00 голосов за00 голосов против

258 просмотров563 стр.scale

Apr 12, 2014

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT или читайте онлайн в Scribd

scale

© All Rights Reserved

258 просмотров

00 голосов за00 голосов против

scale

© All Rights Reserved

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 563

Page: 1

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

structural engineers' calculations and component details for the design

of a variety of components such as beams, columns and slabs, using

steel, concrete, masonry and timber.

SCALE incorporates a library of over 1000 proforma calculations, any of

which may be selected for use when SCALE is run. The content of this

library is continually under review, proformas being added or modified

as codes of practice develop and change. The library includes:

SCALE - Reinforced Concrete Design to Eurocode 2 and BS8110

- Reinforced & Prestressed Concrete Design to BS5400 & DOT

- Reinforced Concrete to Eurocode 2, BS8007, BS8666 and Section Analysis

- Composite Construction to Eurocode 4, BS5950 and BS5400

- Timber Design to Eurocode 5 and BS5268

- Steel Design to BS5400 & DOT

- Steel Design to Eurocode 3 and BS5950-1:2000

- Masonry Design to Eurocode 6, BS5628 and MEXE

- Analysis by NL-STRESS

- Analysis by Traditional Methods

- Pre and Postprocessors for Structural Analysis

- Loadings and Foundations

- Drainage and Surveying

- Mathematics

- Manuals and Miscellaneous

LUCID for reinforced concrete component detailing.

SPADE for steelwork, timber and masonry component detailing.

NL-STRESS for the structural analysis of frameworks.

The principal proformas have now been modified such that each proforma

will allow design to the new Eurocode with full working displayed to the

Eurocode, or allow design to the previous British Standard showing full

workings displayed to the British Standard. The user can choose

the code at the start of the proforma and alternate between

codes as required.

Your pdf viewer should show a list of bookmarks to the left of this document,

click on the bookmarks to jump to the relevent example proformas.

Alternatively click on the highlighted links above to jump to the relevent

section headings in the full list of proformas on the following pages.

Page: 2

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

The output from SCALE is a set of pages, neatly titled, dated and

numbered, containing calculations and component details made to a

standard suitable for submission to a checking authority.

Sample output calculations and detailing drawings for nearly one

hundred proformas are included in this document, to jump directly to

these calculations click on the bookmarked links which should be

displayed to the left of this document, or click on the highlighted

proformas below to jump directly to sample output from that proforma.

Where a SCALE proforma has a # sign following its number, this

indicates that that proforma pulls forward the moments, shears etc.

from an NL-STRESS analysis into the proforma.

The proformas marked with an (E) allow full workings to the Eurocodes

and full workings to the British Standard, or are analytical and

applicable to both. There are now over 375 proformas ready for the

Eurocodes.

SCALE

072

073

074

075

076

077

078

080

081

082

083

084

085

086

087

088

089

090

091

092

094

095

096

097

098

099

100

101

102#

103

104#

105

106#

107#

108

109

110

REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN TO EUROCODE 2 AND BS8110

(E) Rectangular beam - flexure only

(E) Rectangular beam - flexure, span/depth, curtailment, laps

(E) Tee beam - flexure only

(E) Tee beam - flexure, span/depth check

(E) Design of walls

Wall to wall intersection

(E) Rectangular and Tee beam - shear only

(E) Solid slab - flexure, tension steel only, span/d /m width

(E) Solid slab - flexure, tension & comp steel, span/d /m width

(E) Solid slab - flexure, tens & comp steel, span/d given width

(E) Solid slab - shear only

(E) Slab rib - shear only

(E) Two way slabs - moments only

(E) Two way slabs - with design

(E) Flat slabs - simplified method

(E) Slabs - punching shear

Annular column

(E) Stocky column - biaxial bending

(E) Slender rectangular column - uniaxial bending

(E) Slender rectangular column - biaxial bending

(E) Circular column - design for ultimate

(E) Circular column - cracking

(E) Circular column - cracking with tension stiffening

(E) Rectangular column uniaxial bending - rigorous procedure

(E) Rectangular column biaxial bending - rigorous procedure

(E) Circular column in accordance with IStructE/ICE manual

(E) Simply supported rectangular beam/slab with general loading

(E) RC beam on elastic piles subjected to train of moving point loads

(E) Rectangular beam/slab section

(E) Rectangular beam/slab section - checking aid

(E) Biaxially bent stocky column

(E) Rectangular column section - checking aid

(E) Flanged beam section design to IStructE manual

(E) Flanged beam section design to Clause 3.4.4.4

(E) Torsion steel for rectangular section

Ground-supported concrete slabs for industrial buildings

(E) Pad footing with uniaxial bending, including section design

Page: 3

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

111

112

113

117

118

119

(E) Modular-ratio design of reinforcement for circular column

(E) Modular-ratio calculation of stresses for circular column

(E) Simply supported R.C. staircase

(E) Concrete nibs

(E) Fire resistance

120

121

122

123

124

125

126

127

128

130

131

132

133

134

135

114

115

116

165

137

138

139

140

141

142

143

144

145

146

147

148

149

150

151

152

153

154

155

156

157

158

159

Rectangular beam/slab section

Assessment of beam/slab section

General reinforced concrete section - design

General reinforced concrete section - assessment

Early thermal cracking

Half joint

Torsion in reinforced concrete - design

Torsion in reinforced concrete - assessment

Temperature effects

HA loading to BD 37/01

HA loading assessment to BD 21/01

ULS flexure in prestressed members - design

ULS flexure in prestressed members - assessment

ULS shear in prestressed members - design

ULS shear in prestressed members - assessment

TY beam with in-situ infill

TY beam with in-situ top slab

TYE beam with in-situ top slab

TYE beam with in-situ infill

Birchwood B75 bridge beam with in-situ infill

New super Y beams with insitu top slab

Y edge beams with insitu top slab

Inverted T beam

M beam

UM beam

Y beam

U beam

Wide box beam

Box beam

SBB beam

Non standard beam

(E) Concrete mix design

Wood/Armer

Rectangular column - section interaction - design

Rectangular column - section interaction - assessment

Circular column - section interaction - design

Circular column - section interaction - assessment

General column - section interaction - design

General column - section interaction - assessment

Rectangular column - biaxial bending - design

Rectangular column - biaxial bending - assessment

Documentation for Technical Approval Procedures

160

162

164

189

190

191

(E) Wall/slab section

(E) Beam section

(E) Two way spanning wall slab/plate with hydrostatic pressure

(E) Designated concrete to BS8500-1:2002 conforms with BS EN 206-1

(E) Bar scheduling to BS8666:2005

(Withdrawn) Bar scheduling to BS4466

Page: 4

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

192

193

194

195

(E)

(E)

(E)

(E)

Biaxial bending of rectangular section

Biaxial bending of circular section

Biaxial bending of user defined section

210

212

214

216

218

220

222

224

225

226

(E) Internal beam with UDL to BS5950 and EC4

(E) Edge beam with UDL to BS5950 and EC4

(E) Internal beam with secondary beams to BS5950 and EC4

(E) Edge beam with secondary beam to BS5950 and EC4

(E) Internal beam with secondary beams at third points to BS5950 & EC4

(E) Edge beam with secondary beams at third points to BS5950 and EC4

(E) Section properties to BS5950 and EC4

(E) Shear connector design to BS5950 and EC4

Temperature effects in composite bridge decks - BS5400 & D. Tp.

Differential shrinkage in composite bridge decks - BS5400 & D.Tp.

250#

251#

252

253

254

255

256

257

258

259

260

262

266

267

268

269

271

272

273

274

275

280

284

286

288

290

292

(E) Rectangular section with axial load & bending

(E) Rectangular Glulam column/tie with axial load

(E) Domestic floor joist

(E) Biaxial bending of timber section

(E) Simply supported beam with general loading

(E) Simply supported Glulam beam with general loading

(E) Simply supported flitched beam with general loading

(E) Spaced timber column

(E) Ply web and box beam

(E) Stressed skin timber floor joist

(E) Howe truss

(E) Pratt truss

(E) Fink truss

(E) Racking resistance of timber stud panels

(E) Fire design of timber beam

(E) Residential floor vibration check to EC5

(E) Nailed joint

(E) Screwed joint

(E) Bolted joint

(E) Spliced timber joint

(E) Toothed plate connector

(E) Rafter or sloping beam

(E) Couple roof

(E) Collar-tie roof

(E) Lean-to roof

(E) Trussed beam

(E) Braced sheds (for attic and other frames - see analysis by STRESS)

356

357

358

359

360

361

362

363

364

365

366

List of proformas

Design objectives and partial safety factors

Steel grades to BS EN 10 025 & BS4360

Nominal yield stress

Notch toughness

Stress analysis; allowance for shear lag

Shape limitations for flanges

Openings in webs and compression flanges

Shape limitations for flat stiffeners

Shape limitations for bulb flat stiffeners

Shape limitations for angle stiffeners

Page: 5

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

367

368

369

370

371

372

373

374

375

376

377

378

382

Shape limitations for closed stiffeners

Shape limitations for flanges curved in elevation

Shape limitations for circular hollow sections

Effective section

Evaluation of stresses

Effective length for lateral torsional buckling

Slenderness

Limiting compressive stress

Bending resistance without longitudinal stiffeners

Shear resistance without longitudinal stiffeners

Combined bending and shear

Transverse web stiffeners other than at supports

351

384

385

386

387

388

390#

391#

392

396

407

408

409

410#

411#

412#

414#

415

416

418

419

421

422

423

424

425

426

427

428

429#

432

434

436

437

438

439

440#

441#

442#

443

444#

445#

446

(E) Balluster base plate - either concentric or not with baseplate

(E) Stainless steel circular hollow section design

(E) Stainless steel hollow section design

(E) Simply supported stainless steel beam (CHS, SHS, RHS, Channel)

(E) Axially loaded stainless steel column (CHS, SHS, RHS, Channel)

(E) Axially loaded stainless steel angle

(E) Concrete filled square and rectangular hollow section column

(E) Concrete filled circular hollow section column

Fire design of concrete filled structural hollow section column

(E) Moment connection between RHS column and column base

(E) Simple design, builder's arithmetic, general check, safe loads

(E) SS beam (UB, UC, Joist, or Channel) general loading

(E) UB, UC or RSJ with bottom flange plate

(E) I beam section design

(E) Portal frame rafter design

(E) RHS beam section design

(E) CHS beam and column section design

(E) Checking aid for SS UB's with various loadings & restraints

(E) Design of RHS Slimflor edge beam

(E) Slim floor design

(E) Slim floor design using deep decking

(E) Base plate subject to load and moment

(E) Extended bolted end plate connection beam to column

(E) Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column

(E) Beam splice - Extended end plate connection

(E) Beam splice - Flush end plate connection

(E) Welded beam to column connection

(E) Flush beam splice with end plates and single flange plate

(E) Cantilevered beam

(E) Cantilevered beam - alternative linking with NL-STRESS

(E) Fully restrained SS I beam with UDL and point load/s

(E) SS I Beam with UDL - restrained at ends only

(E) SS I Beam with UDL & point loads restrained or unrestrained

(E) SHS beam restrained at ends and loads

(E) Purlin on sloping roof

(E) Side rail

(E) Column (UB, UC or Channel) with biaxial bending

(E) Cased I section column

(E) H Section column with biaxial bending

(E) Effective length of compression members

(E) SHS and RHS column section design (axial load and bending)

