51*2961.2)
/(2961.2+15128)
=45.411 mm
Distance to shear centre
h1=ht+yo=170.51+45.411=215.92 mm
Normalised warping function(top) Wno=h1*B/2=215.92*258.8/2
=27940 mm2
Second derivative of phi
phi''=Tq/(G*J*10*a)*a/L*(-1+t3-t2*t1)
=7.297/(78.846*223.75*10*1384.7)
*1384.7/7500*(-1+7.5342-0.99115
*7.4675)
=-4.7829E-9 rad/mm2
Consider phi'' as positive
phi''=4.7829E-9 rad/mm2
Torsional stress in flange
fw=E*10^3*Wno*phi''
=205*10^3*27940*4.7829E-9
=27.395 N/mm2
Unity factor
uf=mLT*Mx/Mb+((fbyt+fw)/py)*(1+0.5*Mx*mLT/Mb)
=0.925*58.535/443.05+((1.2392+27.395)/345)*(1
+0.5*58.535*0.925/443.05)
=0.21028
As uf 1 a whole ' internal bay' could be cast without any undue
influence of torsion combined with bending.
Local capacity check

fbx + fbyt + fw py
Bending normal stress
Combined stress
Since fcb py ( 68.439 N/mm2

fbx=Mx*(D+Tp-ybar)/Ix*100
=58.535*(266.7+15-100.94)/26581*100
=39.805 N/mm2
fcb=fbx+fbyt+fw=39.805+1.2392+27.395
=68.439 N/mm2
345 N/mm2 ), section is suitable.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 9
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007
Horizontal deflection - top flange of beam

Construction stage - concrete on one side only (slab propped)

Eccentric loading due to concrete W1=wuw*L1*L2/4=1.36*7.5*7.5/4


=19.125 kN
Torsional moment
Tq=W1*ecc/10^3=19.125*191.9/10^3
=3.6701 kNm
Angle of twist
phi=Tq*a/(G*J*10)*a/L*(t4+t3-t2*t1-1)
=3.6701*1384.7/(78.846*223.75*10)
*1384.7/7500*(3.6671+7.5342
-0.99115*7.4675-1)
=0.014891 rad
Distance: shear centre/top flange ys=D+Tp-ybar+yo
=266.7+15-100.94+45.411
=226.17 mm
Horizontal movement
hy=ys*phi=226.17*0.014891
=3.3678 mm
The maximum horizontal movement of the top flange ( 3.3678 mm ) occurs
at midspan. Arbitrarily, a limit of 20 mm to movement of the top
flange would be within normal tolerances. The deck connected to
either side of the beam to the flange plate plus the closure flashing
will provide additional stiffness. This additional stiffness has not
been included in the above.
Design Case 3(b) - In-service stage (imposed loading)

Since the beam is fully restrained in the in-service stage,


moment capacity is considered.
Moment capacity for compact sect. Mc=py*Sx/10^3=345*1813.9/10^3
=625.79 kNm
Loading due to flooring
Wi1=((wud+wf+wci)*1.4+wi*1.6)*L1*L2/2
=((1.29+0.25+0)*1.4+4.25*1.6)*7.5
*7.5/2
=251.89 kN
Loading due to self weight
Wi2=(ws+wg)*1.4*L1*L2
=(0.21+0.2)*1.4*7.5*7.5
=32.288 kN


W3

W1
251.89 kN
251.89 kN



W2
32.288 kN
Total factored load
Bending moment

W33=536.06 kN
Mx=W33*L1/8=536.06*7.5/8
=502.56 kNm
Since Mx Mc ( 502.56 kNm 625.79 kNm ), the section is suitable
for moment capacity.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 10
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007
Vertical shear

Shear force
Fv=W33/2=536.06/2=268.03 kN
Shear area
Av=t*D=12.8*266.7=3413.8 mm2
Shear capacity
Pv=0.6*py*Av/10^3=0.6*345*3413.8/10^3
=706.65 kN
Since Fv Pv ( 268.03 kN 706.65 kN ), design shear force within
shear capacity.
Elastic section properties

Section properties calculations from Annex B of SCI publication.


Serviceability

(a) Uncracked section properties used for deflection


Concrete area
Acs=df*Bp/(100*Alphae)
=225.7*460/(100*15)
=69.215 cm2
Concrete second moment of area
Icxs=Bp*df^3/(120000*Alphae)
=460*225.7^3/(120000*15)
=2938.2 cm4
Elastic N.A. below mid-height
ycs=Ap*(D+Tp)/(2*(At+Acs))/10
=69*(266.7+15)/(2*(207+69.215))/10
=3.5185 cm
Composite second moment of area:
Ixs=Ixx+A*ycs^2+Icxs+Acs*ycs^2+Ap*((D+Tp)/20-ycs)^2
=17500+136*3.5185^2+2938.2+69.215*3.5185^2+69*((266.7
+15)/20-3.5185)^2
=30683 cm4
(b) Cracked section properties used for elastic stresses. Assume
the elastic neutral axis height 'ye' is below the centroid of the
UC section.
Term
k1=Bp/(2*Alphae)=460/(2*15)
=15.333 mm
Term
k2=At*10^2+Bp/Alphae*df/2
=207*10^2+460/15*225.7/2
=24161 mm
Term
k3=Bp/(2*Alphae)*(df/2)^2-Ap*100*(D+Tp)/2
=460/(2*15)*(225.7/2)^2-69*100*(266.7+15)/2
=-776593 mm
Elastic N.A. below mid-height
ye=(-k2+(k2^2-4*k1*k3)^0.5)/(20*k1)
=(-24161+(24161^2-4*15.333*
-776593)^0.5)/(20*15.333)
=3.1513 cm
Concrete area in steel units
Asc=Bp/(10*Alphae)*(df/20+ye)
=460/(10*15)*(225.7/20+3.1513)
=44.271 cm2
Second moment of area of UC
k4=Ixx+A*ye^2=17500+136*3.1513^2
=18851 cm4
Second moment of area of plate
k5=Ap*((D+Tp)/20-ye)^2
=69*((266.7+15)/20-3.1513)^2
=8248.7 cm4
Second moment of area of concrete k6=Bp/(120*Alphae)*(df/20+ye)^3
=460/(120*15)*(225.7/20+3.1513)^3
=768.86 cm4

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 11
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007
Second moment of area of concrete k7=Asc*((df/20+ye)/2)^2
=44.271*((225.7/20+3.1513)/2)^2
=2306.6 cm4
Combined second moment of area
Ixc=k4+k5+k6+k7
=18851+8248.7+768.86+2306.6
=30175 cm4
Elastic modulus of concrete
Zc=Ixc*Alphae/(df/20+ye)
=30175*15/(225.7/20+3.1513)
=31353 cm3
Elastic modulus steel (top)
Zst=Ixc/(D/20+ye)
=30175/(266.7/20+3.1513)
=1830.3 cm3
Elastic modulus steel (bottom)
Zsb=Ixc/((D/2+Tp)/10-ye)
=30175/((266.7/2+15)/10-3.1513)
=2582.6 cm3
Construction stage (steel beam + plate only)

Loading:
Self weight
Ws=ws*L1*L2=0.21*7.5*7.5
=11.813 kN
Decking
Wg=wg*L1*L2/2=0.2*7.5*7.5/2
=5.625 kN
Concrete
Wu=wuw*L1*L2/2=1.36*7.5*7.5/2
=38.25 kN
Total load
Wsb=Ws+Wg+Wu=11.813+5.625+38.25
=55.688 kN
Maximum moment
Mxs=Wsb*L1/8=55.688*7.5/8
=52.207 kNm
Second moment of area
Ix=26581 cm4
Compressive stress
fc=Mxs*10^3*(D+Tp-ybar)/10/Ix
=52.207*10^3*(266.7+15-100.94)/10
/26581
=35.502 N/mm2
Tensile stress
ft=Mxs*10^3*ybar/10/Ix
=52.207*10^3*100.94/10/26581
=19.826 N/mm2
Composite stage - cracked section

Loading
Wcc=(wi+wf+wci)*L1*L2
=(4.25+0.25+0)*7.5*7.5
=253.13 kN
Moment
Mxcc=Wcc*L1/8=253.13*7.5/8
=237.3 kNm
Dead loading (prop removed)
Wdcc=(wud+wg)*L1*L2/2
=(1.29+0.2)*7.5*7.5/2
=41.906 kN
Moment
Mxdc=Wdcc*L1/8=41.906*7.5/8
=39.287 kNm
Total moment
Mxc=Mxcc+Mxdc=237.3+39.287
=276.59 kNm
Maximum concrete stress
fcc=Mxc*10^3/Zc=276.59*10^3/31353
=8.8218 N/mm2
2
As fcc fcu/2 ( 8.8218 N/mm 15 N/mm2 ), the concrete
serviceability stresses are acceptable.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 12
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007
Steel compressive stress
fsc=Mxc*10^3/Zst=276.59*10^3/1830.3
=151.12 N/mm2
Steel tensile stress
fst=Mxc*10^3/Zsb=276.59*10^3/2582.6
=107.1 N/mm2
Combine steel stresses for composite and construction stages.
Compression (combined)
fcc=fc+fsc=35.502+151.12
=186.62 N/mm2
2
As fcc py ( 186.62 N/mm 345 N/mm2 ), serviceability stresses
are acceptable.
Tension
ftc=ft+fst=19.826+107.1=126.92 N/mm2
2
As ftc pyp ( 126.92 N/mm 355 N/mm2 ), serviceability stresses
are acceptable.
Transverse plate bending (elastic condition)

Longitudinal stress
sigmat=ftc=126.92 N/mm2
Plate bending:
Deck + concrete loads
Wdc=(wud+wg)*L1*L2/2
=(1.29+0.2)*7.5*7.5/2
=41.906 kN
Imposed + service loads
Wic=(wi+wf+wci)*L1*L2/2
=(4.25+0.25+0)*7.5*7.5/2
=126.56 kN
Flange plate line load
Wpl=Wdc+Wic=41.906+126.56
=168.47 kN
Plate bending moment
Mpl=Wpl*as/10^3=168.47*62.5/10^3
=10.529 kNm
Plate elastic modulus
Zpl=L1*Tp^2/6=7.5*15^2/6
=281.25 cm3
Transverse bending stress
sigtt=Mpl*10^3/Zpl=10.529*10^3/281.25
=37.438 N/mm2
Combined stress must be less than or equal to py,
i.e.
(sigtt^2 + sigmat^2 + sigtt.sigmat)^0.5 py
combined stress

sigmac=(sigtt^2+sigmat^2+sigtt*sigmat)^0.5
=(37.438^2+126.92^2+37.438*126.92)^0.5
=149.21 N/mm2
As sigmac pyp ( 149.21 N/mm2 355 N/mm2 ), serviceability
stresses are acceptable.
Hence, serviceability stresses for steel and concrete are OK.
Deflections

Construction stage - Case 2(b)

Loading
Deflection due to self weights

Wsb=55.688 kN
dc=5*Wsb*L^3/(384*E*Ix*10^4)
=5*55.688*7500^3/(384*205*26581
*10^4)
=5.6137 mm
Additional deflection due to prop removal
Loading
Wsp=Wg+Wu=5.625+38.25=43.875 kN
Concrete hardened around the steel section use:
Second moment of area
Ixs=30683 cm4

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 13
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007
Additional deflection
dca=5*Wsp*L^3/(384*E*Ixs*10^4)
=5*43.875*7500^3/(384*205*30683
*10^4)
=3.8317 mm
Imposed loading
Wi=wi*L1*L2=4.25*7.5*7.5
=239.06 kN
Deflection due to imposed load
di=dca*Wi/Wsp=3.8317*239.06/43.875
=20.878 mm
Deflection to span ratio
1: 359
Minor services and flooring
Wm=(wf+wci)*L1*L2=(0.25+0)*7.5*7.5
=14.063 kN
Deflection due to minor loads
dd=dca*Wm/Wsp=3.8317*14.063/43.875
=1.2281 kN
Total deflection
dt=dc+dca+di+dd
=5.6137+3.8317+20.878+1.2281
=31.551 mm
Deflection to span ratio
1: 237
Note: Where construction stage deflections of the steel deck are
considered to be high, account should be taken of the increased
concrete weight due to ponding. Refer to manufacturers' literature
for further details.
Natural frequency

Loading = Dead + 10% Imposed (not including partitions)


Dead loading
wd=(wud+wf+ws+wg+wci)
=(1.29+0.25+0.21+0.2+0)
=1.95 kN/m2
Imposed load
wo=3.5 kN/m2
Imposed load reduction
wr=L1*L2*wo/1000=7.5*7.5*3.5/1000
=0.19688 kN/m2
Revised imposed load
wri=wo-wr=3.5-0.2=3.3 kN/m2
Total load
W=(wd+0.1*wri)*L1*L2
=(1.95+0.1*3.3)*7.5*7.5
=128.25 kN
Deflection due to permanent loads dp=5*W*L^3/(384*E*Ixs*10^4)
=5*128.25*7500^3/(384*205*30683
*10^4)
=11.2 mm
Natural frequency
Hf=18/SQR(dp)=18/SQR(11.2)
=5.3784 Hz
As Hf 4 the floor structure is satisfactory for natural frequency.
Welding

The electrode is grade 35 and the steel grade is S 355.


Design strength of fillet weld
pw=220 N/mm2
For the weld design all of the vertical shear is assumed to act
through the flange plate except for the own weight of steelwork
and concrete infill.
Loading due to flooring
W1=((wud+wf+wci)*1.4+wi*1.6)*L1*L2/2
=((1.29+0.25+0)*1.4+4.25*1.6)*7.5
*7.5/2
=251.89 kN

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 14
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007
Loading due to self weight
W2=(ws+wg)*1.4*L1*L2
=(0.21+0.2)*1.4*7.5*7.5
=32.288 kN

251.89 kN

251.89 kN
Under balanced load conditions the

curvature at the centre of the beam

is zero. The assumption is that

the plate then acts as a propped


as
32.288 kN
cantilever.
Distance to load W1 from weld
Vertical force in weld

as=62.5 mm
Pa=W1*(1+1.5*as/(B/2))
=251.89*(1+1.5*62.5/(258.8/2))
=434.38 kN
Load per metre
Ra=Pa/L1=434.38/7.5=57.917 kN/m
Max. long. force in plate
Pl=Ap*pyp/10=69*355/10=2449.5 kN
Assuming an elastic stress distribution for the transfer of
longitudinal shear between UC and plate
Longitudinal shear per weld
Rl=2*Pl/L1=2*2449.5/7.5=653.2 kN/m
Assumed fillet weld size
s'=8 mm
Horizontal force in plate
Ph=W1*as/((s'+Tp)/2)
=251.89*62.5/((8+15)/2)
=1369 kN
Horizontal force per metre
Rh=Ph/L1=1369/7.5=182.53 kN/m
Resultant force in weld
R=(Ra^2+Rl^2+Rh^2)^0.5
=(57.917^2+653.2^2+182.53^2)^0.5
=680.69 N/mm
Weld leg length
s=8 mm
Design strength of weld per mm
Pw=0.7*s*pw=0.7*8*220=1232 N/mm
Since R Pw ( 680.69 N/mm 1232 N/mm ), the 8 mm FW is suitable.
End plate details

Thickness of end plate


Grade of steel
Diameter of bolts
Bolt grade 8.8
Shear strength (Table 30)
Bearing strength (Table 31)
Total number of bolts to be used
Diameter of hole
Distance to first row of bolts
Edge distance
Pitch of bolts
Bolt cross-centres
Width of end plate
Edge distance at cross centres

tp=10 mm
pgrade=355
db=20 mm

ps=375 N/mm2
pbb=560 N/mm2
bn=6
Dh=db+2=20+2=22 mm
a1=80 mm
a2=15 mm
a3=70 mm
g=140 mm
Bep=250 mm
ed=(Bep-g)/2=(250-140)/2
=55 mm
Assuming length of plate must extend beyond bottom flange of beam
End plate length
Dp=a2+D'=15+270=285 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 15
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007
Bolt group strength in shear

Maximum load per bolt


Fvs=W33/(2*bn)=536.06/(2*6)
=44.672 kN
Shear strength of bolt
ps=375 N/mm2 from Table 30
Shear area of bolt
As=TABLE 1.1 for db=20
=245 mm2
Shear capacity of bolt
Ps=ps*As/10^3=375*245/10^3
=91.875 kN
Since Fvs Ps ( 44.672 kN 91.875 kN ), maximum load per bolt
within shear capacity.
Bolt group strength in bearing

The bearing capacity is taken as the lesser of the following:


(1) Bearing capacity of the bolt
Bearing strength of bolts
pbb=1000 N/mm2 from Table 31
Assuming the end plate thickness to be less than the thickness
of supporting column.
Thinner material thickness is 10 mm.
Bearing capacity of bolt
Pbb=db*tp*pbb/10^3=20*10*1000/10^3
=200 kN
(2) Bearing capacity of the end plate
Bearing strength
pbs=TABLE 32 for pgrade=355
=550 N/mm2
Bearing capacity
Pbs=db*tp*pbs/10^3=20*10*550/10^3
=110 kN
Bearing capacity
Pb=Pbs=110 kN
Since Fvs Pb ( 44.672 kN 110 kN ), maximum load per bolt
within the bearing capacity of the end plate.
End plate shear strength

For material thickness of 10 mm and steel grade S 355.


Design strength
pye=355 N/mm2
Shear area
Avnet=0.9*tp*(Dp-Dh*bn/2)
=0.9*10*(285-22*6/2)
=1971 mm2
Effective net area coefficient
Ke=1.1
Limiting shear area
Avlim=0.85*0.9*tp*Dp/Ke
=0.85*0.9*10*285/1.1
=1982 mm2
As Avnet < Avlim then the bolt holes must be allowed for in the
shear area
Shear area
Av=Avnet=1971 mm2
Shear capacity
Pvp=0.6*pye*Av/10^3=0.6*355*1971/10^3
=419.82 kN
Shear force
Fvp=W33/4=536.06/4=134.02 kN
Since Fvp Pvp ( 134.02 kN 419.82 kN ), end plate is within
shear capacity.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 16
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007
Check on bolt forces due to out of balance loads

in the construction stage

Eccentric loading (deck only)


W21=3.9375 kN
Eccentric loading
W22=41.963 kN
Axial loading
W23=16.538 kN

3.9375 kN

41.963 kN

16.538 kN
Torsional moment of connection

Tor=(W22-W21)/2*ecc/10^3
=(41.963-3.9375)/2*191.9/10^3
=3.6485 kNm
Polar inertia of bolt group
Ip=4*a3^2+6*(g/2)^2
=4*70^2+6*(140/2)^2
=49000 mm4
Distance to extreme bolt
r'=((g/2)^2+a3^2)^0.5
=((140/2)^2+70^2)^0.5
=98.995 mm
Component force due to torsion
Ft=Tor*10^3*r'/Ip
=3.6485*10^3*98.995/49000
=7.3711 kN
Vertical component of force
Fvc=(W21+W22+W23)/(2*bn)
=(3.9375+41.963+16.538)/(2*6)
=5.2031 kN
Term
cos0=g/(2*r')=140/(2*98.995)
=0.70711
Resultant force in bolt
Fr=(Ft^2+Fvc^2+2*Ft*Fvc*cos0)^0.5
=(7.3711^2+5.2031^2+2*7.3711
*5.2031*0.70711)^0.5
=11.647 kN
Since Fr Ps ( 11.647 kN 91.875 kN ), shear capacity OK.
Since Fr Pb ( 11.647 kN 110 kN ), bearing capacity OK.
Guidelines for the provision of service voids

Holes to be contained within the middle third of the span


Maximum number of 5 holes per span
Circular service voids only
Minimum centres of holes, 600 mm
One hole per cross-section of deck
Holes to be symmetrically arranged about the centre line of
the UC web
Maximum hole diameter 0.6D ( 160 mm )
The cylindrical sleeve used to form service duct to be cold
formed steel minimum thickness 1.2 mm
Aggregate size should be considered, because the concrete has
to be vigorously vibrated to ensure that the concrete passes
beneath the cylindrical sleeve.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 17
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007
CONNECTION SUMMARY

tp=10
Bep=250 mm

<>

a1
a2=15
80 mm

Dp=

o
285 mm
a3

70 mm

a3

70 mm

a6

65 mm

g=140 mm
Number of bolts 6

Bolt diameter
20 mm
55 mm
55 mm
Bolt grade
8.8
Plate grade
S 355
UNIVERSAL COLUMN

254 x 254 x 107 UC Grade S 355


Design strength
345 N/mm2
BOTTOM PLATE
460 mm x 15 mm
Grade S 355
Design strength
355 N/mm2
Design shear force
268 kN
DESIGN
Shear capacity
706.6 kN
SUMMARY
Design moment
502.6 kNm
Moment capacity
625.8 kNm
Buckling check
0.2103 1
Imposed load deflection 20.88 mm
Deflection to span ratio 1: 359
Total deflection
31.55 mm
Deflection to span ratio 1: 237
NOTE: Use lightweight aggregate concrete (LWC) and provide top
reinforcement to tie the floor on each side of the beam together
in order to meet robustness requirements.
No419

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007
Location: Ex1 from 'Slim Floor Construction Using Deep Decking'
b

Bp

Tp

Simply supported beam

Slim floor construction non-composite


beam. Calculations are in accordance
with EC3 Part 1-1 & SCI P385 entitled
'Design of Steel Beams in Torsion'.
A plate is welded to the bottom flange
of the UC section extending beyond the
bottom flange by 100 mm either side to
support the metal decking.

Design assumptions:

No restraint is provided to the compression flange


during the construction stage
In the construction stage the beam is assumed to be
torsional fixed and warping free at the supports
For the variable loading condition the beam is assumed
laterally restrained (i.e. LTB cannot occur)
The steel deck is propped by a central line of props.

Bay details

Beam span
Beam cross-centres

L1=7.5 m
L2=7.5 m

Beam properties

254 x 254 x 107 UKC


Dimensions (mm): h=266.7 b=258.8 tf=20.5 tw=12.8 r=12.7
Properties (cm): Iyy=17500 Izz=5930 Ituc=172 A=136
Strength of steel - Table 3.1 (amended by N.A.)

The material thickness is 20.5 mm and steel grade is S 355.


Yield strength
fy=345 N/mm2
Ultimate strength
fu=470 N/mm2
Young's modulus
E=210000 N/mm2
Shear modulus
G=81 kN/mm2
Plate properties




Tp
Bp
Thickness of plate
Width of plate

Tp=15 mm
Bp=460 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007
Area of plate
Ap=Tp*Bp/100=15*460/100=69 cm2
Concrete details

Char cylinder compress strength


Concrete grade

fck=25 N/mm2 (concrete)


fcu=TABLE 1.3 for fck=25
=30 N/mm2
For buildings of normal usage the modular ratio is assumed to be 2/3
of the value due to short term loading and 1/3 of the value due to
long term loading.
Modular ratio (assuming LWAC)
Alphae=15
Permanent actions - unfactored

Self weight of beam


Plate self weight
Self weight of beam + plate

Concrete density (const.stage)


Concrete density (final stage)
Deck spans onto supporting beam.

wuc=serM*9.81/1000=107*9.81/1000
=1.0497 kN/m
wpl=wuc*Ap/A=1.0497*69/136
=0.53255 kN/m
ws=(wuc+wpl)/L2 kN/m2
=0.21 kN/m2
D'c=19 kN/m3
Dc=18 kN/m3

<Ct>

- - mesh
_____________
_____________
/

\
/

\
__/
\_____________/
\__
<wop>
Slab depth
Depth of profiling
Centres of profiles
Width at inside of profile
Width at outside of profile
Dry weight of slab + troughs
Wet weight of slab + troughs
Dry weight surrounding beam
Wet weight surrounding beam
Dry weight of concrete
Wet weight of concrete
Deck and end closures
Construction load

Dp

Ds

<wip>
Ds=300 mm
Dp=285 mm
Ct=600 mm
wip=548 mm
wop=424 mm
wd=(Ds-Dp/(2*Ct)*(wip+wop))*Dc/1000
=(300-285/(2*600)*(548+424))*18/1000
=1.2447 kN/m2
ww=(Ds-Dp/(2*Ct)*(wip+wop))*D'c/1000
=(300-285/(2*600)*(548+424))*19/1000
=1.3139 kN/m2
wsd=Bp*Dp*Dc/(L1*L2*10^6)
=460*285*18/(7.5*7.5*10^6)
=0.041952 kN/m2
wsw=Bp*Dp*D'c/(L1*L2*10^6)
=460*285*19/(7.5*7.5*10^6)
=0.044283 kN/m2
wud=1.29 kN/m2
wuw=1.36 kN/m2
wg=0.2 kN/m2
wc=0.5 kN/m2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007
Floor & minor services
wf=0.25 kN/m2
Ceiling
wci=0 kN/m2
Variable actions - unfactored

Occupancy
Partitions
Total variable loading
Variable load reduction
Revised variable load

wo=3.5 kN/m2
wp=1 kN/m2
wi'=wo+wp=3.5+1=4.5 kN/m2
wr=L1*L2*wi'/1000=7.5*7.5*4.5/1000
=0.25312 kN/m2
wi=wi'-wr=4.5-0.25=4.25 kN/m2

Partial factors for actions

Permanent actions
Variable actions

gamG=1.35
gamQ=1.5

Loading combinations

The load case combinations outlined below follow the design criteria in
in the SCI publication 'Slim Floor Construction Using Deep Decking'.
Case 1 - Construction stage with only one span constructed and subject
to construction load. This load combination is not applicable
to this type of construction.
Case 2(a) - Construction stage with two spans constructed, one subject
to construction load and deck props in position.
Eccentric loading (deck only)
Eccentric loading

Axial loading

W21=wg*gamG*L2/4*L1
=0.2*1.35*7.5/4*7.5
=3.7969 kN
W22=((wuw+wg)*gamG+wc*gamQ)*L1*L2/4
=((1.36+0.2)*1.35+0.5*1.5)*7.5
*7.5/4
=40.163 kN
W23=ws*gamG*L2*L1=0.21*1.35*7.5*7.5
=15.947 kN


W21=3.7969 kN
W22=40.163 kN

W23=15.947 kN
Total applied load

W2a=W21+W22+W23=3.7969+40.163+15.947
=59.906 kN

Check: Lateral torsional buckling combined with torsion.


Case 2(b) - Construction stage (plastic resistance). Two spans
constructed, both subject to construction load. Deck
props in position.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


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W22=40.163 kN
W22=40.163 kN

W23=15.947 kN
Total axial load

W2b=W23+2*W22=15.947+2*40.163
=96.272 kN

Check: Maximum loading for lateral torsional buckling.


Case 3(a) - In-service stage and only one span subject to variable
load. This check is not required.
Case 3(b) - In-service stage (ultimate combined bending check)
Axial loading

W33=(wi*gamQ+(wud+ws+wf+wg+wci)*gamG)*L2*L1
=(4.25*1.5+(1.29+0.21+0.25+0.2+0)*1.35)
*7.5*7.5
=506.67 kN

W33=506.67 kN
Check: Maximum loading for moment resistance.
Section classification

Parameter (Table 5.2)

e=(235/fy)^0.5=(235/345)^0.5
=0.82532
Outstand
c=b/2=258.8/2=129.4 mm
Ratio
c'tf=c/tf=129.4/20.5=6.3122
Compact limiting value of ratio
c'Tlim=10*e=10*0.82532=8.2532
c/tf ratio within limiting value of 10e.
Compact limiting value of ratio
C'tlim=83*e=83*0.82532=68.502
Depth between fillets
C=h-2*(tf+r)=266.7-2*(20.5+12.7)
=200.3 mm
Ratio
C'tw=C/tw=200.3/12.8=15.648
C/tw ratio within limiting value of 83e.
Therefore section classification is at least compact.
Section properties - (beam + plate)

The material thickness is 15 mm and steel grade is S 355.


Design strength of plate
fyp=355 N/mm2
Torsional constant of plate
Itp=Tp^3*Bp/30000=15^3*460/30000
=51.75 cm4
Area of plate & bottom flange
Ab=Bp*Tp+b*tf=460*15+258.8*20.5
=12205 mm2
Neutral axis is in plate.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
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Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
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Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007
Top of plate to centre of area
zc=Tp-Ab/(2*Bp)=15-12205/(2*460)
=1.7333 mm
Distance between flange centroids hs=h-tf/2+zc=266.7-20.5/2+1.7333
=258.18 mm
Total area
At=A+Ap=136+69=205 cm2
Taking area moments about bottom surface of plate,
Distance to centroid
zbar=(A*(h/2+Tp)+Ap*Tp/2)/At
=(136*(266.7/2+15)+69*15/2)/205
=100.94 mm
Second moment of Area about neutral axis:
Iy=Iyy+A*((h/2-zbar+Tp)/10)^2+Ap*((zbar-Tp/2)/10)^2
=17500+136*((266.7/2-100.94+15)/10)^2+69*((100.94-15/2)
/10)^2
=26581 cm4
Second moment of area
Iz=Izz+Tp/10*(Bp/10)^3/12
=5930+15/10*(460/10)^3/12
=18097 cm4
Radius of gyration about z-z
iz=(Iz/At)^0.5=(18097/205)^0.5
=9.3956 cm
Equal area axis above the bottom flange

When the design strengths of the UKC and the plate are not the same
the SCI Slim Floor publication adopts the approach that the different
design strengths should be used to determine the plastic modulus Wply.
Modified plate area
Ap=Ap*fyp/fy=69*355/345=71 cm2
Modified total area
At=A+Ap=136+71=207 cm2
Depth between beam flanges
hw=h-2*tf=266.7-2*20.5=225.7 mm
The Equal-Area axis lies in the flange of the beam then,
Distance from top of plate
yea=(At/2-Ap)*100/b
=(207/2-71)*100/258.8
=12.558 mm
Distance to centre of areas
z1=tf-yea=20.5-12.558=7.942 mm
z2=hw/2+z1=225.7/2+7.942
=120.79 mm
z3=hw+z1+tf/2=225.7+7.942+20.5/2
=243.89 mm
Ignoring the fillets, the plastic modulus of the combined section is
Wply=(Ap*(yea+Tp/2)*100+b*yea^2/2+b*z1^2/2+tw*hw*z2+b*tf*z3)/10^3
=(71*(12.558+15/2)*100+258.8*12.558^2/2+258.8*7.942^2/2+12.8*225.7
*120.79+258.8*20.5*243.89)/10^3
=1813.9 cm3
Buckling resistance

Since the beam is subject to possible lateral torsional buckling, the


buckling resistance moment, MbRd, will be considered rather than the
moment resistance as a guide to selection.
Moment resistance
MyRd=Wply*fy/(gamM0*10^3)
=1813.9*345/(1*10^3)
=625.79 kNm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


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Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
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Date: 02/04/14
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Office: 1007
Coefficient C1

Effective length parameter


K=1.0
Length between restraints
LT=L1=7.5 m
Coefficient C1
C1=1.0 (conservative)
Lateral torsional buckling

As the section is symmetric only about one axis the SCI P362 will be
adopted to determine the non-dimensional slenderness LT.
Slenderness about z-z axis
lamz=LT*10^2/iz=7.5*10^2/9.3956
=79.824
Lambda 1
lam1=PI*(E/fy)^0.5
=3.1416*(210000/345)^0.5
=77.509
Lambda z
lambar=lamz/lam1=79.824/77.509
=1.0299
compute
X=h/tf=266.7/20.5=13.01
Slenderness parameter
V=1/(1+0.05*(lamz/X)^2)^0.25
=1/(1+0.05*(79.824/13.01)^2)^0.25
=0.76747
Beta w
betaw=1.0
Section property
U=0.9 (conservative)
Non-dimensional slenderness LT:
lamLT=1/(C1)^0.5*U*V*lambar*(betaw)^0.5
=1/(1)^0.5*0.9*0.76747*1.0299*(1)^0.5
=0.71136
Limiting slenderness value
lamLT0=0.4
According to the NA to BS EN 1993-1-1, for not doubly symmetrical
sections buckling curve d should be used.
Imperfection value
aLT=0.76 (curve d)
compute
comp1=aLT*(lamLT-lamLT0)
=0.76*(0.71136-0.4)
=0.23664
compute
comp2=0.75*lamLT^2=0.75*0.71136^2
=0.37953
Factor
phiLT=0.5*(1+comp1+comp2)
=0.5*(1+0.23664+0.37953)
=0.80808
Modification factor
chiLT=1/(phiLT+(phiLT^2-0.75*lamLT^2)^0.5)
=1/(0.80808+(0.80808^2-0.75
*0.71136^2)^0.5)
=0.7513
Factor
kc=1/(C1)^0.5=1/(1)^0.5=1
Moment distribution factor
f=1-0.5*(1-kc)*(1-2*(lamLT-0.8)^2)
=1-0.5*(1-1)*(1-2*(0.71136-0.8)^2)
=1
Modified chiLT factor
ChiLT=chiLT/f=0.7513/1=0.7513
Design buckling resistance moment MbRd=ChiLT*Wply*fy/(gamM1*10^3)
=0.7513*1813.9*345/(1*10^3)
=470.16 kNm
Biaxial stress effects in the plate - Case 2(b)

In some instances the transverse moment may have such an effect as to


reduce the moment resistance for overall bending of the section.
Maximum transverse moment, M, in the plate is obtained from:

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


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Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
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Office: 1007
M

Mp

(c^2-sigma^2)

2.c.fyp

sigma=longitudinal bending stress


Mp=plate moment resistance
c=(4fyp^2-3sigma^2)^0.5

For transverse bending effects refer directly to the bottom flange.