(E) Plastic design of stanchions

(E) Single angle - section design

Page: 6

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

447

448

449

450

451

452

453

454

456

457#

458#

459#

460

462

463

464

465

466

467

468

470

472

474

476

477

478

479

480

481

482

484

485

486

487

488

489

490

491

492

493

494

496

497

498

(E) Design of SHS beam curved on plan

(E) Design of CHS beam curved on plan

(E) Pin ended I, H, or channel section column

(E) SHS, RHS and CHS column section design (axial load only)

(E) I column in simple construction

(E) SHS, RHS and CHS column in simple construction

(E) Channel bending about minor axis

(E) Laced or battened strut

(E) Design of SHS section curved on elevation

(E) Design of CHS section curved on elevation

(E) Design of "I" beam curved in the vertical plane

Portal frame design - plastic analysis

Portal frame in boundary conditions (fire)

(E) Channel subject to eccentric loading

(E) Beam subject to eccentric loading

(E) RHS beam - eccentric loading

(E) Steel beam with openings in the web

(E) Cellular and castellated beams

(E) Beams formed from single angle

(E) Stiffened plate girder

(E) Design of Structural T-sections

(E) Gantry girder

(E) Wind moment design of unbraced frames

(E) Axially loaded steel lattice connections

(E) Chord and bracing connections with moments including knee joints

(E) Hollow section chords with gusset plates/universal section brace

(E) Angle cleat connection

(E) Fin plate connection

(E) Angle seat connection

(E) Flexible end plate

(E) Full-depth end plate connection

(E) Flush end plate haunched connection

(E) Extended end plate haunched connection

(E) Axially loaded column base for I sections

(E) Axially loaded column base for SHS's

(E) Column splice

(E) Bolted end column splice

(E) Beam splice

(E) Universal section chord with hollow section brace

(E) Portal apex connection

(E) Load bearing stiffener design

(E) Section properties of haunched section

(E) Bolts subject to eccentric loading

503

505

506

510

511

512

515

519

520

521

525

528

(E) Cantilever wall spanning horizontally

(E) Wall panel

(E) Panel with opening

(E) Single leaf wall

(E) Single leaf wall by effective eccentricities

(E) Lateral resistance of wall by arching

(E) Column

(E) Bed joint reinforcement for laterally loaded masonry walls

(E) Freestanding wall

(E) Brick beam

(E) Bearing

(E) Simplified sub-frame analysis to EC6

Page: 7

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

529

530

532

535

536

537

538

540

541

543

546

547

548

550

552

554

(E) External cavity wall

(E) External cavity wall - by vertical arching

(E) Shear wall

(E) Fin wall

(E) Reinforced brick retaining wall

(E) Reinforced brick column

Load distribution to shear walls

Support angles

Pippard/MEXE analysis for unit applied load

Pippard/MEXE analysis for C&U, EC and user defined bogies

Pippard/MEXE analysis for user defined loading

Assessment of masonry arch bridges by modified MEXE

Mechanism analysis of arches

Masonry dams

(E) Masonry gravity wall

557

558

559

560

561

562

563

564

567

568

569

570

571

572

573

574

575

576

577

578

579

580

581

582

583

584

585

586

587

588

589

590

591

592

593

594

595

596

597

598

ANALYSIS BY NL-STRESS

(E) Benchmarking sets of NL-STRESS data files

(E) Training in the NL-STRESS language

(E) NL-STRESS Questions & Answers

(E) Plane grid analysis

(E) Foundation raft

(E) Suspended slabs/bridges

(E) Beam curved on plan

(E) Running NL-STRESS Verified Models from within SCALE

(E) Cantilever or built-in beam or rafter

(E) Lean-to, cranked, dogleg or Mansard beam

(E) Portal frame - mono pitch/rectangular

(E) Portal frame - 1 bay

(E) Portal frame - 1 bay with haunches

(E) Portal frame - 1 bay for hipped end

(E) Portal frame - 2 bays

(E) Portal frame - 2 bays with haunches

(E) Portal frame - 2 bays with haunches and single ridge

(E) Portal frame - 3 bays

(E) Portal frame - 3 bays with haunches

(E) Portal frame - 3 bays with haunches and single ridge

(E) Portal frame - 4 bays

(E) Portal frame - 4 bays with haunches

(E) Portal frame - 4 bays with haunches and single ridge

(E) Gangnail type of roof truss

(E) Lattice girder

(E) Lattice portal - N or Pratt, Howe or Warren

(E) Attic room roof truss

(E) Collar-tie & collar-and-tie roof truss

(E) Couple/couple-close truss

(E) Fink roof truss

(E) King post roof truss

(E) Queen post roof truss

(E) Mansard roof

(E) Bents, trestles and pipe racks

(E) Box culvert

(E) Continuous beam with train of moving point loads

(E) Coupled shear wall

(E) Circular arch

(E) Multi-storey multi-bay

(E) Continuous beam with optional cantilever/s

Page: 8

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

599

600

(E) Frame analysis by NL-STRESS

601

602

603

604

605

606

608

610

611

612

614

615

620

621

622

623

624

626

628

632

634

635

636

638

639

640

642

643

649

650

651

652

653

659

660

662

663

664

666

668

(E) Table of deflections for checking beams

(E) Shears, moments, etc. for beams

(E) Beams under combined axial and transverse loading

(E) Continuous beam - moment distribution

(E) Cantilever beam with varying section properties

(E) Simply supported beam

(E) Cranked or dogleg beam

(E) Influence lines

Pigeaud's tables for concentrated loads on slabs

Rectangular culverts

(E) Circular plate with UDL

(E) Rectangular plates

Subframe analysis

(E) Plane truss analysis - joint by joint

(E) Plane truss analysis

(E) Multi storey and multi bay frames

(E) Multi storey frames

(E) Vierendeel girders

(E) Shear legs

(E) Rectangular portal

(E) Ridged portal

(E) Two bay ridged portal

(E) Couple roof

(E) Circular arch

Helical stair

(E) Deep beams

(E) Roof trusses

(E) Section design for UB's UC's SHS's RHS's & CHS's

(E) Plastic section properties

(E) Section properties - general

(E) Section properties with weightings

(E) Section properties - plate girder with welded connections

(E) Section properties - plate girder with angle connections

(E) Influence surfaces of elastic plates - Pucher's charts

(E) Yield-lines

Suspension bridges

Suspension cable analysis

Dynamical behaviour

(E) Elastic stability

Static analysis of symmetrical guyed masts

670

672

674

675

677

678

679

680

682

684

686

687

HB Vehicle - load sharing

(E) Post-processing NL-STRESS results

(E) Derives moments and principal stresses from plate deflections

Wave forces - 5th order

(E) Preprocessing NL-STRESS data to remove expressions

Guyed masts

Circular tanks

(E) Joint coordinates of circular members

(E) Beta angle for space frame members

(E) Member stiffness matrices

Loss of stiffness due to partial plasticity

(E) Equilibrium & compatibility check of plane frame & truss members

Page: 9

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

688

689

690

692

694

(E)

(E)

(E)

(E)

(E)

Equilibrium & compatibility check of space frame & truss members

Support displacements to model for guy pretension

Modelling of guys for analysis by stiffness method

Loads on continuous beams - used in sheet pile design

130

131

700

701

702

703

704

705

706

707

710

711

715

716

717

718

720

725

726

LOADINGS

HA loading to BD 37/01

HA loading assessment to BD 21/01

Wind loads to CP3 Chapter 5

(E) Snow loading

(E) Wind loads to BS6399-2:1997 and Eurocode 1

Topographic location factor to BS6399 Part 2 1997

(E) Lateral earth pressure from surcharge

Pressures from retained materials

Moments and forces in hopper bottoms

Moments and forces in cylindrical containers

Loading on strip footing

Column & foundation loads

Unit loads

Loading on domestic lintel

Unit loads for steel frames

Steel beam with welded bottom flange

(E) Weighting of items comprising several parts

(E) Factored load summary sheet

(E) Eurocode load combinations

731

732

734

735

742

743

744

745

746

747

748

749

750

751

752

754

755

756

757

758

759

760

761

764

765

766

767

768

769

770

FOUNDATIONS

(E) Notes on pilecaps

(E) Pilecap for 2 piles - truss analogy

(E) Pilecap for 4 piles - truss analogy

(E) Pilecap for 5 piles - truss analogy

(E) Pilecap for 2 piles - bending theory

(E) Pilecap for 3 piles - bending theory

(E) Pilecap for 4 piles - bending theory

(E) Pilecap for 5 piles - bending theory

(E) Pilecap for 6 piles - bending theory

(E) Pilecap for 7 piles - bending theory

(E) Pilecap for 8 piles - bending theory

(E) Pilecap for 9 piles - bending theory

(E) Concrete retaining wall

(E) Active pressure on a retaining wall to BS8002:1994 or Eurocode 7

(E) Stability calculations for a retaining wall

(E) Biaxial bending on pad base

(E) Pad base

(E) Preliminary sizing of trapezoidal combined base

(E) Preliminary sizing of T-shaped combined base

(E) Preliminary sizing of rectangular combined base

(E) Preliminary design of tied separate bases

(E) Combined base

(E) Traditional raft foundation design.

(E) Beam on elastic foundation with load train - Hetenyi

(E) Beam on elastic foundation

(E) Ground beam on elastic piles

(E) Active thrust on wall - cohesionless soil with horizontal surface

(E) Active & passive pressures on sheet pile wall - with two soils

Active wall pressure (Rankine) retaining soil slope

(E) Slip circle analysis - Taylor's stability numbers

Page: 10

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

771

772

773

775

776

780

781

782

786

787

788

789

790

791

792

793

794

795

796

Coefficient of volume compressibility and compression index

One dimensional consolidation beneath rectangular raft

(E) Safe bearing pressures

(E) Structural design of bituminous roads

Soil pressures due to stacks

Elastic stresses within foundation material

Elastic stresses resulting from UDL on rectangular area

Vertical loads on straight bored piles in clay

Large diameter belled piles in clay

(E) Pile loads from a crane base

Pile group analysis

Loads on piles in groups

Pile types and characteristics

(E) Sheet retaining structures

(E) Laterally loaded piles

Sheet pile wall - Das

(E) Specialist firms for ground improvement and piling works

Embedded depths of holding down bolts

800

805

855

856

859

860

861

870

871

872

890

Drain & sewer pipe sizing

(E) Gutters and rain water pipes

(E) Road alignment vertical curve

(E) Road alignment horizontal curves

(E) Areas and volumes for cuttings and embankments

(E) Volumes from spot levels

(E) Simpson's rule for volumes

(E) Setting out piles

(E) Analytical geometry based on the COGO approach

(E) Traverse survey - open or closed

(E) Crack movements - by tell-tales

902

903

904

905

906

907

908

909

910

911

912

913

914

915

916

918

919

920

MATHEMATICS

(E) Solution of triangles

(E) Solution of simultaneous equations

(E) Solution of quadratic, cubic & quartic equations

(E) Coordinate geometry

(E) Differentiation of standard forms

(E) Differentiation of a general function

(E) Integration of standard forms

(E) Integration of a general function

(E) Mensuration of plane areas and solids

(E) Statistics and quality control

(E) Latent roots

(E) Centre of gravity

(E) Matrix inversion

(E) Greek alphabet

(E) Conversion between Imperial and metric and vice versa

(E) Compound interest for mortgage and loan payments

(E) Sorting text or numbers

(E) Expressing a set of data points as a polynomial

001#

002

070

921

(E) BM & SF diagrams for structure previously analysed by NL-STRESS

(E) Overview

(E) Simple test example

(E) Introduction to NL-STRESS Parametric Data Files

Page: 11

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

922

923

924

925

950

951

952

954

958

960

961

962

963

964

966

967

968

969

970

980

990

991

992

993

995

996

997

(E)