Design strength
fyp=355 N/mm2
Bending moment
MyEd2b=W2b*L1/8=96.272*7.5/8
=90.255 kNm
Longitudinal bending stress
sigma=MyEd2b*10^3/Wply
=90.255*10^3/1813.9
=49.758 N/mm2
Stress
c=(4*fyp^2-3*sigma^2)^0.5
=(4*355^2-3*49.758^2)^0.5
=704.75 N/mm2
Ratio of moments
M'Mp=(c^2-sigma^2)/(2*c*fyp)
=(704.75^2-49.758^2)/(2*704.75
*355)
=0.98766
The ratio of plate transverse moment/moment resistance of plate must
not exceed 0.98766 otherwise the longitudinal bending resistance
of the beam is reduced.
Assuming clearance of 25 mm between beam flange and floor slab
Distance to load W22
as=(Bp-B'-2*25)/4+25
=(460-260-2*25)/4+25
=62.5 mm
Plate transverse moment (total)
M'=W22*as/10^3=40.163*62.5/10^3
=2.5102 kNm
Unit length moment
M=M'/L1=2.5102/7.5=0.33469 kNm per m.
Plate section modulus (total)
Wplyp'=Tp^2*L1/4=15^2*7.5/4
=421.88 cm3
Unit length section modulus
Wplyp=Wplyp'/L1=421.88/7.5
=56.25 cm3 per m
Plate moment resistance
Mp=Wplyp*fyp/10^3=56.25*355/10^3
=19.969 kNm per m
Ratio of moment
Mr=M/Mp=0.33469/19.969=0.016761
Since Mr M'Mp ( 0.016761 0.98766 ), biaxial bending has no
influence on the overall bending of the section.
Case 2a - Construction loading (one side loaded)

Interaction of LTB with minor axis bending and torsion

MyEd2

MbRd

Cmz.MzEd2

MzRd

kw.kzw.ka.MwEd2

MwRd

Equivalent uniform moment factor


Bending moment
Eccentricity of load
Torsional moment

Cmz=0.95
MyEd2=W2a*L1/8=59.906*7.5/8
=56.162 kNm
ecc=b/2+as=258.8/2+62.5=191.9 mm
Td=(W22-W21)*ecc/10^3
=(40.163-3.7969)*191.9/10^3
=6.9786 kNm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


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Torsional constant of section
It=Ituc+Itp=172+51.75=223.75 cm4
Flange only
Icf=tf*b^3/120000=20.5*258.8^3/120000
=2961.2 cm4
Flange and plate
Itf=Icf+Tp*Bp^3/120000
=2961.2+15*460^3/120000
=15128 cm4
Warping constant
Iw=(hs/10)^2*Icf*Itf/Iz
=(258.18/10)^2*2961.2*15128/18097
=1.6501E6 cm6
Centroid to top flange centroid
ht=h+Tp-tf/2-zbar
=266.7+15-20.5/2-100.94
=170.51 mm
Centroid to bot. fl. centroid
hb=hs-ht=258.18-170.51=87.675 mm
Distance centroid to shear ctr.
zo=(hb*Itf-ht*Icf)/(Icf+Itf)
=(87.675*15128-170.51*2961.2)
/(2961.2+15128)
=45.411 mm
Torsional bending constant
a=(E/1000*Iw/(G*It))^0.5*10
=(210000/1000*1.6501E6/(81
*223.75))^0.5*10
=1382.7 mm
Length of beam
L=7500 mm
Distance along member
z=L/2=7500/2=3750 mm
Hyperbolic sine of z/a
t1=SNH(z/a)=SNH(3750/1382.7)
=7.4967
Hyperbolic tangent of L/2a
t2=TNH(L/(2*a))=TNH(7500/(2*1382.7))
=0.99122
Hyperbolic cosine of z/a
t3=CSH(z/a)=CSH(3750/1382.7)
=7.5631
term
t4=L^2/(2*a^2)*(z/L-(z^2/L^2))
=7500^2/(2*1382.7^2)*(3750/7500
-(3750^2/7500^2))
=3.6776
Angle of twist
phi=Td*a/(G*It*10)*a/L*(t4+t3-t2*t1-1)
=6.9786*1382.7/(81*223.75*10)
*1382.7/7500*(3.6776+7.5631
-0.99122*7.4967-1)
=0.02758 rad
Minor axis moment
MzEd2=MyEd2*phi=56.162*0.02758
=1.549 kNm
Bending resistance of top flange MzRd=(tf*b^2/4)*fy/10^6
=(20.5*258.8^2/4)*345/10^6
=118.42 kNm
Second derivative of phi
phi''=Td/(G*It*10*a)*a/L*(-1+t3-t2*t1)
=6.9786/(81*223.75*10*1382.7)
*1382.7/7500*(-1+7.5631-0.99122
*7.4967)
=-4.4552E-9 rad/mm2
Consider phi'' as positive
phi''=4.4552E-9 rad/mm2
Warping moment at mid-span
MwEd2=E*Iw*phi''/(h-tf)
=210000*1.6501E6*4.4552E-9
/(266.7-20.5)
=6.2705 kNm
Critical moment
Mcr=Wply*fy/(lamLT^2*1000)
=1813.9*345/(0.71136^2*1000)
=1236.7 kNm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


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Office: 1007
Warping resistance of one flange MwRd=MzRd/2=118.42/2=59.212 kNm
Factor
kw=0.7-0.2*MwEd2/MwRd
=0.7-0.2*6.2705/59.212
=0.67882
kzw=1-MzEd2/MzRd=1-1.549/118.42
=0.98692
ka=1/(1-MyEd2/Mcr)
=1/(1-56.162/1236.7)
=1.0476
Unity factor
UF2=MyEd2/MbRd+Cmz*MzEd2/MzRd+kw*kzw*ka*MwEd2/MwRd
=56.162/470.16+0.95*1.549/118.42+0.67882*0.98692
*1.0476*6.2705/59.212
=0.2062
Since UF2 1, the section is adequate.
Horizontal deflection at top flange of beam

Construction stage - concrete on one side (slab propped)

Eccentric loading due to concrete W1=wuw*L1*L2/4=1.36*7.5*7.5/4


=19.125 kN
Torsional moment
Td=W1*ecc/10^3=19.125*191.9/10^3
=3.6701 kNm
Angle of twist
phi=Td*a/(G*It*10)*a/L*(t4+t3-t2*t1-1)
=3.6701*1382.7/(81*223.75*10)
*1382.7/7500*(3.6776+7.5631
-0.99122*7.4967-1)
=0.014505 rad
Distance: shear centre/top flange zs=h+Tp-zbar+zo
=266.7+15-100.94+45.411
=226.17 mm
Horizontal movement
hy=zs*phi=226.17*0.014505
=3.2805 mm
The maximum horizontal movement of the top flange ( 3.2805 mm ) occurs
at midspan. A limit of 20 mm to movement of the top flange would
be within normal tolerances. The deck connected to either side of the
beam to the flange plate plus the closure flashing will provide an
additional stiffness (not included in the above).
Design Case 3(b) - In-service stage (variable loading)

Since the beam is fully restrained in the in-service stage, the moment
resistance, MyRd, will be considered.
Moment resistance
MyRd=fy*Wply/10^3=345*1813.9/10^3
=625.79 kNm
Loading due to flooring
Wi1=((wud+wf+wci)*gamG+wi*gamQ)*L1*L2/2
=((1.29+0.25+0)*1.35+4.25*1.5)*7.5
*7.5/2
=237.77 kN
Loading due to self weight
Wi2=(ws+wg)*gamG*L1*L2
=(0.21+0.2)*1.35*7.5*7.5
=31.134 kN
Loading due to flooring
Wi3=Wi1=237.77 kN

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 10
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007

W3

W1

W2a


237.77 kN
237.77 kN

31.134 kN

Total factored load


Bending moment (y-y axis)

W33=506.67 kN
MyEd=W33*L1/8=506.67*7.5/8
=475 kNm
Since MyEd MyRd ( 475 kNm 625.79 kNm ), moment resistance OK.
Shear plastic resistance - Clause 6.2.6

In the absence of torsion the shear plastic resistance depends on:


Shear Area
Avz=A*100-2*b*tf+(tw+2*r)*tf
=136*100-2*258.8*20.5+(12.8+2
*12.7)*20.5
=3772.3 mm2
Shear plastic resistance
VplRd=Avz*fy/SQR(3)/(gamM0*1000)
=3772.3*345/SQR(3)/(1*1000)
=751.39 kN
Shear force Case 3(b)
VzEd=W33/2=506.67/2=253.34 kN
As VzEd < VplRd, section is suitable. Case 3(a) check for reduced
shear resistance in the presence of torsion is nor required.
Elastic section properties - serviceability limit state

(a) Uncracked section properties used for deflection


Concrete area
Acs=hw*Bp/(100*Alphae)
=225.7*460/(100*15)
=69.215 cm2
Concrete second moment of area
Icys=Bp*hw^3/(120000*Alphae)
=460*225.7^3/(120000*15)
=2938.2 cm4
Elastic N.A. below mid-height
zcs=Ap*(h+Tp)/(2*(At+Acs))/10
=69*(266.7+15)/(2*(207+69.215))/10
=3.5185 cm
Composite second moment of area:
Iys=Iyy+A*zcs^2+Icys+Acs*zcs^2+Ap*((h+Tp)/20-zcs)^2
=17500+136*3.5185^2+2938.2+69.215*3.5185^2+69*((266.7
+15)/20-3.5185)^2
=30683 cm4
(b) Cracked section properties used for elastic stresses. The elastic
neutral axis height 'ze' is assumed to be below the centroid of the
UKC section.
Term
k1=Bp/(2*Alphae)=460/(2*15)
=15.333 mm
Term
k2=At*10^2+Bp/Alphae*hw/2
=207*10^2+460/15*225.7/2
=24161 mm
Term
k3=Bp/(2*Alphae)*(hw/2)^2-Ap*100*(h+Tp)/2
=460/(2*15)*(225.7/2)^2-69*100*(266.7+15)/2
=-776593 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 11
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007
Elastic N.A. below mid-height
ze=(-k2+(k2^2-4*k1*k3)^0.5)/(20*k1)
=(-24161+(24161^2-4*15.333*
-776593)^0.5)/(20*15.333)
=3.1513 cm
Concrete area in steel units
Asc=Bp/(10*Alphae)*(hw/20+ze)
=460/(10*15)*(225.7/20+3.1513)
=44.271 cm2
Second moment of area of UKC
k4=Iyy+A*ze^2=17500+136*3.1513^2
=18851 cm4
Second moment of area of plate
k5=Ap*((h+Tp)/20-ze)^2
=69*((266.7+15)/20-3.1513)^2
=8248.7 cm4
Second moment of area of concrete k6=Bp/(120*Alphae)*(hw/20+ze)^3
=460/(120*15)*(225.7/20+3.1513)^3
=768.86 cm4
Second moment of area of concrete k7=Asc*((hw/20+ze)/2)^2
=44.271*((225.7/20+3.1513)/2)^2
=2306.6 cm4
Combined second moment of area
Iyc=k4+k5+k6+k7
=18851+8248.7+768.86+2306.6
=30175 cm4
Elastic modulus of concrete
Welc=Iyc*Alphae/(hw/20+ze)
=30175*15/(225.7/20+3.1513)
=31353 cm3
Elastic modulus steel (top)
Welst=Iyc/(h/20+ze)
=30175/(266.7/20+3.1513)
=1830.3 cm3
Elastic modulus steel (bottom)
Welsb=Iyc/((h/2+Tp)/10-ze)
=30175/((266.7/2+15)/10-3.1513)
=2582.6 cm3
Construction stage - (steel beam + plate only)

Self weight
Ws=ws*L1*L2=0.21*7.5*7.5
=11.813 kN
Decking weight
Wg=wg*L1*L2/2=0.2*7.5*7.5/2
=5.625 kN
Concrete weight
Wu=wuw*L1*L2/2=1.36*7.5*7.5/2
=38.25 kN
Total load
Wsb=Ws+Wg+Wu=11.813+5.625+38.25
=55.688 kN
Maximum moment
Mys=Wsb*L1/8=55.688*7.5/8
=52.207 kNm
Second moment of area
Iy=26581 cm4
Compressive stress
fc=Mys*10^3*(h+Tp-zbar)/10/Iy
=52.207*10^3*(266.7+15-100.94)/10
/26581
=35.502 N/mm2
Tensile stress
ft=Mys*10^3*zbar/10/Iy
=52.207*10^3*100.94/10/26581
=19.826 N/mm2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 12
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007
Composite stage - cracked section

Loading
Wcc=(wi+wf+wci)*L1*L2
=(4.25+0.25+0)*7.5*7.5
=253.13 kN
Moment
Mycc=Wcc*L1/8=253.13*7.5/8
=237.3 kNm
Permanent loading (prop removed) Wdcc=(wud+wg)*L1*L2/2
=(1.29+0.2)*7.5*7.5/2
=41.906 kN
Moment
Mydc=Wdcc*L1/8=41.906*7.5/8
=39.287 kNm
Total moment
Myc=Mycc+Mydc=237.3+39.287
=276.59 kNm
Maximum concrete stress
fcc=Myc*10^3/Welc=276.59*10^3/31353
=8.8218 N/mm2
2
As fcc fcu/2 ( 8.8218 N/mm 15 N/mm2 ), the serviceability
stresses for concrete are acceptable.
Steel compressive stress
fsc=Myc*10^3/Welst=276.59*10^3/1830.3
=151.12 N/mm2
Steel tensile stress
fst=Myc*10^3/Welsb=276.59*10^3/2582.6
=107.1 N/mm2
Combine steel stresses for composite and construction stages.
Compression (combined)
fcc=fc+fsc=35.502+151.12=186.62 N/mm2
Tension
ftc=ft+fst=19.826+107.1=126.92 N/mm2
2
As fcc fy ( 186.62 N/mm 345 N/mm2 ), serviceability stresses OK.
As ftc fyp ( 126.92 N/mm2 355 N/mm2 ), serviceability stresses OK.
Transverse plate bending - elastic condition

Longitudinal stress
sigmat=ftc=126.92 N/mm2
Deck + concrete loads
Wdc=(wud+wg)*L1*L2/2
=(1.29+0.2)*7.5*7.5/2
=41.906 kN
Variable + service loads
Wic=(wi+wf+wci)*L1*L2/2
=(4.25+0.25+0)*7.5*7.5/2
=126.56 kN
Flange plate line load
Wpl=Wdc+Wic=41.906+126.56
=168.47 kN
Plate bending moment
Mpl=Wpl*as/10^3=168.47*62.5/10^3
=10.529 kNm
Plate elastic modulus
Zpl=L1*Tp^2/6=7.5*15^2/6
=281.25 cm3
Transverse bending stress
sigtt=Mpl*10^3/Zpl=10.529*10^3/281.25
=37.438 N/mm2
Combined stress must be less than or equal to fyp as follows:

sigtt^2 + sigmat^2 + sigtt.sigmat fyp

combined stress

sigmac=(sigtt^2+sigmat^2+sigtt*sigmat)^0.5
=(37.438^2+126.92^2+37.438*126.92)^0.5
=149.21 N/mm2
As sigmac fyp ( 149.21 N/mm2 355 N/mm2 ), serviceability stresses
for steel and concrete are OK.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 13
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007
Deflections

Construction stage - Case 2(b)

Loading
Wsb=55.688 kN
Deflection due to self weights
dc=5*Wsb*L^3/(384*E*Iy*10)
=5*55.688*7500^3/(384*210000*26581
*10)
=5.4801 mm
Additional deflection due to prop removal
Loading
Wsp=Wg+Wu=5.625+38.25=43.875 kN
Concrete hardened around the steel section use:
Second moment of area
Iys=30683 cm4
Additional deflection
dca=5*Wsp*L^3/(384*E*Iys*10)
=5*43.875*7500^3/(384*210000
*30683*10)
=3.7405 mm
Imposed loading
Wi=wi*L1*L2=4.25*7.5*7.5
=239.06 kN
Deflection due to imposed load
di=dca*Wi/Wsp=3.7405*239.06/43.875
=20.381 mm
Deflection to span ratio
1: 367
Minor services and flooring
Wm=(wf+wci)*L1*L2=(0.25+0)*7.5*7.5
=14.063 kN
Deflection due to minor loads
dd=dca*Wm/Wsp=3.7405*14.063/43.875
=1.1989 kN
Total deflection
dt=dc+dca+di+dd
=5.4801+3.7405+20.381+1.1989
=30.8 mm
Deflection to span ratio
1: 243
Note: Where construction stage deflections of the steel deck are
considered to be high, account should be taken of the increased
concrete weight due to ponding (see manufacturers' literature for
for further information).
Natural frequency

Loading = Permanent + 10% Imposed (not including partitions)


Permanent loading
wd=(wud+wf+ws+wg+wci)
=(1.29+0.25+0.21+0.2+0)
=1.95 kN/m2
Variable load
wo=3.5 kN/m2
Variable load reduction
wr=L1*L2*wo/1000=7.5*7.5*3.5/1000
=0.19688 kN/m2
Revised variable load
wri=wo-wr=3.5-0.2=3.3 kN/m2
Total load
W=(wd+0.1*wri)*L1*L2
=(1.95+0.1*3.3)*7.5*7.5
=128.25 kN
Deflection due to permanent loads dp=5*W*L^3/(384*E*Iys*10)
=5*128.25*7500^3/(384*210000*30683
*10)
=10.934 mm
Natural frequency
Hf=18/SQR(dp)=18/SQR(10.934)
=5.4436 Hz
As Hf 4 the floor structure is satisfactory for natural frequency.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 14
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
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Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007
Welding of steel plate to underside of UKC section

Correction factor (Table 4.1)


betw=0.9 (EC3 Part 1-8)
Partial factor (welds)
gamM2=1.25
Design strength of fillet weld
fvwd=fu/(SQR(3)*betw*gamM2)
=470/(SQR(3)*0.9*1.25)
=241.2 N/mm2
For the weld design all of the vertical shear is assumed to act
through the flange plate except for the own weight of steelwork
and concrete infill.
Loading due to flooring
W1=((wud+wf+wci)*gamG+wi*gamQ)*L1*L2/2
=((1.29+0.25+0)*1.35+4.25*1.5)*7.5
*7.5/2
=237.77 kN
Loading due to self weight
W2a=(ws+wg)*gamG*L1*L2
=(0.21+0.2)*1.35*7.5*7.5
=31.134 kN

W1

W1
Under balanced load conditions the

curvature at the centre of the beam

is zero. The assumption is that

the plate then acts as a propped

as
cantilever.
W2a
Distance to load W1 from weld
Vertical force in weld

as=62.5 mm
Pa=W1*(1+1.5*as/(b/2))
=237.77*(1+1.5*62.5/(258.8/2))
=410.03 kN
Load per metre
Ra=Pa/L1=410.03/7.5=54.671 kN/m
Max. long. force in plate
Pl=Ap*fyp/10=69*355/10=2449.5 kN
Assuming an elastic stress distribution for the transfer of
longitudinal shear between UKC and plate.
Longitudinal shear per weld
Rl=2*Pl/L1=2*2449.5/7.5=653.2 kN/m
Assumed fillet weld size
s'=8 mm
Horizontal force in plate
Ph=W1*as/((s'+Tp)/2)
=237.77*62.5/((8+15)/2)
=1292.2 kN
Horizontal force per metre
Rh=Ph/L1=1292.2/7.5=172.3 kN/m
Resultant force in weld
FwEd=(Ra^2+Rl^2+Rh^2)^0.5/1000
=(54.671^2+653.2^2+172.3^2)^0.5
/1000
=0.67775 kN/mm
Weld size (leg length)
s=8 mm
Design weld resistance
FwRd=0.7*s*fvwd/1000=0.7*8*241.2/1000
=1.3507 kN/mm
Since FwEd FwRd ( 0.67775 kN/mm 1.3507 kN/mm ) the 8 mm fillet weld
is satisfactory.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 15
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
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Office: 1007
End plate details

Thickness of end plate


tep=10 mm
Grade of end plate
pgrade=355
Diameter of bolts
db=20 mm
Bolt grade
bgrade=8.8
Factor
av=0.6
Tensile area of bolt
As=245 mm2
Total number of bolts to be used bn=4
Diameter of hole
do=db+2=20+2=22 mm
Distance from top edge of plate
e4=10 mm
Distance to first row of bolts
e1=100 mm
Pitch of bolts vertically
p1=80 mm
Bolt cross-centres
p3=140 mm
Width of end plate
bep=250 mm
Distance from top edge of plate
to the top edge of beam flange
e4=10 mm
Distance to first row of bolts
from the top edge of plate
e1=100 mm
Pitch of bolts
p1=80 mm
Assuming length of plate must extend beyond bottom flange of beam
End plate length
hep=2*e4+h'=2*10+270=290 mm
Bolt cross-centres
p3=140 mm
Width of end plate
bep=250 mm
Edge distance at cross centres
e2=(bep-p3)/2=(250-140)/2
=55 mm
Bolt group

Maximum load per bolt

FvEds=W33/(2*bn)=506.67/(2*4)
=63.334 kN
Shear resistance of bolt
FvRd=av*fub*As/(gamM2*10^3)
=0.6*800*245/(1.25*10^3)
=94.08 kN
Since FvEds FvRd ( 63.334 kN 94.08 kN ) maximum load per
bolt within shear resistance.
Bearing on the end plate

Design strength (end plate)


Ultimate strength (end plate)
Factor

fyep=355 N/mm2
fuep=470 N/mm2
k1=2.8*e2/do-1.7=2.8*55/22-1.7
=5.3
Limiting factor
k1=2.5
Ratios for factor ab
ab1=e1/(3*do)=100/(3*22)
=1.5152
ab2=p1/(3*do)-1/4=80/(3*22)-1/4
=0.96212
ab3=fub/fuep=800/470=1.7021
Factor
ab=0.96212
Bearing resistance
FbRd=k1*ab*fuep*db*tep/(1.25*10^3)
=2.5*0.96212*470*20*10/(1.25*10^3)
=180.88 kN
As FbRd > 0.8 FvRd ( 180.88 > 75.264 ), then the resistance
of the bolt group is
FRd=0.8*bn*FvRd=0.8*4*94.08
=301.06 kN
As FRd VzEd ( 301.06 kN 253.34 kN ), end plate bearing OK.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 16
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
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Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007
End plate in shear

Gross section resistance

VRdg=2*hep*tep*fyep/(1.27*SQR(3)*1000)
=2*290*10*355/(1.27*SQR(3)*1000)
=936.03 kN
Net shear area
Avnet=tep*(hep-bn/2*do)
=10*(290-4/2*22)
=2460 mm2
Net section resistance
VRdn=2*Avnet*fuep/(SQR(3)*1.1*1000)
=2*2460*470/(SQR(3)*1.1*1000)
=1213.7 kN
Areas for block tearing
Ant=tep*(e2-do/2)=10*(55-22/2)
=440 mm2
Anv=tep*(hep-e1-(bn/2-0.5)*do)
=10*(290-100-(4/2-0.5)*22)
=1570 mm2
Block shear resistance
VRdb=2*(Ant*fuep/1.1+Anv*fyep/SQR(3))/1000
=2*(440*470/1.1+1570*355/SQR(3))/1000
=1019.6 kN
Minimum shear resistance
VRdm=936.03 kN
Shear force
FvEdp=W33/4=506.67/4=126.67 kN
As VRdm FvEdp ( 936.03 kN 126.67 kN ), end plate shear OK.
Additional requirements - End plate in-plane bending

As hep > 1.36 p3 ( 290 mm > 190.4 mm ), no further check required.


Check on bolt forces due to out of balance loads

in the construction stage - Case 2(a)

Eccentric loading (deck only)


W21=3.7969 kN
Eccentric loading
W22=40.163 kN
Axial loading
W23=15.947 kN

W21=3.7969 kN
W22=40.163 kN

W23=15.947 kN
Torsional moment of connection
Polar inertia of bolt group
Distance to extreme bolt
Component force due to torsion

Tor=(W22-W21)/2*ecc/10^3
=(40.163-3.7969)/2*191.9/10^3
=3.4893 kNm
Ip=4*((p1/2)^2+(p3/2)^2)
=4*((80/2)^2+(140/2)^2)
=26000 mm4
r'=((p3/2)^2+(p1/2)^2)^0.5
=((140/2)^2+(80/2)^2)^0.5
=80.623 mm
Ft=Tor*10^3*r'/Ip
=3.4893*10^3*80.623/26000
=10.82 kN

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 17
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
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Office: 1007
Vertical component of force
Fvc=(W21+W22+W23)/(2*bn)
=(3.7969+40.163+15.947)/(2*4)
=7.4883 kN
Term
cos0=p3/(2*r')=140/(2*80.623)
=0.86824
Resultant force in bolt
FvEd=(Ft^2+Fvc^2+2*Ft*Fvc*cos0)^0.5
=(10.82^2+7.4883^2+2*10.82
*7.4883*0.86824)^0.5
=17.715 kN
Since FvEd FvRd ( 17.715 kN 94.08 kN ), shear resistance OK.
Since FvEd FbRd ( 17.715 kN 180.88 kN ), bearing resistance OK.
Weld strength between beam and end plate

Load on weld
FwEdw=W33/(4*(hep-2*e4))
=506.67/(4*(290-2*10))
=0.46914 kN/mm
Weld size (leg length)
sw=10 mm
Throat thickness of weld
a=sw/2^0.5=10/2^0.5=7.0711 mm
Minimum weld size
am=0.48*tw=0.48*12.8=6.144 mm
Weld throat size ( 7.0711 mm ) > basic requirement ( 6.144 mm ),
weld suitable.
Design weld resistance
FwRdw=0.7*sw*fvwd/1000
=0.7*10*241.2/1000
=1.6884 kN/mm
Since FwEdw FwRdw ( 0.46914 kN/mm 1.6884 kN/mm ), the 10 mm fillet
weld is satisfactory.
Guidelines for the provision of service voids

Holes to be contained within the middle third of the span


Maximum number of 5 holes per span
Circular service voids only
Minimum centres of holes, 600 mm
One hole per cross-section of deck
Holes to be symmetrically arranged about the centre line of
the UKC web
Maximum hole diameter 0.6h ( 160 mm )
The cylindrical sleeve used to form service duct to be cold
formed steel minimum thickness 1.2 mm
Aggregate size should be considered, because the concrete has
to be vigorously vibrated to ensure that the concrete passes
beneath the cylindrical sleeve.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 419. (ans=1)


Page: 18
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Slim floor design using deep decking
Date: 02/04/14
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Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007
CONNECTION SUMMARY

e1

p1

e3

tep=10

Number of bolts
Bolt diameter
Bolt grade
Plate grade
UNIVERSAL COLUMN

e4=10

e4=10
4
20 mm
8.8
S 355

bep=250 mm

100 mm
hep=

o
290 mm
80 mm

110 mm

p3=140 mm

e2=55 mm
e2=55 mm

254 x 254 x 107 UKC Grade S 355


Design strength
345 N/mm2
BOTTOM PLATE
460 mm x 15 mm
Grade S 355
Design strength of plate 355 N/mm2
Design shear force
253.3 kN
DESIGN
Shear plastic resistance 751.4 kN
SUMMARY
Design moment
475 kNm
Moment resistance
625.8 kNm
Buckling resistance
470.2 kNm
Variable load deflection 20.38 mm
Deflection to span ratio 1: 367
Total deflection
30.8 mm
Deflection to span ratio 1: 243
Interaction factors
0.2062 1
NOTE: Use lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) and provide top
reinforcement to tie the floor on each side of the beam together
in order to meet robustness requirements.
No419

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 423. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC423 BS

Office: 1007
Location: Ex1 - Three rows of tension bolts
Bolted flush end plate connection - beam to column

Beams are connected to both column flanges. The web panel shear can
be discounted in the determination of the compressive force as the
connection is assumed to have balanced moments.
bp

ex

p2

p3

pes

tp
x

tension

compression

ped

ex

p2

p3

pes

ep
ep
g

Factored moment
Factored shear force
Axial force (+ve compression)

Ma=332 kNm
V=128 kN
N=90 kN

Grade details

Bolt grade
Grade of supported beam
Grade of end plate
Grade of supporting column
The electrode is grade 35 and the
Design strength of fillet weld
Modulus of elasticity

bgrade=8.8
grade=275
pgrade=275
sgrade=275
steel grade is S 275.
pw=220 N/mm2
E=205 kN/mm2

Lc

Supporting column details

254 x 254 x 107 UC.


Dimensions (mm): Dc=266.7 Bc=258.8 tc=12.8 Tc=20.5 rc=12.7
The material thickness is 20.5 mm and the steel grade is S 275.
Design strength
pyc=265 N/mm2
Supported beam details

533 x 210 x 92 UB.


Dimensions (mm): Db=533.1 Bb=209.3 tb=10.1 Tb=15.6 rb=12.7
The material thickness is 15.6 mm and the steel grade is S 275.
Design strength
pyb=275 N/mm2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 423. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC423 BS

Office: 1007
Bolt details

Diameter of bolts
bd=24 mm
Tensile area of one bolt
At=TABLE 1.1 for bd=24
=353 mm2
Tensile strength (grade 8.8)
pt=560 N/mm2
Tensile capacity
Pt=pt*At/10^3=560*353/10^3
=197.68 kN
End plate details

Thickness of plate
tp=25 mm
The material thickness is 25 mm and the steel grade is S 275.
Design strength
pyp=265 N/mm2
Total number of bolts
bn=8
Number of shear bolts
ns=2
Number of tension bolts
nt=bn-ns=8-2=6
Distance to first row of bolts
ex=75 mm
Distance to beam flange
x=15 mm
Pitch of tension bolts
p2=90 mm
Distance tension to shear bolts
p3=230 mm
Edge distance for shear bolts
pes=100 mm
Length of end plate
Lc=ex+((bn-4)/2)*p2+p3+pes
=75+((8-4)/2)*90+230+100
=585 mm
Edge distance to bottom of flange ped=Lc-(Db+x)=585-(533.1+15)
=36.9 mm
Bolt cross-centres
g=100 mm
Width of end plate
bp=200 mm
Edge distance at cross centres
ep=(bp-g)/2=(200-100)/2=50 mm
The centre of rotation of the bolt group is taken as the centre of
the compression flange.
Distance to bolt row 1
h1=Lc-ex-ped-Tb/2=585-75-36.9-15.6/2
=465.3 mm
Distance to bolt row 2
h2=h1-p2=465.3-90=375.3 mm
Distance to bolt row 3
h3=h2-p2=375.3-90=285.3 mm
Assumed web fillet weld size
sww=8 mm
Assumed flange fillet weld size
swf=12 mm
SUMMARY OF BOLT POTENTIAL RESISTANCES

Top row of bolts


Pr1=375.14 kN
Row 2
Pr2=303.2 kN
Row 3
Pr3=286.25 kN
RESISTANCE OF THE COLUMN WEB & BEAM FLANGE IN THE COMPRESSION ZONE
The compressive resistance Pc is the minimum of the following
three values:
Column web crushing

Stiff bearing length

b1=Tb+1.6*sww+2*tp=15.6+1.6*8+2*25
=78.4 mm
Thickness
k=rc+Tc=12.7+20.5=33.2 mm
Distance to end of member be is at least equal to the length of

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 423. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC423 BS

Office: 1007
the end plate
be=Lc=585 mm
Support factor
n=2*(2+0.6*be/k)=2*(2+0.6*585/33.2)
=25.145
Support factor limited
n=5
Bearing capacity of web
Pbw=(b1+n*k)*tc*pyc/10^3
=(78.4+5*33.2)*12.8*265/10^3
=829 kN
Column web buckling

Similarly to dimension 'be', the distance to the nearer end


of the column
ae=Lc=585 mm
Depth of web
d=Dc-2*(Tc+rc)=266.7-2*(20.5+12.7)
=200.3 mm
Parameter
e=(275/pyc)^0.5=(275/265)^0.5
=1.0187
Buckling resistance
Px=25*e*tc/((b1+n*k)*d)^0.5*Pbw
=25*1.0187*12.8/((78.4+5*33.2)
*200.3)^0.5*829
=1221.4 kN
Beam flange crushing

Resistance of beam flange

RESISTANCE IN COMPRESSION ZONE

Pbf=1.4*pyb*Tb*bp/10^3
=1.4*275*15.6*200/10^3
=1201.2 kN
Pc=829 kN

Applied moment modified by axial load

Distance to axial force


hN=(Db-Tb)/2=(533.1-15.6)/2
=258.75 mm
Modified moment
M=Ma-N*hN/10^3=332-90*258.75/10^3
=308.71 kNm
Resistance of the column web panel in shear

Shear area
Avc=tc*Dc=12.8*266.7=3413.8 mm2
Shear resistance
Pv=0.6*pyc*Avc/10^3
=0.6*265*3413.8/10^3
=542.79 kN
The web panel shear can be discounted in the determination of the
compressive force, Fc, as this is not a one sided connection.
Shear force
Fv=0 kN
Calculation of the moment capacity

The potential resistances must now be translated into a set of


horizontal forces which the moment capacity can be calculated.
The compressive force, Fc, is the minimum of:
(1) Bolt forces + axial load
(2) Compression zone resistance
(3) Web panel shear

PRT=Pri+N=1054.6 kN
Pc=829 kN
Pv=542.79 kN

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 423. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC423 BS

Office: 1007
The web panel shear can be discounted in the determination of the
compressive force Fc, as this is not a one sided connection.
Compressive force Fc is the minimum of ( Pri+N, Pc ).
Force Pc controls
Compressive force
Fc=829 kN
Design of compression stiffeners

The column web must resist the sum of the potential bolt resistances
(Pri+N), as the resistance of the column in the compression zone is
less than the bolt resistances full depth compression stiffeners will
be considered ( 829 kN < 1054.6 kN ).
Stiffener bearing

Assuming initially that stiffener will be less than or equal to 16 mm


thick, TWO stiffeners are to be used and allowing for a corner snipe
of 15 mm at the root of the column:
Design strength
pys=275 N/mm2
Net force
Fc'=PRT-Pbw=1054.6-829=225.59 kN
Minimum area of stiffener
Asmin=Fc'*10^3/pys=225.59*10^3/275
=820.31 mm2
Stiffener 15 mm thick (ts) by 120 mm wide (bsg).
Area in contact with flange
Asn=2*(bsg-cut)*ts=2*(120-15)*15
=3150 mm2
The material thickness is 15 mm and the steel grade is S 275.
Design strength
pys=275 N/mm2
term
e=(275/pys)^0.5=(275/275)^0.5
=1
Allowable stiffener outstand
out=13*ts*e=13*15*1=195 mm
The actual stiffener outstand is less than the allowable outstand
i.e. ( 120 mm < 195 mm ), hence OK.
Stiffener buckling

Moment of inertia of stiffener Iy=ts*(2*bsg+tc)^3/12+(30*tc-ts)*tc^3/12


=15*(2*120+12.8)^3/12+(30*12.8-15)
*12.8^3/12
=20.259E6 mm4
Effective area
AE=(2*bsg+tc)*ts+(30*tc-ts)*tc
=(2*120+12.8)*15+(30*12.8-15)*12.8
=8515.2 mm2
Radius of gyration
ry=(Iy/AE)^0.5=(20.259E6/8515.2)^0.5
=48.777 mm
Effective length
LE=0.7*(Dc-2*Tc)=0.7*(266.7-2*20.5)
=157.99 mm
Slenderness
Lambda=LE/ry=157.99/48.777
=3.239
Limiting slenderness
lamb0=0.2*(PI^2*E*1000/pys)^0.5
=0.2*(3.1416^2*205*1000/275)^0.5
=17.155
The slenderness is less than the limiting slenderness.
Compressive strength
pc=pys=275 N/mm2
Buckling resistance
Pcb=pc*AE/10^3=275*8515.2/10^3
=2341.7 kN
As Fc' Pcb ( 225.59 kN 2341.7 kN ), the stiffener is suitable.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 423. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC423 BS

Office: 1007
Stiffener/column web crushing

Stiffener net contact area


Asn=3150 mm2
Lower design strength
pyl=265 N/mm2
Crushing resistance stiffener
Pcs=Asn*pyl/10^3=3150*265/10^3
=834.75 kN
Crushing resistance column
Pbw =829 kN
Total crushing resistance
Pccr=Pbw+Pcs=829+834.75=1663.8 kN
Critical stiffener resistance
Pws=1663.8 kN
As Pws > Pri, the stiffener is OK for stiffener/column web crushing.
Connection of stiffeners to column web

Net stiffener length


Lsn=Dc-2*Tc-2*cut=266.7-2*20.5-2*15
=195.7 mm
Applying Clause 6.8.2 of BS5950-1, assuming a weld size similar
to the web weld fillet size of the beam.
Effective length of weld
Lw=4*(Lsn-2*sww)=4*(195.7-2*8)
=718.8 mm
Assuming the load on the welds to be equal to the crushing
resistance of stiffener.
Load on welds
fws=Pcs*10^3/Lw=834.75*10^3/718.8
=1161.3 N/mm
For electrode grade 35
Design strength
pw=TABLE 37 for sgrade=275, Es=35
=220 N/mm2
Weld size
ss=8 mm
Capacity of weld
pws=0.7*ss*pw=0.7*8*220=1232 N/mm
ADOPT 2/120 mm x 15 mm plate stiffeners Grade S 275 adjacent to
the haunch compression flange connected by 4/8 mm fillet welds.
Beam flange crushing controls in the calculation of Pc.
Compression zone resistance
Pc=Pbf=1201.2 kN
As the beam flange crushing is the critical value in the calculation
of Pc, consider a 'T' shaped compression zone with the stress limited
to 1.2pyp.
Revised crushing area
Ac=Pc*10^3/(1.2*pyp)
=1201.2*10^3/(1.2*265)
=3777.4 mm2
Height of 'T' shape
hb=(Ac-bp*Tb)/tb
=(3777.4-200*15.6)/10.1
=65.085 mm
Eccentricity term
ecc=(bp*Tb^2/2+hb*tb*(hb/2+Tb))/Ac
=(200*15.6^2/2+65.085*10.1*(65.085/2+15.6))
/3777.4
=14.821 mm
Revised lever arm distances:
Distance to bolt row 1
h1=h1-ecc+Tb/2=465.3-14.821+15.6/2
=458.28 mm
Distance to bolt row 2
h2=h2-ecc+Tb/2=375.3-14.821+15.6/2
=368.28 mm
Distance to bolt row 3
h3=h3-ecc+Tb/2=285.3-14.821+15.6/2
=278.28 mm
Force Pri+N controls
Compressive force
Fc=1054.6 kN

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 423. (ans=1)


Page: 6
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC423 BS

Office: 1007
Moment capacity
Mc=(Pr1*h1+Pr2*h2+Pr3*h3)/10^3
=(375.14*458.28+303.2*368.28
+286.25*278.28)/10^3
=363.24 kNm
Applied moment moment capacity ( 308.71 kNm 363.24 kNm ), hence OK.
DESIGN FOR VERTICAL SHEAR FORCE
Bolts in the shear zone

Shear Area
As=353 mm2
Shear strength
ps=375 N/mm2
Bearing strength of end plate
pbp=460 N/mm2
Bearing strength of column
pbc=460 N/mm2
The shear capacity of a single bolt in the shear zone is the least
of the following values:
Shear capacity of bolt
Pss1=ps*As/10^3=375*353/10^3
=132.38 kN
Bearing capacity of plate
Pss2=bd*tp*pbp/10^3=24*25*460/10^3
=276 kN
Bearing capacity of column
Pss3=bd*Tc*pbc/10^3=24*20.5*460/10^3
=226.32 kN
Shear capacity (shear zone)
Pss=132.38 kN
The shear capacity of a single bolt in the tension zone is the least
of the following values:
Shear capacity of bolt
Pts1=0.4*ps*As/10^3=0.4*375*353/10^3
=52.95 kN
Bearing capacity of plate
Pts2=Pss2=276 kN
Bearing capacity of column
Pts3=Pss3=226.32 kN
Shear capacity (tension zone)
Pts=52.95 kN
Vertical shear capacity
Pvb=ns*Pss+nt*Pts=2*132.38+6*52.95
=582.45 kN
Shear force
V=128 kN
Shear capacity exceeds vertical shear force, hence bolts OK.
WELD DESIGN
Tension flange welds

The force in the tension flange welds is the lesser of:


Tension capacity of the flange
Tf=bp*Tb*pyb/10^3=200*15.6*275/10^3
=858 kN
Tension force in top 2 bolt rows Tfc=Pr1+Pr2=375.14+303.2
=678.34 kN
Tension force in beam flange
Tfb=678.34 kN
Weld force per mm
Fw=Tfb/(2*bp-tb)=678.34/(2*200-10.1)
=1.7398 kN/mm
For electrode grade 35
Design strength
pw=TABLE 37 for gradm=275, Es=35
=220 N/mm2
Weld size required
swfr=Fw*10^3/(0.7*pw)
=1.7398*10^3/(0.7*220)
=11.297 mm
Selected fillet weld size
swt=12 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 423. (ans=1)


Page: 7
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC423 BS

Office: 1007
Web welds

Tension zone - a full strength weld is recommended in the web tension


zone with the sum of the throat thicknesses the web thickness, tb.
Selected fillet weld size
sfw=8 mm
Length of web weld
Lwt=(ex-x-Tb-rb)+(trow-1)*p2+1.73*g/2
=(75-15-15.6-12.7)+(3-1)*90+1.73*100/2
=298.2 mm
Shear zone - assuming a fillet weld of 8 mm continued for the full
depth, the capacity of the beam web weld for vertical shear is:
Length of weld for shear
Lws=Db-2*(Tb+rb)-Lwt
=533.1-2*(15.6+12.7)-298.2
=178.3 mm
Capacity of weld for shear
Psw=2*0.7*sfw*pw*Lws/10^3
=2*0.7*8*220*178.3/10^3
=439.33 kN
Vertical shear
V=128 kN
Web weld size 8 mm is considered suitable.
Compression welds

Assuming a bearing fit between the flange and end plate.