(E)

(E)

(E)

(E)

(E)

(E)

(E)

(E)

(E)

(E)

(E)

(E)

(E)

(E)

(E)

(E)

(E)

(E)

(E)

(E)

(E)

(E)

(E)

(E)

(E)

(E)

Introduction to NL-STRESS Benchmarks

Verifying the correctness of SCALE proformas & NL-STRESS models

Introduction to NL-STRESS Verified Models

Invoice for structural work

First page of calculations

Setting page length

Pages with heading only

Printing out the NL-STRESS Verified Models Manual

Produces a report of times logged in & logged out of SAND

Printing out the NL-STRESS Parametric Data Files Manual

Printing out the NL-STRESS Proforma Data Files Manual

Printing out the NL-STRESS Benchmarks Manual

Printing out the NL-STRESS Reference Manual (Theory & Benchmarks)

Printing out the SCALE Reference Manual

Printing out the SCALE help file and other help files

Printing out the Praxis Manual

Printing typical SCALE, LUCID & SPADE calcs/plots

Cross referencing of numerical variables in proforma files

English for engineers - hints on style and grammar

Job check list

Construction notes

Typical letters

Job information sheet

Computer output & QA

How to write a SCALE proforma

Examples of correct nesting structures for SCALE proformas

300#

305#

310#

315#

320

I beam

I column

RHS beam

RHS column

Angle cleat

Page: 1

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

not just electronic drawing boards, each is an 'expert detailer' which

does the drawing for you, producing to-scale details. The details may

be edited directly, or read and edited by your own CAD system.

100

110

120

130

FOUNDATIONS

Notes on the detailing of foundations

Pile caps

Square and rectangular reinforced and mass concrete bases

Isolated, internal and edge strip footings

200

210

220

RETAINING WALLS

Notes on the detailing of retaining walls

Free standing cantilever retaining walls

Propped retaining walls

300

310

Notes on the detailing of culverts and subways

Culverts and subways

400

410

420

430

440

450

460

SLABS

Notes on the detailing of edge supported slabs and flat slabs

Simply supported single panel slabs

One way spanning slabs

Two way spanning slabs

Flat slabs

Flat slabs - shear reinforcement at columns

Holes and chairs for top reinforcement

500

510

COLUMNS

Notes on the detailing of columns

Square, rectangular and circular columns

600

610

WALLS

Notes on the detailing of walls

Walls

700

710

STAIRCASES

Notes on the detailing of in-situ staircases

In-situ staircases

800

810

820

BEAMS

Notes on the detailing of beams

Simply supported and continuous beams

Cantilever beams

901

908

910

920

941

952

966

GENERAL

General notes on LUCID

Component detailing using LUCID

Bar schedule

The COMMAND prompt

Editor

Setting page length

Printing out the LUCID Reference Manual

Page: 1

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

(Steel, masonry & timber component detailing)

202

250

252

265

TIMBER

Beam to column connection

Spliced joints - various

Timber joist bearings on steel beams

Fan truss - general arrangement

266

267

268

269

Howe truss - general arrangement

Pratt truss - general arrangement

Queen post truss - general arrangement

310

320

PORTAL CONNECTIONS

Portal eaves haunched connection

Portal apex haunched connection

410

412

416

Flexible end plate connection - beam to beam

Flexible end plate connection - beam to column

Extended end plate connection - beam to column

420

422

430

Double angle cleat - beam to beam connection

Double angle cleat - beam to column connection

Angle seat - beam to column connection

440

442

Fin plate - beam to beam

Fin plate - beam to column

450

452

454

458

MOMENT CONNECTIONS

Tongue plate connection - beam to column

Direct welded connection - beam to column

Tee connections - beam to column

Beam stub connection

460

MISCELLANEOUS CONNECTIONS

Beam over beam connection

490

492

SPLICES

Beam splice

Column splice

510

512

COLUMN BASES

Column base plate

Welded gusset column base plate

540

550

SHOP DETAILS

Shop detail - non skew beam - drilled

Shop detail - column - drilled

580

582

FIRE CASINGS

Beam and column fire casing - timber framing - up to 1 hour

Beam and column fire casing - steel angle framing - up to 2 hours

Page: 2

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

590

592

LOCATION DRAWINGS

Location drawing - single bay portal frame

Location drawing - multi-storey frame

605

608

610

612

613

614

615

616

618

619

620

622

624

630

632

634

MASONRY

Raft foundation - wide toe

Raft foundation - deep edge beam

Raft foundation - plain edge detail

Raft foundation - plain internal wall support

Bored pile foundation to resist uplift

Bored pile foundation

Masonry walls

Trench fill foundation

Traditional strip footing with concrete floor

Traditional strip footing with suspended timber floor

Wide strip foundation

Pad and stem foundation for loose fill

Precast driven segmental pile foundation

Granular layer beneath slab venting through trench

Granular layer beneath slab venting through trench with riser

Granular layer beneath slab venting through slotted pipe & riser

801

901

908

920

941

952

966

967

996

GENERAL

Graph plotting

General notes on SPADE

Component detailing using SPADE

The COMMAND prompt

Editor

Setting page length

Printing out the SPADE Reference Manual

Printing out the SPADE help file

How to compose a SPADE proforma detail

SPADE and all proformas are copyright (C) Fitzroy Systems,

Page: 1

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

m102.ndf

m103.ndf

m104.ndf

m105.ndf

m106.ndf

m107.ndf

m108.ndf

m109.ndf

NL-STRESS parametric models are particularly useful for

checking that the results from other structural analysis

programs are in the right field.

N/Pratt deck latt truss, optn taper, udl top+bot, sway loads.

Howe thru latt truss, optn taper, udl top+bot, sway loads.

Howe deck latt truss, optn taper, udl top+bot, sway loads.

Warren thru latt truss, const height, udl top+bot, sway loads.

Warren thru latt truss w verts, udl top+bot, sway loads.

Warren deck latt truss w end verts, udl top+bot, sway loads.

Warren deck latt truss w verts, udl top+bot, sway loads.

Roof of 2 rafters w single tie, udl on plan, lateral udls.

m201.ndf

m202.ndf

m203.ndf

m204.ndf

m205.ndf

m206.ndf

m207.ndf

m208.ndf

m209.ndf

m210.ndf

m211.ndf

m212.ndf

m213.ndf

m214.ndf

m215.ndf

m216.ndf

m217.ndf

m218.ndf

m219.ndf

m220.ndf

m221.ndf

m222.ndf

m223.ndf

m224.ndf

m225.ndf

m226.ndf

m227.ndf

m228.ndf

m229.ndf

m230.ndf

m231.ndf

m232.ndf

m233.ndf

m234.ndf

m235.ndf

m236.ndf

m237.ndf

m238.ndf

m239.ndf

m240.ndf

m241.ndf

m242.ndf

PLANE FRAMES

Cantilever beam, sectn prop by geom, udl & conc loads.

Propped cantilever, sectn prop by geom, udl & conc loads.

Cantilever with tie-down span, udl and end point load.

Tapered cantilever, sectn prop by geom, loads p(1:n) at a(1:n).

Continuous beam, sectn prop by geom, various udls on each span.

Continuous beam, sectn prop by geom, udl & concentrated loads.

Continuous beam, sectn prop by geom, udl, conc & linear loads.

Ground beam on elastic foundation, train of moving loads.

Ground beam on piles at various centres with train of loads.

Influence lines, reaction, shear & bm, cont beam of nsp spans.

Cranked beam, sectn prop by geom, combn of fixities & supports.

Single span SS beam, sectn prop by geom, patterns for udls.

2 span continuous beam, sectn prop by geom, patterns for udls.

3 span continuous beam, sectn prop by geom, patterns for udls.

4 span continuous beam, sectn prop by geom, patterns for udls.

Cantilever column, sectn prop by geom, udl & conc loads.

Cant column propped, sectn prop by geom, udl & conc loads.

Cant column with tie-down span, udls & end point loads.

Cranked col, sectn prop by geom, pin/fixed ends, may be propd.

Column w.rect offset, sectn prop by geom, J2/5 may be propped.

Lean-to frame, rigid joint col to horiz beam, var supports.

Lean-to frame, rigid joint col to sloping rafter, var supports.

Lean-to frame, rigid joint sloping col to horiz beam, var supt.

Lean-to frame, rigid joint sloping col to sloping rafter.

Couple roof with rigid connection at apex and various supports.

Collar-tie roof (or A-frame), var member connectns, var suppts.

Couple close roof, var members, var connections, var supports.

Unsymm couple roof, rigid connection at apex, various supports.

Unsymm couple close roof with tie, var connectns, var supports.

Unsymm couple roof w. sup at diff levels, various connections.

Unsymm triangular frame, 1 leg vertical, with various supports.

Unsymm triangular frame, 1 leg vertical with tie, var supports.

Lean-to with col & beam & skew corner between, var supports.

Couple roof (gable frame) with left column, various supports.

Rect portal, optional pins at transom ends & at supports.

Rect rigid portal, pin ended tie grnd level, optnl slidng rel.

Rect portal, optional pins at transom ends, unequal len cols.

Rect rigid portal, unequal len cols, pin ended sloping tie.

2 storey bent, optn rel for middle beam, var sup at grnd level.

Shed: sloping roof, various support conditions.

Shed: sloping roof, tied columns & various supports.

Shed: sloping roof, bases at diff levels, various supports.

Page: 2

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

m243.ndf

m244.ndf

m245.ndf

m246.ndf

m247.ndf

m248.ndf

m249.ndf

m250.ndf

m251.ndf

m252.ndf

m253.ndf

m254.ndf

m255.ndf

m256.ndf

m257.ndf

m258.ndf

m259.ndf

m260.ndf

m261.ndf

m262.ndf

m263.ndf

m264.ndf

m265.ndf

m266.ndf

m267.ndf

m268.ndf

m269.ndf

m270.ndf

m271.ndf

m272.ndf

m273.ndf

m274.ndf

m275.ndf

m276.ndf

m277.ndf

m278.ndf

m279.ndf

m280.ndf

m281.ndf

m282.ndf

m283.ndf

m284.ndf

m285.ndf

m286.ndf

m287.ndf

m288.ndf

m289.ndf

m290.ndf

m291.ndf

m292.ndf

m293.ndf

m294.ndf

m295.ndf

m296.ndf

m297.ndf

m298.ndf

m299.ndf

m300.ndf

Shed: columns & beam & skew corner, var support at diff levels.

Shed: vert columns, skew corner & horiz beam, tie at supports.

Shed: vert columns and asymm rafters with various supports.

Shed: vertical columns and asymm rafters, tie at supports.

Shed: vert cols & asymm rafters, tie at eaves, var supports.

Symm trapezoidal rigid frame, various support conditions.

Symm trapezoidal rigid frame, tie at supports.

Asymm trapezoidal rigid frame, var support levels & conditions.

Asymm trapezoidal rigid frame, tie & var support conditions.

Asymm trapezoidal rigid frame, sloping&vert cols, sup diff lvl.

Asymm trapezoidal rigid frame, sloping&vert cols, tie between.

Asymm trapezoidal rigid frame, vert&sloping cols, var supports.