An 8 mm fillet weld will be used for the compression flange.
Connection is suitable.
CONNECTION SUMMARY

75

90

90

230

100

25

Number of bolts
Bolt diameter
Bolt grade
Welds

36.9

75

90

90

230

100

200

24 mm
50
100
50
8.8
Tension flange fillet weld
12 mm
Web fillet weld
8 mm
Compression flange fillet weld
8 mm
Supporting column section
254 x 254 x 107 UC
Beam / Rafter section
533 x 210 x 92 UB

585

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 423. (ans=1)


Page: 8
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC423 BS

Office: 1007
Column stiffener details

Compression stiffeners

2/120 mm x 15 mm Grade S 275


connected by 4/8 mm fillet welds.

The connection is two sided.


No423

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 423. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC423 EC

Office: 1007
Location: Ex1 - Three rows of tension bolts
Bolted flush end plate connection - beam to column

Beams are connected to both column flanges. The web panel shear can
be discounted in the determination of the compressive force as the
connection is assumed to have balanced moments.
Calculations are in accordance with EC3 Parts 1-1, 1-5, 1-8 and follow
the procedure given in the SCI publication entitled 'Joints in Steel
Construction Moment Connections'. The connection is attached to the
supporting column flange.
bp

e1

p1

p1'

e1'

tp


VEd

x1

tension
NEd

MyEd

x2

compression

e1

p1

p1'

e1'

e2
e2
p3

Factored moment
Factored shear force
Axial force (+ve compression)

MyEd=332 kNm
VEd=128 kN
NEd=90 kN

Grade details

Bolt grade
Grade of supported beam
Grade of end plate
Grade of supporting column
Modulus of elasticity

bgrade=8.8
grade=275
pgrade=275
sgrade=275
E=210 kN/mm2

Supporting column details

254 x 254 x 107 UKC


Dimensions (mm): hc=266.7 bc=258.8 twc=12.8 tfc=20.5 rc=12.7
Properties (cm): Ac=136 Welc=1312.3
Design strength of column
fyc=265 N/mm2
Supported beam details

533 x 210 x 92 UKB


Dimensions (mm): hb=533.1 bb=209.3 twb=10.1 tfb=15.6 rb=12.7
Properties (cm): Ab=117
Design strength of beam
fyb=275 N/mm2

hp

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 423. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC423 EC

Office: 1007
Bolt details

Diameter of bolts
db=24 mm
Tensile area of bolt
At=353 mm2
Coefficient
k2=0.9
Tensile resistance (EC3 Part 1-8) FtRd=k2*fub*At/(gamM2*10^3)
=0.9*800*353/(1.25*10^3)
=203.33 kN
End plate details

Thickness of plate
Design strength
Number of bolts in end plate
Number of shear bolts
Number of tension bolts
Distance to beam flange
Distance to first row of bolts
Pitch of tension bolts
Distance tension to shear bolts
Edge distance for shear bolts
Length of end plate

tp=25 mm
fyp=265 N/mm2
bn=8
ns=2
nt=bn-ns=8-2=6
x1=15 mm
e1=75 mm
p1=90 mm
p1'=230 mm
e1'=100 mm
hp=e1+((bn-4)/2)*p1+p1'+e1'
=75+((8-4)/2)*90+230+100
=585 mm
Edge distance to bottom of flange x2=hp-(hb+x1)=585-(533.1+15)
=36.9 mm
Cross-centres of bolts
p3=100 mm
Width of end plate
bp=200 mm
Edge distance at cross centres
e2=(bp-p3)/2=(200-100)/2
=50 mm
The centre of rotation of the bolt group is taken as the centre of the
compression flange.
Distance to bolt row 1
h1=hp-e1-x2-tfb/2=585-75-36.9-15.6/2
=465.3 mm
Distance to bolt row 2
h2=h1-p1=465.3-90=375.3 mm
Distance to bolt row 3
h3=h2-p1=375.3-90=285.3 mm
Assumed web fillet weld size
sww=8 mm
Assumed flange fillet weld size
swf=12 mm
SUMMARY OF BOLT POTENTIAL RESISTANCES

Top row of bolts


Pr1=381.42 kN
Row 2
Pr2=309.47 kN
Row 3
Pr3=292.53 kN
Column web in transverse compression - Clause 6.2.6.2 EC3 Part 1-8

Shear area of column


Avc=Ac*100-2*bc*tfc+(twc+2*rc)*tfc
=136*100-2*258.8*20.5+(12.8+2
*12.7)*20.5
=3772.3 mm2
A 6 mm FW will be assumed for the evaluation of the effective width.
Effective width (Eq.6.10)
beff=tfb+2*SQR(2)*0.7*6+5*(tfc+rc)
=15.6+2*SQR(2)*0.7*6+5*(20.5+12.7)
=193.48 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 423. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC423 EC

Office: 1007
Omega (Table 6.3)
omega=1/(1+1.3*(beff*twc/Avc)^2)^0.5
=1/(1+1.3*(193.48*12.8
/3772.3)^2)^0.5
=0.80056
Design axial load on column
NEdc=500 kN
Longitudinal stress in the flange:
sfl=(NEdc+VEd)*10^3/(Ac*100)+VEd*10^3*(hc/2)/(Welc*10^3)
=(500+128)*10^3/(136*100)+128*10^3*(266.7/2)/(1312.3
*10^3)
=59.183 N/mm2
As sfl 0.7*fyc ( 59.183 N/mm2 185.5 N/mm2 ), the reduction factor
from Clause 6.2.6.2(2) is
kwc=1.0
Dimension
dwc=hc-2*(tfc+rc)=266.7-2*(20.5+12.7)
=200.3 mm
Plate slenderness lamp=0.932*(beff*dwc*fyc/(E*10^3*twc^2))^0.5
=0.932*(193.48*200.3*265/(210*10^3*12.8^2))^0.5
=0.50919
Plate buckling reduction factor
ro=1.0
Design resistance (Eq.6.9) FcRdcw=omega*kwc*ro*beff*twc*fyc/(gamM0*10^3)
=0.80056*1*1*193.48*12.8*265/(1*10^3)
=525.4 kN
Beam flange resistance

Resistance of beam flange

RESISTANCE IN COMPRESSION ZONE

FcRdbf=tfb*bp*fyb/(0.8*10^3)
=15.6*200*275/(0.8*10^3)
=1072.5 kN
FcRd=525.4 kN

Applied moment modified by axial load

Distance to axial force


hN=(hb-tfb)/2=(533.1-15.6)/2
=258.75 mm
Modified moment
MyEd=MyEd-NEd*hN/10^3
=332-90*258.75/10^3
=308.71 kNm
Resistance of the column web panel in shear

Shear area of column


Avc=Ac*100-2*bc*tfc+(twc+2*rc)*tfc
=136*100-2*258.8*20.5+(12.8+2
*12.7)*20.5
=3772.3 mm2
Shear resistance
VwpRd=0.9*Avc*(fyc/SQR(3))/(gamM0*1000)
=0.9*3772.3*(265/SQR(3))/(1*1000)
=519.44 kN
The web panel shear can be discounted in the determination of the
compressive force, as this is not a one sided connection.
Shear force
VwpEd=0 kN
Calculation of the moment resistance

The potential resistances must be translated into a set of horizontal


forces which the moment resistance can be calculated. The compressive
force FcEd, is the minimum of the following:

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 423. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC423 EC

Office: 1007
(1) Bolt forces + axial force
PRT=Pri+NEd=1073.4 kN
(2) Compression zone resistance
FcRd=525.4 kN
(3) Web panel shear
VwpRd=519.44 kN
The web panel shear can be discounted in the determination of the
compressive force FcEd, as this is not a one sided connection.
Compressive force FcEd is the minimum of (Pri+NEd, FcRd).
Compressive force
FcEd=525.4 kN
Design of compression stiffeners

The column web must resist the sum of the potential bolt resistances
(Pri+NEd), as the resistance of the column in the compression zone is
less than the bolt resistances full depth compression stiffeners will
be considered ( 525.4 kN < 1073.4 kN ).
Stiffener bearing

Assuming initially that stiffener will be less than or equal to 16 mm


thick, TWO stiffeners are to be used and allowing for a corner snipe
of 15 mm at the root of the column:
Design strength
fys=275 N/mm2
Net force
FcEd'=PRT-FcRdcw=1073.4-525.4
=548.02 kN
Minimum area of stiffener
Asmin=FcEd'*10^3/fys=548.02*10^3/275
=1992.8 mm2
Stiffener is 15 mm thick (ts) by 120 mm wide (bsg).
Area in contact with flange
Asn=2*(bsg-cut)*ts=2*(120-15)*15
=3150 mm2
Revised design strength
fys=275 N/mm2
term
e=(275/fys)^0.5=(275/275)^0.5
=1
Revised minimum stiffener area
Asmin=FcEd'*10^3/fys=548.02*10^3/275
=1992.8 mm2
Allowable stiffener outstand
out=13*ts*e=13*15*1=195 mm
The actual stiffener outstand is less than the allowable outstand
i.e. ( 120 mm < 195 mm ), hence OK.
Stiffener buckling resistance - EC3 Part 1-1

Moment of inertia of stiffener:


Iz=ts*(2*bsg+twc)^3/12+(30*e*twc-ts/2)*twc^3/12
=15*(2*120+12.8)^3/12+(30*1*12.8-15/2)*12.8^3/12
=20.261E6 mm4
Effective area
AE=(2*bsg+twc)*ts+(30*e*twc-ts/2)*twc
=(2*120+12.8)*15+(30*1*12.8-15/2)
*12.8
=8611.2 mm2
Radius of gyration
iz=(Iz/AE)^0.5=(20.261E6/8611.2)^0.5
=48.506 mm
Depth of the column web
hw=hc-2*tfc=266.7-2*20.5
=225.7 mm
The buckling resistance will be checked assuming buckling curve c as
per SCI publication P362 (Section 6.5.6(3)).
Imperfection factor (Table 6.1)
alpha=0.49 (curve c)
Both flanges restrained against rotation in the plane of the stiffener.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 423. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC423 EC

Office: 1007
Effective buckling length
Lcr=0.7*hw=0.7*225.7=157.99 mm
Lambda of stiffener (Eq. 6.50)
lams=Lcr/(iz*93.9*e)
=157.99/(48.506*93.9*1)
=0.034687
Factor
phi=0.5*(1+alpha*(lams-0.2)+lams^2)
=0.5*(1+0.49*(0.034687-0.2)
+0.034687^2)
=0.4601
Reduction factor
chi=1/(phi+SQR(phi^2-lams^2))
=1/(0.4601+SQR(0.4601^2
-0.034687^2))
=1.0883
Reduction factor
chi=1
As the stiffeners are compression members fabricated from plate by
welding, the design strength will be reduced by 20 N/mm2. This will
account for the stiffener being attached to a welded section.
Reduced design strength
fyr=fyc-20=265-20=245 N/mm2
Design buckling resistance
NbRd=chi*AE*fyr/(gamM1*1000)
=1*8611.2*245/(1*1000)
=2109.7 kN
Since FcEd' NbRd ( 548.02 kN 2109.7 kN ), the stiffener is suitable.
Stiffener/column web crushing

Stiffener net contact area


Lower design strength
Crushing resistance of stiffener

Asn=3150 mm2
fyl=265 N/mm2
FcRds=Asn*fyl/10^3=3150*265/10^3
=834.75 kN
Crushing resistance of column
FcRdcw =525.4 kN
Total crushing resistance
FcRdcr=FcRdcw+FcRds=525.4+834.75
=1360.1 kN
Critical stiffener resistance
FcRdws=1360.1 kN
As FcRdws Pri+NEd ( 1360.1 kN 1073.4 kN ), the stiffener/column
web crushing is considered to be OK.

Connection of stiffeners to column web

Net stiffener length


Lsn=hc-2*tfc-2*cut=266.7-2*20.5-2*15
=195.7 mm
Assume a weld size similar to the web weld fillet size of the beam.
Effective length of weld
Lw=4*(Lsn-2*sww)=4*(195.7-2*8)
=718.8 mm
Load on the welds is equal to the crushing resistance of stiffener.
Load on welds
FwEds=FcRds/Lw=834.75/718.8
=1.1613 kN/mm
Factor (for Grade S275 steel)
betaw=0.85
Material ultimate strength
fu=410 N/mm2
Weld design strength
fvwd1=fu/SQR(3)/(betaw*gamM2)
=410/SQR(3)/(0.85*1.25)
=222.79 N/mm2
Weld size (leg length)
ss=8 mm
Resistance of weld
FwRds=0.7*ss*fvwd1/1000
=0.7*8*222.79/1000
=1.2476 kN/mm
Adopt 2/120 mm x 15 mm plate stiffeners Grade S 275 adjacent to
the haunch compression flange connected by 4/8 mm fillet welds.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 423. (ans=1)


Page: 6
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC423 EC

Office: 1007
Beam flange crushing controls in the calculation of FcRd.
Compression zone resistance
FcRd=FcRdbf=1072.5 kN
As the beam flange crushing is the critical value in the calculation of
FcRd, then a 'T' shaped compression zone is considered with the stress
limited to 1.2fyp.
Revised crushing area
Ac=FcRd*10^3/(1.2*fyp)
=1072.5*10^3/(1.2*265)
=3372.6 mm2
Height of 'T' shape
hb'=(Ac-bp*tfb)/twb
=(3372.6-200*15.6)/10.1
=25.014 mm
Eccentricity term
ecc=(bp*tfb^2/2+hb'*twb*(hb'/2+tfb))
/Ac
=(200*15.6^2/2+25.014*10.1
*(25.014/2+15.6))/3372.6
=9.3212 mm
Revised lever arm distances:
Distance to bolt row 1
h1=h1-ecc+tfb/2=465.3-9.3212+15.6/2
=463.78 mm
Distance to bolt row 2
h2=h2-ecc+tfb/2=375.3-9.3212+15.6/2
=373.78 mm
Distance to bolt row 3
h3=h3-ecc+tfb/2=285.3-9.3212+15.6/2
=283.78 mm
Compressive force
FcEd=1072.5 kN
Force distribution

In order to satisfy horizontal equilibrium, the sum of the actual


forces in the bolts plus the axial load must be equal to FcEd,
i.e. (Pri+NEd)=FcEd. The values of the potential forces in the
bolts must be reduced to achieve this equilibrium.
Total load (bolt forces + NEd)
PRT=1073.4 kN
Total load reduction
Fr=PRT-FcEd=1073.4-1072.5
=0.91773 kN
Considering the lowest row of bolts and working up.
Revised load row 3
Pr3=Pr3-Fr=292.53-0.91773
=291.61 kN
Moment resistance
McRd=(Pr1*h1+Pr2*h2+Pr3*h3)/10^3
=(381.42*463.78+309.47*373.78
+291.61*283.78)/10^3
=375.32 kNm
As MyEd McRd ( 308.71 kNm 375.32 kNm ), the applied moment is
satisfactory.
DESIGN FOR VERTICAL SHEAR FORCE

Beam web in shear

Beam cross sectional area


Shear area

Ab=117 cm2
Av=Ab*100-2*bb*tfb+(twb+2*rb)*tfb
=117*100-2*209.3*15.6+(10.1+2
*12.7)*15.6
=5723.6 mm2
Shear resistance
VRd=Av*fyb/(3^0.5*1000)
=5723.6*275/(3^0.5*1000)
=908.75 kN
As VRd VEd ( 908.75 kN 128 kN ), beam web is OK for shear.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 423. (ans=1)


Page: 7
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC423 EC

Office: 1007
Bolt group

Factor
Tensile area of bolt
Shear resistance of bolt

Bearing on the end plate

Factor
Factor
Factor
Limit factor to 2.5
Ratios for factor ab

Factor
Bearing resistance

av=0.6
As=353 mm2
FvRdb=av*fub*As/(gamM2*10^3)
=0.6*800*353/(1.25*10^3)
=135.55 kN

k1a=2.8*e2/do-1.7=2.8*50/26-1.7
=3.6846
k1b=1.4*p3/do-1.7=1.4*100/26-1.7
=3.6846
k1=3.6846
k1=2.5
ab1=1.0
ab2=p1/(3*do)-1/4=90/(3*26)-1/4
=0.90385
ab3=fub/fup=800/410=1.9512
ab4=e1'/(3*do)=100/(3*26)
=1.2821
ab=0.90385
FbRd=k1*ab*fup*db*tp/(1.25*10^3)
=2.5*0.90385*410*24*25/(1.25*10^3)
=444.69 kN

As FbRd > 0.8 FvRdb then


Resistance of the bolt group

FRd=0.8*ns*FvRdb=0.8*2*135.55
=216.88 kN
As FRd VEd ( 216.88 kN 128 kN ), end plate OK in bearing.
Supporting column shear resistance

Dimension
p=e1-x1=75-15=60 mm
Overhang distance
p5=(hp-hb)=(585-533.1)=51.9 mm
Dimension
et1=5*db=5*24=120 mm
et2=p+p5=60+51.9=111.9 mm
End distance
et=111.9 mm
Dimension
eb1=5*db=5*24=120 mm
eb2=p3/2=100/2=50 mm
End distance
eb=50 mm
Shear area
Avs=tfc*(et+(bn/2-1)*p1+eb)
=20.5*(111.9+(8/2-1)*90+50)
=8853.9 mm2
Shear resistance
VRdc1=Avs*fyc/(3^0.5*1000)
=8853.9*265/(3^0.5*1000)
=1354.6 kN
Net shear area
Avn=Avs-bn/2*do*twc
=8853.9-8/2*26*12.8
=7522.8 mm
Shear resistance
VRdc2=Avn*fuc/(3^0.5*1.1*1000)
=7522.8*410/(3^0.5*1.1*1000)
=1618.9 kN
Minimum shear resistance
VRdc=1354.6 kN
As VRdc VEd/2 ( 1354.6 kN 64 kN ), section OK in shear.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 423. (ans=1)


Page: 8
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC423 EC

Office: 1007
Supporting column bearing resistance

Factor
k1=1.4*p3/do-1.7=1.4*100/26-1.7
=3.6846
Limit factor to 2.5
k1=2.5
Ratios for factor ad
ad1=p1/(3*do)-1/4=90/(3*26)-1/4
=0.90385
ad2=fub/fuc=800/410=1.9512
Factor
ad=0.90385
Bearing resistance
FbRdc=k1*ad*fuc*db*tfc/(1.25*10^3)
=2.5*0.90385*410*24*20.5/(1.25
*10^3)
=364.65 kN
As FbRdc VEd/ns ( 364.65 kN 64 kN ), section OK in bearing.
Beam tension flange welds

Factor (for Grade S275 steel)


Material ultimate strength
Weld design strength

betaw=0.85
fu=410 N/mm2
fvwd=fu/SQR(3)/(betaw*gamM2)
=410/SQR(3)/(0.85*1.25)
=222.79 N/mm2
The force in the tension flange welds is the lesser of:
Tension resistance of the flange Tf=bp*tfb*fyb/10^3=200*15.6*275/10^3
=858 kN
Tension force in top 2 bolt rows Tfc=Pr1+Pr2=381.42+309.47
=690.89 kN
Tension force in beam flange
Tfb=690.89 kN
Weld force per mm
FwEdf=Tfb/(2*bp-twb)
=690.89/(2*200-10.1)
=1.772 kN/mm
Weld size required
swfr=FwEdf*10^3/(0.7*fvwd)
=1.772*10^3/(0.7*222.79)
=11.362 mm
Selected fillet weld size
swt=12 mm
Beam web welds

Tension zone - a full strength weld is recommended in the web tension


zone with the sum of the throat thicknesses the web thickness, twb.
Selected fillet weld size
sfw=8 mm
Length of web weld
Lwt=(e1-x1-tfb-rb)+(trow-1)*p1+1.73*p3/2
=(75-15-15.6-12.7)+(3-1)*90+1.73*100/2
=298.2 mm
Shear zone - assume an 8 mm FW continued for the full depth.
Length of weld for shear
Lws=hb-2*(tfb+rb)-Lwt
=533.1-2*(15.6+12.7)-298.2
=178.3 mm
Resistance of weld for shear
FwRds=2*0.7*sfw*fvwd*Lws/10^3
=2*0.7*8*222.79*178.3/10^3
=444.9 kN
Vertical shear
VEd=128 kN
An 8 mm weld size is therefore considered suitable.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 423. (ans=1)


Page: 9
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC423 EC

Office: 1007
Compression welds

Assuming a bearing fit between the flange and end plate, the use of
an 8 mm fillet weld will suffice for the beam compression flange.
CONNECTION SUMMARY - all dimensions in diagram are in mm

e1

p1

p1

p1'

e1'

25

15

36.9

Number of bolts
Bolt diameter
Bolt grade
Welds

75

90

90

230

100

200

50
100
50

8
24 mm
8.8
Tension flange fillet weld
Web fillet weld
Compression flange fillet weld
Supporting column section
254 x 254 x 107 UKC
Beam / Rafter section
533 x 210 x 92 UKB

585

12 mm
8 mm
8 mm

Column stiffener details

Compression stiffeners

2/120 mm x 15 mm Grade S 275


connected by 4/8 mm fillet welds.
The connection under consideration is two sided.
No423

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 434. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
SS I Beam with UDL - restrained at ends only
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC434 BS

Office: 1007
Location: Example 3, 'Steelwork Design Guide'
w = wd + wi
vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv

<b1<
>b1<
< L >

Simply supported steel

beam restrained at ends

Calculations are in
accordance with
BS5950-1:2000 Clause
4.3.5.1. Beam has no
intermediate lateral
restraints.

The moment capacity of the section is determined from 4.2.5.2 or


4.2.5.3 and is based on the classification obtained from Table 11.
Beam span

L=9 m

Section properties

686 x 254 x 125 UB.


Dimensions (mm): D=677.9 B=253 t=11.7 T=16.2 r=15.2
Properties (cm): Ix=118000 Iy=4380 Sx=3990 Sy=542 J=116
A=159 ry=5.2485 rx=27.242
Strength of steel - Clause 3.1.1

The material thickness is 16.2 mm and the steel grade is S 275.


Design strength
py=265 N/mm2
Young's Modulus
E=205 kN/mm2
Loading (unfactored)

Dead UDL (including S.W)


Imposed UDL
Factored loads

Distributed load
Factored shear force

At end B
At end A
Max shear is same at both ends

wd=10 kN/m
wi=15 kN/m

w'=wd*1.4+wi*1.6=10*1.4+15*1.6
=38 kN/m

Fvb=w'*L/2=38*9/2=171 kN
Fva=w'*L-Fvb=38*9-171=171 kN
Fve=Fva=171 kN

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 434. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
SS I Beam with UDL - restrained at ends only
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC434 BS

Office: 1007
Unfactored end shears

At end B dead
Fudb=wd*L/2=10*9/2=45 kN
At end B imposed
Fuib=wi*L/2=15*9/2=67.5 kN
At end A dead
Fuda=wd*L-Fudb=10*9-45=45 kN
At end A imposed
Fuia=wi*L-Fuib=15*9-67.5
=67.5 kN
Factored moment

Maximum bending moment at centre


Corresponding shear force

M=w'*L^2/8=38*9^2/8=384.75 kNm
F=0 kN

Classification - Clause 3.5.2

Classify outstand element of compression flange:


Parameter (Table 11 Note b)
e=(275/py)^0.5=(275/265)^0.5
=1.0187
Outstand
b=B/2=253/2=126.5 mm
Ratio
b'T=b/T=126.5/16.2=7.8086
As b/T <= 9e ( 9.1682 ), outstand element of compression
flange is classified as Class 1 plastic.
Classify web of section:
Depth between fillet radii
d=D-2*(T+r)=677.9-2*(16.2+15.2)
=615.1 mm
Ratio
d't=d/t=615.1/11.7=52.573
Neutral axis is assumed to be at mid-depth of section.
As d/t <= 80e ( 81.495 ), web is classified as Class 1 plastic.
Shear buckling

Since d/t < 70e no check for shear buckling is required.


Buckling resistance

Since the beam is subject to possible lateral torsional buckling, the


buckling resistance moment Mb is first considered rather than the
moment capacity Mc as a guide to selection.
As beam is restrained at ends only LT=L=9 m
Resistance to lateral-torsional buckling - Section 4.3

Effective length - Clause 4.3.5.2

In considering lateral torsional buckling the effective length, Le,


for the minor axis of the member is taken as follows:
Length between restraints
LT=9 m
Compression flange laterally restrained.
Nominal torsional restraint about longitudinal axis.
Compression flange fully restrained against rotation on plan.
Normal loading conditions therefore
Effective length (Table 13)
Le=0.75*LT=0.75*9=6.75 m

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 434. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
SS I Beam with UDL - restrained at ends only
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC434 BS

Office: 1007
Lateral torsional resistance moment - Clause 4.3.6

Slenderness of section
lambda=Le*100/ry=6.75*100/5.2485
=128.61
Buckling parameter
u=(4*Sx^2*(1-Iy/Ix)/(A^2*((D-T)
/10)^2))^0.25
=(4*3990^2*(1-4380/118000)/(159^2
*((677.9-16.2)/10)^2))^0.25
=0.86271
Torsional index
x=0.566*((D-T)/10)*(A/J)^0.5
=0.566*((677.9-16.2)/10)*(159
/116)^0.5
=43.848
Ratio
ratio=lambda/x=128.61/43.848
=2.933
Slenderness factor
v=1/((1+0.05*ratio^2)^0.25)
=1/((1+0.05*2.933^2)^0.25)
=0.91444
Ratio w
betaw=1.0
Equivalent slenderness
lamLT=u*v*lambda*(betaw)^0.5
=0.86271*0.91444*128.61*(1)^0.5
=101.46
Limiting slenderness
lamlo=0.4*((PI^2*E*10^3)/py)^0.5
=0.4*((3.1416^2*205*10^3)
/265)^0.5
=34.951
Perry coefficient
etaLT=0.007*(lamLT-lamlo)
=0.007*(101.46-34.951)
=0.46555
Elastic strength
pe=PI^2*E*10^3/(lamLT^2)
=3.1416^2*205*10^3/(101.46^2)
=196.55 N/mm2
Factor
phiLT=(py+(etaLT+1)*pe)/2
=(265+(0.46555+1)*196.55)/2
=276.53 N/mm2
Factor
pey=pe*py=196.55*265=52087
Bending strength
pb=(pey)/(phiLT+((phiLT^2-pey)^0.5))
=(52087)/(276.53+((276.53^2
-52087)^0.5))
=120.38 N/mm2
Buckling resistance moment
Mb=Sx*pb/10^3=3990*120.38/10^3
=480.33 kNm
Equivalent uniform moment factor mLT=0.925
Since M Mb/mLT ( 384.75 kNm 519.27 kNm ), section OK for
lateral torsional buckling resistance.
Check section for combined moment and shear

Maximum moment and co-existent shear

Shear area
Av=t*D=11.7*677.9=7931.4 mm2
Shear capacity
Pv=0.6*py*Av/10^3=0.6*265*7931.4/10^3
=1261.1 kN
Design shear force
Fv=F=0 kN
Elastic modulus
Z=Ix/(D/20)=118000/(677.9/20)
=3481.3 cm3
Since Fv < 0.6 Pv

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 434. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
SS I Beam with UDL - restrained at ends only
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC434 BS

Office: 1007
Moment capacity for compact sec
Mc=py*Sx/10^3=265*3990/10^3
=1057.3 kNm
Since M Mc ( 384.75 kNm 1057.3 kNm ), applied moment within
moment capacity.
Maximum shear and coexistent moment

Shear capacity
Pv=1261.1 kN
Design shear force
Fv=Fve=171 kN
Coexistent moment
M'=0 kNm
Since Fv Pv ( 171 kN 1261.1 kN ), shear force within
shear capacity.
Check for deflection

Imposed load only considered in deflection calculation


UDL for deflection calculation
wu=wi=15 kN/m
Central UDL defln
DEL=5*wu*L^4/(384*E*Ix)*10^5
=5*15*9^4/(384*205*118000)*10^5
=5.2974 mm
From Table 8
Limiting deflection ( brittle )
DELlim=L*1000/360=9*1000/360
=25 mm
Since DEL DELlim ( 5.2974 mm 25 mm ) OK for deflection.
Fire resistance

Calculations in accordance with BS 5950-8:2003 and 'Fire Resistant


Design of Steel Structures' published by SCI.
Section factor - Clause 8.2

Considering the profile of the exposed section.


In the calculation of the heated perimeter of the steel section
the upper surface may be ignored because it is protected by the floor
Exposed surface area
Am=3*B+2*D-2*t=3*253+2*677.9-2*11.7
=2091.4 mm
Section factor
Am'V=INT(Am/A/0.5)*5
=INT(2091.4/159/0.5)*5
=130 /m
Fire resistance without applied protection

Beams are assessed on their load carrying capacity only. Integrity


and insulation are not normally considered. The criterion for load
carrying capacity for simple beams, is that the end of the fire
resistance period the design temperature does not exceed the limiting
temperature given in Code Table 8. For a beam the temperature of the
bottom flange is considered to represent the limiting temperature.
In practice an unprotected beam will rarely have more than 30 minutes
fire resistance, so 30 minutes will be considered.
For a flange thickness of 16.2 mm,
The design temperature
temp=TABLE 10 for T=16.2, column=30
=732.4 deg.C.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 434. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
SS I Beam with UDL - restrained at ends only
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC434 BS

Office: 1007
The load ratio, R, at the fire limit state is as follows:
Moment at the fire limit state
R =
Moment capacity at 20C
Loads at fire limit state

Load factor for permanent loads


The load factor for non-permanent
loads in other areas
Permanent load
Non-permanent load
Factored loads

Distributed load
Factored shear force

At end B
At end A
Moment at fire limit state

Maximum bending moment at centre

gfp=1.0
gfnp=0.8
wp=16 kN/m
wnp=wd+wi-wp=10+15-16=9 kN/m

w'=gfp*wp+gfnp*wnp=1*16+0.8*9
=23.2 kN/m

Fvb=w'*L/2=23.2*9/2=104.4 kN
Fva=w'*L-Fvb=23.2*9-104.4
=104.4 kN

Mf=w'*L^2/8=23.2*9^2/8=234.9 kNm

For beams not restrained laterally by the floor, the load ratio is
taken as the greater of:
Moment capacity
Mc=1057.3 kNm
Load ratio
R1=Mf/Mc=234.9/1057.3=0.22216
Buckling resistance moment
Mb=480.33 kNm
Load ratio
R2=mLT*Mf/Mb=0.925*234.9/480.33
=0.45236
Load ratio
R=R2=0.45236
For members not supporting a concrete slab,
For protected members not complying with (b) of Clause 6.3
use section 4.2 of Table 8.
Limiting temperature
templ=TABLE 8 for section=4, R=0.45236
=566.44 deg.C.
The limiting temperature for unprotected members is 566.44 deg.C.
from Table 8 of the code. This is less than the design temperature
732.4 deg.C. so the unprotected beam will have less than 30 minutes
fire resistance.
The design temperature for 15 min temp15=TABLE 10 for T=16.2, column=15
=493.2 deg.C.
The beam does however provide 15 minutes resistance.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 434. (ans=1)


Page: 6
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
SS I Beam with UDL - restrained at ends only
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC434 BS

Office: 1007
SECTION
DESIGN
SUMMARY

Unfactored
end shears

FIRE RESISTANCE
SUMMARY

686 x 254 x 125 UKB Grade S 275


Shear force
171 kN
Shear capacity
1261.1 kN
Applied moment
384.75 kNm
Moment capacity
1057.3 kNm
Buckling resistance
480.33 kNm
Moment factor mLT
0.925
Resistance (Mb/mLT)
519.27 kNm
Deflection
5.2974 mm
Limiting deflection
25 mm
DL shear at A
45 kN
LL shear at A
67.5 kN
DL shear at B
45 kN
LL shear at B
67.5 kN
Heated perimeter
2091.4 mm2
Area of section
159 cm2
Section factor
130
Load Ratio (R)
0.45236
Section does not have an inherent
fire resistance of 30 minutes.
Fire protection should be provided.
No434

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 434. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
SS I Beam with UDL - restrained at ends only
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC434 EC

Office: 1007
Location: Example using EC3
Calculations are in accordance with BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 Eurocode 3:
Design of steel structures and the non-contradictory, complimentary
information sheets provided by Access Steel.
The beam under consideration is assumed to be a hot rolled section.
w = wd + wi
vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv

AB

>b1<
>b1<

Simply supported beam

restrained at ends

where suffices:
d denotes permanent
i denotes variable

< L >
Beam span

L=5.7 m

Loading (unfactored)

Permanent UDL (including S.W)


Variable UDL

wd=9.6 kN/m
wi=6.25 kN/m

Factored loads

Distributed load
Factored shear force

At end B
At end A
Max shear is same at both ends
Factored moment

Maximum bending moment at centre


Corresponding shear force
Maximum moment
Maximum shear force

w'=wd*gamG+wi*gamQ=9.6*1.25+6.25*1.5
=21.375 kN/m

Vb=w'*L/2=21.375*5.7/2=60.919 kN
Va=w'*L-Vb=21.375*5.7-60.919
=60.919 kN
Ve=Va=60.919 kN

M=w'*L^2/8=21.375*5.7^2/8
=86.809 kNm
V=0 kN
MyEd=M=86.809 kNm
VzEd=Vb=60.919 kN

Steel section properties

457 x 152 x 52 UKB


Dimensions (mm): h=449.8 b=152.4 tw=7.6 tf=10.9 r=10.2
Properties (cm): Iy=21400 Iz=645 Wply=1100 Wplz=133 It=21.4
A=66.6 iy=17.925 iz=3.112

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 434. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
SS I Beam with UDL - restrained at ends only
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC434 EC

Office: 1007
Strength of steel - Table 3.1 (amended by N.A.)

The material thickness is 10.9 mm and steel grade is S 275.


Yield strength
fy=275 N/mm2
Ultimate strength
fu=410 N/mm2
Young's modulus
E=210000 N/mm2
Section classification

Classify outstand element of compression flange:


Parameter (Table 5.2)
e=(235/fy)^0.5=(235/275)^0.5
=0.92442
Outstand
c=(b-tw-2*r)/2=(152.4-7.6-2*10.2)/2
=62.2 mm
Ratio
c't=c/tf=62.2/10.9=5.7064
As c/tf 9e ( 5.7064 8.3197 ), outstand element of compression
flange is classified as Class 1 plastic.
Classify web element of section:
Depth between fillets
C=h-2*(tf+r)=449.8-2*(10.9+10.2)
=407.6 mm
Ratio
C't=C/tw=407.6/7.6=53.632
As C/tw 72e ( 53.632 66.558 ), web element in bending
is classified as Class 1 plastic.
Moment resistance - Clause 6.2.5

Moment resistance

McRd=Wply*fy/10^3=1100*275/10^3
=302.5 kNm
Unity factor
unity=MyEd/McRd=86.809/302.5
=0.28697
Section chosen is considered suitable.
Shear plastic resistance - Clause 6.2.6

In the absence of torsion the shear plastic resistance depends on:


Shear area
Avz=A*100-2*b*tf+(tw+2*r)*tf
=66.6*100-2*152.4*10.9+(7.6+2
*10.2)*10.9
=3642.9 mm2
Shear plastic resistance
VplRd=Avz*fy/SQR(3)/1000
=3642.9*275/SQR(3)/1000
=578.38 kN
Unity factor
Unity=VzEd/VplRd=60.919/578.38
=0.10533
Section chosen is considered suitable.
Note: No M-V interaction has to be considered as since the maximum
moment occurs near the mid-span and the maximum shear force
is obtained at the supports.
Shear buckling - Clause 6.2.6(6)

Depth between the flanges


hw=h-2*tf=449.8-2*10.9=428 mm
Buckling ratio
hw't=hw/tw=428/7.6=56.316
As hw/tw 72e ( 66.558 ), no check for shear buckling is required.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 434. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
SS I Beam with UDL - restrained at ends only
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC434 EC

Office: 1007
Lateral torsional buckling

Shear modulus
G=80770 N/mm2
Warping constant
Iw=Iz/4*((h-tf)/10)^2
=645/4*((449.8-10.9)/10)^2
=310621 cm6
Terms for critical moment Mcr:
Euler term
Et=PI^2*E*Iz/(L^2*100)
=3.1416^2*210000*645/(5.7^2*100)
=411461 N
Load to shear centre distance
zg=h/2=449.8/2=224.9 mm
Shear modulus term
Gt=L^2*G*It/(PI^2*E*Iz)*10^6
=5.7^2*80770*21.4/(3.1416^2*210000
*645)*10^6
=42008 mm2
Square root term
Sr=(Iw*100/Iz+Gt)^0.5
=(310621*100/645+42008)^0.5
=300.28 mm
Coefficient C1
C1=1.132
Critical moment
Mcr=C1*Et*Sr/10^6
=1.132*411461*300.28/10^6
=139.86 kNm
Non-dimensional slenderness
lamLT=(Wply*fy/(Mcr*10^3))^0.5
=(1100*275/(139.86*10^3))^0.5
=1.4707
Limiting slenderness value
lamLT0=0.4
Ratio
h'b=h/b=449.8/152.4=2.9514
As h/b > 2, imperfection value
aLT=0.49
Factor
phiLT=0.5*(1+aLT*(lamLT-lamLT0)+0.75*lamLT^2)
=0.5*(1+0.49*(1.4707-0.4)+0.75*1.4707^2)
=1.5734
Modification factor
chiLT=1/(phiLT+(phiLT^2-0.75*lamLT^2)^0.5)
=1/(1.5734+(1.5734^2-0.75*1.4707^2)^0.5)
=0.40045
Factor
kc=1/(C1)^0.5=1/(1.132)^0.5
=0.93989
Moment distribution factor
f=1-0.5*(1-kc)*(1-2*(lamLT-0.8)^2)
=1-0.5*(1-0.93989)*(1-2*(1.4707
-0.8)^2)
=0.99698
Modified chiLT factor
ChiLT=chiLT/f=0.40045/0.99698
=0.40166
Design buckling resistance moment MbRd=ChiLT*Wply*fy/10^3
=0.40166*1100*275/10^3
=121.5 kNm
Unity factor
unitb=MyEd/MbRd=86.809/121.5
=0.71446
Section chosen is considered suitable.
Deflection

UDL for deflection calculation


Central UDL deflection

Deflection to span ratio

wu=wi=6.25 kN/m
DEL=5*wu*L^4/(384*E*Iy)*10^8
=5*6.25*5.7^4/(384*210000*21400)
*10^8
=1.9115 mm
1: 2982

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 434. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
SS I Beam with UDL - restrained at ends only
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC434 EC

Office: 1007
SECTION
DESIGN
SUMMARY

457 x 152 x 52 UKB Grade


Maximum moment
Moment resistance
Unity factor bending
Maximum shear force
Shear plastic resistance
Unity factor shear
Deflection to span ratio
Buckling resistance BM
Unity factor buckling

S 275
86.809 kNm
302.5 kNm
0.28697 1
60.919 kN
578.38 kN
0.10533 1
1: 2982
121.5 kNm
0.71446 1
No434

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 447. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Design of 'I' beam curved on plan
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC447 BS

Office: 1007
Location: Design Example 6 Curved Steel publication
y




x x
>t<

T

y
B

I section beam curved on plan

Calculations in accordance
with BS5950-1:2000 and SCI
publication entitled "Design
of Curved Steel".
Moment connections are assumed
in the vertical plane and pin
connections on plan.
Loads and moments are factored.

Section properties

838 x 292 x 226 UB.


Dimensions (mm): D=850.9 B=293.8 t=16.1 T=26.8 r=17.8
Properties (cm): Ix=340000 Iy=11400 Sx=9160 Sy=1210 J=514
A=289 ry=6.2806 rx=34.3
Strength of steel - Clause 3.1.1

The material thickness is 26.8 mm and the steel grade is S 275.


Design strength
py=265 N/mm2
Young's Modulus
E=205 kN/mm2
Details of curved section and results from analysis

Radius of curvature of beam


R=5 m
Max vertical moment (xx axis)
Mx=253 kNm (at end connection)
Accompanying shear force
Fv=77.6 kN
Maximum radial load
Fa=25.6 kN
The maximum moments are assumed to act at the same point.
Max.horiz.moment in compr.flange Mycf=90.4 kNm
In order to account for the axial force induced in the beam from the
vertical loading, the bending moment needs to be increased using the
conservative approach that follows.
Increases vertical moment
Mx=Mx+(Fa*(D-T)/1000)
=253+(25.6*(850.9-26.8)/1000)
=274.1 kNm
Classification - Clause 3.5.2

Classify outstand element of compression flange:


Parameter (Table 11 Note b)
e=(275/py)^0.5=(275/265)^0.5
=1.0187
Outstand
b=B/2=293.8/2=146.9 mm
Ratio
b'T=b/T=146.9/26.8=5.4813
As b/T <= 9e ( 9.1682 ), outstand element of compression
flange is classified as Class 1 plastic.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 447. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Design of 'I' beam curved on plan
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC447 BS

Office: 1007
Classify web of section:
Depth between fillet radii
d=D-2*(T+r)=850.9-2*(26.8+17.8)
=761.7 mm
Ratio
d't=d/t=761.7/16.1=47.311
Neutral axis is assumed to be at mid-depth of section.
As d/t <= 80e ( 81.495 ), web is classified as Class 1 plastic.
Shear buckling

Since d/t < 70e no check for shear buckling is required.


Shear buckling

Since d/t < 70e no check for shear buckling is required.


Shear capacity - Clause 4.2.3

Shear area
Shear capacity

Av=t*D=16.1*850.9=13699 mm2
Pv=0.6*py*Av/10^3=0.6*265*13699/10^3
=2178.2 kN
Design shear force
Fv=77.6 kN
Since Fv Pv ( 77.6 kN 2178.2 kN ) applied shear force
within the shear capacity.
Moment capacity - Clause 4.2.5

The moment capacity of the section, Mcx, will be limited to


the elastic capacity in accordance with Section 8.8.1
Elastic modulus
Zx=Ix/(D/20)=340000/(850.9/20)
=7991.5 cm3
Moment capacity
Mcx=py*Zx/10^3=265*7991.5/10^3
=2117.8 kNm
Since Mx Mcx ( 274.1 kNm 2117.8 kNm ) applied moment within
the moment capacity.
Compression flange cross-sectional capacity - Clause 4.8.3.2

The minor axis bending capacity is taken as the minor axis bending
capacity of a single flange, because the flange resists the
horizontal bending moments. For simplicity the elastic modulus of
the flange, Zycf, is taken as half the minor axis elastic modulus
of the whole section.
Elastic modulus of the flange
Fc

Ag.py

Mx

Mcx

Mycf

py.Zycf

As axial load is zero


Unity factor

Zycf=Iy/(B/10)=11400/(293.8/10)
=388.02 cm3
1

uf=Mx/Mcx+Mycf*10^3/(py*Zycf)
=274.1/2117.8+90.4*10^3/(265*388.02)
=1.0086
The unity relationship is satisfied.
NOTE: This is considered acceptable because the check ignores the
beneficial torsional resistance.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 447. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Design of 'I' beam curved on plan
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC447 BS

Office: 1007
Buckling checks

The effective length for lateral torsional buckling could be taken


as half the developed length of curve (SCI publication "Design of
Curved Steel' Section 6.4.2).
L
_

Curved beam on plan.

A
///
\

B
\\\
/
\

/
\

/ R
\

/
+

Radius of curved beam


Distance between end supports
Depth of curved beam on plan
Angle subtended by curved beam
Length of of curved beam
Effective length to be adopted

Angle theta is angle


subtended by curved
beam in degrees.
A =
B =
///
the

left end support


right end support
= fixed support in
vertical plane.

R=5 m
L=10 m
d=5 m
theta=180
a=15708 mm
Le=Le*1000=7.854*1000=7854 mm

Equivalent uniform moment factors - Clause 4.8.3.3.4

Major axis flexural buckling - Table 26

The factor 'mx' is over the effective length of the curved member
The member is loaded between restraints and the equation given in the
notes to Table 26 is used to determine mx.
Moments on member segment
Quarter point
mx2=-34.5 kNm
Mid-span
mx3=65 kNm
Three quarter point
mx4=-34.5 kNm
Maximum Moment on segment
Mx=274.1 kNm
Maximum moment on central half
M24=65 kNm
Equivalent uniform moment factor mx=0.2+(0.1*mx2+0.6*mx3+0.1*mx4)/Mx
=0.2+(0.1*-34.5+0.6*65+0.1*-34.5)
/274.1
=0.31711
Limiting value of m
mxlim=0.8*M24/Mx=0.8*65/274.1
=0.18971
Minor axis flexural buckling - Table 26

The factor 'my' is over the developed length of the curved member
between restraints to the y-y axis
The member is loaded between restraints and the equation given in the
notes to Table 26 is used to determine my.
Moments on member segment
Quarter point
my2=86.8 kNm
Mid-span
my3=43.7 kNm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 447. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Design of 'I' beam curved on plan
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC447 BS

Office: 1007
Three quarter point
my4=-33.4 kNm
Maximum Moment on segment
Mycf=90.4 kNm
Maximum moment on central half
M24y=86.8 kNm
Equivalent uniform moment factor my=0.2+(0.1*my2+0.6*my3+0.1*my4)/Mycf
=0.2+(0.1*86.8+0.6*43.7+0.1*-33.4)
/90.4
=0.54912
Limiting value of m
mylim=0.8*M24y/Mycf=0.8*86.8/90.4
=0.76814
Revised moment factor
my=mylim=0.76814
Fc

Pc

mx.Mx

Mcx

my.Mycf

py.Zycf

Unity factor

Uf=mx*Mx/Mcx+my*Mycf*10^3/(py*Zycf)
=0.31711*274.1/2117.8+0.76814*90.4
*10^3/(265*388.02)
=0.71636
The interaction formula is satisfied.
Resistance to lateral-torsional buckling - Clause 4.3.6

Slenderness of section
lambda=Le/(ry*10)=7854/(6.2806*10)
=125.05
Buckling parameter
u=(4*Sx^2*(1-Iy/Ix)/(A^2*((D-T)
/10)^2))^0.25
=(4*9160^2*(1-11400/340000)/(289^2
*((850.9-26.8)/10)^2))^0.25
=0.8696
Torsional index
x=0.566*((D-T)/10)*(A/J)^0.5
=0.566*((850.9-26.8)/10)*(289
/514)^0.5
=34.975
Ratio
ratio=lambda/x=125.05/34.975
=3.5754
Slenderness factor
v=1/((1+0.05*ratio^2)^0.25)
=1/((1+0.05*3.5754^2)^0.25)
=0.88378
Ratio w
betaw=1.0
Equivalent slenderness
lamLT=u*v*lambda*(betaw)^0.5
=0.8696*0.88378*125.05*(1)^0.5
=96.106
Limiting slenderness
lamlo=0.4*((PI^2*E*10^3)/py)^0.5
=0.4*((3.1416^2*205*10^3)
/265)^0.5
=34.951
Perry coefficient
etaLT=0.007*(lamLT-lamlo)
=0.007*(96.106-34.951)
=0.42809
Elastic strength
pe=PI^2*E*10^3/(lamLT^2)
=3.1416^2*205*10^3/(96.106^2)
=219.05 N/mm2
Factor
phiLT=(py+(etaLT+1)*pe)/2
=(265+(0.42809+1)*219.05)/2
=288.91 N/mm2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 447. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Design of 'I' beam curved on plan
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC447 BS

Office: 1007
Factor
pey=pe*py=219.05*265=58049
Bending strength
pb=(pey)/(phiLT+((phiLT^2-pey)^0.5))
=(58049)/(288.91+((288.91^2
-58049)^0.5))
=129.47 N/mm2
Buckling resistance moment
Mb=Zx*pb/10^3=7991.5*129.47/10^3
=1034.7 kNm
Clause 4.3.6.6 and Table 18

The member is loaded between restraints and the equation given in the
notes to Table 18 is used to determine mLT.
Moments on member segment
Maximum moment
MLT=274.1 kNm
Quarter point
m2=127 kNm
Mid-span
m3=34.5 kNm
Three quarter point
m4=39 kNm
Equivalent uniform moment factor mLT=0.2+(0.15*m2+0.5*m3+0.15*m4)/MLT
=0.2+(0.15*127+0.5*34.5+0.15*39)
/274.1
=0.35378
Minimum moment factor
mLT=0.44
Fc

Pcy

mLT.MLT

Mb

my.Mycf

py.Zycf

As the axial load is zero


Unity factor

unity=mLT*MLT/Mb+my*Mycf*10^3/(py*Zycf)
=0.44*274.1/1034.7+0.76814*90.4
*10^3/(265*388.02)
=0.79188
The second interaction formula is satisfied.
UNIVERSAL BEAM SECTION
DESIGN
SUMMARY

838 x 292 x 226 UB Grade S 275


Section is satisfactory for axial,
bending, shear, and local capacity,
and overall buckling checks.
Factored shear force
77.6 kN
Shear capacity
2178.2 kN
Vertical moment
274.1 kNm
Moment capacity
2117.8 kNm
Horizontal moment
90.4 kNm
Local capacity check
1.0086 < 1
Buckling resistance
1034.7 kNm
Overall buckling check
0.71636 < 1
0.79188 < 1
No447

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 447. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Design of 'I' beam curved on plan
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC447 EC

Office: 1007
Location: Curved I-beam on plan
z




y y
tw



tf
z

I section beam curved on plan

Beam is curved on plan & design


calculations are in accordance
with BS EN 1993-1-1:2005.
Moment connections are assumed
in the vertical plane and pin
connections on plan. All loads
and moments are factored.

b
Steel section properties

838 x 292 x 226 UKB


Dimensions (mm): h=850.9 b=293.8 tw=16.1 tf=26.8 r=17.8
Properties (cm): Iy=340000 Iz=11400 Wply=9160 Wplz=1210 It=514
A=289 iy=34.3 iz=6.2806
Details of curved section and results from analysis

Radius of curvature of beam


R=5 m
Design moment about yy axis
MyEd=253 kNm (at end connection)
Accompanying design shear force
VzEd=77.6 kN
Maximum radial load
Fa=25.6 kN
The maximum design moments are assumed to act at the same point.
Design horiz.BM in compr.flange
MzEd=90.4 kNm
In order to account for the axial force induced in the beam from the
vertical loading, the bending moment needs to be increased using the
conservative approach that follows.
Increased design vertical moment MyEd=MyEd+(Fa*(h-tf)/1000)
=253+(25.6*(850.9-26.8)/1000)
=274.1 kNm
There is no externally applied axial load on the curved beam.
Design axial load
NEd=0 kN
Strength of steel - Table 3.1 (amended by N.A.)

The material thickness is 26.8 mm and steel grade is S 275.


Yield strength
fy=265 N/mm2
Ultimate strength
fu=410 N/mm2
Young's modulus
E=210000 N/mm2
Shear modulus
G=81000 N/mm2
Partial factors for resistance

Resistance partial factor


Resistance partial factor

gamM0=1.0
gamM1=1.0

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 447. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Design of 'I' beam curved on plan
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC447 EC

Office: 1007
Section classification

Classify outstand element of compression flange:


Parameter (Table 5.2)
e=(235/fy)^0.5=(235/265)^0.5
=0.9417
Outstand
c=(b-tw-2*r)/2=(293.8-16.1-2*17.8)/2
=121.05 mm
Ratio
c't=c/tf=121.05/26.8=4.5168
As c/tf 9e ( 4.5168 8.4753 ), outstand element of compression
flange is classified as Class 1 plastic.
Classify web element of section:
Depth between fillets
C=h-2*(tf+r)=850.9-2*(26.8+17.8)
=761.7 mm
Ratio
C't=C/tw=761.7/16.1=47.311
As C/tw 72e ( 47.311 67.802 ), web element in bending
is classified as Class 1 plastic.
Shear buckling 6.2.6(6)

Depth between flanges


hw=h-2*tf=850.9-2*26.8=797.3 mm
Buckling ratio
hw't=hw/tw=797.3/16.1=49.522
Since hw/tw 72e ( 67.802 ) no check for shear buckling is required.
Shear plastic resistance - Clause 6.2.6

In the absence of torsion the shear plastic resistance depends on:


Shear Area
Avz=A*100-2*b*tf+(tw+2*r)*tf
=289*100-2*293.8*26.8+(16.1+2
*17.8)*26.8
=14538 mm2
Shear plastic resistance
VplRd=Avz*fy/SQR(3)/(gamM0*1000)
=14538*265/SQR(3)/(1*1000)
=2224.3 kN
Design shear force
VzEd=77.6 kN
Since VzEd VplRd ( 77.6 kN 2224.3 kN ) design shear force
within the shear plastic resistance.
Moment resistance - Clause 6.2.5

The moment resistance of the section, McRdy will be limited to


the elastic resistance.
Elastic modulus about yy axis
Wely=Iy/(h/20)=340000/(850.9/20)
=7991.5 cm3
Moment resistance
McRdy=fy*Wely/(gamM0*10^3)
=265*7991.5/(1*10^3)
=2117.8 kNm
Since MyEd McRdy ( 274.1 kNm 2117.8 kNm ) design moment within
the moment resistance.
Compression flange cross-sectional resistance

The minor axis bending capacity is taken as the minor axis bending
capacity of a single flange, because the flange resists the
horizontal bending moments. For simplicity the elastic modulus of
the flange, Welzcf, is taken as half the minor axis elastic modulus
of the whole section.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 447. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Design of 'I' beam curved on plan
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC447 EC

Office: 1007
Elastic modulus of the flange
Welzcf=Iz/(b/10)=11400/(293.8/10)
=388.02 cm3
NEd

Ag.fy

MyEd

McRdy

MzEd

fy.Welzcf

As axial load is zero


Unity factor

uf=MyEd/McRdy+MzEd*10^3/(fy*Welzcf)
=274.1/2117.8+90.4*10^3/(265*388.02)
=1.0086
The unity relationship is satisfied.
NOTE: This is considered acceptable because the check ignores the
beneficial torsional resistance.
Check bi-axial bending - Clause 6.2.9.1(6)

The moment resistance of the section, MyRd and MzRd will be limited to
the elastic resistance.
Design axial resistance
NRd=A*fy/10=289*265/10=7658.5 kN
Design moment of resistance
MyRd=Wely*fy/(gamM0*10^3)
=7991.5*265/(1*10^3)
=2117.8 kNm
Depth between flanges
hw=h-2*tf=850.9-2*26.8=797.3 mm
Web capacity
NRw=hw*tw*fy/1000=797.3*16.1*265/1000
=3401.7 kN
As NEd < 0.25NRd and 0.5NRw
No allowance need be made on the elastic resistance moment.
Resistance moment
MyNRd=MyRd=2117.8 kNm
Design moment of resistance
MzRd=Welzcf*fy/(gamM0*10^3)
=388.02*265/(1*10^3)
=102.83 kNm
No allowance need be made on the elastic resistance moment.
Moment resistance
MzNRd=MzRd=102.83 kNm
Value of power
alp=2
Axial ratio
n=NEd/NRd=0
Value of power
bet=5*n=5*0=0
Value of powers limited
bet=1

MyEd
+
MyNRd

Unity expression

MzEd

MzNRd

unity=(MyEd/MyNRd)^alp+(MzEd
/MzNRd)^bet
=(274.1/2117.8)^2+(90.4/102.83)^1
=0.89591
Section is suitable for the combination of bending and axial force.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 447. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Design of 'I' beam curved on plan
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC447 EC

Office: 1007
Lateral torsional buckling

The effective length for lateral torsional buckling could be taken


as half the developed length of curve (SCI publication "Design of
Curved Steel' Section 6.4.2).
L
_

Beam curved on plan.

A
///
\

B
\\\
/
\

/
\

/ R
\

/
+

Radius of curved beam


Distance between end supports
Depth of curved beam on plan
Angle subtended by curved beam
Length of of curved beam
Effective length for LTB adopted
Effective length parameter
Warping constant
Terms for Critical moment Mcr:
Euler term

Angle theta is angle


subtended by curved
beam in degrees.
A =
B =
///
the

left end support


right end support
= fixed support in
vertical plane.

R=5 m
L=10 m
d=5 m
theta=180
a=15.708 m
LT=7.854 m
K=1
Iw=Iz/4*((h-tf)/10)^2
=11400/4*((850.9-26.8)/10)^2
=19.356E6 cm6

Et=PI^2*E*Iz/(K*LT^2*100)
=3.1416^2*210000*11400/(1*7.854^2
*100)
=3.8304E6 N
Shear modulus term
Gt=K*LT^2*G*It/(PI^2*E*Iz)*10^6
=1*7.854^2*81000*514/(3.1416^2
*210000*11400)*10^6
=108694 mm2
Square root term
Sr=(K^2*Iw*100/Iz+Gt)^0.5
=(1^2*19.356E6*100/11400+108694)^0.5
=527.71 mm
Correction factor
kc=0.9
Coefficient
C1=1/kc^2=1/0.9^2=1.2346
Critical moment
Mcr=C1*Et*Sr/10^6
=1.2346*3.8304E6*527.71/10^6
=2495.5 kNm
Limit the non-dimensional slenderness to the elastic resistance.
Non-dimensional slenderness
lamLT=(Wely*fy/(Mcr*10^3))^0.5
=(7991.5*265/(2495.5*10^3))^0.5
=0.92122
Limiting slenderness value
lamLT0=0.4
As MyEd/Mcr < 0.16 ( 0.10984 < 0.16)
The segment of the beam is not subject to lateral torsional buckling
Modification factor
ChiLT=1.0
The moment resistance will be limited to the elastic resistance.
Design buckling resistance moment MybRd=ChiLT*Wely*fy/(gamM1*10^3)
=1*7991.5*265/(1*10^3)
=2117.8 kNm
As MyEd MybRd ( 274.1 kNm 2117.8 kNm ) section chosen is OK.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 447. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Design of 'I' beam curved on plan
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC447 EC

Office: 1007
UNIVERSAL BEAM
DESIGN
SUMMARY

838 x 292 x 226 UB Grade S 275


Section is satisfactory for axial,
bending, shear, and local capacity,
and overall buckling checks.
Factored shear force
77.6 kN
Design shear resistance
2224.3 kN
Design vert.bending moment 274.1 kNm
Design moment resistance
2117.8 kNm
Buckling resistance moment 2117.8 kNm
Horizontal design moment
90.4 kNm
Interaction factors
0.89591 1
0.26277 1
0.38273 1
No447

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 452. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
I column in simple construction
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC452 BS

Office: 1007
Location: Column 1-2

Mx
F

A
A


x
D

SECTION
A-A

Frame dimensions

Number of storeys
Storey height (bottom storey)
Storey height (elsewhere)
Column centres (average)
Frame centres
Loading

Dead load on roof


Beam 1
Beam 2
Beam 3
Beam 4
Total dead load at roof level
Imposed load on roof
Beam 1
Beam 2
Beam 3
Total imposed load at roof level
Dead load on floors
Beam 1
Beam 2
Beam 3
Total dead load at floor level
Imposed load on floors
Beam 1
Beam 2
Beam 3
Total imposed load at each floor
Assume self weight for the lowest
variations in column heights this
Assumed self wt. of column/storey

I column in 'simple' construction

Calculations are in accordance with


BS5950-1:2000 and 'Steelwork Design
Guide to BS5950' published by SCI.
All beams supported by the column
are assumed to be fully loaded.
Based on Clause 4.7.7 it is not
necessary to consider the effect
of pattern loading.

storey=2
Ht=3 m
ht=6 m
crs=6 m
frs=5 m

dr1=20 kN
dr2=24 kN
dr3=20 kN
dr4=0 kN
deadr=64 kN
ir1=20 kN
ir2=80 kN
ir3=20 kN
impr=120 kN
df1=30 kN
df2=30 kN
df3=30 kN
deadf=90 kN
if1=100 kN
if2=200 kN
if3=100 kN
impf=400 kN
storey of the column. For
value will be proportioned.
sw=7 kN

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 452. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
I column in simple construction
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC452 BS

Office: 1007
COLUMN LOADINGS

Reduction in imposed loading in accordance with BS6399:Pt1:1984


Clause 5.2

Storey
Loading
Total Load
Reduction in
Reduced
Dead
Imposed
Imposed load
Imposed load

2
64 kN
78 kN
0
120 kN
120 kN
120 kN

1
90 kN
175 kN
10 %
400 kN
520 kN
52 kN
468 kN

NB Values are UNFACTORED


STOREY 1

Section properties

203 x 203 x 60 UC.


Dimensions (mm): D=209.6 B=205.8 t=9.4 T=14.2 r=10.2
Properties (cm): Ix=6130 Iy=2070 Sx=656 Sy=305 J=47.2
A=76.4 ry=5.2052 rx=8.9574 Zx=584.92 Zy=201.17
Strength of steel - Clause 3.1.1

The material thickness is 14.2 mm and the steel grade is S 275.


Design strength
py=275 N/mm2
Young's Modulus
E=205 kN/mm2
Factored axial compressive loads

Due to dead and imposed loading

F=1.4*Wd+1.6*Wi=1.4*175+1.6*468
=993.8 kN

Factored bending moment about either axis

Assumed eccentricity of beam loading


from the face of the column
ecc=100 mm
Factored beam loading
Beam 1
dl1=1.4*df1+1.6*if1=1.4*30+1.6*100
=202 kN
Beam 2
dl2=1.4*df2+1.6*if2=1.4*30+1.6*200
=362 kN
Beam 3
dl3=1.4*df3+1.6*if3=1.4*30+1.6*100
=202 kN
Factored Bending Moments

Eccentricity for x-x axis


ex=(D/2+100)/1000=(209.6/2+100)/1000
=0.2048 m
Applied moment
Mxx=(dl2-dl4)*ex=(362-0)*0.2048
=74.138 kNm
Moment is divided in ratio to

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 452. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
I column in simple construction
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC452 BS

Office: 1007
column lengths
Mtd=Mt*ht/(ht+Ht)=74.138*6/(6+3)
=49.425 kNm
No moment about y-y axis
Myy=0
Length of column
L=Ht*1000=3*1000=3000 mm
Classification - Clause 3.5.2

Classify outstand element of compression flange:


Parameter (Table 11 Note b)
e=(275/py)^0.5=(275/275)^0.5
=1
Outstand
b=B/2=205.8/2=102.9 mm
Ratio
b'T=b/T=102.9/14.2=7.2465
As b/T 9e ( 9 ), outstand element of compression
flange is classified as Class 1 plastic.
Classify web of section:
Depth between fillets
d=D-2*(T+r)=209.6-2*(14.2+10.2)
=160.8 mm
Ratio
d't=d/t=160.8/9.4=17.106
Ratio
r1=F*10^3/(d*t*py)
=993.8*10^3/(160.8*9.4*275)
=2.3909
Value limited
r1=1
Web is subject to compression throughout.
Limiting value for Class 1
d'tl1=80*e/(1+r1)=80*1/(1+1)
=40
As d/t d'tl1, web is classified as Class 1 plastic
Slenderness - Clause 4.7.3

Effective length factor


Effective length
Slenderness (minor axis)

ef=0.85
Le=ef*L=0.85*3000=2550 mm
lambda=Le/(ry*10)=2550/(5.2052*10)
=48.989

Compressive strength: Perry strut formula from Annex C

Limiting slenderness
lamb0=0.2*(PI^2*E*1000/py)^0.5
=0.2*(3.1416^2*205*1000/275)^0.5
=17.155
Robertson constant for H section a=5.5 for table 24(c)
Perry factor
eta=0.001*a*(lambda-lamb0)
=0.001*5.5*(48.989-17.155)
=0.17509
Euler strength
pe=PI^2*E*1000/lambda^2
=3.1416^2*205*1000/48.989^2
=843.04 N/mm2
Factor
phi=(py+(eta+1)*pe)/2
=(275+(0.17509+1)*843.04)/2
=632.83 N/mm2
Compressive strength
pc=pe*py/(phi+(phi^2-pe*py)^0.5)
=843.04*275/(632.83+(632.83^2
-843.04*275)^0.5)
=222.18 N/mm2
Compression resistance
Pc=A*pc/10=76.4*222.18/10
=1697.4 kN
Since F Pc ( 993.8 kN 1697.4 kN ), design axial compressive
load does not exceed compression resistance, section OK.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 452. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
I column in simple construction
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC452 BS

Office: 1007
Resistance to lateral-torsional buckling - Clauses 4.3.6 & 4.7.7

Equivalent slenderness
lamLT=0.5*L/(ry*10)
=0.5*3000/(5.2052*10)
=28.817
Limiting slenderness
lamlo=0.4*((PI^2*E*10^3)/py)^0.5
=0.4*((3.1416^2*205*10^3)
/275)^0.5
=34.31
The equivalent slenderness is less than the limiting slenderness.
Bending strength
pb=py=275 N/mm2
Buckling resistance moment
Mbs=Sx*pb/10^3=656*275/10^3
=180.4 kNm
Overall buckling check - Clause 4.7.7

Pc

Mx

Mbs

My

py.Zy

Unity factor

uf=F/Pc+Mx/Mbs+My*10^3/(py*Zy)
=993.8/1697.4+49.425/180.4+0*10^3
/(275*201.17)
=0.85944
The unity relationship is satisfied.
SECTION
DESIGN
SUMMARY

203 x 203 x 60 UKC Grade S 275


Design strength
275 N/mm2
Compressive strength 222.18 N/mm2
Buckling strength
275 N/mm2
Buckling check
0.85944 < 1
Section is satisfactory for bending,
axial load, and overall buckling.