Single bay ridged portal frame, various support conditions.

Single bay ridged portal frame, tie at grnd level, var supps.

Single bay ridged portal frame, tie betwn eaves, var supports.

Symmetrical Mansard frame, various support conditions.

Symmetrical Mansard frame, ground tie, var support conditions.

Symmetrical Mansard frame, eaves tie, var support conditions.

Symmetrical bent, skew corners, various support conditions.

Symmetrical bent, skew corners, tie at ground level.

Barrel-vault portal frame, vertical columns, various supports.

Barrel-vault portal frame, vert cols, ground tie, var supps.

Barrel-vault portal frame, vert cols, eaves tie, var supps.

Vierendeel frame, var suppts at grnd level, optnl sliding rel.

N/Pratt latt girder/portal, nb bays, opt taper, end diag tens.

Howe latt girder/portal, nb bays, opt tc taper, end diag tens.

Warren latt girder/portal, nb bays, opt taper, end diag tens.

Warren latt girder/portal, nb bays, opt taper, end diag comp.

Sing/multi-bay portal frame/s, no haunch, nb bays, vert & sway.

Sing/multi-bay portal frame/s, haunches, nb bays, vert & sway.

3 seg rafters, Warren internals, udl/point loads; wind normal.

Attic room roof frame, proj udl, point loads, wind normal.

A-frame, plan udl rafters, collar&point lds on J3-5; wind norm.

Collar-and-tie roof frame, proj udl/point loads; wind normal.

Couple roof frame, proj (plan) udl, wind normal to rafters.

Couple roof frame with tie, proj (plan) udl, wind normal.

Fink roof frame, plan udls, point loads, wind normal.

King post frame, plan udls, point loads, wind normal.

Queen post frame, plan udls, point loads, wind normal.

Mansard roof frame, plan udls, point loads, wind normal.

Tied-Mansard roof frame, plan udl and point loads, wind normal.

Pitched Vierendeel roof frame, plan udl/point loads, wind norm.

Pipe tree with 2 horizontal branches, vertical & lateral loads.

Pipe tree with 4 horizontal branches, vertical & lateral loads.

Pipe tree with 6 horizontal branches, vertical & lateral loads.

1 storey bent with vert/raking cols, optn pins at transom ends.

2 storey bent with vert/raking cols, vertical & lateral loads.

3 storey bent with vert/raking cols, vertical & lateral loads.

2-pinned segmental circular arch, distr loading, var conc lds.

Encastre segmental circular arch, distr loading, var conc lds.

Subframes: beams w.cols below and optn beams above, nb spans.

Modelling inclined supports.

Modelling overlapping members.

Modelling structural scissors.

Infl lines for cont beams of const span, by 'print collection'.

Vierendeel girder, udls/loads on top & bottom chords/joints.

Outrigged frame carrying a point load on a beam, var supports.

Page: 3

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

m301.ndf

m302.ndf

m303.ndf

Symmetrical centre span with cantilevers at both ends.

Built-in beam, sectn prop by geom, udl & concentrated loads.

m401.ndf

m402.ndf

m403.ndf

m404.ndf

m405.ndf

m406.ndf

m407.ndf

m408.ndf

m409.ndf

m410.ndf

m411.ndf

m412.ndf

m413.ndf

m414.ndf

m415.ndf

m416.ndf

m417.ndf

m418.ndf

m419.ndf

m420.ndf

m421.ndf

m422.ndf

m423.ndf

m424.ndf

m425.ndf

m426.ndf

m427.ndf

m428.ndf

m429.ndf

m430.ndf

m431.ndf

m432.ndf

m433.ndf

m434.ndf

m435.ndf

m436.ndf

m437.ndf

m438.ndf

m439.ndf

m440.ndf

m441.ndf

m442.ndf

m443.ndf

PLANE GRIDS

Circular-arc bow girder, out of plane concentrated and udls.

Circular-arc cantilever, out of plane concentrated and udls.

Grillage: girders & stiffeners, point/udls; all edges blt-in.

Grillage: girders & stiffeners, point/udls; all edges SS.

Grillage: girders & stiffeners, point/udls; N&S blt-in, E&W SS.

Grillage: girders & stiffeners, point/udls; E&W blt-in, N&S SS.

Grillage: girders & stiffeners, point/udls; N&W blt-in, S&E SS.

Grillage: girders & stiffeners, point/udls;N&S blt-in,E&W free.

Grillage: girders & stiffeners, point/udls;E&W blt-in,N&S free.

Grillage: girders & stiffeners, point/udls;N&W blt-in,S&E free.

Grillage: girders, point/area/udls; all edges SS.

Grillage: girders, point/area/udls; all edges blt-in.

Grillage: girders, point/area/udls; E&W edges SS, N&S blt-in.

Grillage: girders, point/area/udls; N&S edges SS, E&W blt-in.

Grillage: girders, point/area/udls; W&S edges SS, prop at nj.

Grillage: girders, point/area/udls; W&S edges blt-in, prop@nj.

Grillage: girders, point/area/udls; N&S&W SS, East edge free.

Grillage: girders, point/area/udls; N&S&W blt-in, E edge free.

Grillage: girders, point/area/udls; W edge SS, props@E corners.

Grillage: girders, point/area/udls; W edge blt-in, props@Ecnrs.

Grillage: girders, point/area/udls; S edge SS, props @ N crnrs.

Grillage: girders, point/area/udls; S edge blt-in, props@Ncnrs.

Skew grillage of girders, point/area/udls; all edges SS.

Skew grillage of girders, point/area/udls; all edges built-in.

Skew grillage of girders, point/area/udls; N&S blt-in, E&W SS.

Skew grillage of girders, point/area/udls; E&W blt-in, N&S SS.

Skew grillage of girders, point/area/udls; E&W blt-in,N&S free.

Skew grillage of girders, point/area/udls; E&W SS, N&S free.

Skew grillage of girders, point/area/udls; N&S blt-in,E&W free.

Flat plate in flexure; 4 SS edges, udl.

Flat plate in flexure; 4 built-in edges, udl.

Flat plate in flexure; N&S edges built-in, E&W SS.

Flat plate in flexure; E&W edges built-in, N&S SS, udl.

Flat plate in flexure; E&W edges built-in, N&S free, udl.

Flat plate in flexure; E&W edges SS, N&S free, udl.

Flat plate in flexure; E&W edges free, N&S SS, udl.

Flat plate in flexure; N&S edges built-in, E&W edges free, udl.

Flat plate in flexure; N&S&W built-in, East edge free, udl.

Flat plate in flexure; N&S&W built-in, East edge SS, udl.

Flat plate in flexure; N&S&W SS, East edge free, udl.

Flat plate in flexure; S&E&W built-in, North edge free, udl.

Flat plate in flexure; S&E&W built-in, North edge SS, udl.

Flat plate in flexure; S&E&W SS, North edge free, udl.

m701.ndf

m702.ndf

m703.ndf

m704.ndf

m705.ndf

m706.ndf

m707.ndf

m708.ndf

SPACE FRAMES

Circular hopper (barrel upper, cone lower), various supports.

Truncated cone/hopper, various supports at top & bottom.

Circular concrete tank, internal fluid pressure, on springs.

Multi-storey frame, nx/nz bays along X/Z axes, ny storeys up Y.

Circular chimney/funnel, hole/s for flue gasses, wind loading.

Spherical dome, load at top ring, udl on surface.

Lattice tower, tapered lower section, optional straight upper.

I-section SS beam, axial load and udl in Y and Z.

Page: 4

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

m709.ndf

m710.ndf

m711.ndf

m712.ndf

Channel cantilever beam, bending about Y, torque from end load.

L-section cantilever beam, torque about the X axis.

RHS SS beam, axial load, biaxial bending, torque.

VERIFIED MODELS

NL-STRESS Verified Models cover a wide range of engineering

structures; each Verified Model is self-checking. To run a

verified model, the engineer need only click on one in the

following list, then click Continue. To edit the parameters,

click Edit instead of Continue, type replacement values for

typically 10-20 parameters, click End & Continue to run.

vm110.ndf

vm112.ndf

vm113.ndf

vm114.ndf

vm115.ndf

vm117.ndf

vm120.ndf

vm122.ndf

vm123.ndf

vm124.ndf

vm130.ndf

vm131.ndf

vm140.ndf

vm150.ndf

vm153.ndf

vm156.ndf

vm159.ndf

vm162.ndf

vm164.ndf

vm165.ndf

vm168.ndf

vm171.ndf

vm172.ndf

vm173.ndf

vm174.ndf

vm175.ndf

vm177.ndf

vm178.ndf

vm179.ndf

vm181.ndf

vm202.ndf

vm203.ndf

vm204.ndf

vm207.ndf

vm208.ndf

vm209.ndf

vm210.ndf

vm211.ndf

vm215.ndf

vm216.ndf

vm217.ndf

vm218.ndf

vm219.ndf

Simply supported beam including shear deflection.

Cantilevered beam.

Cantilevered beam subjected to many point loads.

Tapered cantilevered beam subjected to many point loads.

Cantilever with tie-down beam.

Subframe, continuous beam with columns below & above.

Continuous beam with pattern loadings.

Two member lean-to or Mansard beam.

Three member lean-to or Mansard beam.

Three member cranked beam.

Ground beam on an elastic foundation.

Ground beam on elastic piles.

Influence lines for continuous beams.

Pratt through truss.

Pratt deck truss.

Howe through truss.

Howe deck truss.

Warren through truss.

Warren through truss with verticals.

Warren deck truss.

Warren deck with verticals.

Two rafters with tie.

Two rafters, post & tie.

King post roof truss.

Roof truss, three segment rafters, Pratt internals.

Roof truss, three segment rafters, Howe internals.

Trussed rafter, or Fink roof truss.

Roof truss, three segment trussed rafter, Warren internals.

Three segment rafters, Warren internals roof truss.

Mansard truss.

Pipe tree having two branches.

Pipe tree having four branches.

Pipe tree having six branches.

One storey bent having vertical/raking piles.

Two storey bent having vertical/raking piles.

Three storey bent having vertical/raking piles.

Bent, or rectangular portal frame.

Rigid pile cap with several piles.

Ridged portal frame with pinned or fixed feet.

Nissen or Mansard portal.

Gable frame with inclined legs.

Portal frame with skew corners.

Trapezoidal frame.

Page: 5

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

vm220.ndf

vm223.ndf

vm225.ndf

vm226.ndf

vm227.ndf

vm228.ndf

vm230.ndf

vm232.ndf

vm233.ndf

vm234.ndf

vm235.ndf

vm241.ndf

vm242.ndf

vm244.ndf

vm245.ndf

vm246.ndf

vm247.ndf

vm260.ndf

vm262.ndf

vm270.ndf

vm280.ndf

vm281.ndf

vm282.ndf

vm283.ndf

vm290.ndf

vm291.ndf

Multi bay haunched ridged portal with pinned/fixed feet.

Couple roof frame.

Couple close roof frame.

Collar-tie roof frame.

Collar-and-tie roof frame.

Attic room roof frame.

Fink roof frame.

King post roof frame.

Queen post roof frame.

Tied Mansard roof frame.

Vierendeel girder.

Vierendeel roof frame.

N/Pratt lattice portal/girder.

Howe lattice portal/girder.

Warren lattice portal/girder, end diagonals in tension.

Warren lattice portal/girder, end diagonals in compression.

Multi-storey frame, moment distribution self-check.

Multi-storey frame, equilibrium & compatibility self-check.

Pierced shear walls.

Two pinned circular arch.

Encastre circular arch.

Two pinned parabolic arch.

Encastre parabolic arch.

Outrigged frame.

Braced outrigged frame.

vm300.ndf

vm301.ndf

vm302.ndf

vm310.ndf

vm311.ndf

Cantilever or propped-cantilever on plan.

Circular arc cantilever on plan.

Circular arc bow girder on plan.

Grillage of beams, classical check.

Grillage of beams, modern check.

vm410.ndf

vm411.ndf

vm420.ndf

vm430.ndf

vm435.ndf

vm436.ndf

vm440.ndf

PLASTIC

Plastic

Plastic

Plastic

Plastic

Plastic

Plastic

Plastic

vm601.ndf

vm602.ndf

vm605.ndf

vm610.ndf

vm618.ndf

vm620.ndf

vm630.ndf

vm640.ndf

vm641.ndf

vm642.ndf

vm643.ndf

vm644.ndf

vm650.ndf

Plate with out-of-plane loading.

Flat plate in flexure with area loading.

Floor panel with hole.

Plate with free edge.

Plate/wall in extension with hole.

Circular balcony plate.

Spherical shell.

I-section subjected to torque.

RHS subjected to torque & biaxial bending.

T-section subjected to torque and bending.

Channel section subjected to torque and bending.

Angle section subjected to torque.

Circular tank.

ANALYSIS

analysis

analysis

analysis

analysis

analysis

analysis

analysis

of

of

of

of

of

of

of

cantilever.

propped cantilever.

continuous beam.

rectangular portal.

ridged portal.

multi-bay ridged portal.

multi-storey frame.

Page: 6

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

vm710.ndf

vm718.ndf

vm720.ndf

Natural frequency of beam.

Natural frequency of built-in plate.

Natural frequency of simply supported plate.

vm802.ndf

vm810.ndf

vm830.ndf

vm850.ndf

vm852.ndf

vm950.ndf

vm951.ndf

vm952.ndf

Cantilever beam with large displacements.

Stability of columns with various supports.

Stability of circular ring/pipe.

Stability of cantilever with udl & end load.

Multi-storey frame using non-linear elastic analysis.

Hanging cable with flexible platform.

Suspension bridge with three pinned stiffening girder.

Suspension bridge with two pinned stiffening girder.

KLEINLOGEL'S RIGID FRAME FORMULAS

Click on a chosen frame (starting nk) click Edit and

amend the numerical data as required, press the End key to

leave the Editor, click Continue, press Enter twice,

compare the results at the end. Note that Prof. Kleinlogel

changes the direction of reactions to oppose the loading

applied, and ignores axial shortening.

nk001.ndf

nk002.ndf

nk003.ndf

nk004.ndf

nk005.ndf

nk006.ndf

nk007.ndf

nk008.ndf

nk009.ndf

nk010.ndf

nk011.ndf

nk012.ndf

nk013.ndf

nk014.ndf

Pinned at ground & wall.

Pinned at ground, fixed at wall.

Pinned at wall, fixed at ground.

Built-in at wall and ground.

Built-in at ground, sliding support at top of wall.

Built-in at wall, sliding support at ground.

Pinned at ground and wall.

Built-in at ground and wall.

Pinned at ground and wall, inclined column.

Built-in at ground and wall, inclined column.

Pinned at ground and wall, inclined column & rafter.

Built-in at ground, pinned at wall, inclined col & rafter.

Built-in at wall, pinned at ground, inclined col & rafter.

Built-in at wall and ground, inclined column & rafter.

nk015.ndf

nk016.ndf

nk017.ndf

nk018.ndf

nk019.ndf

nk020.ndf

nk021.ndf

Rigid connection at apex, pinned at ground.

Rigid connection at apex, tie-rod at ground.

Rigid connection at apex, hinged tie and pinned supports.

Pinned connection at apex, hinged tie and pinned supports.

Rigid connection at apex, and fixed supports.

Rigid connection at apex, hinged tie and fixed supports.

Pinned connection at apex, hinged tie and fixed supports.

nk022.ndf

nk023.ndf

nk024.ndf

nk025.ndf

nk026.ndf

nk027.ndf

nk028.ndf

Pinned supports at same level.

Tie-rod at ground level.

Left support fixed, right support pinned.

Both supports fixed.

Pinned supports at different levels.

Left support fixed, right pinned at different levels.

Both supports fixed, supports at different levels.

Page: 7

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

nk029.ndf

nk030.ndf

nk031.ndf

nk032.ndf

nk033.ndf

Right column vertical, both supports fixed.

Right column vertical, tie-rod at ground level.

Right column vertical, both supports fixed.

Right column vertical, left support fixed, right pinned.

Right column vertical, left support pinned, right fixed.

nk034.ndf

nk035.ndf

nk036.ndf

LEFT COLUMN VERTICAL, RIGHT RAFTER HORIZONTAL

Left and right supports pinned.

Left support fixed, right support pinned.

Left and right supports fixed.

nk037.ndf

Both supports fixed.

nk038.ndf

nk039.ndf

nk040.ndf

nk041.ndf

nk042.ndf

nk043.ndf

nk044.ndf

Left and right supports fixed, eaves joints pinned.

Left and right supports pinned, eaves joints fixed.

Eaves joints fixed, tie-rod at ground level.

Left and right supports fixed, eaves joints fixed.

Left and right supports pinned, eaves joints fixed.

Eeaves joints fixed, tie-rod at ground level.

Left and right supports fixed, eaves joints fixed.

nk045.ndf

nk046.ndf

nk047.ndf

nk048.ndf

nk049.ndf

nk050.ndf

nk051.ndf

Left and right supports fixed, eaves joints pinned.

Left and right supports pinned, eaves joints fixed.

Tie-rod at ground level, eaves joints fixed.

Left and right supports fixed, eaves joints fixed.

Left supports fixed, right pinned, eaves joints fixed.

L. & R. supports pinned, eaves fixed, tie in middle.

L. & R. supports pinned, eaves fixed, tie in middle.

nk052.ndf

nk053.ndf

nk054.ndf

nk055.ndf

nk056.ndf

nk057.ndf

nk058.ndf

nk059.ndf

nk060.ndf

Left and right supports pinned.

Tie-rod at ground level.

Left and right supports pinned at different levels.

Left support fixed, right pinned, at different levels.

Left support fixed, right pinned at same level.

Left support pinned, right supp fixed at different levels.

Left support pinned, right support fixed at same levels.

Left and right supports fixed at different levels.

Left and right supports fixed at same level.

nk061.ndf

nk062.ndf

nk063.ndf

nk064.ndf

nk065.ndf

nk066.ndf

nk067.ndf

BENT

Left

Left

Left

Left

Left

Left

Left

nk068.ndf

nk069.ndf

nk070.ndf

Left and right supports

Left and right supports

Left and right supports

and right supports pinned at different levels.

and right supports pinned at different levels.

support fixed, right support pinned at same level.

support fixed, right pinned at different levels.

support pinned, right fixed at different levels.

and right supports fixed at different levels.

and right supports fixed at same level.

JOINTS

pinned

pinned

pinned

at same level.

with tie-rod.

with tie-rod between eaves.

Page: 8

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

nk071.ndf

nk072.ndf

Left and right supports fixed with tie-rod between eaves.

nk073.ndf

nk074.ndf

nk075.ndf

SYMMETRICAL TRAPEZOIDAL

Left and right supports

Left and right supports

Left and right supports

nk076.ndf

nk077.ndf

nk078.ndf

nk079.ndf

nk080.ndf

nk081.ndf

Left and right supports pinned at different levels.

Left and right supports pinned with tie-rod at same level.

Left and right supports pinned at same level.

Left support pinned, rightfixed at different levels.

Left and right supports fixed at different levels.

Left and right supports fixed at same level.

nk082.ndf

nk083.ndf

nk084.ndf

nk085.ndf

nk086.ndf

nk087.ndf

nk088.ndf

nk089.ndf

Left and right supports pinned at different levels.

Left and right supports pinned with tie-rod at same level.

Left and right supports pinned at same level.

Left supports pinned, right support fixed at diff. levels.

Left supports pinned, right support fixed at diff. levels.

Left and right support fixed at different levels.

Left and right supports fixed at same level.

Left supports pinned, right support fixed at diff. levels.

nk090.ndf

nk091.ndf

nk092.ndf

nk093.ndf

Left and right supports pinned, with tie-rod.

Left and right supports pinned, with tie-rod between eaves.

Left and right supports fixed.

Left and right supports fixed, with tie-rod.

nk094.ndf

nk095.ndf

nk096.ndf

nk097.ndf

nk098.ndf

GABLE FRAME WITH INCLINED LEGS, FIXED JOINTS AT EAVES & APEX

Left and right supports pinned.

Left and right supports pinned, with tie-rod.

Left and right supports pinned, with tie-rod between eaves.

Left and right supports fixed.

Left and right supports fixed, with tie-rod between eaves.

nk099.ndf

nk100.ndf

nk101.ndf

Left and right supports pinned.

Left and right supports pinned, tie-rod at ground level.

Left and right supports fixed.

nk102.ndf

nk103.ndf

nk104.ndf

nk105.ndf

Left and right supports pinned.

Left and right supports pinned, tie-rod at ground level.

Left and right supports pinned, tie rod at eaves level.

Left and right supports fixed.

nk106.ndf

nk107.ndf

nk108.ndf

Left and right supports pinned, top & bottom different.

Left and right supports pinned, square, same all members.

Left and right supports pinned, all members different.

nk109.ndf

nk110.ndf

Properties of verticals the same, horizontals different.

All section properties are the same.

pinned at same level.

pinned with tie-rod at same level.

fixed at same level.

Page: 9

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

nk111.ndf

nk112.ndf

nk113.ndf

Left and right supports

Left and right supports

Left and right supports

FRAME

pinned, unsymmetrical shape.

pinned, symmetrical shape.

pinned, equilateral shape.

nk114.ndf

nk115.ndf

nk116.ndf

nk117.ndf

Different section properties for verticals & horizontals.

As for frame 114 with central vertical tie-rod.

As for frame 114 with two vertical tie-rods.

As for frame 114 with central vertical & horizontal tie-rods.

PARAMETRIC DATA FILES

A file of data for the analysis of a structural framework

in which the data has been written parametrically i.e. the

geometric, loading & material properties are given as

parameters, is referred to as a Parametric Data File. To

run a parametric data file, the engineer need only click on

one in the following list, then click Continue. To edit the

parameters, click Edit instead of Continue, type replacement

values for typically 10-20 parameters, click End & Continue.

pf01.ndf

pf02.ndf

pf03.ndf

pf04.ndf

pf05.ndf

pf06.ndf

pf07.ndf

pf08.ndf

pf09.ndf

pf10.ndf

pf11.ndf

pf12.ndf

pf13.ndf

pf14.ndf

pf15.ndf

pf16.ndf

pf17.ndf

pf18.ndf

pf19.ndf

pf20.ndf

pf21.ndf

pf22.ndf

pf23.ndf

pf24.ndf

pf25.ndf

pf26.ndf

pf27.ndf

pf28.ndf

pf29.ndf

Cantilever beam, parametric data, NL-STRESS editor.

As pf01 with inclined supps & use of syntax diagrams.

As pf01 including diagrams & calculations.

Multi-storey frames.

Natural frequency calculation.

Influence lines by Muller-Breslau method.

Influence lines by PRINT COLLECTION command.