FIRE RESISTANCE - BS 5950-8:2003

Assuming all the dead load is permanent and all the imposed load is
non-permanent.
Load factors:
Load factor for permanent loads
gfp=1.0
The load factor for non-permanent
loads in other areas
gfnp=0.8
Axial compressive load
Ff=gfp*Wd+gfnp*Wi=1*175+0.8*468
=549.4 kN
Beam 1
dl1=gfp*df1+gfnp*if1=1*30+0.8*100
=110 kN
Beam 2
dl2=gfp*df2+gfnp*if2=1*30+0.8*200
=190 kN
Beam 3
dl3=gfp*df3+gfnp*if3=1*30+0.8*100
=110 kN
Factored Bending Moments

Eccentricity for x-x axis


ex=(D/2+100)/1000=(209.6/2+100)/1000
=0.2048 m

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 452. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
I column in simple construction
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC452 BS

Office: 1007
Applied moment
Mxx=(dl2-dl4)*ex=(190-0)*0.2048
=38.912 kNm
Moment is divided in ratio to
column lengths
Mtd=Mt*ht/(ht+Ht)=38.912*6/(6+3)
=25.941 kNm
No moment about y-y axis
Myy=0
Section factor - Clause 8.2

Considering the profile of the exposed section.


In the calculation of the heated perimeter of the steel section
all four sides of the column are exposed
Exposed surface area
Am=4*B+2*D-2*t=4*205.8+2*209.6-2*9.4
=1223.6 mm
Section factor
Am'V=INT(Am/A/0.5)*5
=INT(1223.6/76.4/0.5)*5
=160 /m
Fire resistance without applied protection

Columns are assessed on their load ratio.


The criterion for load
carrying capacity, is that the end of the fire resistance period
the design temperature does not exceed the limiting temperature
temperature given in BS 5950-8:2003 Table 8. For a column the
limiting temperature is dependant on the thickness of the flanges.
For a flange thickness of 14.2 mm.
The value given in Table 9 assumes heating from all four sides.
The design temperature (30 min.) temp=TABLE 9 for T=14.2, column=30
=737.4 deg.C.
The load ratio, R, at the fire limit state is to be calculated from:
Ff
Mfx
Mfy
R = + +
Ag.pc
Mb
py.Zy
Load ratio

R=Ff*1000/(A*100*pc)+Mfx/Mbs+Mfy*10^6/(py*Zy*10^3)
=549.4*1000/(76.4*100*222.18)+25.941/180.4+0*10^6/(275
*201.17*10^3)
=0.46746
Limiting temperature
templ=TABLE 8.1 for section=1, R=0.46746
=591.39 deg.C.
The limiting temperature for unprotected members is 591.39 deg.C.
from Table 8 of the code. This is less than the design temperature
737.4 deg.C. so the unprotected column will have less than 30 minutes
fire resistance.
The design temperature for 15 min temp15=TABLE 9 for T=14.2, column=15
=519.8 deg.C.
The column does however provide 15 minutes resistance.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 452. (ans=1)


Page: 6
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
I column in simple construction
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC452 BS

Office: 1007
FIRE RESISTANCE
SUMMARY

Heated perimeter
1223.6 mm2
Area of section
76.4 cm2
Section factor
160 /m
Load Ratio (R)
0.46746
Section does not have an inherent
fire resistance of 30 minutes.
Fire protection should be provided.
No452

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 452. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
I column in simple construction
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC452 EC

Office: 1007
Location: Access steel example

MyEd
NEd

Column in simple construction

Calculations are in accordance with


BS EN 1993-1-1:2005.
Column is continuous and forms part
of a structure of simple construction
The column is nominally pinned at base
Beams are connected to the column by
"simple" connections.
All loads and moments are factored.

Factored axial compressive load


Factored BM about y-y axis
Factored BM about z-z axis
Length between restraints

NEd=589 kN
MyEd=11.11 kNm
MzEd=0.35 kNm
L=5000 mm (both axes)

Steel section properties

203 x 203 x 46 UKC


Dimensions (mm): h=203.2 b=203.6 tw=7.2 tf=11 r=10.2
Properties (cm): Iy=4570 Iz=1550 Wply=497 Wplz=231 It=22.2
A=58.7 iy=8.8235 iz=5.1386
Strength of steel - Table 3.1 (amended by N.A.)

The material thickness is 11 mm and steel grade is S 275.


Yield strength
fy=275 N/mm2
Ultimate strength
fu=410 N/mm2
Young's modulus
E=210000 N/mm2
Section classification

Classify outstand element of compression flange:


Parameter (Table 5)
e=(235/fy)^0.5=(235/275)^0.5
=0.92442
Outstand
c=(b-tw-2*r)/2=(203.6-7.2-2*10.2)/2
=88 mm
Ratio
c't=c/tf=88/11=8
As c/tf 9e ( 8.3197 ), outstand element of compression
flange is classified as Class 1 plastic.
Classify web element of section:
Depth between fillets
C=h-2*(tf+r)=203.2-2*(11+10.2)
=160.8 mm
Ratio
C't=C/tw=160.8/7.2=22.333
Factor
a=0.5*(1+NEd*10^3/(fy*C*tw))
=0.5*(1+589*10^3/(275*160.8*7.2))
=1.425
Limit value
a=1.0
As C/tw 396e/(13a-1) ( 30.506 ), web element
is classified as Class 1 plastic.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 452. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
I column in simple construction
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC452 EC

Office: 1007
Effective length

Effective length about y-y axis


Effective length about z-z axis
Elastic critical force

Buckling force about y-y axis

Buckling force about z-z axis

Non-dimensional slenderness

Slenderness about y-y axis


Slenderness about z-z axis

Reduction factor

For buckling about y-y axis

Imperfection factor
Factor

Reduction factor y-y axis


For buckling about z-z axis

Imperfection factor
Factor

Reduction factor z-z axis


Reduction factor
Design buckling resistance

Design buckling resistance


Unity factor
Section chosen is suitable.

Lcry=1.0*L=1.0*5000=5000 mm
Lcrz=1.0*L=1.0*5000=5000 mm

Ncry=PI^2*E*Iy*10^7/(Lcry*10^3)^2
=3.1416^2*210000*4570*10^7/(5000
*10^3)^2
=3788.7 kN
Ncrz=PI^2*E*Iz*10^7/(Lcrz*10^3)^2
=3.1416^2*210000*1550*10^7/(5000
*10^3)^2
=1285 kN

lamy=SQR(A*10^2*fy/(Ncry*10^3))
=SQR(58.7*10^2*275/(3788.7*10^3))
=0.65274
lamz=SQR(A*10^2*fy/(Ncrz*10^3))
=SQR(58.7*10^2*275/(1285*10^3))
=1.1208

alpha=0.34
phiy=0.5*(1+alpha*(lamy-0.2)+lamy^2)
=0.5*(1+0.34*(0.65274-0.2)
+0.65274^2)
=0.79
chiy=1/(phiy+SQR(phiy^2-lamy^2))
=1/(0.79+SQR(0.79^2-0.65274^2))
=0.80971
alpha=0.49
phiz=0.5*(1+alpha*(lamz-0.2)+lamz^2)
=0.5*(1+0.49*(1.1208-0.2)
+1.1208^2)
=1.3537
chiz=1/(phiz+SQR(phiz^2-lamz^2))
=1/(1.3537+SQR(1.3537^2-1.1208^2))
=0.4733
chi=0.4733

NbRd=chi*A*fy/10=0.4733*58.7*275/10
=764.02 kN
unity=NEd/NbRd=589/764.02
=0.77092

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 452. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
I column in simple construction
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC452 EC

Office: 1007
Coefficient C1

The member is not loaded between restraints.


Far end BM
psiM=0 kNm
Ratio of moments
psi=0
Length between restraints
LT=L/1000=5000/1000=5 m
Coefficient C1
C1=TABLE 3.1 for psi=0
=1.77
Lateral torsional buckling

Shear modulus
Warping constant
Terms for Critical moment Mcr:
Euler term

G=80770 N/mm2
Iw=Iz/4*((h-tf)/10)^2
=1550/4*((203.2-11)/10)^2
=143146 cm6

Et=PI^2*E*Iz/((LT)^2*100)
=3.1416^2*210000*1550/((5)^2*100)
=1.285E6 N
Load to shear centre distance
zg=h/2=203.2/2=101.6 mm
Shear modulus term
Gt=LT^2*G*It/(PI^2*E*Iz)*10^6
=5^2*80770*22.2/(3.1416^2*210000
*1550)*10^6
=13954 mm2
Square root term
Sr=(Iw*100/Iz+Gt)^0.5
=(143146*100/1550+13954)^0.5
=152.28 mm
Critical moment
Mcr=C1*Et*Sr/10^6
=1.77*1.285E6*152.28/10^6
=346.36 kNm
Non-dimensional slenderness
lamLT=(Wply*fy/(Mcr*10^3))^0.5
=(497*275/(346.36*10^3))^0.5
=0.62818
Limiting slenderness value
lamLT0=0.4
Ratio
h'b=h/b=203.2/203.6=0.99804
As h/b 2, imperfection value
aLT=0.34 (curve b)
Factor
phiLT=0.5*(1+aLT*(lamLT-lamLT0)+0.75*lamLT^2)
=0.5*(1+0.34*(0.62818-0.4)+0.75*0.62818^2)
=0.68677
Modification factor
chiLT=1/(phiLT+(phiLT^2-0.75*lamLT^2)^0.5)
=1/(0.68677+(0.68677^2-0.75
*0.62818^2)^0.5)
=0.90422
Factor
kc=1/(1.33-0.33*psi)=1/(1.33-0.33*0)
=0.75188
Moment distribution factor
f=1-0.5*(1-kc)*(1-2*(lamLT-0.8)^2)
=1-0.5*(1-0.75188)*(1-2*(0.62818
-0.8)^2)
=0.88327
Modified chiLT factor
ChiLT=chiLT/f=0.90422/0.88327
=1.0237
Limiting value
ChiLT=1
Design buckling resistance moment MybRd=ChiLT*Wply*fy/10^3
=1*497*275/10^3
=136.68 kNm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 452. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
I column in simple construction
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC452 EC

Office: 1007
Minor axis

Design Resistance moment


MzRd=Wplz*fy/10^3=231*275/10^3
=63.525 kNm
Interaction equation

NEd
MyEd
MzEd
+ + 1.5 1.0
NbRd
MybRd
MzRd
Unity factor

Unity=NEd/NbRd+MyEd/MybRd+1.5*MzEd/MzRd
=589/764.02+11.11/136.68+1.5*0.35/63.525
=0.86048
Section chosen is suitable.
SECTION
DESIGN
SUMMARY

203 x 203 x 46 UKC Grade


Design axial load
Buckling resistance
Design BM y-y axis
LTB resistance
Design BM z-z axis
Moment resistance (z-z)
Unity factor

S 275
589 kN
764.02 kN
11.11 kNm
136.68 kNm
0.35 kNm
63.525 kNm
0.86048
No452

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 463. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Channel subject to eccentric loading
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC463 BS

Office: 1007
Location: Example 9, 'Beams subject to bending and torsion'.
Simply supported steel channel unrestrained along its length

Calculations are in accordance with BS5950 and 'Beams Subject to


Bending and Torsion' published by The Steel Construction Institute.
The beam is considered as "torsion fixed, warping free".
Uniformly distributed load
w/metre
vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv

AB
_ _
_ _
///
ooo
L
Beam span

L=4 m

Section properties

305 x 102 Tapered Channel.


Dimensions (mm): D=304.8 B=101.6 t=10.2 T=14.8 r=15.2
Properties (cm): Ix=8208 Iy=499 Sx=638 Sy=128 J=35.9
A=58.9 Cy=2.6675 H=84200
Strength of steel - Clause 3.1.1

The material thickness is 14.8 mm


Design strength
Young's Modulus
Poisson's ratio
Shear modulus
Loading

Unfactored eccentric loads:


Dead load
Imposed load
Total load (unfactored)
Factored distributed load

and the steel grade is S 275.


py=275 N/mm2
E=205 kN/mm2
neu=0.3
G=E/(2*(1+neu))=205/(2*(1+0.3))
=78.846 kN/mm2

wd=2 kN/m
wi=0 kN/m
wt=wd+wi=2+0=2 kN/m
w=1.4*wd+1.6*wi=1.4*2+1.6*0
=2.8 kN/m
h=D-T=304.8-14.8=290 mm

Distance between crs. of flanges


Distance between centre of web
and shear centre
eo=((B-t/2)^2*T)/(2*(B-t/2)*T+(h*t)/3)
=((101.6-10.2/2)^2*14.8)/(2*(101.6-10.2
/2)*14.8+(290*10.2)/3)
=35.869 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 463. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Channel subject to eccentric loading
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC463 BS

Office: 1007
load
decc

eo
v



Distance between

shear centre and
section +
+ shear
centre of web
centroid

centre
eo =35.869 mm

Distance to centre of eccentric


load to the back of the channel
Eccentricity

decc=-50 mm
ecc=decc-t/2+eo=-50-10.2/2+35.869
=-19.231 mm
Eccentricity value must be positive,
Eccentricity
ecc=-ecc=19.231 mm
Shear force

Axial loading (inc.self weight)


Shear force
Factored moment

Maximum bending moment


Corresponding shear force

sw=0.7 kN/m (factored)


Fv=(sw+w)*L/2=(0.7+2.8)*4/2
=7 kN

M=(w+sw)*L^2/8=(2.8+0.7)*4^2/8
=7 kNm
F=0 kN

Section classification

Since a simply supported beam is not required to have any plastic


rotation capacity, it is sufficient to ensure that the section is
compact.
Parameter (Table 11 Note b)
e=(275/py)^0.5=(275/275)^0.5
=1
Outstand
b=B=101.6 mm
Ratio
b'T=b/T=101.6/14.8=6.8649
Compact limiting value of ratio
b'Tlim=10*e=10*1=10
b/T ratio within limiting value of 10e.
Depth between fillets
d=D-2*(T+r)=304.8-2*(14.8+15.2)
=244.8 mm
Ratio
d't=d/t=244.8/10.2=24
Compact limiting value of ratio
d'tlim=100*e=100*1=100
d/t ratio within limiting value of 100e.
Therefore section is at least compact.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 463. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Channel subject to eccentric loading
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC463 BS

Office: 1007
Shear buckling

Since d/t < 70e no check for shear buckling is required.


Web shear

Shear area
Shear capacity

Av=D*t=304.8*10.2=3109 mm2
Pv=0.6*py*Av/10^3=0.6*275*3109/10^3
=512.98 kN
Design shear force
Fv=7 kN
Since Fv Pv ( 7 kN 512.98 kN ) shear force within
shear capacity.
Buckling resistance

Beam is considered as being unrestrained along its length.


The end conditions are assumed to be simply supported for bending
and free for warping.
Effective length - Clause 4.3.5.1

Compression flange laterally restrained.


Nominal torsional restraint about longitudinal axis.
Both flanges free to rotate on plan.
Normal loading conditions therefore
Effective length (Table 13)
Le=1.0*L*1000=1.0*4*1000
=4000 mm
Resistance to lateral-torsional buckling - Clause 4.3.6

Radius gyration about minor axis ry=SQR(Iy/A)=SQR(499/58.9)


=2.9107 cm
Slenderness of section
lambda=Le/(ry*10)=4000/(2.9107*10)
=137.43
Factor
gamma=1-Iy/Ix=1-499/8208
=0.93921
Torsional index
x=1.132*(A*H/(Iy*J))^0.5
=1.132*(58.9*84200/(499*35.9))^0.5
=18.835
Buckling parameter
u=(Iy*Sx^2*gamma/(A^2*H))^0.25
=(499*638^2*0.93921/(58.9^2
*84200))^0.25
=0.89896
Ratio
ratio=lambda/x=137.43/18.835
=7.2963
Slenderness factor
v=1/((1+0.05*ratio^2)^0.25)
=1/((1+0.05*7.2963^2)^0.25)
=0.7229
Ratio w
betaw=1.0
Equivalent slenderness
lamLT=u*v*lambda*(betaw)^0.5
=0.89896*0.7229*137.43*(1)^0.5
=89.306
Limiting slenderness
lamlo=0.4*((PI^2*E*10^3)/py)^0.5
=0.4*((3.1416^2*205*10^3)
/275)^0.5
=34.31

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 463. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Channel subject to eccentric loading
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC463 BS

Office: 1007
Perry coefficient
etaLT=0.007*(lamLT-lamlo)
=0.007*(89.306-34.31)
=0.38498
Elastic strength
pe=PI^2*E*10^3/(lamLT^2)
=3.1416^2*205*10^3/(89.306^2)
=253.68 N/mm2
Factor
phiLT=(py+(etaLT+1)*pe)/2
=(275+(0.38498+1)*253.68)/2
=313.17 N/mm2
Factor
pey=pe*py=253.68*275=69762
Bending strength
pb=(pey)/(phiLT+((phiLT^2-pey)^0.5))
=(69762)/(313.17+((313.17^2
-69762)^0.5))
=144.9 N/mm2
Buckling resistance moment
Mb=Sx*pb/10^3=638*144.9/10^3
=92.449 kNm
For a uniformly distributed load
Equivalent uniform moment factor mLT=0.925
Since M Mb/mLT ( 7 kNm 99.945 kNm ) section O.K. for
lateral torsional buckling resistance.
Check section for combined bending and torsion

Negative angle of twist due to torsional loading


Torsional bending constant
a=((E*H)/(G*J))^0.5*10
=((205*84200)/(78.846*35.9))^0.5*10
=780.9 mm
Torsional moment
Tq=-w*L*ecc/10^3=-2.8*4*19.231/10^3
=-0.21539 kNm
Length of beam
L'=L*1000=4*1000=4000 mm
Distance along member
z=L'/2=4000/2=2000 mm
Hyperbolic sine of z/a
t1=SNH(z/a)=SNH(2000/780.9)
=6.4367
Hyperbolic tangent of L/2a
t2=TNH(L'/(2*a))=TNH(4000/(2*780.9))
=0.98815
Hyperbolic cosine of z/a
t3=CSH(z/a)=CSH(2000/780.9)
=6.5139
term
t4=L'^2/(2*a^2)*(z/L'-(z^2/L'^2))
=4000^2/(2*780.9^2)*(2000/4000
-(2000^2/4000^2))
=3.2797
Angle of twist
phi=Tq*a/(G*J*10)*a/L'*(t4+t3-t2*t1-1)
=-0.21539*780.9/(78.846*35.9*10)
*780.9/4000*(3.2797+6.5139-0.98815
*6.4367-1)
=-0.0028228 rad
Torsional moment (y-y axis)
Myt=-M*phi=-7*-0.0028228
=0.019759 kNm
Torsional bending stress (y-y)
fbyt=Myt*(B-Cy*10)/Iy*10^2
=0.019759*(101.6-2.6675*10)/499
*10^2
=0.29669 N/mm2
Second derivative of phi
phi''=Tq/(G*J*10*a)*a/L'*(-1+t3-t2*t1)
=-0.21539/(78.846*35.9*10
*780.9)*780.9/4000*(-1+6.5139
-0.98815*6.4367)
=1.6103E-9

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 463. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Channel subject to eccentric loading
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC463 BS

Office: 1007
Normalised warping function
Wno=(B-t/2-eo)*h/200
=(101.6-10.2/2-35.869)*290/200
=87.916 cm2
Torsional stress in flange
fw=E*10^3*Wno*10^2*phi''
=205*10^3*87.916*10^2*1.6103E-9
=2.9022 N/mm2
(i) Buckling Check

Equation 2.21
M

Mb/mLT

( fbyt + fw )
0.5 M
1 +
py

Mb/mLT

1.0

Equation 2.21

uf=mLT*M/Mb+((fbyt+fw)/py)*(1+0.5*mLT*M/Mb)
=0.925*7/92.449+((0.29669+2.9022)/275)*(1
+0.5*0.925*7/92.449)
=0.082079
Since uf 1, Section is adequate for buckling.
(ii) Local "Capacity" Check

Equation 2.22
fbx + fbyt + fw py
where:
bending normal stress
combined stress
Since fcb py ( 16.196 N/mm2

fbx=M*(D/2)/Ix*100
=7*(304.8/2)/8208*100
=12.997 N/mm2
fcb=fbx+fbyt+fw=12.997+0.29669+2.9022
=16.196 N/mm2
275 N/mm2 ), section is suitable.

Determination of angle of twist

It is sufficient to obtain the maximum angle of twist at working


load, phiw, by replacing the value of torque Tq with the working load
value as phi is linearly dependant on Tq. Since Tq has been factored
then multiplying by the appropriate ratio of applied to factored
load(s) will give:
Angle of twist at working load
phiw=ABS(phi)*wt/w
=ABS(-0.0028228)*2/2.8
=0.0020163 rad
in degrees
phiw'=DEG(phiw)=0.11552 deg
On the assumption that a maximum twist of 2 degrees is acceptable
at working load, in this instance the beam is satisfactory.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 463. (ans=1)


Page: 6
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Channel subject to eccentric loading
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC463 BS

Office: 1007
Check deflection

Working imposed load


w'=wi=0 kN/m
Actual midspan deflection
del=5*w'*L^4/(384*E*Ix)*10^5
=5*0*4^4/(384*205*8208)*10^5
=0 mm
From Table 8
Limiting deflection (brittle)
delp=L*1000/360=4*1000/360
=11.111 mm
Actual deflection does not exceed the permissible deflection, beam
chosen is suitable.
SECTION
PROPERTIES
DESIGN
SUMMARY

305 x 102 Grade S 275


Tapered Flange Channel
Applied shear force
7 kN
Shear capacity
512.98 kN
Applied moment
7 kNm
Buckling resistance
92.449 kNm
Buckling check
0.082079 1
Combined bending str. 16.196 N/mm2
Design strength
275 N/mm2
Midspan deflection
0 mm
Limiting deflection
11.111 mm
No463

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 463. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Channel subject to eccentric loading
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC463 EC

Office: 1007
Location: Example 4 'Design of steel beams in torsion'
Simply supported steel channel unrestrained along its length

Calculations are in accordance with BS EN 1993-1-1: 2005 and 'Design


of Steel Beams in Torsion' published by SCI.
The beam is considered as "torsion fixed, warping free".
Uniformly distributed load
w/metre
vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv

AB
_ _
_ _
///
ooo
L
Beam span

L=5 m

Section properties

300 x 100 UKPFC


Dimensions (mm): h=300 b=100 tw=9 tf=16.5 r=15
Properties (cm): Iy=8230 Iz=568 Wply=641 Wplz=148 It=36.8
A=58 Cy=3.0477 Iw=81300
Strength of steel - Table 3.1 (amended by N.A.)

The material thickness is 16.5 mm and steel grade is S 275.


Yield strength
fy=265 N/mm2
Ultimate strength
fu=410 N/mm2
Young's modulus
E=210000 N/mm2
Shear modulus
G=81 kN/mm2
Section classification

Classify outstand element of compression flange:


Parameter (Table 5.2)
e=(235/fy)^0.5=(235/265)^0.5
=0.9417
Outstand
c=b-tw-r=100-9-15=76 mm
Ratio
c't=c/tf=76/16.5=4.6061
As c/tf 9e ( 4.6061 8.4753 ), outstand element of compression
flange is classified as Class 1 plastic.
Depth between fillets
C=h-2*(tf+r)=300-2*(16.5+15)
=237 mm
Ratio
C't=C/tw=237/9=26.333
As C/tw 33e ( 26.333 31.076 ), web element in compression
is classified as Class 1 plastic.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 463. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Channel subject to eccentric loading
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC463 EC

Office: 1007
Loading

Unfactored eccentric loads:


Permanent load
wd=5.18 kN/m
Variable (non-permanent) load
wi=0 kN/m
Total load (unfactored)
wt=wd+wi=5.18+0=5.18 kN/m
Factored distributed load
w=1.35*wd+1.5*wi=1.35*5.18+1.5*0
=6.993 kN/m (NA.A1.2)
Distance between crs. of flanges d=h-tf=300-16.5=283.5 mm
Distance between centre of web
and shear centre
eo=((b-tw/2)^2*tf)/(2*(b-tw/2)*tf+(d*tw)/3)
=((100-9/2)^2*16.5)/(2*(100-9/2)*16.5+(283.5
*9)/3)
=37.602 mm
load
decc

eo
v




section +
+ shear
centroid

centre

Distance between
shear centre and
centre of web
eo =37.602 mm

Distance to centre of eccentric


load to the back of the channel
Eccentricity

decc=-70 mm
ecc=decc-tw/2+eo=-70-9/2+37.602
=-36.898 mm
Eccentricity value must be positive,
Eccentricity
ecc=-ecc=36.898 mm
Shear force

Axial loading (inc.self weight)


Shear force
Factored moment

Maximum bending moment


Corresponding shear force

sw=5 kN/m (factored)


Fv=(sw+w)*L/2=(5+6.993)*5/2
=29.983 kN

M=(w+sw)*L^2/8=(6.993+5)*5^2/8
=37.478 kNm
F=0 kN

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 463. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Channel subject to eccentric loading
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC463 EC

Office: 1007
Design value of torsion effects

Allowing for elastic interaction between St Venant torsion and


warping torsion.
Torsional bending constant
a=((E/10^3*Iw)/(G*It))^0.5*10
=((210000/10^3*81300)/(81
*36.8))^0.5*10
=756.81 mm
Torsional moment
Td=w*L*ecc/10^3=6.993*5*36.898/10^3
=1.2901 kNm
Length of beam
L'=L*1000=5*1000=5000 mm
Distance along member
z=L'/2=5000/2=2500 mm
Hyperbolic sine of z/a
t1=SNH(z/a)=SNH(2500/756.81)
=13.583
Hyperbolic tangent of L/2a
t2=TNH(L'/(2*a))=TNH(5000/(2*756.81))
=0.9973
Hyperbolic cosine of z/a
t3=CSH(z/a)=CSH(2500/756.81)
=13.62
term
t4=L'^2/(2*a^2)*(z/L'-(z^2/L'^2))
=5000^2/(2*756.81^2)*(2500/5000
-(2500^2/5000^2))
=5.456
Angle of twist
phi=Td*a/(G*It*10)*a/L'*(t4+t3-t2*t1-1)
=1.2901*756.81/(81*36.8*10)*756.81
/5000*(5.456+13.62-0.9973*13.583-1)
=0.022457 rad
Minor axis moment
MzEd=M*phi=37.478*0.022457
=0.84164 kNm
Warping moment
Second derivative of phi
phi''=-Td/(G*It*10*a)*a/L'*(-1+t3-t2*t1)*10^6
=-1.2901/(81*36.8*10*756.81)*756.81/5000*(-1
+13.62-0.9973*13.583)*10^6
=0.0080207 rad/m2
Warping moment at mid-span
MwEd=E*Iw*phi''*10^-6/(h-tf)
=210000*81300*0.0080207*10^-6
/(300-16.5)
=0.48302 kNm
Bending resistance

Design bending moment


Bending resistance moment (y-y)
Bending resistance moment (z-z)

MyEd=37.478 kNm
MyRd=Wply*fy/10^3=641*265/10^3
=169.87 kNm
MzRd=Wplz*fy/10^3=148*265/10^3
=39.22 kNm

Shear plastic resistance - Clause 6.2.6

In the absence of torsion the shear plastic resistance:


Shear Area
Avz=A*100-2*b*tf+(tw+r)*tf
=58*100-2*100*16.5+(9+15)*16.5
=2896 mm2
Shear plastic resistance
VplRd=Avz*fy/SQR(3)/1000
=2896*265/SQR(3)/1000
=443.08 kN

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 463. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Channel subject to eccentric loading
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC463 EC

Office: 1007
Reduced shear resistance in the presence of torsion

At support
z=0 mm

To calculate phi' at support


Hyperbolic tangent of L/2a
t2=0.9973
Term for phi'
p'=a/L'*(L'/(2*a)-t2)
=756.81/5000*(5000/(2*756.81)
-0.9973)
=0.34905
Derivative of phi
phi'=Td/(G*It)*p'*100
=1.2901/(81*36.8)*0.34905*100
=0.015107 rad/m
Stresses due to pure torsion:
in web
ttEd=G*tw*phi'=81*9*0.015107
=11.013 N/mm2
Hyperbolic cosine of z/a
t5'=CSH(0)=1
Third derivative
phi'''=Td/(G*It*a^2)*a/L'*-t2*1E8
=1.2901/(81*36.8*756.81^2)*756.81/5000
*-0.9973*1E8
=-0.011407 rad/m3
Warping statical moment
Sw=(h-tf)*b^2*tf/16
=(300-16.5)*100^2*16.5/16
=2.9236E6 mm4
Shear stress due to warping
twEd=-E*Sw*phi'''*1E-9/tw
=-210000*2.9236E6*-0.011407*1E-9/9
=0.77815 N/mm2
Reduction factor
tr1=(1-ttEd*(3)^0.5/(1.25*fy))^0.5
=(1-11.013*(3)^0.5/(1.25*265))^0.5
=0.97078
Reduction factor
tr2=twEd*3^0.5/fy=0.77815*3^0.5/265
=0.005086
Reduced shear plastic resistance VTRd=(tr1-tr2)*VplRd
=(0.97078-0.005086)*443.08
=427.88 kN
As shear force less than shear plastic resistance, OK.
Lateral torsional buckling

Non-dimensional slenderness

lamLT=L*100/(iz*96)=5*100/(3.1294*96)
=1.6643
Imperfection value (curve d)
aLT=0.76
Limiting slenderness value
lamLT0=0.4
Factor
phiLT=0.5*(1+aLT*(lamLT-lamLT0)+0.75*lamLT^2)
=0.5*(1+0.76*(1.6643-0.4)+0.75*1.6643^2)
=2.0192
Modification factor
chiLT=1/(phiLT+(phiLT^2-0.75*lamLT^2)^0.5)
=1/(2.0192+(2.0192^2-0.75
*1.6643^2)^0.5)
=0.29127
Design Buckling resistance moment MbRd=chiLT*Wply*fy/10^3
=0.29127*641*265/10^3
=49.476 kNm
Unity factor
unitb=MyEd/MbRd=37.478/49.476
=0.7575
Section chosen is suitable for lateral torsional buckling.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 463. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Channel subject to eccentric loading
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC463 EC

Office: 1007
Interaction of LTB with minor axis bending and torsion

MyEd
Cmz.MzEd
kw.kzw.ka.MwEd
+ +
MbRd
MzRd
MwRd

Equivalent uniform moment factor


Critical moment

Cmz=0.95
Mcr=Wply*fy/(lamLT^2*1000)
=641*265/(1.6643^2*1000)
=61.323 kNm
Warping resistance of one flange MwRd=(b^2*tf/4)*fy/10^6
=(100^2*16.5/4)*265/10^6
=10.931 kNm
Factor
kw=0.7-0.2*MwEd/MwRd
=0.7-0.2*0.48302/10.931
=0.69116
kzw=1-2*MzEd/MzRd=1-2*0.84164/39.22
=0.95708
ka=1/(1-MyEd/Mcr)=1/(1-37.478/61.323)
=2.5717
Unity expression
ut=MyEd/MbRd+Cmz*MzEd/MzRd+kw*kzw*ka*MwEd/MwRd
=37.478/49.476+0.95*0.84164/39.22+0.69116
*0.95708*2.5717*0.48302/10.931
=0.85306
Section chosen is suitable.
There are no commonly agreed limits for total deflections and the
angle of twist to which the beam can be subjected. Values of both
have been calculated their suitability is for the designer's
judgement.
Determination of angle of twist

The angle of twist at the serviceability limit state is determined


by considering the maximum value phi and dividing by the relevant
partial safety factor.
Angle of twist at SLS
phiw=ABS(phi)/gamma
=ABS(0.022457)/1.35
=0.016635
in degrees
phiw'=DEG(phiw)=0.9531 deg
Deflection

Combined working load


Actual midspan deflection

wt=wt+sw/gamma=5.18+5/1.35
=8.8837 kN/m
del=5*wt*L^4/(384*E*Iy)*10^8
=5*8.8837*5^4/(384*210000*8230)
*10^8
=4.1831 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 463. (ans=1)


Page: 6
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Channel subject to eccentric loading
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC463 EC

Office: 1007
SECTION
300 x 100 Grade S 275
PROPERTIES
Parallel Flange Channel
Shear force
29.983 kN
Shear resistance
427.88 kN
DESIGN
Applied Moment
37.478 kNm
SUMMARY
Buckling resistance
49.476 kNm
LTB interaction
0.85306 1
Midspan deflection
4.1831 mm
Angle of twist
0.9531 deg
No463

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 482. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Angle seat connection
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC482 BS

Office: 1007
Connection: Example 8.3.1, 'Manual on Connections'
Seating bracket

The analysis of the connection is based on the procedure used in


the BCSA publication 'Manual on connections'. Standard angle
section is used for the seating bracket.

Stability cleat
not shown

Factored vertical load on bracket


Bolt grade
Grade of angle seat
Grade of supporting member
Grade of supported member

Calculations are in accordance


with BS5950-1:2000 Section 6.

V=254 kN
bgrade=8.8
agrade=275
sgrade=275
grade=275

Bracket details

150 x 90 x 10 mm Unequal Angle.


Dimensions (mm): A=150 B=90 T=10 r=12
Bolt group connecting the angle seat to supporting member

Diameter of bolts
db=20 mm
Number of bolts to be used
bn=4

o
o

o
o
/
o
o

e2

pitch

Pitch of bolts vertically


End distance
Clearance hole diameter

pitch=55 mm
e2=55 mm
Dh=db+2=20+2=22 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 482. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Angle seat connection
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC482 BS

Office: 1007
Column details

254 x 254 x 73 UC.


Bs=254.6 ts=8.6 Ts=14.2
Thickness of connected ply
ts'=Ts=14.2 mm
Bolts in shear

Shear strength from Table 30


Shear area

ps=375 N/mm2
As=TABLE 1.1 for db=20
=245 mm2
Shear capacity per bolt
Ps=ps*As/10^3=375*245/10^3
=91.875 kN
Shear per bolt
Fs=V/bn=254/4=63.5 kN
As Fs Ps ( 63.5 kN 91.875 kN ), then shear load in bolt
is within shear capacity, and M 20 bolt is suitable.

Bolt group strength in bearing

The bearing capacity is taken as the lesser of:


(1) Bearing capacity of the bolt
Bearing strength of bolts
pbb=1000 N/mm2 from Table 31
Controlling thickness of ply
tt=10 mm
Bearing capacity of bolt
Pbb=db*tt*pbb/10^3=20*10*1000/10^3
=200 kN
(2) Bearing capacity of the connected ply
Bearing strngth of connected ply pbs=TABLE 32 for agrade=275
=460 N/mm2
Bearing capacity is lesser of
Pbs1=db*tt*pbs/10^3=20*10*460/10^3
=92 kN
or
Pbs2=0.5*e2*tt*pbs/10^3
=0.5*55*10*460/10^3
=126.5 kN
Bearing capac of connected ply
Pbs=Pbs1=92 kN
Bearing capacity
Pb=Pbs=92 kN
Since Fs Pb ( 63.5 kN 92 kN ), maximum load per bolt
within the bearing capacity.
Supported beam details

533 x 210 x 92 UB.


Dimensions (mm): Dc=533.1 Bc=209.3 tc=10.1 Tc=15.6 rc=12.7
Bearing strength of the seating bracket

This is investigated at the root of the angle seat. A 45 degree load


dispersion from the supported beam root is used.
Dispersion length at U/S of beam Tus=Tc+T+r=15.6+10+12=37.6 mm
Dispersion length at seat root
Leb=2*Tus+tc+1.172*rc
=2*37.6+10.1+1.172*12.7
=100.18 mm
Length of seating bracket
ls=120 mm
Dispersion length less than seat length.
Bearing strength
pyw=275 N/mm2
Bearing capacity at root of seat Pcr=Leb*T*pyw/10^3=100.18*10*275/10^3
=275.51 kN

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 482. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Angle seat connection
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC482 BS

Office: 1007
As V Pcr ( 254 kN 275.51 kN ), shear force within bearing
capacity at root of seat.
Hence the design of the seating bracket connection is OK.
Bearing of supported beam

End clearance
Bearing length

g=INT(T*2/3)=INT(10*2/3)
=6 mm
b1=INT(2*T+0.8*r)-g
=INT(2*10+0.8*12)-6
=23 mm

Bearing capacity of web - Clause 4.5.2.1

b1
b

Stiff bearing
length 'b1'.
r

Thickness
Distance to end of member
Support factor

k=rc+Tc=12.7+15.6=28.3 mm
be=0 mm
n=2+0.6*be/k=2+0.6*0/28.3
=2
For steel grade S 275 and web thickness 10.1 mm
Design strength
pyw=275 N/mm2
Bearing capacity of web
Pbw=(b1+n*k)*tc*pyw/10^3
=(23+2*28.3)*10.1*275/10^3
=221.09 kN
As V > Pbw ( 254 kN > 221.09 kN ), a bearing stiffener is required.
Buckling capacity of web - Clause

Stiff bearing length


Distance to nearer end of member
Depth of web

4.5.3.1

b1=23 mm
ae=be+b1/2=0+23/2=11.5 mm
d=Dc-2*(Tc+rc)=533.1-2*(15.6+12.7)
=476.5 mm
Parameter
e=(275/pyw)^0.5=(275/275)^0.5
=1
Factor
px=(ae+0.7*d)/(1.4*d)
=(11.5+0.7*476.5)/(1.4*476.5)
=0.51724
Buckling resistance
Px=px*25*e*tc/((b1+n*k)*d)^0.5*Pbw
=0.51724*25*1*10.1/((23+2*28.3)
*476.5)^0.5*221.09
=148.26 kN
As V > Px ( 254 kN > 148.26 kN ), a buckling stiffener is required.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 482. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Angle seat connection
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC482 BS

Office: 1007
SEATING BRACKET
SUMMARY
LEG CONNECTED
TO SUPPORTING
MEMBER
SUPPORTED BEAM
END DETAILS

SUPPORTING COLUMN

150 mm x 90 mm x 10 mm Angle
Grade S 275 x 120 mm long
Number of bolts
4
Diameter of bolts
M 20 Grade 8.8
Pitch vertically
55 mm
End distance
55 mm
533 x 210 x 92 UB
End clearance
6 mm
Bearing length 'b1'
23 mm
Applied flange force 254 kN
Local web capacity
221 kN
Web buckling capacity 148 kN
Bearing stiffeners are required.
254 x 254 x 73 UC
No482

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 482. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Angle seat connection
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC482 EC

Office: 1007
Connection: Ex1 - From 'Manual on Connections'
Seating bracket

The analysis of the connection assumes that a standard angle section


is used for the seating bracket.

Stability cleat
not shown

VEd

Calculations are in accordance


with EC3 Parts 1-5 and 1-8.
The stability cleat will provide
torsional resistance against
lateral buckling of the beam
and will resist tie and erection
forces. The seating cleat will
resist the vertical load.

Factored vertical load on bracket


Bolt grade
Grade of angle seat
Grade of supporting member
Grade of supported member

VEd=254 kN
bgrade=8.8
agrade=275
sgrade=275
grade=275

Bracket details

150 x 90 x 10 mm Unequal Angle (Advance UKA)


Dimensions (mm): h=150 b=90 t=10 r=12
Bolt group connecting the angle seat to supporting member

Diameter of bolts
db=20 mm
Number of bolts to be used
bn=4
Clearance hole diameter
do=db+2=20+2=22 mm
e2p2e2

SECTION

o
o

o
o

p1

e1

ELEVATION

Distance to first row of bolts


Pitch of bolts vertically

p=55 mm
p1=55 mm

Four bolt
connection.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 482. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Angle seat connection
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC482 EC

Office: 1007
The following spacings are based on EC3 Part 1-8 (2005):
Minimum p2 spacing
p2=90 mm
Maximum p2 spacing
p2=140 mm
Minimum e1 spacing
e1=1.2*do=1.2*22=26.4 mm
Maximum e1 spacing
e1=4*t+40=4*10+40=80 mm
Minimum e2 spacing
e2=1.2*do=1.2*22=26.4 mm
Maximum e2 spacing
e2=4*t+40=4*10+40=80 mm
Supporting column details

254 x 254 x 73 UKC


Dimensions (mm): bsc=254.6 twsc=8.6 tfsc=14.2
Thickness of connected ply
ts'=tfsc=14.2 mm
Bolts in shear

Shear force per bolt


Factor
Tensile area of bolt
Bolt ultimate tensile strength
Shear resistance of bolt

FvEd=VEd/bn=254/4=63.5 kN
av=0.6
As=245 mm2
fub=800 N/mm2
FvRd=av*fub*As/(gamM2*10^3)
=0.6*800*245/(1.25*10^3)
=94.08 kN
As FvEd FvRd ( 63.5 kN 94.08 kN ), maximum load per bolt
within shear resistance.

Bolt group strength in bearing

For the bearing resistance check the lesser thickness of ply will be
taken as the controlling thickness.
Controlling thickness of ply
tcon=10 mm (angle seat)
Controlling design strength
fyas=275 N/mm2
Controlling ultimate strength
fuas=410 N/mm2
Factor
k1a=2.8*e2/do-1.7=2.8*80/22-1.7
=8.4818
Factor
k1b=1.4*p2/do-1.7=1.4*140/22-1.7
=7.2091
Limiting factor
k1=2.5
Ratios for factor ab
ab1=e1/(3*do)=80/(3*22)=1.2121
ab2=p1/(3*do)-1/4=55/(3*22)-1/4
=0.58333
ab3=fub/fuas=800/410=1.9512
ab4=e1/(3*do)=80/(3*22)=1.2121
Factor
ab=0.58333
Bearing resistance
FbRd=k1*ab*fuas*db*tcon/(1.25*10^3)
=2.5*0.58333*410*20*10/(1.25*10^3)
=95.667 kN
As FbRd > 0.8 FvRd then
Resistance of the bolt group
FRd=0.8*bn*FvRd=0.8*4*94.08
=301.06 kN
As FRd VEd ( 301.06 kN 254 kN ), end plate OK in bearing.
Supported beam details

533 x 210 x 92 UKB


Dimensions (mm): hsb=533.1 bsb=209.3 twsb=10.1 tfsb=15.6 rsb=12.7

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 482. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Angle seat connection
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC482 EC

Office: 1007
Bearing strength of the seating bracket

This is investigated at the root of the angle seat. A 45 degree load


dispersion from the supported beam root is used.
Dispersion length at U/S of beam Tus=tfsb+t+r=15.6+10+12=37.6 mm
Dispersion length at seat root
Leb=2*Tus+twsb+1.172*rsb
=2*37.6+10.1+1.172*12.7
=100.18 mm
Length of seating bracket
ls=120 mm
Dispersion length less than seat length.
Bearing strength
fyw=275 N/mm2
Bearing resist. at root of seat
FbRds=Leb*t*fyw/10^3
=100.18*10*275/10^3
=275.51 kN
As VEd FbRds ( 254 kN 275.51 kN ), shear force within bearing
resistance at root of seat.
Hence the design of the seating bracket connection is OK.
Web resistance to transverse forces - BS EN 1993-1-5:2006

Bearing strength (supported beam) fy=275 N/mm2


Depth between the flanges
hw=hsb-2*tfsb=533.1-2*15.6
=501.9 mm
Young's modulus
E=210000 N/mm2
The load is applied through one flange adjacent to an unstiffened end
as per Figure 6.1, load application Type c.
The length of stiff bearing ss on the flange is the length over which
the load is effectively distributed at a slope of 1:1 (Clause 6.3.(1)).
Stiff bearing length
ss=23 mm
Stiff bearing position
C=0 mm
Factor kf
kf=2+6*((ss+C)/hw)=2+6*((23+0)/501.9)
=2.275
Effective length
le=kf*E*tw^2/(2*fy*hw)
=2.275*210000*10.1^2/(2*275*501.9)
=176.54 mm
Limited value
le=ss+C=23+0=23 mm
Factor
m1=b/tw=209.3/10.1=20.723 mm
Consider
m2=0
Length
ly1=ss+2*tf*(1+(m1+m2)^0.5)
=23+2*15.6*(1+(20.723+0)^0.5)
=196.23 mm
Length
ly2=le+tf*(m1/2+(le/tf)^2+m2)^0.5
=23+15.6*(20.723/2+(23/15.6)^2
+0)^0.5
=78.232 mm
Length
ly3=le+tf*(m1+m2)^0.5
=23+15.6*(20.723+0)^0.5
=94.015 mm
Smallest length
ly=78.232 mm
Critical force
Fcr=0.9*kf*E*tw^3/hw
=0.9*2.275*210000*10.1^3/501.9
=882636 N
Non-dimensional slenderness
lamf=(ly*tw*fy/Fcr)^0.5
=(78.232*10.1*275/882636)^0.5
=0.49617

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 482. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3
Made by: IFB
Angle seat connection
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC482 EC

Office: 1007
Reduction factor
chiF=1.0
Effective length
Leff=chiF*ly=1*78.232=78.232 mm
Design resistance
FRd=fy*Leff*tw/10^3
=275*78.232*10.1/10^3
=217.29 kN
Design resistance of the web is less than the design transverse force
applied to the web ( 254 kN ). Bearing stiffeners are required.
SEATING BRACKET
SUMMARY
LEG CONNECTED
TO SUPPORTING
MEMBER
SUPPORTED BEAM
END DETAILS

SUPPORTING COLUMN

150 mm x 90 mm x 10 mm Angle
Grade S 275 x 120 mm long
Number of bolts
4
Diameter of bolts
M 20 Grade 8.8
Pitch vertically
55 mm
end distance
55 mm
533 x 210 x 92 UKB
End clearance
6 mm
Bearing length 'ss'
23 mm
Applied flange force 254 kN
Web resistance
217 kN
Bearing stiffeners are required.
254 x 254 x 73 UKC
No482

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 505. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Wall panel
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC505 BS

Office: 1007
Masonry wall panel to BS5628 (Table 8)

Location: Wall on grid line A/1-2


Calculations in accordance with BS5628-1:2005

Panel reference C
in BS5628 Table 8

XX
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
XX
/ / / / / / / / / / /

L
Masonry details

Length of wall panel


L=4 m
Height of wall panel
h=3 m
Outer leaf density
den(1)=10 kN/m3
Thickness of outer leaf
t(1)=100 mm
Inner leaf density
den(2)=10 kN/m3
Thickness of inner leaf
t(2)=100 mm
Mortar designation (Table 1)
mortar=3
Outer leaf (1=clay 2=calc silicate 3=conc brick 4=block)
typ(1)=4
Concrete Blocks
compressive strength
po(1)=10.4 N/mm2
Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure and leaf not exceeding
100mm thick - Table 3
fb(a)=TABLE 3.7 for po=10.4, mortar=3
=0.25 N/mm2
Characteristic flexural strength for perp failure and leaf not exceeding
100mm thick - Table 3
fp(a)=TABLE 3.8 for po=10.4, mortar=3
=0.75 N/mm2
Inner leaf (1=clay 2=calc silicate 3=conc brick 4=block)
typ(2)=4
Concrete Blocks
compressive strength
po(2)=10.4 N/mm2
Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure and leaf not exceeding
100mm thick - Table 3
fb(a)=TABLE 3.7 for po=10.4, mortar=3
=0.25 N/mm2
Characteristic flexural strength for perp failure and leaf not exceeding
100mm thick - Table 3
fp(a)=TABLE 3.8 for po=10.4, mortar=3
=0.75 N/mm2
Partial safety factor materials
gammam=3
Design parameters

Effective thickness
Ratio

tef=(2/3)*(t(1)+t(2))=(2/3)*(100+100)
=133.33 mm
h'L=h/L=3/4=0.75

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 505. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Wall panel
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC505 BS

Office: 1007
Limiting dimensions

50 times effective thickness

limit=50*tef/1000=50*133.33/1000
=6.6667 m
Panel height within maximum allowable (Clause 32.3).
Panel length within maximum allowable (Clause 32.3).
Area of panel
area=h*L=3*4=12 m2
Panel supported on three edges with two or more continuous edges.
Permitted maximum area
limit=1500*(tef/1000)^2
=1500*(133.33/1000)^2
=26.667 m2
Panel area within allowable (Clause 32.3).
Loading details

Characteristic wind load per unit area


WL=0.85 kN/m2
Removal of panel would not affect stability.
Partial safety factor for loads
gammaf=1.2
Outer leaf allowable loads

Bending

Enhance orthogonal strength ratio by allowing for the effects of


self weight at mid height of the panel and any additional dead loads
applied to the top of this leaf.
Self weight vert load /unit area gas=0.9*den(a)*(h/2)/10^3
=0.9*10*(3/2)/10^3
=0.0135 N/mm2
Additional vert DL on panel
w(1)=0 kN/m
Orthogonal strength ratio
mu=(fb(a)+gammam*gas)/fp(a)
=(0.25+3*0.0135)/0.75
=0.38733
Section modulus
Z=1000*t(a)^2/6=1000*100^2/6
=1.6667E6 mm3/m
Design moment of resistance
Md=fp(a)*Z/(gammam*10^6)
=0.75*1.6667E6/(3*10^6)
=0.41667 kNm/m
Bending moment coefficient
alpha=TABLE 8.03 for mu=0.38733, h'L
=0.75
=0.044253
Allowable load on leaf (bending) L(1)=Md/(alpha*gammaf*L^2)
=0.41667/(0.044253*1.2*4^2)
=0.49039 kN/m2
Shear

Design load/unit area at found


Charact shear strength at found
Charact shear strength at side
Partial safety factor for shear

ga=2*gas+gaa=2*0.0135+0=0.027 N/mm2
fvf=0.15+0.6*ga=0.15+0.6*0.027
=0.1662 N/mm2
fvs=0.35 N/mm2
gammav=2.5

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 505. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Wall panel
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC505 BS

Office: 1007
Des shear strength wall at found gvf=fvf/gammav=0.1662/2.5
=0.06648 N/mm2
Des shear strength wall at sides gvs=fvs/gammav=0.35/2.5=0.14 N/mm2
Allowable load in shear at found Lf(1)=gvf*L*t(a)=0.06648*4*100
=26.592 kN
Allow load in shear side of wall Ls(1)=gvs*h*t(a)=0.14*3*100
=42 kN
Inner leaf allowable loads

Bending

Enhance orthogonal strength ratio by allowing for the effects of


self weight at mid height of the panel and any additional dead loads
applied to the top of this leaf.
Self weight vert load /unit area gas=0.9*den(a)*(h/2)/10^3
=0.9*10*(3/2)/10^3
=0.0135 N/mm2
Additional vert DL on panel
w(2)=0 kN/m
Orthogonal strength ratio
mu=(fb(a)+gammam*gas)/fp(a)
=(0.25+3*0.0135)/0.75
=0.38733
Section modulus
Z=1000*t(a)^2/6=1000*100^2/6
=1.6667E6 mm3/m
Design moment of resistance
Md=fp(a)*Z/(gammam*10^6)
=0.75*1.6667E6/(3*10^6)
=0.41667 kNm/m
Bending moment coefficient
alpha=TABLE 8.03 for mu=0.38733, h'L
=0.75
=0.044253
Allowable load on leaf (bending) L(2)=Md/(alpha*gammaf*L^2)
=0.41667/(0.044253*1.2*4^2)
=0.49039 kN/m2
Shear

Design load/unit area at found


Charact shear strength at found
Charact shear strength at side
Partial safety factor for shear
Des shear strength wall at found
Des shear strength wall at sides
Allowable load in shear at found
Allow load in shear side of wall

ga=2*gas+gaa=2*0.0135+0=0.027 N/mm2
fvf=0.15+0.6*ga=0.15+0.6*0.027
=0.1662 N/mm2
fvs=0.35 N/mm2
gammav=2.5
gvf=fvf/gammav=0.1662/2.5
=0.06648 N/mm2
gvs=fvs/gammav=0.35/2.5=0.14 N/mm2
Lf(2)=gvf*L*t(a)=0.06648*4*100
=26.592 kN
Ls(2)=gvs*h*t(a)=0.14*3*100
=42 kN

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 505. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Wall panel
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC505 BS

Office: 1007
Bending check

Allowable lateral load


Lmax=L(1)+L(2)=0.49039+0.49039
=0.98078 kN/m2
Wall satisfactory - WL Lmax ( 0.85 kN/m2 0.98078 kN/m2 )
characteristic wind load less than allowable.
Provide wall ties capable of transferring 0.35961 kN/m2 (Char'c Load)
Shear check

Max area panel support on sides


Design shear on side wall

sarea=h*L/2=3*4/2=6 m2
Vs=sarea*gammaf*WL=6*1.2*0.85
=6.12 kN
Max area panel supported on found farea=L*h=4*3=12 m2
Design shear on foundation
Vf=farea*gammaf*WL=12*1.2*0.85
=12.24 kN
Allowable load on side of wall
Ls=Ls(1)+Ls(2)=42+42=84 kN
Allow load at foundation of wall Lf=Lf(1)+Lf(2)=26.592+26.592
=53.184 kN
Since Vs Ls ( 6.12 kN 84 kN ) design shear on side of wall
is within allowable.
Since Vf Lf ( 12.24 kN 53.184 kN ) design shear at foundation
of wall is within allowable.
DESIGN SUMMARY

Panel length
Panel height
OUTER LEAF
Thickness
Char flex strength (bed)
Char flex strength (perp)
INNER LEAF
Thickness
Char flex strength (bed)
Char flex strength (perp)
Effective wall thickness
Char wind pressure
Char wind capacity (bend)
Design shear on sides
Shear strength of sides
Design shear on founds
Shear strength of founds
Material safety factor
Load safety factor

4 m
3 m
100 mm
0.25 N/mm2
0.75 N/mm2
100 mm
0.25 N/mm2
0.75 N/mm2
133.33 mm
0.85 kN/m2
0.98078 kN/m2
6.12 kN
84 kN
12.24 kN
53.184 kN
3
1.2
No505

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 505. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Wall panel
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC505 EC

Office: 1007
Masonry wall panel to EC6 Part 1-1 (Annex E)

Location: Wall on grid line A/1-2


Calculations in accordance with EC6 Part 1-1 Annex E

Panel reference C
in EC6 Annex E

XX
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
X
XX
/ / / / / / / / / / /

L
Masonry details

Length of wall panel


L=4 m
Height of wall panel
h=3 m
Outer leaf density
den(1)=10 kN/m3
Thickness of outer leaf
t(1)=100 mm
Inner leaf density
den(2)=10 kN/m3
Thickness of inner leaf
t(2)=100 mm
Mortar designation (Table NA.2)
mortar=3
Outer leaf (1=clay 2=calc silicate 3=conc brick 4=block)
typ(1)=4
Concrete Blocks
Compressive strength of units
po(1)=10.4 N/mm2
Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure and leaf not exceeding
100mm thick - Table NA.6
fxk11=TABLE 6.7 for po=10.4, mortar=3
=0.25 N/mm2
Characteristic flexural strength for perp failure and leaf not exceeding
100mm thick - Table NA.6
fxk21=TABLE 6.8 for po=10.4, mortar=3
=0.75 N/mm2
Inner leaf (1=clay 2=calc silicate 3=conc brick 4=block)
typ(2)=4
Concrete Blocks
Compressive strength of units
po(2)=10.4 N/mm2
Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure and leaf not exceeding
100mm thick - Table NA.6
fxk12=TABLE 6.7 for po=10.4, mortar=3
=0.25 N/mm2
Characteristic flexural strength for perp failure and leaf not exceeding
100mm thick - Table NA.6
fxk22=TABLE 6.8 for po=10.4, mortar=3
=0.75 N/mm2
Removal of wall panel would not affect the overall stability.
Partial safety factor for loads
gamQ=1.5
Partial safety factor (material) gamM=2.4
Design parameters

Effective thick of cavity wall


Ratio

tef=((t1')^3+(t2')^3)^0.3333
=((100)^3+(100)^3)^0.3333
=125.93 mm
h'L=h/L=3/4=0.75

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 505. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Wall panel
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC505 EC

Office: 1007
Limiting dimensions to Annex F

The limiting height and length dimensions for walls are given in EC6
Part 1-1 Annex F. This Annex is applicable as each leaf of cavity wall
has a thickness 100 mm.
Panel limiting dimensions are in accordance with EC6 Annex F
Figure F.3.
Loading details

Characteristic wind load per unit area

Qkw=0.85 kN/m2

Outer leaf allowable loads

Bending

Enhance orthogonal strength ratio by allowing for the effects of


self weight at mid height of the panel and any additional dead loads
applied to the top of this leaf.
Self weight vert load /unit area gas=0.9*den(a)*(h/2)/10^3
=0.9*10*(3/2)/10^3
=0.0135 N/mm2
Additional vert DL on panel
w(1)=0 kN/m
Orthogonal strength ratio
mu=(fxk11+gamM*gas)/fxk21
=(0.25+2.4*0.0135)/0.75
=0.37653
Section modulus
Z=1000*t(a)^2/6=1000*100^2/6
=1.6667E6 mm3/m
Design moment of resistance
Mrd=fxk21*Z/(gamM*10^6)
=0.75*1.6667E6/(2.4*10^6)
=0.52083 kNm/m
Bending moment coefficient
alpha=TABLE 18.03 for mu
=0.37653, h'L=0.75
=0.044469
Allowable load on leaf (bending) L(1)=Mrd/(alpha*gamQ*L^2)
=0.52083/(0.044469*1.5*4^2)
=0.48801 kN/m2
Shear

Height of outer leaf units


Shape factor (outer leaf)

hu(1)=215 mm
delta1=TABLE 1 for h1=215, t1=100
=1.38
Normalised comp strength of units fbn=delta1*po(1)=1.38*10.4
=14.352 N/mm2
Design load/unit area at found
ga=2*gas+gaa=2*0.0135+0=0.027 N/mm2
The characteristic initial shear strength of masonry fvko from
EC6 NA Table NA.5 is
fvko=0.15 N/mm2
Charact shear strength at found
fvf=fvko+0.4*ga=0.15+0.4*0.027
=0.1608 N/mm2
Charact shear strength at side
fvs=fvko=0.15 N/mm2
Partial safety factor for shear
gammav=2.5
Des shear strength wall at found gvf=fvf/gammav=0.1608/2.5
=0.06432 N/mm2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 505. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Wall panel
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC505 EC

Office: 1007
Des shear strength wall at sides gvs=fvs/gammav=0.15/2.5=0.06 N/mm2
Allowable load in shear at found Lf(1)=gvf*L*t(a)=0.06432*4*100
=25.728 kN
Allow load in shear side of wall Ls(1)=gvs*h*t(a)=0.06*3*100
=18 kN
Inner leaf allowable loads

Bending

Enhance orthogonal strength ratio by allowing for the effects of


self weight at mid height of the panel and any additional dead loads
applied to the top of this leaf.
Self weight vert load /unit area gas=0.9*den(a)*(h/2)/10^3
=0.9*10*(3/2)/10^3
=0.0135 N/mm2
Additional vert DL on panel
w(2)=0 kN/m
Orthogonal strength ratio
mu=(fxk12+gamM*gas)/fxk22
=(0.25+2.4*0.0135)/0.75
=0.37653
Section modulus
Z=1000*t(a)^2/6=1000*100^2/6
=1.6667E6 mm3/m
Design moment of resistance
Mrd=fxk22*Z/(gamM*10^6)
=0.75*1.6667E6/(2.4*10^6)
=0.52083 kNm/m
Bending moment coefficient
alpha=TABLE 18.03 for mu
=0.37653, h'L=0.75
=0.044469
Allowable load on leaf (bending) L(2)=Mrd/(alpha*gamQ*L^2)
=0.52083/(0.044469*1.5*4^2)
=0.48801 kN/m2
Shear

Height of inner leaf units


Shape factor (inner leaf)

hu(2)=215 mm
delta2=TABLE 1 for h2=215, t2=100
=1.38
Normalised comp strength of units fbn=delta2*po(2)=1.38*10.4
=14.352 N/mm2
Design load/unit area at found
ga=2*gas+gaa=2*0.0135+0=0.027 N/mm2
The characteristic initial shear strength of masonry fvko from
EC6 NA Table NA.5 is
fvko=0.15 N/mm2
Charact shear strength at found
fvf=fvko+0.4*ga=0.15+0.4*0.027
=0.1608 N/mm2
Charact shear strength at side
fvs=fvko=0.15 N/mm2
Partial safety factor for shear
gammav=2.5
Des shear strength wall at found gvf=fvf/gammav=0.1608/2.5
=0.06432 N/mm2
Des shear strength wall at sides gvs=fvs/gammav=0.15/2.5=0.06 N/mm2
Allowable load in shear at found Lf(2)=gvf*L*t(a)=0.06432*4*100
=25.728 kN
Allow load in shear side of wall Ls(2)=gvs*h*t(a)=0.06*3*100
=18 kN

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 505. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Wall panel
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC505 EC

Office: 1007
Bending check

Allowable lateral load


Lmax=L(1)+L(2)=0.48801+0.48801
=0.97602 kN/m2
Wall satisfactory - Qkw Lmax ( 0.85 kN/m2 0.97602 kN/m2 )
characteristic wind load less than allowable.
Provide wall ties capable of transferring 0.36199 kN/m2 (Char'c Load)
Shear check

Max area panel support on sides


Design shear on side wall

sarea=h*L/2=3*4/2=6 m2
Vs=sarea*gamQ*Qkw=6*1.5*0.85
=7.65 kN
Max area panel supported on found farea=L*h=4*3=12 m2
Design shear on foundation
Vf=farea*gamQ*Qkw=12*1.5*0.85
=15.3 kN
Allowable load on side of wall
Ls=Ls(1)+Ls(2)=18+18=36 kN
Allow load at foundation of wall Lf=Lf(1)+Lf(2)=25.728+25.728
=51.456 kN
Since Vs Ls ( 7.65 kN 36 kN ) design shear on side of wall
is within allowable.
Since Vf Lf ( 15.3 kN 51.456 kN ) design shear at foundation
of wall is within allowable.
DESIGN SUMMARY

Panel length
Panel height
OUTER LEAF
Thickness
Char flex strength (bed)
Char flex strength (perp)
INNER LEAF
Thickness
Char flex strength (bed)
Char flex strength (perp)
Effective wall thickness
Char wind pressure
Char wind capacity (bend)
Design shear on sides
Shear strength of sides
Design shear on founds
Shear strength of founds
Material safety factor
Load safety factor

4 m
3 m
100 mm
0.25 N/mm2
0.75 N/mm2
100 mm
0.25 N/mm2
0.75 N/mm2
125.93 mm
0.85 kN/m2
0.97602 kN/m2
7.65 kN
36 kN
15.3 kN
51.456 kN
2.4
1.5
No505

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 528. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Simplified sub-frame analysis to EC6
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC528 EC

Office: 1007
Location: Wall panel 3
BS EN 1996-1-1:2005, Annex C, gives a simplified method for calculating
the out-of-plane eccentricity of loading on masonry walls. The structure
is simplified to a sub-frame for the evaluation of moments at the top
and bottom of the wall.
Partial safety factors

Permanent actions
Variable actions

gamG=1.35
gamQ=1.5

Masonry and floor details

Mortar designation (Table NA.2)


mortar=3
Masonry type (1=clay 2=cal silicate 3=conc brick 4=block) typ(1)=4
Compressive strength of units
po=7.3 N/mm2
Masonry made with general purpose mortar.
Value for constant
alp(1)=0.7
Value for constant
bet(1)=0.3
Compressive strength of mortar
fm=4 N/mm2
Constant K from NA Table NA.4
K(1)=0.75
Wall to be constructed using Group 1 masonry units.
Height of masonry unit
hu=215 mm
Least horiz. dimension of units
lhd=140 mm
Shape factor
delta=TABLE 1 for hu=215, lhd=140
=1.3
Characteristic comp.strength
fk(1)=K(a)*(po*delta)^alp(a)*fm^bet(a)
=0.75*(7.3*1.3)^0.7*4^0.3
=5.4924 N/mm2
Modulus of elasticity (masonry)
Em=fk(a)*1000=5.4924*1000
=5492.4 N/mm2
Modulus of elasticity (floor)
Ef=36000 N/mm2
Moment at the top of wall - (at node point A)

(4)
/
A/ roof
M1 /
/
/
1 & 4 are member numbers
/
M1 = moment at top of wall
/
(1)
A-B = represents the wall
/

under consideration
B
\\\
Masonry Wall 1

Wall thickness
Wall clear height
Modulus of elasticity
2nd moment of area

t1'=140 mm
h1'=2800 mm
E1'=5492.4 N/mm2
I1'=1000*t1'^3/12=1000*140^3/12
=228.67E6 mm4

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 528. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Simplified sub-frame analysis to EC6
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC528 EC

Office: 1007
compute
c1=E1'*I1'/h1'*1E-6
=5492.4*228.67E6/2800*1E-6
=448.55 kNm
Roof slab 4

Floor thickness
Length of member 4
Modulus of elasticity
2nd moment of area
compute
compute
Factor from Annex C(3)
Use minimum value
Fixed end moment (member 3)
Char permanent load on member 4
Char variable load on member 4
Design UDL on member 4
Fixed end moment member 4
Design moment at the top of wall

t4'=200 mm
l4'=6500 mm
E4'=36000 N/mm2
I4'=0.85*1000*t4'^3/12
=0.85*1000*200^3/12
=566.67E6 mm4
c4=E4'*I4'/l4'*1E-6
=36000*566.67E6/6500*1E-6
=3138.5 kNm
km=c4/c1=3138.5/448.55=6.997
eta=1-km/4=1-6.997/4=-0.74924
eta=0.5
m3=0 kNm
Gk4'=4.3 kN/m2
Qk4'=1.5 kN/m2
w4=gamG*Gk4'+gamQ*Qk4'
=1.35*4.3+1.5*1.5
=8.055 kN/m
m4=w4*l4'^2*1E-6/12
=8.055*6500^2*1E-6/12
=28.36 kNm
M1=eta*c1/(c1+c4)*(m3-m4)
=0.5*448.55/(448.55+3138.5)*(0
-28.36)
=-1.7732 kNm/m

Moment at the bottom of the wall - (at node point B)

\\\
A

/
(2) /
/
/
1 ,2 & 4 are member numbers
/

(4)
/
M2 = moment at bot of wall
M2 / floor
A-B = represents the wall
B
under consideration

(1)

\\\
Masonry wall 1

Wall thickness
t1=140 mm
Wall clear height
h1=2800 mm
Modulus of elasticity of wall
E1=5492.4 N/mm2
2nd moment of area of wall
I1=1000*t1^3/12=1000*140^3/12
=228.67E6 mm4

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 528. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Simplified sub-frame analysis to EC6
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC528 EC

Office: 1007
compute
c1=E1*I1/h1*1E-6
=5492.4*228.67E6/2800*1E-6
=448.55 kNm
Masonry wall 2

Wall thickness
Wall height
Modulus of elasticity of wall
2nd moment of area of wall
compute
Floor slab member 4

Floor thickness
Length of member 4
Modulus of elasticity
2nd moment of area
compute
compute
Factor Annex C(3)
Use minimum value
Fixed end moment (member 3)
Char permanent load on member 4
Char variable load on member 4
Design UDL on member 4
Fixed end moment member 4
Design moment at the bot of wall

Moment at mid-height of the wall

Moment at mid-height of wall

t2=140 mm
h2=2800 mm
E2=5492.4 N/mm2
I2=228.67E6 mm4
c2=448.55 kNm

t4=200 mm
l4=6500 mm
E4=36000 N/mm2
I4=0.85*1000*t4^3/12
=0.85*1000*200^3/12
=566.67E6 mm4
c4=E4*I4/l4*1E-6
=36000*566.67E6/6500*1E-6
=3138.5 kNm
km=c4/(c1+c2)=3138.5/(448.55+448.55)
=3.4985
eta=1-km/4=1-3.4985/4=0.12538
eta=0.5
m3=0 kNm
Gk4=4.3 kN/m2
Qk4=3.5 kN/m2
w4=gamG*Gk4+gamQ*Qk4=1.35*4.3+1.5*3.5
=11.055 kN/m
m4=w4*l4^2*1E-6/12
=11.055*6500^2*1E-6/12
=38.923 kNm
M2=eta*c2/(c1+c2+c4)*(m3-m4)
=0.5*448.55/(448.55+448.55+3138.5)
*(0-38.923)
=-2.1631 kNm/m

Mmd=(M1-M2)/2=(-1.7732--2.1631)/2
=0.19497 kNm/m

Eccentricity of roof load

The eccentricity of roof load on masonry wall can be evaluated by


dividing the design moment at the top of wall by the design vertical
load at the top of the wall.
Design vert. load @ top of wall
Nid=26.3 kN/m
Eccentricity of roof load
ecc=ABS(M1)*1000/Nid
=ABS(-1.7732)*1000/26.3
=67.422 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 528. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Simplified sub-frame analysis to EC6
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC528 EC

Office: 1007
DESIGN SUMMARY

Wall clear height


Wall thickness
Eccentricity of floor load
Design moment (top of wall)
Design moment @ mid-height
Design moment (bot of wall)

2800 mm
140 mm
67.422 mm
-1.7732 kNm/m
0.19497 kNm/m
-2.1631 kNm/m
No528

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 530. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
External cavity wall
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC530 BS

Office: 1007
Location: Wall on grid line A/1-2

Load(1) Load(2)

Load(3)




WL

Masonry details

Thickness of outer leaf


Density of outer leaf
Thickness of inner leaf
Density of inner leaf
Clear height of wall
Effective thick of cavity wall
Support Restraint factor
Effective height of wall
Slenderness ratio
Length of wall panel
Mortar designation to Table 1
Partial Safety Factor Material

External cavity wall

This calculation is based on


BS5628-1:2005, the Code of
practice for use of masonry,
Part 1: Structural use of
unreinforced masonry.
WL = wind load

t(1)=100 mm
den(1)=12.4 kN/m3
t(2)=140 mm
den(2)=12.4 kN/m3
h=2.425 m
tef=2*(t(1)+t(2))/3=2*(100+140)/3
=160 mm
rf=0.75
heff=rf*h=0.75*2.425=1.8188 m
SR=heff*1000/tef=1.8188*1000/160
=11.367
L=4 m
mortar=3
gammam=3.1