Curved beams introducing functions.

Coupled shear walls - up to 100 storeys.

Continuous beams.

Subframes - beams with columns below and above.

Including post processing in an NL-STRESS data file.

Overview of the stiffness method.

Data preparation of large structures by substructures.

Thermal strains.

Member eccentricities and end joint sizes.

Overlapping members and scissors.

Prestressed continuous beams - load balancing method.

Ground beam on elastic piles subjected to load train.

Box culvert.

Loads on piles in groups.

Circular/parabolic arches.

Pipe-tree racks.

Bents and pipe racks.

Two member lean-to or Mansard beam.

Three member lean-to or Mansard beam.

Dogleg or cranked beam.

Vierendeel girder.

Ground beam on elastic piles.

gr01.ndf

gr02.ndf

gr03.ndf

Bow girder introducing PLANE GRIDS.

Ground slab with loads from racks.

Pseudo slab bridges.

Page: 10

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

gr04.ndf

fe01.ndf

fe02.ndf

fe03.ndf

fe04.ndf

fe05.ndf

fe06.ndf

fe07.ndf

fe08.ndf

fe09.ndf

fe10.ndf

fe11.ndf

fe12.ndf

fe13.ndf

fe14.ndf

fe15.ndf

fe16.ndf

fe17.ndf

fe18.ndf

fe19.ndf

fe20.ndf

Finite element method for plates in flexure.

Finite element method for plates in extension.

Finite element for plates in extension & flexure.

Plate/wall with hole/window in extension.

Floor slab with opening, various boundary conditions.

Spiral stairs - folded steel plate.

Rectangular tanks.

Setting openings and stiffeners in plates and walls.

Boxbeam with side cantilevers.

Circular hopper.

Circular chimney.

Circular balcony - plate with opening.

Barrel vault roof.

Rings and pipes.

Spherical dome.

Angle in bending and torsion.

Channel in bending and torsion.

I section in bending and torsion.

T section in bending and torsion.

Flat slab subframe.

sf01.ndf

sf02.ndf

sf03.ndf

sf04.ndf

sf05.ndf

sf06.ndf

sf07.ndf

sf08.ndf

sf09.ndf

sf10.ndf

3D multi-storey frames.

Circular tanks.

Space structures - square on square example.

Shear (flexural) centre.

Conical roof.

Orange segment roof truss.

Spiral stair - reinforced concrete.

Temporary works - column outriggers.

Dynamical behaviour of 3D multi-storey frame.

Cantilever stair with 2 curved flights & quarter landing.

rf01.ndf

rf02.ndf

rf03.ndf

rf04.ndf

rf05.ndf

rf06.ndf

rf07.ndf

rf08.ndf

rf09.ndf

rf10.ndf

rf11.ndf

rf12.ndf

rf13.ndf

rf14.ndf

rf15.ndf

rf16.ndf

rf17.ndf

rf18.ndf

N/Pratt lattice girder/portal - end diagonals in tension.

Howe lattice girder/portal - end diagonals in compression.

Warren lattice girder/portal - end diagonals in tension.

Warren lattice girder/portal - end diags in compression.

Portal frame/s without haunches.

Portal frame/s with haunches.

Gangnail roof truss.

Attic room roof truss.

Collar-tie roof truss.

Collar-and-tie roof truss.

Couple roof truss.

Couple-close roof truss.

Fink roof truss.

King post roof truss.

Queen post roof truss.

Mansard roof truss.

Tied-Mansard roof truss.

Plane/pitched Vierendeel roof truss.

sw01.ndf

Longitudinal deflection of cantilever with lateral load.

Page: 11

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

sw02.ndf

sw03.ndf

sw04.ndf

sw05.ndf

sw06.ndf

sw07.ndf

sw08.ndf

sw09.ndf

sw10.ndf

sw11.ndf

sw12.ndf

sw13.ndf

sw14.ndf

sw15.ndf

sw16.ndf

sw17.ndf

sw18.ndf

sw19.ndf

sw20.ndf

sw21.ndf

E.c.l. - end & distributed loaded columns.

E.c.l. - piles with lateral restaint pressure.

E.c.l. - circular ring with lateral pressure.

E.c.l. - circular arch.

E.c.l. - rectangular beam under pure bending.

E.c.l. - narrow rectangular cantilever beam.

E.c.l. - narrow rectangular beam, centre load.

E.c.l. - I beam under pure bending.

E.c.l. - cantilever I beam with end load.

E.c.l. - I beam with centre point load.

E.c.l. - rectangular plate - all edges simply supported.

E.c.l. - rectangular plate - all edges clamped.

E.c.l. - short edges simply supported long clamped.

E.c.l. - one long edge free others simply supported.

E.c.l. - short edges s.s. one long clamped other free.

E.c.l. - short edges clamped others simply supported.

Non-linear analysis - the DIRECTION command.

Non-linear analysis of wall with window - in extension.

Column subjected to axial load and lateral restraint.

BENCHMARKS

Benchmarks are a collection of examples taken from

engineering textbooks & periodicals. Embedded in the data

file for each example, is part of the results, so that after

the benchmark is run the printed results may be checked. To

run a benchmark, the engineer need only click on one in the

following list, then click Continue.

bm01.bmk

bm02.bmk

TIMING BENCHMARKS

Plane frame with 27 joints, 38 members & 2 load cases.

Space frame with 66 joints, 99 members & 1 load case.

dt01.bmk

dt02.bmk

dt03.bmk

dt04.bmk

dt05.bmk

dt06.bmk

dt07.bmk

dt08.bmk

dt09.bmk

dt10.bmk

Plane truss with varying relative stiffness.

Plane frame with displaced supports.

Plane frame problem 2.

Encastre segmental arch rib.

Grillage with applied displacements & elastic supports.

Grillage with shear deformation.

Skew deck of orthogonal grillage.

Circular-arc bow girder.

Space truss.

Space frame with varying stiffnesses & displaced supports.

dy01.bmk

dy02.bmk

dy03.bmk

dy04.bmk

dy05.bmk

dy06.bmk

dy07.bmk

dy08.bmk

dy09.bmk

Ex. from Fig 3.2, Warburton 1964.

Ex. from Table 12.2, Steel Designers' Manual 1992.

Ex. from Table 12.2, Steel Designers' Manual 1992.

Nat. freq. for point loads, Dunkerley method Ryder, 1957.

Nat. freq. example 10.3-2 Coates et al. 1988.

Nat. freq. example in Fig 4.8, Warburton 1964.

Nat. freq. example problem 1 in Chapter 1, Warburton 1964.

Nat. freq. example problem 7 in Chapter 15, Ryder 1957.

Nat. freq. grid cl.12.15, Steel Designers' Manual 1992.

fe01.bmk

Plate in flexure, Yettram & Husain 1965.

Page: 12

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

fe02.bmk

fe03.bmk

fe04.bmk

fe05.bmk

fe06.bmk

fe07.bmk

fe08.bmk

fe09.bmk

fe10.bmk

fe11.bmk

fe12.bmk

fe13.bmk

fe14.bmk

fe15.bmk

fe16.bmk

fe17.bmk

fe18.bmk

fe19.bmk

fe20.bmk

Plates in extension & flexure, Yettram & Husain 1965/66.

Folded plate, Figure 8.13, Rockey et al. 1983.

Torisphere with central hole.

Edge supported plate with only four elements.

Edge supported plate with sixty four elements.

Example Fig. 5.5, Rockey et al. 1983.

Example Fig. 6.3, Rockey et al.

Simply supported circular plate with UDL, Roark 1965.

Rectangular plate with UDL, Timoshenko et al. 1959.

RHS as fe03.bmk with span:depth ratio increased to 8:1.

Rect. plate with one free edge, Timoshenko et al. 1959.

Built-in rectangular plate, Timoshenko et al.

Channel section with destabilising end load, Roark 1965.

Circular shell from Fig 265, Timoshenko et al.

Circ. concrete tank from Fig 246, Timoshenko et al.

Modelling of element in extension & sign conventions.

Modelling of element in flexure & sign conventions.

Modelling of element in combined extension & flexure.

gr01.bmk

gr02.bmk

gr03.bmk

gr04.bmk

gr05.bmk

Bridge deck example, C&CA 1972.

Foundation raft, Sawko 1972.

Authentic bridge deck provided by Dr R. C. Slater.

Curved balcony member from Design Ex. 6, SCI 2001.

Member stresses for sections defined by props or geometry.

pf01.bmk

pf02.bmk

pf03.bmk

pf04.bmk

pf05.bmk

pf06.bmk

pf07.bmk

pf08.bmk

pf09.bmk

pf10.bmk

pf11.bmk

pf12.bmk

pf13.bmk

pf14.bmk

pf15.bmk

pf16.bmk

pf17.bmk

pf18.bmk

pf19.bmk

pf20.bmk

Shear wall, MacLeod April, 1966.

Box culvert.

Influence lines by Muller-Breslau, Coates et al. 1988.

Natural frequency determination, McMinn 1962.

Prestressed continuous beam, Lin 1963.

Shear deformation - Ex. 6.7-1 by Coates et al.

Member loads - Example 6.7-2 by Coates et al.

Symmetry - Example 6.10-1 by Coates et al.

Looping example, Problem 6.1 by Coates et al.

Looping across tables - Pr. 6.2 Coates et al.

Springs at supports - Pr. 7.18 by Coates et al.

Applied moments - Problem 8.5 by Coates et al.

DIAGRAMS example - Pr. 6.14 by Coates et al.

Propping force - Problem 6.16 by Coates et al.

Member distortions - Pr. 4.15 by Coates et al.

Temperature, self weights, length coefficients example.

Curved member, Design example 6, BCC 842, SCI 2001.

Temperature gradient, example from Emkin et al. 1977.

Stresses for sections defined by properties or geometry.

Member properties given by: AS other member properties.

pl01.bmk

pl02.bmk

pl03.bmk

pl04.bmk

pl05.bmk

pl06.bmk

pl07.bmk

pl08.bmk

Single bay portal frame, Morris & Randall, 1977.

Two storey frame, Horne & Merchant, Fig 5.14, 1965.

Plastic grillage, Example 1.0, Morris & Randall, 1977

Elastic-plastic analysis of compression members.

Reversing plastic hinge example.

Built-in beam, Example 1.1, Morris & Randall.

Propped cantilever, Example 1.2, Morris & Randall.

Two span beam, Example 2.1, Morris & Randall.

Page: 13

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

pl09.bmk

pl10.bmk

pl11.bmk

pl12.bmk

pl13.bmk

pl14.bmk

pl15.bmk

pl16.bmk

pl17.bmk

pl18.bmk

pl19.bmk

pl20.bmk

pl21.bmk

Single ridged portal, Example 4.4, Morris & Randall.

Two bay ridged portal, Ex. 4.7, Morris & Randall.

Multi-storey frame, Example 6.2, Morris & Randall.

Test order of formation of plastic hinges.

Portal frame with out of plane loading.

Space frame - ring beam supported on RHS columns.

Example 14.6-1 from Coates et al. 1988.

Rect. portal, Example 14.6-4 from Coates et al. 1988.

Non-symmetric portal, Ex. 14.6-5 from Coates et al.

Non-symm. 2 bay portal, Ex. 14.7-1 from Coates et al.

Two storey portal, Example 14.7-2 from Coates et al.

Collapse load factor, Ex. 14.8-1 from Coates et al.

pt01.bmk

pt02.bmk

pt03.bmk

pt04.bmk

pt05.bmk

pt06.bmk

pt07.bmk

pt08.bmk

pt09.bmk

pt10.bmk

Ex. 20, Gennaro, Computer Methods in Solid Mechanics 1965.

Example 22, Gennaro.

Chapter 4 Problem 1, Gennaro.

Chapter 4 Problem 4, Gennaro.

Chapter 4 Problem 13, Gennaro.

Example 31, Gennaro.

Example 32, Gennaro.

Example 33, Gennaro.

Example 34, Gennaro.

Example 4.10, Grassie.

sf01.bmk

sf02.bmk

sf03.bmk

sf04.bmk

sf05.bmk

sf06.bmk

sf07.bmk

sf08.bmk

sf09.bmk

sf10.bmk

sf11.bmk

sf12.bmk

sf13.bmk

sf14.bmk

sf15.bmk

sf16.bmk

sf17.bmk

Cantilever stair.

Guide dolphin.

Example in Figure 3-8, Weaver 1967.

Example in Figure 3-9, Weaver 1967.

Example from UCC symposium Nov 1972.

Tapered beams example - equivalent to rect. section.

Cantilever with various loadings, Steel Designers' Man 1966.

S.S. beam with various loadings, Steel Designers' Man. 1966.

Built-in beam with various loadings, Steel Des. Man. 1966.

Ring beam on T columns to show need for BETA angle.

Curved balcony member for SCI design example 6.

Curved balcony member from Design Ex. 6, SCI 2001.

Member distortions for cantilever or built-in beam.

Temperature gradient, Emkin et al. 1977.

Stresses for sections defined by properties or geometry.

Rectangular/ridged haunched portal frame.

Isection tapered in two directions with Eurocode 3 axes.

sw01.bmk

sw02.bmk

sw03.bmk

sw04.bmk

sw05.bmk

sw06.bmk

sw07.bmk

sw08.bmk

sw09.bmk

sw10.bmk

sw11.bmk

sw12.bmk

Column with axial load, Figure 4.1, Horne & Morris 1981.

Column with axial load and lateral load.

Guyed mast analysis.

Two storey frame, Figure 5.14, Horne & Merchant 1965.

Lateral displacement of tip of end loaded cantilever.

Suspension bridge, Chap. 13, Ex. 5, Pippard & Baker 1957.

Comparison between member end springs & pseudo springs.

Modelling imperfections by parabolic bow.

Example 9.11-1, Coates et al. 1988.

Problem 9.1, Coates et al.

Problem 9.2, Coates et al.

Problem 9.8, Coates et al.

Page: 14

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

sw13.bmk

sw14.bmk

sw15.bmk

sw16.bmk

sw17.bmk

sw18.bmk

sw19.bmk

sw20.bmk

sw21.bmk

Problem 9.10, Coates et al.

Problem 9.11, Coates et al.

Problem 9.12, Coates et al.

Net, symmetrical loading, Elibiari et al., Nooshin 1984.

Net, unsymmetrical loading, Elibiari et al., Nooshin 1984.

Hyperbolic paraboloid net, Elibiari et al., Nooshin 1984.

Stable/unstable post-buckling behaviour, Coates et al. 1988.

Snap through - Problem 9.8-1, Coates et al. 1988.

PROFORMA DATA FILES

To run a proforma data file, the engineer need only click on

one in the following list, then click Edit and type numbers

to replace all question marks. When editing: pressing Insert

toggles between Insert/Overstrike; Ctrl+Y deletes the line

containing the cursor; Ctrl+N inserts another line at the

cursor position; Ctrl+U deletes to the right of the cursor.

cb01.ndf

cb02.ndf

cb03.ndf

cb04.ndf

cb05.ndf

cb06.ndf

cb07.ndf

cb08.ndf

cb09.ndf

cb10.ndf

cb11.ndf

cb12.ndf

cb13.ndf

cb14.ndf

cbp02.ndf

cbp03.ndf

cbp04.ndf

cbp05.ndf

cbp06.ndf

cbp07.ndf

cbp08.ndf

cbp09.ndf

cbp10.ndf

cbp11.ndf

cbp12.ndf

cbp13.ndf

cbp14.ndf

1 span beam with UDLs.

2 span beam with UDLs.

3 span beam with UDLs.

4 span beam with UDLs.

5 span beam with UDLs.

6 span beam with UDLs.

7 span beam with UDLs.

8 span beam with UDLs.

9 span beam with UDLs.

10 span beam with UDLs.

11 span beam with UDLs.

12 span beam with UDLs.

13 span beam with UDLs.

14 span beam with UDLs.

2 span beam with udls & point loads.

3 span beam with udls & point loads.

4 span beam with udls & point loads.

5 span beam with udls & point loads.

6 span beam with udls & point loads.

7 span beam with udls & point loads.

8 span beam with udls & point loads.

9 span beam with udls & point loads.

10 span beam with udls & point loads.

11 span beam with udls & point loads.

12 span beam with udls & point loads.

13 span beam with udls & point loads.

14 span beam with udls & point loads.

ms1x1.ndf

ms1x2.ndf

ms1x3.ndf

ms1x4.ndf

ms1x5.ndf

ms2x1.ndf

ms2x2.ndf

ms2x3.ndf

ms2x4.ndf

MULTI-STOREY PROFORMAS

1 bay x 1 storey.

1 bay x 2 storey.

1 bay x 3 storey.

1 bay x 4 storey.

1 bay x 5 storey.

2 bay x 1 storey.

2 bay x 2 storey.

2 bay x 3 storey.

2 bay x 4 storey.

Page: 15

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

ms2x5.ndf

ms2x6.ndf

ms2x7.ndf

ms2x8.ndf

ms2x9.ndf

ms3x1.ndf

ms3x2.ndf

ms3x3.ndf

ms3x4.ndf

ms3x5.ndf

ms4x1.ndf

ms4x2.ndf

ms4x3.ndf

ms4x4.ndf

ms4x5.ndf

ms5x1.ndf

ms5x2.ndf

ms5x3.ndf

ms5x4.ndf

ms5x5.ndf

2

2

2

2

2

3

3

3

3

3

4

4

4

4

4

5

5

5

5

5

bay

bay

bay

bay

bay

bay

bay

bay

bay

bay

bay

bay

bay

bay

bay

bay

bay

bay

bay

bay

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

x

5

6

7

8

9

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

storey.

storey.

storey.

storey.

storey.

storey.

storey.

storey.

storey.

storey.

storey.

storey.

storey.

storey.

storey.

storey.

storey.

storey.

storey.

storey.

ng02.ndf

ng03.ndf

ng04.ndf

ng05.ndf

ng06.ndf

ng07.ndf

ng08.ndf

N

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

GIRDER PROFORMAS

bay N girder.

bay N girder.

bay N girder.

bay N girder.

bay N girder.

bay N girder.

bay N girder.

prt1.ndf

prt1h.ndf

prt1hh.ndf

prt2.ndf

prt2h.ndf

prt2h1.ndf

prt3.ndf

prt3h.ndf

prt3h1.ndf

prt4.ndf

prt4h.ndf

prt4h1.ndf

prt5h.ndf

PORTAL FRAME

1 bay portal

1 bay portal

1 bay portal

2 bay portal

2 bay portal

2 bay portal

3 bay portal

3 bay portal

3 bay portal

4 bay portal

4 bay portal

4 bay portal

5 bay portal

nls.ndf

rtatt.ndf

rtfink.ndf

rtcl.ndf

rtct.ndf

rtcts.ndf

rtcp.ndf

rtcpc.ndf

rtking.ndf

rtqn.ndf

rtmans.ndf

Attic room roof truss.

Fink roof truss.

Collar-tie roof truss.

Collar & tie roof truss.

Roof truss collar-and-tie sloping.

Roof truss couple.

Roof truss couple close.

King post roof truss.

Queen post roof truss.

Roof truss Mansard - steel.

PROFORMAS

frame.

frame with

frame with

frame.

frame with

frame with

frame.

frame with

frame with

frame.

frame with

frame with

frame with

haunches at eaves.

haunches at eaves and ridge.

haunches at eaves.

haunches at eaves & single ridge.

haunches at eaves.

haunches at eaves & single ridge.

haunches at eaves.

haunches at eaves & single ridge.

haunches at eaves.

Page: 16

Fitzroy Systems Ltd.

Made by: IF Brown

http://www.fitzroy.com/

Date: 02/04/14

email: ian@fitzroy.com tel: 01284 754240

Ref No: scalepdf

sub01.ndf

sub02.ndf

sub03.ndf

sub04.ndf

sub05.ndf

sub06.ndf

sub07.ndf

sub08.ndf

subh01.ndf

subh02.ndf

subh03.ndf

subh04.ndf

subh05.ndf

subh06.ndf

subh07.ndf

subh08.ndf

SUBFRAME PROFORMAS

1 bay subframe.

2 bay subframe.

3 bay subframe.

4 bay subframe.

5 bay subframe.

6 bay subframe.

7 bay subframe.

8 bay subframe.

1 bay half subframe.

2 bay half subframe.

3 bay half subframe.

4 bay half subframe.

5 bay half subframe.

6 bay half subframe.

7 bay half subframe.

8 bay half subframe.

wg02.ndf

wg03.ndf

wg04.ndf

wg05.ndf

wg06.ndf

wg07.ndf

wg08.ndf

2 bay Warren girder.

3 bay Warren girder.

4 bay Warren girder.

5 bay Warren girder.

6 bay Warren girder.

7 bay Warren girder.

8 bay Warren girder.

NL-STRESS Parametric Models, Verified Models, NL-STRESS cf.

Kleinlogel, Parametric Data Files, Benchmarks and Proforma

Data Files are copyright Fitzroy Systems, published here in

electronic form and supplied on the basis that the limit of

liability of Fitzroy is the cost of goods supplied.

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rect. beam: flexure, span/depth, curtailment, laps

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC073 BS

Office: 1007

Location: Example: small beam - high-yield steel - no compression steel

Bending in rectangular beams with optional calculations for shear,

in Clause 3.4.4.4 of BS8110: Part 1

and thus assume the use of a simplified

rectangular concrete stress-block, and

that the depth to the neutral axis is

restricted to 0.5*d.

d' b

(o) (o)

A's

d h

As

o o o

Moment before redistribution

Mbef=12 kNm (ultimate value)

Beam being analysed is considered as non-continuous.

Characteristic concrete strength fcu=35 N/mm2

Max.aggregate size (for bar spc) hagg=15 mm

Char.strength of long'l bars

fy=500 N/mm2

Longitudinal reinforcement is high-yield steel.

Diameter of tension bars

dia=10 mm

Diameter of link legs

dial=8 mm

Char.strength of link steel

fyv=500 N/mm2

High-yield steel shear reinforcement.

Designed concrete mix to be used. Cover data from Tables A.4 & A.5 of

BS8500-1:2006.

Intended life of structure (for durability considerations) is 50 years.

Designated exposure class is XC1

Specified fixing tolerance

tol=10 mm

Chosen fire resistance period

fire=1 hours

From Table 3.4 of BS8110, minimum cover needed to all steel for simply

supported beam with a fire period of 1 hour/s is 20 mm.

Minimum nominal cover required to satisfy fire resistance

requirements may be reduced to 15 mm provided that nominal

maximum size of aggregate does not exceed 15 mm.