Outer Leaf:
Masonry type (1=clay 2=cal silicate 3=conc brick 4=block) typ(1)=1
Compressive Strength of Units
po(1)=21 N/mm2
Water absorption %age of leaf
water=9
Char comp strength - Table 2(a)
fk(a)=TABLE 2.1 for mortar=3, po=21
=5.13 N/mm2
Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure - Table 3
fb(a)=TABLE 3.1 for water=9, mortar=3
=0.4 N/mm2
Inner Leaf:
Masonry type (1=clay 2=cal silicate 3=conc brick 4=block) typ(2)=4
Compressive Strength of Units
po(2)=3.6 N/mm2
Height
hb(2)=215 mm
Least horizontal dimension
lhd(2)=140 mm
ratio height/least horiz. dim
rb=hb(2)/lhd(2)=215/140=1.5357

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 530. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
External cavity wall
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC530 BS

Office: 1007
Characteristic compressive strength
for ratios of 0.6 - Table 2(c)
Fk1=TABLE 2.3 for mortar=3, po=3.6
=1.7 N/mm2
for ratios of 2.0 - Table 2(d)
Fk2=TABLE 2.4 for mortar=3, po=3.6
=3.5 N/mm2
for ratios of 1.5357
fk(2)=Fk1+(Fk2-Fk1)*(rb-0.6)/1.4
=1.7+(3.5-1.7)*(1.5357-0.6)/1.4
=2.9031 N/mm2
Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure (Table 3) and leaf
not exceeding 100mm thick
fb=TABLE 3.7 for po=3.6, mortar=3
=0.25 N/mm2
greater than 250mm thick
fb'=TABLE 3.71 for po=3.6, mortar=3
=0.15 N/mm2
leaf in range 100-250 mm
fb(2)= fb+(fb'-fb)*(t-100)/150
= 0.25+(0.15-0.25)*(140-100)/150
=0.22333 N/mm2
Characteristic loads

Loads on outer leaf:


Dead load from upper levels

DL(1)=4 kN/m

Loads on inner leaf:


Dead load from upper levels
Live load from upper levels
Dead load from supported floor
Live load from supported floor
Ecc of floor load on inner leaf

DL(2)=7 kN/m
LL(2)=5.5 kN/m
DL(3)=12 kN/m
LL(3)=5 kN/m
ecc=23.333 mm

Horizontal wind load

WL=0.62 kN/m2

Vertical load capacity

For an external cavity wall it is only necessary to check the inner


leaf which carries the majority of load.
At top of Wall:
Case 1: Max load from above

Design vertical load

1.4DL + 1.6LL

g=1.4*(DL(2)+DL(3))+1.6*(LL(2)+LL(3))
=1.4*(7+12)+1.6*(5.5+5)
=43.4 kN/m
Design bending moment
M=(1.4*DL(3)+1.6*LL(3))*ecc/1000
=(1.4*12+1.6*5)*23.333/1000
=0.57866 kNm
Resultant eccentricity
ex=M/g=0.57866/43.4=0.013333 m
Eccentricity ratio
e=ex*1000/t(2)=0.013333*1000/140
=0.095237
Capacity reduction factor
beta=TABLE 7 for SR=11.367, e=0.095237
=0.87978
Design vert. load resist of wall gd=beta*(t(2)/1000)*(fk(2)*1000)
/gammam
=0.87978*(140/1000)*(2.9031*1000)
/3.1
=115.34 kN/m
Since g gd ( 43.4 kN/m 115.34 kN/m ) design vertical load

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 530. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
External cavity wall
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC530 BS

Office: 1007
within vertical load resistance of wall, therefore OK.
Case 2: Min load from above

Design vertical load

0.9DL + 1.6LL

g=0.9*DL(2)+1.4*DL(3)+1.6*(LL(2)
+LL(3))
=0.9*7+1.4*12+1.6*(5.5+5)
=39.9 kN/m
Design bending moment
M=(1.4*DL(3)+1.6*LL(3))*ecc/1000
=(1.4*12+1.6*5)*23.333/1000
=0.57866 kNm
Resultant eccentricity
ex=M/g=0.57866/39.9=0.014503 m
Eccentricity ratio
e=ex*1000/t(2)=0.014503*1000/140
=0.10359
Capacity reduction factor
beta=TABLE 7 for SR=11.367, e=0.10359
=0.86551
Design vert. load resist of wall gd=beta*(t(2)/1000)*(fk(2)*1000)
/gammam
=0.86551*(140/1000)*(2.9031*1000)
/3.1
=113.47 kN/m
Since g gd ( 39.9 kN/m 113.47 kN/m ) design vertical load
within vertical load resistance of wall, therefore OK.
Lateral load capacity

Select Case(b) of Clause 18 of the Code: 0.9DL+1.4WL


Vertical loads at mid height of panel:
On inner leaf
DLi=DL(2)+DL(3)+den(2)*(h/2)*(t(2)
/1000)
=7+12+12.4*(2.425/2)*(140/1000)
=21.105 kN/m
On outer leaf
DLo=DL(1)+den(1)*(h/2)*(t(1)/1000)
=4+12.4*(2.425/2)*(100/1000)
=5.5035 kN/m
Design compressive stress in wall:
For inner leaf
gdi=0.9*DLi/t(2)=0.9*21.105/140
=0.13567 N/mm2
For outer leaf
gdo=0.9*DLo/t(1)=0.9*5.5035/100
=0.049532 N/mm2
Effective characteristic flexural strength (Clause 32.4.2):
For inner leaf
Fb(2)=fb(2)+gammam*gdi
=0.22333+3.1*0.13567
=0.64392 N/mm2
For outer leaf
Fb(1)=fb(1)+gammam*gdo
=0.4+3.1*0.049532
=0.55355 N/mm2
Section modulus inner leaf
Zi=1000*t(2)^2/6=1000*140^2/6
=3.2667E6 mm3
Moment of resist for inner leaf
Mri=Fb(2)*Zi/(gammam*10^6)
=0.64392*3.2667E6/(3.1*10^6)
=0.67854 kNm/m
Section modulus outer leaf
Zo=1000*t(1)^2/6=1000*100^2/6
=1.6667E6 mm3
Moment of resist for outer leaf
Mro=Fb(1)*Zo/(gammam*10^6)
=0.55355*1.6667E6/(3.1*10^6)
=0.29761 kNm/m

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 530. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
External cavity wall
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC530 BS

Office: 1007
For both leaves
Mr=Mri+Mro=0.67854+0.29761
=0.97615 kNm/m
Design moment (simple supports)
M=1.4*WL*h^2/8=1.4*0.62*2.425^2/8
=0.63805 kNm/m
Moment reduction factor for end fixity =1.0 for simply supported ends
or propped cantilever
=1.5 for fully fixed ends
Moment reduction factor
mrf=1
Elastic design moment
M=M/mrf=0.63805/1=0.63805 kNm/m
Since M Mr ( 0.63805 kNm/m 0.97615 kNm/m ) elastic design
moment within design moment of resistance, therefore OK.
DESIGN SUMMARY
OUTER LEAF
INNER LEAF

Wall height
Thickness
Char. flex strength
Char. comp strength
Thickness
Char flex strength
Char. comp strength
Effective wall thickness
Effective wall height
Slenderness ratio
Max vertical design load
Vertical load resistance
Vertical load (max ecc)
Vertical load resistance
Wind pressure
Elastic design moment
Moment of resistance

2.425 m
100 mm
0.4 N/mm2
5.13 N/mm2
140 mm
0.22333 N/mm2
2.9031 N/mm2
160 mm
1.8188 m
11.367
43.4 kN
115.34 kN
39.9 kN
113.47 kN
0.62 kN/m2
0.63805 kNm
0.97615 kNm
No530

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 530. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
External cavity wall
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC530 EC

Office: 1007
Location: Wall on grid line A/1-2

Load(1) Load(2)

Load(3)




Wk




Masonry details

Thickness of outer leaf


Density of outer leaf
Thickness of inner leaf
Density of inner leaf
Clear height of wall
between lateral restraints
Effective thick of cavity wall
Support Restraint factor
Effective height of wall
Slenderness ratio
Length of wall panel
Mortar designation (Table NA.2)
Material partial safety factor

External cavity wall

This calculation is in accordance


with EC6, the structural Eurocode
for design of masonry structures
Part 1-1:2005 General rules for
reinforced & unreinforced masonry
structures.
Wk = wind load or wind suction

t(1)=100 mm
den(1)=12.4 kN/m3
t(2)=140 mm
den(2)=12.4 kN/m3
h=2.425 m
tef=((t1')^3+(t2')^3)^0.3333
=((100)^3+(140)^3)^0.3333
=155.2 mm
rf=0.75
hef=rf*h=0.75*2.425=1.8188 m
SR=hef*1000/tef=1.8188*1000/155.2
=11.719
L=4 m
mortar=3
gamM=3

Outer Leaf:
Masonry type (1=clay 2=cal silicate 3=conc brick 4=block) typ(1)=1
Compressive strength of units
po(1)=21 N/mm2
Water absorption %age of leaf
water=9
Masonry made with general purpose mortar.
Value for constant
alp(1)=0.7
Value for constant
bet(1)=0.3
Compressive strength of mortar
fm=4 N/mm2
Constant K from NA Table NA.4
K(1)=0.5
Wall to be constructed using Group 1 masonry units.
Height of masonry unit
hu(1)=65 mm
Least horiz. dimension of units
lhd(1)=100 mm
Shape factor
delta=TABLE 1 for hu=65, lhd=100
=0.85
Characteristic comp strength
fk(1)=K(a)*(po*delta)^alp(a)*fm^bet(a)
=0.5*(21*0.85)^0.7*4^0.3
=5.6982 N/mm2
Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure - Table NA.6
fxk11=TABLE 6.1 for water=9, mortar=3
=0.4 N/mm2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 530. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
External cavity wall
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC530 EC

Office: 1007
Inner Leaf:
Masonry type (1=clay 2=cal silicate 3=conc brick 4=block) typ(2)=4
Compressive strength of units
po(2)=3.6 N/mm2
Masonry made with general purpose mortar.
Value for constant
alp(2)=0.7
Value for constant
bet(2)=0.3
Compressive strength of mortar
fm=4 N/mm2
Constant K from NA Table NA.4
K(2)=0.55
Wall to be constructed using Group 1 masonry units.
Height of masonry unit
hu(2)=215 mm
Least horiz. dimension of units
lhd(2)=140 mm
Shape factor
delta=TABLE 1 for hu=215, lhd=140
=1.3
Characteristic comp strength
fk(2)=K(a)*(po*delta)^alp(a)*fm^bet(a)
=0.55*(3.6*1.3)^0.7*4^0.3
=2.4556 N/mm2
Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure (Table NA.6) and leaf
not exceeding 100mm thick
fxk1=TABLE 6.7 for po=3.6, mortar=3
=0.25 N/mm2
greater than 250mm thick
fxk1'=TABLE 6.71 for po=3.6, mortar=3
=0.15 N/mm2
leaf in range 100-250 mm
fxk12=fxk1+(fxk1'-fxk1)*(t-100)/150
=0.25+(0.15-0.25)*(140-100)/150
=0.22333 N/mm2
Characteristic loads

Outer leaf:
Permanent load from upper levels
Inner leaf:
Permanent load from upper levels
Variable load from upper levels
Permanent load from floor
Variable load from floor
Ecc of floor loads on inner leaf

Gk(1)=4 kN/m
Gk(2)=7 kN/m
Qk(2)=5.5 kN/m
Gk(3)=12 kN/m
Qk(3)=5 kN/m
ecc=23.333 mm

Char. horizontal wind load

Wk=0.62 kN/m2

Load factors

Perm actions (upper levels)


Perm actions (floor)
Variable actions (vertical load)
Variable actions (horiz.wind)

gamG2=1.35
gamG3=1.35
gamQ=1.5
gamQw=0.75

Design values of combined actions for ULS

Design vertical load at top or bottom of the wall as defined in EC6


Clause 6.1.2.2 is Nid.
Compute
comp1=gamG2*Gk(2)+gamG3*Gk(3)
=1.35*7+1.35*12
=25.65 kN/m
Compute
comp2=gamQ*(Qk(2)+Qk(3))=1.5*(5.5+5)
=15.75 kN/m
Design vert. load @ top of wall
Nid=comp1+comp2=25.65+15.75
=41.4 kN/m
Design bending moment at the top or the bottom of the wall resulting

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 530. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
External cavity wall
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC530 EC

Office: 1007
from the eccentricity of the floor load at the support, as defined in
EC6 Clause 6.1.2.2
Mid=(gamG3*Gk(3)+gamQ*Qk(3))*ecc/1000
=(1.35*12+1.5*5)*23.333/1000
=0.55299 kNm/m
Wall self weight at mid-height
Gk'=den(2)*(h/2)*(t(2)/1000)
=12.4*(2.425/2)*(140/1000)
=2.1049 kN/m
Design vert. load at mid-height
Nsd=Nid+gamG2*Gk'=41.4+1.35*2.1049
=44.242 kN/m
Note: Two independent variable actions have been considered using the
appropriate combination load factors o for the variable loads.
Design wind moments and eccentricities

Bending moment @ top of wall


Md1=0 kNm/m
Bending moment @ wall mid-height Md2=gamQw*Wk*h^2/8
=0.75*0.62*2.425^2/8
=0.34181 kNm/m
Eccentricity @ top of wall
ehe=0 mm
Eccentricity @ wall mid-height
ehm=(Md2/Nsd)*1000
=(0.34181/44.242)*1000
=7.726 mm
Design load resistance - Clause 6.4.2

For an external cavity wall it is only necessary to check the inner


leaf which carries the majority of load.
The capacity reduction factor (phi) needed for EC6 expression 6.2 is
the least value of i (phii) and m (phim).
At the top or bottom of wall (i):
The maximum design value of the bending moment at the top or the
bottom of the wall resulting from the eccentricity of the roof/floor
load at the support
Mid=0.55299 kNm/m
Eccentricity at the top or bottom of the wall resulting from
horizontal loads (e.g. wind load) ehe=0 mm
Initial eccentricity
einit=hef*1000/450=1.8188*1000/450
=4.0417
Eccentricity of design vert load ei=Mid*1000/Nid+ehe+einit
=0.55299*1000/41.4+0+4.0417
=17.399 mm
Reduction factor
phii=1-2*ei/t=1-2*17.399/140
=0.75144
At mid-height of the wall (m):
Design vert load (middle of wall) Nmd=44.242 kN/m
The maximum design value of the bending moment at the middle of the
height of the wall resulting from the moments at the top and bottom
of the wall is Mmd.
Design moment at mid-height
Mmd=0.61938 kNm/m
Eccentricity at mid-height of the wall resulting from horizontal
loads (e.g. wind load)
ehm=7.726 mm
Eccentricity of design vert load em=Mmd*1000/Nmd+ehm+einit
=0.61938*1000/44.242+7.726+4.0417
=25.767
Creep effects can be ignored when the slenderness ratio is 27.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 530. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
External cavity wall
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC530 EC

Office: 1007
Creep eccentricity
ek=0 mm
Eccentricity at mid-height
emk=em+ek=25.767+0=25.767 mm
Expression G.2 from Annex G
A1=1-2*emk/t=1-2*25.767/140
=0.63189
Effective wall thickness
tef=155.2 mm
Expression G.5 from Annex G
u=(hef*1000/tef-2)/(23-37*emk/t)
=(1.8188*1000/155.2-2)/(23-37
*25.767/140)
=0.60029
Base of natural logarithms e=2.718 will be used in expression G.1 for
calculating m reduction factor
phim=A1*2.718^-(u*u/2)
=0.63189*2.718^-(0.60029*0.60029
/2)
=0.52772
Governing reduction factor is
phi=0.52772
Design vertical load resistance
Nrd=phi*t*fk(2)/gamM
=0.52772*140*2.4556/3
=60.473 kN/m
Since Nsd Nrd ( 44.242 kN/m 60.473 kN/m )
The design vertical load is within the vertical load resistance of the
wall, therefore OK.
DESIGN SUMMARY
OUTER LEAF
INNER LEAF

Wall height
2.425 m
Thickness
100 mm
Char. flexural strength
0.4 N/mm2
Char. compressive strength
5.6982 N/mm2
Thickness
140 mm
Char flexural strength
0.22333 N/mm2
Char. compressive strength
2.4556 N/mm2
Effective wall thickness
155.2 mm
Effective wall height
1.8188 m
Slenderness ratio
11.719
Design vertical load
44.242 kN
Design vert load resistance 60.473 kN
Char. horizontal wind load
0.62 kN/m2
Outer leaf - use Group 1 units (i.e. solid)
Inner leaf - use Group 1 units (i.e. solid)
No530

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 535. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Shear wall
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC535 BS

Office: 1007
Location: Wall on grid line A/1-2

DL & LL
WL

Masonry shear wall

These calculations are in


accordance with BS5628-1:2005
the "Code of practice for the
use of masonry".

L
Elevation on shear wall
Masonry details

Length of shear wall


Density of masonry
Thickness of wall
Clear height of wall
between lateral restraints
Support Restraint factor
Effective height of wall
Slenderness ratio

L=0.7 m
dens=12 kN/m3
t=100 mm

h=2.6 m
rf=0.75
heff=rf*h=0.75*2.6=1.95 m
SR=heff*1000/t=1.95*1000/100
=19.5
Mortar designation to Table 1
mortar=3
Masonry type (1=clay 2=cal silicate 3=conc brick 4=block) typ(1)=4
Compressive strength of units
po=10.4 N/mm2
Concrete block dimensions:
Height
hb=215 mm
Least horiz dimension
lhd=100 mm
ratio height/least horiz dim
rb=hb/lhd=215/100=2.15
Char comp strength - Table 2(d)
fk(a)=TABLE 2.4 for mortar=3, po=10.4
=8.2 N/mm2
Reduction factor small area
rfsa=(0.7+1.5*A)=(0.7+1.5*0.07)
=0.805
Revised Compressive Strength
fk(1)=rfsa*fk(a)=0.805*8.2
=6.601
Capacity reduction factor
beta=TABLE 7 for SR=19.5, column=0.05
=0.7175
Reduced Char comp strength
fk(1)=fk(a)*beta=6.601*0.7175
=4.7362 N/mm2
Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure and leaf not exceeding
100mm thick - Table 3
fb(a)=TABLE 3.7 for po=10.4, mortar=3
=0.25 N/mm2
Partial safety factor material
gammam=2.5

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 535. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Shear wall
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC535 BS

Office: 1007
Loads

Characteristic dead load


DL=40 kN
Characteristic imposed load
LL=0 kN
Characteristic wind load
WL=2.05 kN
Load combination 0.9DL+1.4WL ( or 0.015DL )

Self weight of wall


Vw=dens*h*L*t/10^3
=12*2.6*0.7*100/10^3
=2.184 kN
Section modulus
Z=t*(L*1000)^2/6=100*(0.7*1000)^2/6
=8.1667E6 mm3
Axial stress at mid height
ga1=0.9*(DL+Vw/2)*1000/(1000*L*t)
=0.9*(40+2.184/2)*1000/(1000*0.7
*100)
=0.52833 N/mm2
Horiz load is 1.4 * WL
horiz=1.4*WL=1.4*2.05=2.87 kN
Bending stress
gb1=horiz*0.5*h*10^6/Z
=2.87*0.5*2.6*10^6/8.1667E6
=0.45686 N/mm2
As ga1 > gb1 ( 0.52833 N/mm2 > 0.45686 N/mm2 ) Compression throughout
Load combination 1.2DL+1.2LL+1.2WL ( or 0.015DL )

Axial stress
ga2=1.2*(DL+Vw+LL)*1000/(1000*L*t)
=1.2*(40+2.184+0)*1000/(1000*0.7
*100)
=0.72315 N/mm2
Horiz load is 1.2 * WL
horiz=1.2*WL=1.2*2.05=2.46 kN
Bending stress
gb2=horiz*0.5*h*10^6/Z
=2.46*0.5*2.6*10^6/8.1667E6
=0.39159 N/mm2
Compressive stress
gc=ga2+gb2=0.72315+0.39159
=1.1147 N/mm2
Allowable compressive stress
agc=fk(a)/gammam=4.7362/2.5
=1.8945 N/mm2
Since gc agc ( 1.1147 N/mm2 1.8945 N/mm2 ) compressive stress
within allowable.
Load combination 1.4DL+1.4WL

Axial stress
Horiz load is 1.4 * WL
Bending stress
Compressive stress
Allowable compressive stress
Since gc agc ( 1.3005 N/mm2
within allowable.

( or 0.015DL )
ga3=1.4*(DL+Vw)*1000/(1000*L*t)
=1.4*(40+2.184)*1000/(1000*0.7*100)
=0.84368 N/mm2
horiz=1.4*WL=1.4*2.05=2.87 kN
gb3=horiz*0.5*h*10^6/Z
=2.87*0.5*2.6*10^6/8.1667E6
=0.45686 N/mm2
gc=ga3+gb3=0.84368+0.45686
=1.3005 N/mm2
agc=fk(a)/gammam=4.7362/2.5
=1.8945 N/mm2
1.8945 N/mm2 ) compressive stress

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 535. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Shear wall
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC535 BS

Office: 1007
Shear

Partial safety factor for shear


gammav=2.5 (Clause 23.4)
Axial stress at foundation
ga4=0.9*(DL+Vw)*1000/(1000*L*t)
=0.9*(40+2.184)*1000/(1000*0.7*100)
=0.54237 N/mm2
Char shear strength at found
fvf=0.15+0.6*ga4=0.15+0.6*0.54237
=0.47542 N/mm2
Design shear strength at found
gvf=fvf/gammav=0.47542/2.5
=0.19017 N/mm2
Allowable shear load at found
Lif=gvf*L*1000*t/1000
=0.19017*0.7*1000*100/1000
=13.312 kN
Horiz load is 1.4 * WL
horiz=1.4*WL=1.4*2.05=2.87 kN
Since horiz Lif ( 2.87 kN 13.312 kN ) design shear load
within allowable.
DESIGN SUMMARY

Wall height
Wall length
Wall thickness
Char comp strength
Char flex strength
Design shear load
Design shear strength
Compression throughout

2.6 m
0.7 m
100 mm
4.7362 N/mm2
0.25 N/mm2
2.87 kN
13.312 kN

Maximum comp (DL+SL+wind)


Allowable compn
Maximum compn (DL+wind)
Allowable compn (DL+wind)

1.1147
1.8945
1.3005
1.8945

N/mm2
N/mm2
N/mm2
N/mm2
No535

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 535. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Shear wall
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC535 EC

Office: 1007
Location: Wall on grid line A/1-2

Gk & Qk
Wk

Masonry shear wall

These calculations are in


accordance with EC6 Part 1-1
General rules for reinforced
and unreinforced masonry
structures.
Wk =Characteristic wind load

L
Elevation on shear wall
Masonry details

Length of shear wall


Density of masonry
Thickness of wall
Clear height of wall
between lateral restraints
Support Restraint factor
Effective height of wall
Slenderness ratio

L=0.7 m
dens=12 kN/m3
t=100 mm

h=2.6 m
rf=0.75
hef=rf*h=0.75*2.6=1.95 m
SR=hef*1000/t=1.95*1000/100
=19.5
Mortar designation to Table NA.2 mortar=3
Masonry type (1=clay 2=cal silicate 3=conc brick 4=block) typ(1)=4
Compressive strength of units
po=10.4 N/mm2
Masonry made with general purpose mortar.
Value for constant
alp(1)=0.7
Value for constant
bet(1)=0.3
Compressive strength of mortar
fm=4 N/mm2
Constant K from NA Table NA.4
K(1)=0.75
Wall to be constructed using Group 1 masonry units.
Height of masonry unit
hu=215 mm
Least horiz. dimension of units
lhd=100 mm
Shape factor
delta=TABLE 1 for hu=215, lhd=100
=1.38
Characteristic comp.strength
fk(1)=K(a)*(po*delta)^alp(a)*fm^bet(a)
=0.75*(10.4*1.38)^0.7*4^0.3
=7.337 N/mm2
Reduction factor small area
rfsa=(0.7+3*A)=(0.7+3*0.07)
=0.91
Revised char. comp. strength is
fk(1)=rfsa*fk(a)=0.91*7.337
=6.6767
Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure and leaf not exceeding
100mm thick - Table NA.6
fxk1=TABLE 6.7 for po=10.4, mortar=3
=0.25 N/mm2
Partial safety factor (material) gamM=2.3

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 535. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Shear wall
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC535 EC

Office: 1007
Characteristic loads

Characteristic permanent load


Gk=40 kN
Characteristic variable load
Qk=0 kN
Characteristic wind load
Wk=2.05 kN
Load combination 0.9Gk+1.5Wk

Self weight of wall


Section modulus
Axial stress at mid height

Design shear force is 1.5Wk


Bending stress
As ga1 > gb1 ( 0.52833 N/mm2
throughout.

Gkw=dens*h*L*t/10^3
=12*2.6*0.7*100/10^3
=2.184 kN
Z=t*(L*1000)^2/6=100*(0.7*1000)^2/6
=8.1667E6 mm3
ga1=0.9*(Gk+Gkw/2)*1000/(1000*L*t)
=0.9*(40+2.184/2)*1000/(1000*0.7
*100)
=0.52833 N/mm2
Vd=1.5*Wk=1.5*2.05=3.075 kN
gb1=Vd*0.5*h*10^6/Z
=3.075*0.5*2.6*10^6/8.1667E6
=0.48949 N/mm2
> 0.48949 N/mm2 ), compression

Load combination 1.35Gk+1.5Qk+1.5oWk

Factor o for wind load


psi0w=0.5
compute
comp1=(1.35*Gk+1.5*Qk+1.5*psi0w*Wk)
=(1.35*40+1.5*0+1.5*0.5*2.05)
=55.538
Axial stress
ga2=comp1*1000/(1000*L*t)
=55.538*1000/(1000*0.7*100)
=0.79339 N/mm2
Design shear force is 1.5oWk
Vd=1.5*psi0w*Wk=1.5*0.5*2.05
=1.5375 kN
Bending stress
gb2=Vd*0.5*h*10^6/Z
=1.5375*0.5*2.6*10^6/8.1667E6
=0.24474 N/mm2
Design compressive stress
gc=ga2+gb2=0.79339+0.24474
=1.0381 N/mm2
Design compressive strength
agc=fk(a)/gamM=6.6767/2.3
=2.9029 N/mm2
2
Since gc agc ( 1.0381 N/mm 2.9029 N/mm2 ) design compressive
stress is within the design compressive strength.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 535. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Shear wall
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC535 EC

Office: 1007
Load combination 1.35Gk+1.5Wk+1.5oQk

Factor o for variable load


psi0=0.7
compute
comp2=(1.35*Gk+1.5*Wk+1.5*psi0*Wk)
=(1.35*40+1.5*2.05+1.5*0.7*2.05)
=59.228
Axial stress
ga2=comp2*1000/(1000*L*t)
=59.228*1000/(1000*0.7*100)
=0.84611 N/mm2
Design shear force is 1.5Wk
Vd=1.5*Wk=1.5*2.05=3.075 kN
Bending stress
gb2=Vd*0.5*h*10^6/Z
=3.075*0.5*2.6*10^6/8.1667E6
=0.48949 N/mm2
Design compressive stress
gc=ga2+gb2=0.84611+0.48949
=1.3356 N/mm2
Design compressive strength
agc=fk(a)/gamM=6.6767/2.3
=2.9029 N/mm2
2
Since gc agc ( 1.3356 N/mm 2.9029 N/mm2 ) design compressive
stress is within the design compressive strength.
Load combination 1.35Gk+1.5Wk

Axial stress

ga3=1.35*(Gk+Gkw)*1000/(1000*L*t)
=1.35*(40+2.184)*1000/(1000*0.7
*100)
=0.81355 N/mm2
Design shear force is 1.5Wk
Vd=1.5*Wk=1.5*2.05=3.075 kN
Bending stress
gb3=Vd*0.5*h*10^6/Z
=3.075*0.5*2.6*10^6/8.1667E6
=0.48949 N/mm2
Design compressive stress
gc=ga3+gb3=0.81355+0.48949
=1.303 N/mm2
Design compressive strength
agc=fk(a)/gamM=6.6767/2.3
=2.9029 N/mm2
Since gc agc ( 1.303 N/mm2 2.9029 N/mm2 ) design compressive
stress is within the design compressive strength.
Shear

Partial safety factor for shear


Design load/unit area at found

gamv=2.5
ga4=0.9*(Gk+Gkw)*1000/(1000*L*t)
=0.9*(40+2.184)*1000/(1000*0.7*100)
=0.54237 N/mm2
The characteristic initial shear strength of masonry fvko from
EC6 NA Table NA.5 is
fvko=0.15 N/mm2
Charact shear strength at found
fvf=fvko+0.4*ga4=0.15+0.4*0.54237
=0.36695 N/mm2
Design shear strength at found
gvf=fvf/gamv=0.36695/2.5
=0.14678 N/mm2
Shear resistance at foundation
Vrd=gvf*L*1000*t/1000
=0.14678*0.7*1000*100/1000
=10.274 kN
Design horizontal shear force
Vd=3.075 kN
Since Vd Vrd ( 3.075 kN 10.274 kN ), design shear force
within shear resistance of the wall.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 535. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Shear wall
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC535 EC

Office: 1007
DESIGN SUMMARY

Wall height
Wall length
Wall thickness
Char compressive strength
Char flexural strength
Design shear force
Design shear resistance
Compression throughout
Design comp stress (Gk+Qk+Wk)
Design compressive strength
Design comp stress (Gk+Wk)
Design compressive strength

2.6 m
0.7 m
100 mm
6.6767 N/mm2
0.25 N/mm2
3.075 kN
10.274 kN
1.3356 N/mm2
2.9029 N/mm2
1.303 N/mm2
2.9029 N/mm2
No535

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 536. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Fin wall
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC536 BS

Office: 1007
Masonry fin wall building

Location: Leisure Centre

Spacing of fins
Height to eaves (top of fin)
Masonry details

Thickness of outer leaf


Density of outer leaf
Thickness of inner leaf
Density of inner leaf
Effective thick of cavity wall
Depth of fin
Thickness of fin
Effective flange width

Single storey building to BS5628

Loadbearing brick fin walls with


panels between constructed using
cavity construction.
Roof plate provides prop at top
of fin walls, and transmits wind
forces to the flank/end walls.
Lf=4.05 m
h=7 m

t(1)=102.5 mm
den(1)=20 kN/m3
t(2)=102.5 mm
den(2)=20 kN/m3
tef=2*(t(1)+t(2))/3=2*(102.5+102.5)/3
=136.67 mm
D=1115 mm
t=327 mm
B=(6*tef)+t+(6*tef)
=(6*136.67)+327+(6*136.67)
=1967 mm
mortar=3
gammam=2.5

Mortar designation to Table 1


Partial Safety Factor Material
Outer Leaf:
Masonry type (1=clay 2=cal silicate 3=conc brick 4=block) typ(1)=1
Compressive Strength of Units
po(1)=40 N/mm2
Water absorption %age of leaf
water=7
Char comp strength - Table 2(a)
fk(a)=TABLE 2.1 for mortar=3, po=40
=7.4 N/mm2
Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure - Table 3
fb(a)=TABLE 3.1 for water=7, mortar=3
=0.4 N/mm2
Characteristic flexural strength for perp failure - Table 3
fp(a)=TABLE 3.2 for water=7, mortar=3
=1.1 N/mm2
Inner Leaf:
Masonry type (1=clay 2=cal silicate 3=conc brick 4=block) typ(2)=1
chkkrng 4 1 typ(a)
Compressive strength of units
po(2)=20 N/mm2
Water absorption %age of leaf
water=7
chkkrng 100.0 0.0 water
chkkrng 1 0 ans3
Char comp strength - Table 2(a)
fk(a)=TABLE 2.1 for mortar=3, po=20
=5 N/mm2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 536. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Fin wall
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC536 BS

Office: 1007
Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure - Table 3
fb(a)=TABLE 3.1 for water=7, mortar=3
=0.4 N/mm2
Characteristic flexural strength for perp failure - Table 3
fp(a)=TABLE 3.2 for water=7, mortar=3
=1.1 N/mm2
Wind forces

Dynamic wind pressure


Max Cpe on windward face (+ve)
Max Cpe on suction face (-ve)
Max Cpe on roof (-ve)
Cpi maximum (+ve internal press)
Cpi minimum (-ve internal press)
Pressure on windward wall
Suction on suction wall
Gross roof uplift
Dead and superimposed loads

Metal decking on roof


Felt & chippings on roof
Own weight of roof beams
Total dead weight
Superimposed load

q=0.4 kN/m2
Cpew=0.7
Cpes=-0.6
Cper=-0.85
Cpimax=0.2
Cpimin=-0.3
WL1=(Cpew-Cpimin)*q=(0.7--0.3)*0.4
=0.4 kN/m2
WL2=-(Cpes-Cpimax)*q=-(-0.6-0.2)*0.4
=0.32 kN/m2
WL3=-(Cper-Cpimax)*q=-(-0.85-0.2)*0.4
=0.42 kN/m2

DL1=0.18 kN/m2
DL2=0.33 kN/m2
DL3=0.2 kN/m2
DL=DL1+DL2+DL3=0.18+0.33+0.2
=0.71 kN/m2
LL=0.75 kN/m2

Design loads

Design dead load = 0.9DL or 1.4DL


Design wind load = 1.4WL or 0.015DL whichever is the larger.
Design dead load
Design wind loads:
Pressure, from WL1
Suction, from WL2
Uplift, from WL3
Design dead-uplift

Ddl=0.9*DL=0.9*0.71=0.639 kN/m2

Pwk1=1.4*WL1=1.4*0.4=0.56 kN/m2
Swk2=1.4*WL2=1.4*0.32=0.448 kN/m2
Uwk3=1.4*WL3=1.4*0.42=0.588 kN/m2
Ddu=Ddl-Uwk3=0.639-0.588
=0.051 kN/m2
Design uplift is less than -0.01 kN/m2 and may be ignored.

Wind pressure

design load
+Pwk1 kN/m2

Case (1)

Wind suction

design load
+Swk2 kN/m2

Case (2)

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 536. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Fin wall
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC536 BS

Office: 1007
Wall will be designed to span horizontally between the fins as
continuous spans.
The maximum moment is WL1*Lf^2/14 at the edge of the fins, for an
assumed fin width of Lf/10.
Design bending moment
dbm=Pwk1*Lf^2/14=0.56*4.05^2/14
=0.6561 kNm
Section modulus of outer leaf
z1=1*(t(1)/1000)^2/6
=1*(102.5/1000)^2/6
=0.001751 m3
Design M of R of outer leaf
mr1=fp(1)*1000*z1/gammam
=1.1*1000*0.001751/2.5
=0.77046 kNm
Section modulus of inner leaf
z2=1*(t(2)/1000)^2/6
=1*(102.5/1000)^2/6
=0.001751 m3
Design M of R of inner leaf
mr2=fp(2)*1000*z2/gammam
=1.1*1000*0.001751/2.5
=0.77046 kNm
Design moment of resistance
dmr=mr1+mr2=0.77046+0.77046
=1.5409 kNm
Design moment of resistance design BM ( 1.5409 kNm 0.6561 kNm ),
therefore wall thicknesses chosen are OK.
Fin wall section properties

1967
T=t(1)=102.5

n
102.5
Y2
Z2 = Ina


N A

Y2
1115


Y1
Z1 = Ina

Y1
327

Area of flange
af=B*T=1967*102.5=201618 mm2
Area of outstand
ao=(D-T)*t=(1115-102.5)*327
=331088 mm2
Area of section
A'=af+ao=201618+331088=532705 mm2
A=A'/10^6=532705/10^6=0.53271 m2
Neutral axis depth
n=(af*T/2+ao*(T+(D-T)/2))/A'
=(201618*102.5/2+331088*(102.5
+(1115-102.5)/2))/532705
=397.75 mm
Inertia about neutral axis
Ina=(B*n^3+t*(D-n)^3-(n-T)^3*(B-t))
/3E12
=(1967*397.75^3+327*(1115
-397.75)^3-(397.75-102.5)^3
*(1967-327))/3E12
=0.067408 m4
Neutral axis
Y1=(D-n)/1000=(1115-397.75)/1000
=0.71725 m
Neutral axis
Y2=n/1000=397.75/1000=0.39775 m

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 536. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Fin wall
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC536 BS

Office: 1007
Section modulus
Z1=Ina/Y1=0.067408/0.71725
=0.093981 m3
Section modulus
Z2=Ina/Y2=0.067408/0.39775
=0.16947 m3
Consider propped cantilever action

With 4.05 m fin centres, design wind loads on fins are:


Case (1) pressure
C1p=Pwk1*Lf
=0.56*4.05
=2.268 kN/m of height
Case (2) suction
C2s=Swk2*Lf
=0.448*4.05
=1.8144 kN/m of height
Assuming MR, is greater than WL1.Lf.h^2/8 and zero deflection at the
roof prop:
Case (1) wall moment
M1w=9*Pwk1*Lf*h^2/128
=9*0.56*4.05*7^2/128
=7.814 kNm
Case (1) base moment
M1b=Pwk1*Lf*h^2/8=0.56*4.05*7^2/8
=13.892 kNm
Case (2) wall moment
M2w=9*Swk2*Lf*h^2/128
=9*0.448*4.05*7^2/128
=6.2512 kNm
Case (2) base moment
M2b=Swk2*Lf*h^2/8=0.448*4.05*7^2/8
=11.113 kNm
<
<
<
2.268 <
kN/m <
of
<
height<
<
<
<

prop

7.814

2.625

13.892

Case (1): Pressure on


windward wall

<
<
<
1.8144<
kN/m <
of
<
height<
<
<
<

tie

2.625

6.2512

11.113

Case (2): Suction


on wall

Calculate MRs and compare with Mb

Design flexural compress strength pubc=1.1*fk(1)/gammam=1.1*7.4/2.5


=3.256 N/mm2
(a) Consider Case (1) pressure:
Own weight
Design axial load in fin at Mb
Minimum width of stress block
Lever arm

ow=den(1)*A=20*0.53271=10.654 kN/m
daxMb=0.9*ow*h=0.9*10.654*7
=67.121 kN
mwsb1=daxMb*10^3/(B*pubc)
=67.121*10^3/(1967*3.256)
=10.48 mm
la1=n-mwsb1/2=397.75-10.48/2
=392.51 mm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 536. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Fin wall
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC536 BS

Office: 1007
Stability moment of resistance
MRs1=daxMb*la1/10^3
=67.121*392.51/10^3
=26.345 kNm
Stability moment of resistance is not less than Case 1 base moment.
(b) Consider Case (2) suction:
The stability moment of resistance is provided by the flexural
compressive stress at the end of the projecting fin, thus:
Minimum width of stress block
mwsb2=daxMb*10^3/(t*pubc)
=67.121*10^3/(327*3.256)
=63.041 mm
Lever arm
la2=Y1*10^3-mwsb2/2
=0.71725*10^3-63.041/2
=685.73 mm
Stability moment of resistance
MRs2=daxMb*la2/10^3
=67.121*685.73/10^3
=46.027 kNm
Stability moment of resistance is greater than Case 2 base moment
( 46.027 kNm > 11.113 kNm ), therefore use M2b in the design of the fin
section.
Bending moment diagrams

Case (1) pressure:


MRs1 (calculated)
26.345 kNm
As MRs1 M1b ( 26.345 kNm 13.892 kNm ), assumed base moment is OK.
Position of zero shear
zS1=3*h/8
=3*7/8
=2.625 m from top as assumed
Moment at zero shear position
M1w=7.814 kNm as assumed
Case (2) suction:
MRs2 (calculated)
46.027 kNm
As MRs2 M2b ( 46.027 kNm 11.113 kNm ), assumed base moment is OK.
Position of zero shear
zS2=3*h/8
=3*7/8
=2.625 m from top as assumed
Moment at zero shear position
M2w=6.2512 kNm as assumed
<
<
<
2.268 <
kN/m <
of
<
height<
<
<
<

prop

7.814

2.625

13.892

Case (1): Pressure on


windward wall

<
<
<
1.8144<
kN/m <
of
<
height<
<
<
<

tie

2.625

6.2512

11.113

Case (2): Suction


on wall

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 536. (ans=1)


Page: 6
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Fin wall
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC536 BS

Office: 1007
Consider stresses at level of Mw

Case (1) pressure:


Own weight at level of M1w
Owm1w=0.9*ow*zS1=0.9*10.654*2.625
=25.17 kN
Flexural stresses at design load:
Flexural compressive stress
fubc1=Owm1w/(A*10^3)+M1w/(Z1*10^3)
=25.17/(0.53271*10^3)+7.814
/(0.093981*10^3)
=0.13039 N/mm2
Flexural tensile stress
fubt1=Owm1w/(A*10^3)-M1w/(Z2*10^3)
=25.17/(0.53271*10^3)-7.814
/(0.16947*10^3)
=0.001143 N/mm2
Case (2) suction:
Own weight at level of M2w
Owm2w=0.9*ow*zS2=0.9*10.654*2.625
=25.17 kN
Flexural stresses at design load:
Flexural compressive stress
fubc2=Owm2w/(A*10^3)+M2w/(Z2*10^3)
=25.17/(0.53271*10^3)+6.2512
/(0.16947*10^3)
=0.084136 N/mm2
Flexural tensile stress
fubt2=Owm2w/(A*10^3)-M2w/(Z1*10^3)
=25.17/(0.53271*10^3)-6.2512
/(0.093981*10^3)
=-0.019265 N/mm2
Design flexural stress at Mw levels

(a) Design flexural tensile stress, pubt:


(taking account of materials partial safety factor, gammam)
Design flexural tensile stress
pubt=fb(1)/gammam=0.4/2.5
=0.16 N/mm2
Since -fubt1<=pubt ( -0.001143 N/mm2 0.16 N/mm2 ),
flexural tensile stress for Case 1 is OK.
Since -fubt2<=pubt ( 0.019265 N/mm2 0.16 N/mm2 ),
flexural tensile stress for Case 2 is OK.
(b) Design flexural compressive stress, pubc:
Design flexural compress stress
pubc=1.1..fk(1)/gammam N/mm2
Calculate respective values for Case (1) and Case (2) loadings at
level of Mw.
Case (1) pressure (end of fin in compression at Mw level):
Slenderness ratio
sr=2*zS1/(t/1000)=2*2.625/(327/1000)
=16.055
Stressed areas are axially loaded ecc=0
Use minimum ecc ratio
ecc=0.05
Capacity reduction factor
beta=TABLE 7 for sr=16.055, ecc=0.05
=0.82835
Design flexural compress stress
pubc1=1.1*beta*fk(1)/gammam
=1.1*0.82835*7.4/2.5
=2.6971 N/mm2
Since fubc1<=pubc1 ( 0.13039 N/mm2 2.6971 N/mm2 ),
flexural compressive stress for Case 1 is OK.
Case (2) suction (flange in compression at Mw level):

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 536. (ans=1)


Page: 7
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Fin wall
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC536 BS

Office: 1007
Slenderness ratio
sr=2*((B-t)/2)/tef
=2*((1967-327)/2)/136.67
=12
Capacity reduction factor
beta=TABLE 7 for sr=12, ecc=0.05
=0.93
Design flexural compress stress
pubc2=1.1*beta*fk(1)/gammam
=1.1*0.93*7.4/2.5
=3.0281 N/mm2
Since fubc2<=pubc2 ( 0.084136 N/mm2 3.0281 N/mm2 ),
flexural compressive stress for Case 2 is OK.
DESIGN SUMMARY
OUTER LEAF

INNER LEAF

LEAF
FINS (pressure)
(suction)

Wall height
Length between fins
Thickness
Char flex strength (bed)
Char flex strength (perp)
Char comp strength
Thickness
Char flex strength (bed)
Char flex strength (perp)
Char comp strength
Bending moment between fins
Bend strength between fins
Bending stress in tension
Bending stress in comp
Bending stress in tension
Bending stress in comp
Bend strength in tension
Bend strength in comp

7 m
4.05 m
102.5 mm
0.4 N/mm2
1.1 N/mm2
7.4 N/mm2
102.5 mm
0.4 N/mm2
1.1 N/mm2
5 N/mm2
0.6561 kNm
1.5409 kNm
0.001143 N/mm2
0.13039 N/mm2
-0.019265 N/mm2
0.084136 N/mm2
0.16 N/mm2
3.256 N/mm2
No536

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 536. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Fin wall
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC536 EC

Office: 1007
Masonry fin wall building

Location: Leisure Centre

Spacing of fins
Height to eaves (top of fin)
Masonry details

Thickness of outer leaf


Density of outer leaf
Thickness of inner leaf
Density of inner leaf
Effective thick of cavity wall
Depth of fin
Thickness of fin
Effective flange width

Single storey building to EC6

Loadbearing brick fin walls with


panels between constructed using
cavity construction.
Roof plate provides prop at top
of fin walls and transmits wind
forces to the flank/end walls.
Lf=4.05 m
h=7 m

t(1)=102.5 mm
den(1)=20 kN/m3
t(2)=102.5 mm
den(2)=20 kN/m3
tef=((t(1))^3+(t(2))^3)^0.3333
=((102.5)^3+(102.5)^3)^0.3333
=129.08 mm
D=1115 mm
t=327 mm
B=(h*1000/10)+t+(h*1000/10)
=(7*1000/10)+327+(7*1000/10)
=1727 mm
mortar=3
gamM=2.3

Mortar designation to Table NA.2


Partial safety factor (material)
Outer Leaf:
Masonry type (1=clay 2=cal silicate 3=conc brick 4=block) typ(1)=1
Compressive strength of units
po(1)=40 N/mm2
Water absorption %age of leaf
water=7
Masonry made with general purpose mortar.
Value for constant
alp(1)=0.7
Value for constant
bet(1)=0.3
Compressive strength of mortar
fm=4 N/mm2
Constant K from NA Table NA.4
K(1)=0.5
Wall to be constructed using Group 1 masonry units.
As there is a mortar joint parallel to the face of the wall the value
of K to be used with equation 3.1 from Table NA.4 will be multiplied
by 0.8 to comply with EC6 Clause 3.6.1.2(6).
Constant K from NA Table NA.4
K(1)=0.8*K(a)=0.8*0.5=0.4
Height of masonry unit
hu(1)=65 mm
Least horiz. dimension of units
lhd(1)=102.5 mm
Shape factor
delta=TABLE 1 for hu=65, lhd=102.5
=0.845
Characteristic comp strength
fk(1)=K(a)*(po*delta)^alp(a)*fm^bet(a)
=0.4*(40*0.845)^0.7*4^0.3
=7.1272 N/mm2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 536. (ans=1)


Page: 2
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Fin wall
Date: 02/04/14
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Ref No: SC536 EC

Office: 1007
Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure - Table NA.6
fxk11=TABLE 6.1 for water=7, mortar=3
=0.4 N/mm2
Characteristic flexural strength for perp failure - Table NA.6
fxk21=TABLE 6.2 for water=7, mortar=3
=1.1 N/mm2
Inner Leaf:
Masonry type (1=clay 2=cal silicate 3=conc brick 4=block) typ(2)=1
chkkrng 4 1 typ(a)
Compressive strength of units
po(2)=20 N/mm2
Water absorption %age of leaf
water=7
chkkrng 100.0 0.0 water
Masonry made with general purpose mortar.
Value for constant
alp(2)=0.7
Value for constant
bet(2)=0.3
Compressive strength of mortar
fm=4 N/mm2
Constant K from NA Table NA.4
K(2)=0.5
Wall to be constructed using Group 1 masonry units.
As there is a mortar joint parallel to the face of the wall the value
of K to be used with equation 3.1 from Table NA.4 will be multiplied
by 0.8 to comply with EC6 Clause 3.6.1.2(6).
Constant K from NA Table NA.4
K(2)=0.8*K(a)=0.8*0.5=0.4
Height of masonry unit
hu(2)=65 mm
Least horiz. dimension of units
lhd(2)=100 mm
Shape factor
delta=TABLE 1 for hu=65, lhd=100
=0.85
Characteristic comp strength
fk(2)=K(a)*(po*delta)^alp(a)*fm^bet(a)
=0.4*(20*0.85)^0.7*4^0.3
=4.4055 N/mm2
Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure - Table NA.6
fxk12=TABLE 6.1 for water=7, mortar=3
=0.4 N/mm2
Characteristic flexural strength for perp failure - Table NA.6
fxk22=TABLE 6.2 for water=7, mortar=3
=1.1 N/mm2
Characteristic wind loads

Peak velocity pressure


Max Cpe on windward face (+ve)
Max Cpe on suction face (-ve)
Max Cpe on roof (-ve)
Cpi maximum (+ve internal press)
Cpi minimum (-ve internal press)
Pressure on windward wall
Suction on suction wall
Gross roof uplift

qp=0.4 kN/m2
Cpew=0.7
Cpes=-0.6
Cper=-0.85
Cpimax=0.2
Cpimin=-0.3
Wk1=(Cpew-Cpimin)*qp=(0.7--0.3)*0.4
=0.4 kN/m2
Wk2=-(Cpes-Cpimax)*qp=-(-0.6-0.2)*0.4
=0.32 kN/m2
Wk3=-(Cper-Cpimax)*qp
=-(-0.85-0.2)*0.4
=0.42 kN/m2

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 536. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Fin wall
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Ref No: SC536 EC

Office: 1007
Permanent and variable loads

Metal decking on roof


Gk1=0.18 kN/m2
Felt & chippings on roof
Gk2=0.33 kN/m2
Own weight of roof beams
Gk3=0.2 kN/m2
Total permanent weight
Gk=Gk1+Gk2+Gk3=0.18+0.33+0.2
=0.71 kN/m2
Variable load on roof
Qk=0.75 kN/m2
Design loads

Design dead load = 0.9Gk or 1.35Gk


Design wind load = 1.5Wk (where 1.5 is the wind load factor)
Note:
The calculations assume that the variable actions will not be
independent of each other and hence the combination load factor "o"
will not be considered.
Design dead load
Ddl=0.9*Gk=0.9*0.71=0.639 kN/m2
Design wind loads:
Pressure, from Wk1
Pwk1=1.5*Wk1=1.5*0.4=0.6 kN/m2
Suction, from Wk2
Swk2=1.5*Wk2=1.5*0.32=0.48 kN/m2
Uplift, from Wk3
Uwk3=1.5*Wk3=1.5*0.42=0.63 kN/m2
Design dead-uplift
Ddu=Ddl-Uwk3=0.639-0.63=0.009 kN/m2
Design uplift is less than -0.01 kN/m2 and may be ignored.

Wind pressure

design load
+Pwk1 kN/m2

Case (1)

Wind suction

design load
+Swk2 kN/m2

Case (2)

Wall will be designed to span horizontally between the fins as


continuous spans.
The maximum moment is Wk1*Lf^2/14 at the edge of the fins, for an
assumed fin width of Lf/10.
Design bending moment
Md=Pwk1*Lf^2/14=0.6*4.05^2/14
=0.70296 kNm
Section modulus of outer leaf
z1=1*(t(1)/1000)^2/6
=1*(102.5/1000)^2/6
=0.001751 m3
Design M of R of outer leaf
mr1=fxk21*1000*z1/gamM
=1.1*1000*0.001751/2.3
=0.83745 kNm
Section modulus of inner leaf
z2=1*(t(2)/1000)^2/6
=1*(102.5/1000)^2/6
=0.001751 m3
Design M of R of inner leaf
mr2=fxk22*1000*z2/gamM
=1.1*1000*0.001751/2.3
=0.83745 kNm
Design moment of resistance
Mrd=mr1+mr2=0.83745+0.83745
=1.6749 kNm
Design moment of resistance design BM ( 1.6749 kNm 0.70296 kNm ),

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 536. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Fin wall
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC536 EC

Office: 1007
therefore wall thicknesses chosen are OK.
Fin wall section properties

1727
T=t(1)=102.5

n
102.5
Y2
Z2 = Ina


N A

Y2
1115


Y1
Z1 = Ina

Y1
327

Area of flange
af=B*T=1727*102.5=177018 mm2
Area of outstand
ao=(D-T)*t=(1115-102.5)*327
=331088 mm2
Area of section
A'=af+ao=177018+331088=508105 mm2
A=A'/10^6=508105/10^6=0.50811 m2
Neutral axis depth
n=(af*T/2+ao*(T+(D-T)/2))/A'
=(177018*102.5/2+331088*(102.5
+(1115-102.5)/2))/508105
=414.52 mm
Inertia about neutral axis
Ina=(B*n^3+t*(D-n)^3-(n-T)^3*(B-t))
/3E12
=(1727*414.52^3+327*(1115
-414.52)^3-(414.52-102.5)^3
*(1727-327))/3E12
=0.06429 m4
Neutral axis
Y1=(D-n)/1000=(1115-414.52)/1000
=0.70048 m
Neutral axis
Y2=n/1000=414.52/1000=0.41452 m
Section modulus
Z1=Ina/Y1=0.06429/0.70048
=0.091781 m3
Section modulus
Z2=Ina/Y2=0.06429/0.41452
=0.15509 m3
Consider propped cantilever action

With 4.05 m fin centres, design wind loads on fins are:


Case (1) pressure
C1p=Pwk1*Lf
=0.6*4.05
=2.43 kN/m of height
Case (2) suction
C2s=Swk2*Lf
=0.48*4.05
=1.944 kN/m of height
Assuming MR, is greater than Wk1.Lf.h^2/8 and zero deflection at the
roof prop:
Case (1) wall moment
M1w=9*Pwk1*Lf*h^2/128
=9*0.6*4.05*7^2/128
=8.3721 kNm
Case (1) base moment
M1b=Pwk1*Lf*h^2/8=0.6*4.05*7^2/8
=14.884 kNm

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 536. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Fin wall
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC536 EC

Office: 1007
Case (2) wall moment
M2w=9*Swk2*Lf*h^2/128
=9*0.48*4.05*7^2/128
=6.6977 kNm
Case (2) base moment
M2b=Swk2*Lf*h^2/8=0.48*4.05*7^2/8
=11.907 kNm
<
<
<
2.43 <
kN/m <
of
<
height<
<
<
<

prop

8.3721

2.625

14.884

Case (1): Pressure on


windward wall

<
<
<
1.944 <
kN/m <
of
<
height<
<
<
<

tie

2.625

6.6977

11.907

Case (2): Suction


on wall

Calculate MRs and compare with Mb

Design flexural compress strength pubc=1.1*fk(1)/gamM=1.1*7.1272/2.3


=3.4087 N/mm2
(a) Consider Case (1) pressure:
Own weight
Design axial load in fin at Mb

ow=den(1)*A=20*0.50811=10.162 kN/m
daxMb=0.9*ow*h=0.9*10.162*7
=64.021 kN
Minimum width of stress block
mwsb1=daxMb*10^3/(B*pubc)
=64.021*10^3/(1727*3.4087)
=10.875 mm
Lever arm
la1=n-mwsb1/2=414.52-10.875/2
=409.09 mm
Stability moment of resistance
MRs1=daxMb*la1/10^3
=64.021*409.09/10^3
=26.19 kNm
Stability moment of resistance is not less than Case 1 base moment.
(b) Consider Case (2) suction:
The stability moment of resistance is provided by the flexural
compressive stress at the end of the projecting fin, thus:
Minimum width of stress block
mwsb2=daxMb*10^3/(t*pubc)
=64.021*10^3/(327*3.4087)
=57.437 mm
Lever arm
la2=Y1*10^3-mwsb2/2
=0.70048*10^3-57.437/2
=671.76 mm
Stability moment of resistance
MRs2=daxMb*la2/10^3
=64.021*671.76/10^3
=43.007 kNm
Stability moment of resistance is greater than Case 2 base moment
( 43.007 kNm > 11.907 kNm ), therefore use M2b in the design of the
fin section.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 536. (ans=1)


Page: 6
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Fin wall
Date: 02/04/14
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Ref No: SC536 EC

Office: 1007
Bending moment diagrams

Case (1) pressure:


MRs1 (calculated)
26.19 kNm
As MRs1 M1b ( 26.19 kNm 14.884 kNm ), assumed base moment is OK.
Position of zero shear
zS1=3*h/8
=3*7/8
=2.625 m from top as assumed
Moment at zero shear position
M1w=8.3721 kNm as assumed
Case (2) suction:
MRs2 (calculated)
43.007 kNm
As MRs2 M2b ( 43.007 kNm 11.907 kNm ), assumed base moment is OK.
Position of zero shear
zS2=3*h/8
=3*7/8
=2.625 m from top as assumed
Moment at zero shear position
M2w=6.6977 kNm as assumed
<
<
<
2.43 <
kN/m <
of
<
height<
<
<
<

prop

8.3721

2.625

14.884

Case (1): Pressure on


windward wall

Consider stresses at level of Mw

Case (1) pressure:


Own weight at level of M1w

<
<
<
1.944 <
kN/m <
of
<
height<
<
<
<

tie

2.625

6.6977

11.907

Case (2): Suction


on wall

Owm1w=0.9*ow*zS1=0.9*10.162*2.625
=24.008 kN

Flexural stresses at design load:


Flexural compressive stress
fubc1=Owm1w/(A*10^3)+M1w/(Z1*10^3)
=24.008/(0.50811*10^3)+8.3721
/(0.091781*10^3)
=0.13847 N/mm2
Flexural tensile stress
fubt1=Owm1w/(A*10^3)-M1w/(Z2*10^3)
=24.008/(0.50811*10^3)-8.3721
/(0.15509*10^3)
=-0.0067309 N/mm2
Case (2) suction:
Own weight at level of M2w
Owm2w=0.9*ow*zS2=0.9*10.162*2.625
=24.008 kN
Flexural stresses at design load:
Flexural compressive stress
fubc2=Owm2w/(A*10^3)+M2w/(Z2*10^3)
=24.008/(0.50811*10^3)+6.6977
/(0.15509*10^3)
=0.090435 N/mm2
Flexural tensile stress
fubt2=Owm2w/(A*10^3)-M2w/(Z1*10^3)
=24.008/(0.50811*10^3)-6.6977
/(0.091781*10^3)

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 536. (ans=1)


Page: 7
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Fin wall
Date: 02/04/14
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Ref No: SC536 EC

Office: 1007
=-0.025725 N/mm2
Design flexural strength at Mw levels

(a) Design flexural tensile strength, pubt:


(taking account of materials partial safety factor, gamM)
Design flexural tensile strength pubt=fxk11/gamM
=0.4/2.3
=0.17391 N/mm2
Since -fubt1<=pubt ( 0.0067309 N/mm2 0.17391 N/mm2 ) the
flexural tensile stress for Case 1 is OK.
Since -fubt2<=pubt ( 0.025725 N/mm2 0.17391 N/mm2 ) the
flexural tensile stress for Case 2 is OK.
(b) Design flexural compressive strength, pubc:
Design flexural compress strength
pubc=1.1..fk(1)/gamM N/mm2
Calculate respective values for Case (1) and Case (2) loadings at
level of Mw.
Case (1) pressure (end of fin in compression at Mw level):
Slenderness ratio
sr=2*zS1/(t/1000)=2*2.625/(327/1000)
=16.055
The simplified method for evaluating the capacity reduction factor s
in accordance with EC6 Part 3 Clause 4.2.2.3(1) will be utilised here.
Capacity reduction factor s
phis=0.85-0.0011*(sr)^2
=0.85-0.0011*(16.055)^2
=0.56646
Design flexural comp strength
pubc1=1.1*phis*fk(1)/gamM
=1.1*0.56646*7.1272/2.3
=1.9309 N/mm2
Since fubc1<=pubc1 ( 0.13847 N/mm2 1.9309 N/mm2 ) the
flexural compressive stress for Case 1 is OK.
Case (2) suction (flange in compression at Mw level):
Slenderness ratio
sr=2*((B-t)/2)/tef
=2*((1727-327)/2)/129.08
=10.846
The simplified method for evaluating the capacity reduction factor s
in accordance with EC6 Part 3 Clause 4.2.2.3(1) will be utilised here.
Capacity reduction factor s
phis=0.85-0.0011*(sr)^2
=0.85-0.0011*(10.846)^2
=0.7206
Design flexural comp strength
pubc2=1.1*phis*fk(1)/gamM
=1.1*0.7206*7.1272/2.3
=2.4563 N/mm2
Since fubc2<=pubc2 ( 0.090435 N/mm2 2.4563 N/mm2 ) the
flexural compressive stress for Case 2 is OK.

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 536. (ans=1)


Page: 8
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Fin wall
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC536 EC

Office: 1007
DESIGN SUMMARY
OUTER LEAF

INNER LEAF

LEAF
FINS (pressure)
(suction)

Wall height
7 m
Length between fins
4.05 m
Thickness
102.5 mm
Char flex strength (bed)
0.4 N/mm2
Char flex strength (perp)
1.1 N/mm2
Char comp strength
7.1272 N/mm2
Thickness
102.5 mm
Char flex strength (bed)
0.4 N/mm2
Char flex strength (perp)
1.1 N/mm2
Char comp strength
4.4055 N/mm2
Bending moment between fins 0.70296 kNm
Bend strength between fins
1.6749 kNm
Bending stress in tension
-0.0067309 N/mm2
Bending stress in comp
0.13847 N/mm2
Bending stress in tension
-0.025725 N/mm2
Bending stress in comp
0.090435 N/mm2
Bend strength in tension
0.17391 N/mm2
Bend strength in comp
3.4087 N/mm2
Outer leaf - use Group 1 units (i.e. solid)
Inner leaf - use Group 1 units (i.e. solid)
No536

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 540. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Load distribution to shear walls
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC540

Office: 1007
Distribution of wind load to concrete or masonry shear walls

Wind forces are distributed to the shear walls by the 'slab-over'


acting as a stiff horizontal diaphragm (the slab must make good
connections with the walls). The figure below shows a structural
plan on a shear wall system with the r'th shear wall resisting
resultant wind force Fx. The method is described in 'Structural
Design of Masonry' by Andrew Orton and is as follows:
a) compute position of shear centre (yc) for walls acting to resist
horizontal force in x-direction. (The origin for the x and y
coordinate axes is taken as the bottom left corner of the plan).
b) compute position of shear centre (xc) for walls acting to resist
horizontal force in y-direction.
c) compute torsional rigidity =(Ixr.ycr^2+Iyr.xcr^2) where
xcr and ycr are the distances from the shear centre to each wall
in the x and y-directions respectively.
d) with the wind force in the x-direction as in the figure, compute
twisting moment = Fx.(ym-yc) = Fx.ey
e) for the wind in the x-direction compute the load in each shear
wall due to the lateral displacement and that due to the twist.
For the r'th shear wall: fxr = Fx.Ixr / (Ix1+Ix2+...)
+ Fx.ey.Ixr.ycr / (Ix1.yc1^2+Ix2.yc2^2+...+Iy1.xc1^2+Iy2.xc2^2+...)
f) repeat steps (d) and (e) for wind in y-direction.
Location: Problem 1 in Orton's paper 'Structural Design of Masonry'

yc

Load distribution to shear walls


xr

shear wall r

Resultant wind force

with inertia Ixr


Fx

yr

shear centre
ym

o
X
origin
xc Resultant wind
xm force Fy

Number of walls resisting movement in x-dirn


Number of walls resisting movement in y-dirn

nx=4
ny=2

Resultant wind force in x-direction


Distance of this force from the origin
Resultant wind force in y-direction

Fx=20.82 kN
ym=3.5 m
Fy=0 kN

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 540. (ans=1)


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Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Load distribution to shear walls
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Ref No: SC540

Office: 1007
Resistance of walls in x-direction:
Wall 1

Inertia of wall to resist force in x-direction Ix(i)=0.8 m4


Dist.from origin to centroid of wall in y-dir. y(1)=7 m
Current summation of the product (Ixr.yr)
sigIxy=sigIxy+Ix(i)*y(i)
=0+0.8*7
=5.6 m5
Current summation of the term (Ixr)
sigIxr=sigIxr+Ix(i)
=0+0.8
=0.8 m4
Wall 2

Inertia of wall to resist force in x-direction Ix(i)=0.3375 m4


Dist.from origin to centroid of wall in y-dir. y(2)=0 m
Current summation of the product (Ixr.yr)
sigIxy=sigIxy+Ix(i)*y(i)
=5.6+0.3375*0
=5.6 m5
Current summation of the term (Ixr)
sigIxr=sigIxr+Ix(i)
=0.8+0.3375
=1.1375 m4
Wall 3

Inertia of wall to resist force in x-direction Ix(i)=0.0125 m4


Dist.from origin to centroid of wall in y-dir. y(3)=4 m
Current summation of the product (Ixr.yr)
sigIxy=sigIxy+Ix(i)*y(i)
=5.6+0.0125*4
=5.65 m5
Current summation of the term (Ixr)
sigIxr=sigIxr+Ix(i)
=1.1375+0.0125
=1.15 m4
Wall 4

Inertia of wall to resist force in x-direction Ix(i)=0.0125 m4


Dist.from origin to centroid of wall in y-dir. y(4)=4 m
Current summation of the product (Ixr.yr)
sigIxy=sigIxy+Ix(i)*y(i)
=5.65+0.0125*4
=5.7 m5
Current summation of the term (Ixr)
sigIxr=sigIxr+Ix(i)
=1.15+0.0125
=1.1625 m4
Distance from origin to shear centre
yc=sigIxy/sigIxr
=5.7/1.1625
=4.9032 m

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 540. (ans=1)


Page: 3
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Load distribution to shear walls
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC540

Office: 1007
Resistance of walls in y-direction:
Wall 1

Inertia of wall to resist force in y-direction Iy(i)=0.0125 m4


Dist.from origin to centroid of wall in x-dir. x(1)=0 m
Current summation of the product (Iyr.xr)
sigIyx=sigIyx+Iy(i)*x(i)
=0+0.0125*0
=0 m5
Current summation of the term (Iyr)
sigIyr=sigIyr+Iy(i)
=0+0.0125
=0.0125 m4
Wall 2

Inertia of wall to resist force in y-direction Iy(i)=0.0125 m4


Dist.from origin to centroid of wall in x-dir. x(2)=4 m
Current summation of the product (Iyr.xr)
sigIyx=sigIyx+Iy(i)*x(i)
=0+0.0125*4
=0.05 m5
Current summation of the term (Iyr)
sigIyr=sigIyr+Iy(i)
=0.0125+0.0125
=0.025 m4
Distance from origin to shear centre
xc=sigIyx/sigIyr
=0.05/0.025
=2 m
Where xcr and ycr are the distances from the shear centre to each wall
in the x and y-directions respectively:
Summation of product Ixr.ycr^2:

Wall

Value of Ix(i)*(y(i)-yc)^2 in m6

3.5172
2

8.114
3

0.010198
4

0.010198

Sum of product
Ixr.ycr^2=11.652 m6

Summation of product Iyr.xcr^2:

Wall

Value of Iy(i)*(x(i)-xc)^2 in m6

0.05
2

0.05

Sum of product

Torsional rigidity

Iyr.xcr^2=0.1 m6
Itor=sigIyc+sigIxc
=11.652+0.1
=11.752 m6

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 540. (ans=1)


Page: 4
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Load distribution to shear walls
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC540

Office: 1007
RESULTS

Eccentricity of force Fx from shear centre

ey=ym-yc=3.5-4.9032
=-1.4032 m

Load resistance of individual walls in x-direction

Wall 1 :
Load resistance
fx(1)=Fx*Ix(i)/sigIxr+(Fx*ey+Fy*ex)*Ix(i)*(y(i)-yc)/Itor
=20.82*0.8/1.1625+(20.82*-1.4032+0*0)*0.8*(7-4.9032)/11.752
=10.158 kN
Proportion of total force resisted by this wall px(1)=fx(i)/Fx*100
=10.158/20.82*100
=48.788 %
Since torsional component reduces calculated load resistance of this
wall component, Orton suggests this term be ignored. If this is done,
Load resistance fx(1)=Fx*Ix(i)/sigIxr=20.82*0.8/1.1625
=14.328 kN
Proportion of total force resisted by this wall px(1)=fx(i)/Fx*100
=14.328/20.82*100
=68.817 %
Wall 2 :
Load resistance
fx(2)=Fx*Ix(i)/sigIxr+(Fx*ey+Fy*ex)*Ix(i)*(y(i)-yc)/Itor
=20.82*0.3375/1.1625+(20.82*-1.4032+0*0)*0.3375*(0-4.9032)
/11.752
=10.159 kN
Proportion of total force resisted by this wall px(2)=fx(i)/Fx*100
=10.159/20.82*100
=48.792 %
Wall 3 :
Load resistance
fx(3)=Fx*Ix(i)/sigIxr+(Fx*ey+Fy*ex)*Ix(i)*(y(i)-yc)/Itor
=20.82*0.0125/1.1625+(20.82*-1.4032+0*0)*0.0125*(4-4.9032)
/11.752
=0.25194 kN
Proportion of total force resisted by this wall px(3)=fx(i)/Fx*100
=0.25194/20.82
*100
=1.2101 %
Wall 4 :
Load resistance
fx(4)=Fx*Ix(i)/sigIxr+(Fx*ey+Fy*ex)*Ix(i)*(y(i)-yc)/Itor
=20.82*0.0125/1.1625+(20.82*-1.4032+0*0)*0.0125*(4-4.9032)
/11.752
=0.25194 kN
Proportion of total force resisted by this wall px(4)=fx(i)/Fx*100
=0.25194/20.82
*100
=1.2101 %

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 540. (ans=1)


Page: 5
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Load distribution to shear walls
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com
Ref No: SC540

Office: 1007
Load resistance of individual walls in y-direction

Wall 1 :
Load resistance
fy(1)=Fy*Iy(i)/sigIyr+(Fy*ex+Fx*ey)*Iy(i)*(x(i)-xc)/Itor
=0*0.0125/0.025+(0*0+20.82*-1.4032)*0.0125*(0-2)/11.752
=0.062151 kN
Wall 2 :
Load resistance
fy(2)=Fy*Iy(i)/sigIyr+(Fy*ex+Fx*ey)*Iy(i)*(x(i)-xc)/Itor
=0*0.0125/0.025+(0*0+20.82*-1.4032)*0.0125*(4-2)/11.752
=-0.062151 kN
Note: Negative value indicates force on wall acts in opposite
direction to that of applied wind load.
No540

Sample output for SCALE Proforma 550. (ans=1)


Page: 1
Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6
Made by: IFB
Mechanism analysis of arches
Date: 02/04/14
(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www