Minimum nominal cover to all steel is 25 mm

Nominal concrete cover

cover=25 mm

Overall depth of section

h=275 mm

Effective depth of section

d=237 mm

Breadth of section

b=200 mm

From Figure 3.2 of BS8110, minimum possible beam width complying

with a fire period of 1 hour/s is 200 mm

Breadth provided complies with fire regulations (Figure 3.2 of Code).

Longitudinal reinforcement

Thus betab=1 and K'=0.156 [see Condition (b) in Clause 3.2.2.1].

Applied-moment factor

K=M*1000*1000/(b*d^2*fcu)

=12*1000*1000/(200*237^2*35)

=0.03052

Page: 2

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rect. beam: flexure, span/depth, curtailment, laps

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC073 BS

Office: 1007

As applied-moment factor K=0.03052 does not exceed resistance-moment

factor for concrete alone K'=0.156, no compression steel is needed,

and lever arm

z=d*(0.5+SQR(0.25-K/0.9))

=237*(0.5+SQR(0.25-0.03052/0.9))

=228.67 mm

but lever arm must not exceed

0.95*d=0.95*237 =225.15 mm

i.e. adopt lever arm of

z=225.15 mm

Area of tension steel required

As=M*1000*1000/(z*fy/gammaS)

=12*1000*1000/(225.15*500/1.15)

=122.58 mm2

Min.number of tension bars reqd. nbrtmn=2

Area of tension steel provided

Aspr=157.08 mm2 ( 2 No. 10 mm bars)

Tension steel provided

per=100*Aspr/(b*h)

=100*157.08/(200*275)

=0.2856 % of gross section.

Within specified limits of 0.13 % and 4%, so this is satisfactory.

Maximum clear distance allowed between tension bars according to

Clause 3.12.11.2.4 is given by cdist=47000*3*Aspr*betab/(2*fy*As)

=47000*3*157.08*1/(2*500*122.58)

=180.68 mm

which is satisfactory as it is less than 300 mm

Min.number of tension bars needed to meet bar-spacing requirements=2

TENSION

REINFORCEMENT

SUMMARY

Diameter of bars

10 mm

Number of bars

2

arranged in a single layer.

Cover to all steel

25 mm

Area of steel required

122.58 mm2

Area of steel provided

157.08 mm2

Percentage provided

0.2856 %

Weight of steel provided 1.2331 kg/m

Max.permissible spacing 180 mm

Link size assumed

8 mm

btab=M/Mbef=12/12=1

Basic ratio for simp.-sup.beam

bs'd=20 see Table 3.9

Area of tension steel provided

Aspr=157.08 mm2

Service stress in this steel

fs=2*fy*As/(3*Asprx*btab)

=2*500*122.58/(3*157.08*1)

=260.13 N/mm2

As applied-moment factor

M'bd2=M*1000*1000/(b*d^2)

=12*1000*1000/(200*237^2)

=1.0682 N/mm2

Mod.factor for tension steel from

equation 7 (Table 3.10) modf1=0.55+(477-fs)/(120*(.9+M'bd2))

=0.55+(477-260.13)/(120*(.9+1.0682))

=1.4682

Mod.factor for no comp.steel

modf2=1

Maximum permissible

span/effective-depth ratio

ps'd=bs'd*modf1*modf2=20*1.4682*1

=29.364

Page: 3

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rect. beam: flexure, span/depth, curtailment, laps

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC073 BS

Office: 1007

Span of beam (see Cls.3.4.1.2-4) span=5 m

Actual span/effective-depth ratio as'd=1000*span/d=1000*5/237

=21.097

As this does not exceed

29.364, this is Acceptable.

Bending-moment capacities at steel curtailment points

Anchorage and lap lengths - Clause 3.12.8 of BS8110: Part 1

Tension reinforcement:

Force in tension bar at yield

Ft=fy/gammaS*PI*dia^2/4

=500/1.15*3.1416*10^2/4

=34148 N

Ultimate anchorage bond stress

fbu=beta*SQR(fcu)=0.5*SQR(35)

=2.958 N/mm2

Anchorage and tension lap length lap=Ft/(PI*dia*fbu)

=34148/(3.1416*10*2.958)

=367.46 mm

=370 mm (rounded)

1.4 * tension lap length

=520 mm (rounded)

2 * tension lap length

=740 mm (rounded)

Shear reinforcement

accordance with Clauses 3.4.5

of Code

Support

:

av Design section

0.25 m from support

Effective breadth for shear

bv=200 mm

Shear force due to ultimate load V=100 kN

Distance from support

av=250 mm

No.of tension bars effective at section nbars=2

Area of eff.longitudinal bars

As=nbars*PI*dias^2/4=2*3.1416*10^2/4

=157.08 mm2

Percentage of longitudinal steel per=100*As/(bv*d)

=100*157.08/(200*237)

=0.33139 %

Clause 3.4.5.2 limits the maximum shearing stress to 0.8fcu N/mm2

and thus limiting shear stress

vlim=0.8*SQR(fcu)=0.8*SQR(35)

=4.7329 N/mm2

Now using the formula given in Note 2 below Table 3.8, with f00d=400/d

and pcnt=100*As/(bv*d),

Design shear stress in concrete

vc=0.79*pcnt^(1/3)*f00d^.25/1.25

=0.79*0.33139^(1/3)*1.6878^.25/1.25

=0.49849 N/mm2

As characteristic concrete strength exceeds 25 N/mm2

therefore increase vc according to footnote in Table 3.8

Page: 4

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rect. beam: flexure, span/depth, curtailment, laps

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC073 BS

Office: 1007

Modified design shear stress

vc=vc*(fcu/25)^(1/3)

=0.49849*(35/25)^(1/3)

=0.55766 N/mm2

Shear enhancement is ignored so

vc=0.55766 N/mm2

Design shear stress

v=V*1000/(bv*d)=100*1000/(200*237)

=2.1097 N/mm2

Number of legs to be provided

nlegs=2

Total leg area

Asv=nlegs*(PI*dialr^2/4)

=2*(3.1416*8^2/4)

=100.53 mm2

As v ( 2.1097 N/mm2 ) exceeds (vc+0.4) ( 0.95766 N/mm2 )

maximum spacing of links

sv=fyv/gammaS*Asv/(bv*(v-vc))

=500/1.15*100.53/(200*(2.1097

-0.55766))

=140.81 mm

=140 mm (rounded)

Chosen link spacing

sv'=140 mm

Use 8 mm links (two legs), spaced at 140 mm centres along beam.

Resistance provided by links alone vs=1.561 N/mm2

As this exceeds 0.4 N/mm2, shear reinforcement exceeds nominal.

SHEAR

REINFORCEMENT

SUMMARY

Characteristic strength

Diameter of links

Number of legs

Spacing

Approx.weight of links

500 N/mm2

8 mm

2

140 mm

2.1588 kg/m

No 73

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rect. beam: flexure, span/depth, curtailment, laps

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC073 EC

Office: 1007

Location: Ex1 - Beam with compression reinforcement

Bending in rectangular beams

d2

(o) (o)

As2

d h

As

o o o

Eurocode 2:Design of concrete structures

and assume the use of a simplified

rectangular concrete stress-block, and

that the depth to the neutral axis is

restricted to 0.45*d.

Loading

Mbef=150 kNm

Beam being analysed is considered as non-continuous.

Materials

Char yield strength of reinft

Max.aggregate size (for bar spc.)

Diameter of tension bars

Diameter of link legs

fyk=500 N/mm2

hagg=20 mm

dia=25 mm

dial=8 mm

Life of structure

50 years

Exposure class

XC1

Designed concrete

C 30 /37

Minimum cover

covern=30 mm

Fixing tolerance

tol=10 mm

Nominal cover (Cl. 4.4.1.1(2))

cover=40 mm

Section properties

Effective depth of section

Breadth of section

Main reinforcement

Char yield strength of reinft.

Partial safety factor for conc.

Char cylinder compress strength

Design yield strength of reinft.

It is usual practice in the UK to

Limit on factor

Factor

Factor

h=400 mm

d=340 mm

b=250 mm

gams=1.15

fyk=fy=500 N/mm2

gamc=1.5

fck=30 N/mm2 (concrete)

fyd=fyk/gams=500/1.15=434.8 N/mm2

restrict x/d to 0.45

delta=0.85

K'=0.597*delta-0.18*delta^2-0.209

=0.597*0.85-0.18*0.85^2-0.209

=0.1684

K=M*1E6/(b*d^2*fck)

=150*1E6/(250*340^2*30)

=0.173

Page: 2

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rect. beam: flexure, span/depth, curtailment, laps

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC073 EC

Office: 1007

Lever arm

z=d/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*K'))

=340/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*0.1684))

=278.3 mm

Depth to neutral axis

x=2.5*(d-z)=2.5*(340-278.3)

=154.3 mm

Diameter of compression bars

diac=12 mm

Depth to compression steel

d2=45 mm

Stress

fsc=700*(x-d2)/x=700*(154.3-45)/154.3

=495.8 N/mm2

Limit fsc to fyd

fsc=fyd=434.8 N/mm2

Area of comp.steel required

As2=(K-K')*fck*b*d^2/(fsc*(d-d2))

=(0.173-0.1684)*30*250*340^2

/(434.8*(340-45))

=31.16 mm2

Tension reinforcement

As=K'*fck*b*d^2/(fyd*z)+As2*fsc/fyd

=0.1684*30*250*340^2/(434.8*278.3)

+31.16*434.8/434.8

=1238 mm2

Mean width of the tension zone

bt=bw=250 mm

Mean value axial tensile strength fctm=0.3*fck^(2/3)=0.3*30^(2/3)

=2.896 N/mm2

Minimum reinforcement required

Asmin=0.26*fctm*bt*d/fyk

=0.26*2.896*250*340/500

=128 mm2

Minimum compression steel

As2min=0.002*b*h=0.002*250*400

=200 mm2

Revised compression steel area

As2=As2min=200 mm2

Breadth of section

bw=250 mm

Maximum reinforcement permitted

Asmax=0.04*bw*h=0.04*250*400

=4000 mm2

Percentage area steel required

rho=100*As/(bw*d)=100*1238/(250*340)

=1.456 %

Number of tension bars required

nbart=INT(As/(PI*dia^2/4))+1

=INT(1238/(3.142*25^2/4))+1

=3

Area of tension steel provided

Aspr=nbart*PI*dia^2/4=3*3.142*25^2/4

=1473 mm2

Number of compression bars

nbarc=INT(As2/(PI*diac^2/4))+1

=INT(200/(3.142*12^2/4))+1

=2

Area of compression steel

Asprc=nbarc*PI*diac^2/4

=2*3.142*12^2/4

=226.2 mm2

Page: 3

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rect. beam: flexure, span/depth, curtailment, laps

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC073 EC

Office: 1007

DESIGN

SUMMARY

FLEXURE

TENSION REINFORCEMENT

COMPRESSION REINFORCEMENT

Overall depth

Effective depth

Width of section

Parameter K

Parameter K'

Lever arm ratio z/d

Steel area provided

Diameter of bars

Number of bars

Steel area required

Steel percentage req.

Minimum area of steel

Maximum area of steel

Steel area provided

Diameter of bars

Number of bars

Steel area required

Minimum area required

400 mm

340 mm

250 mm

0.173

0.1684

0.8185

1473 mm2

25 mm

3

1238 mm2

1.456 %

128 mm2

4000 mm2

226.2 mm2

12 mm

2

31.16 mm2

200 mm2

clearm=hagg+5=20+5=25 mm

Modified clear spacing

clearm=dia+1=25+1=26 mm

Minimum spacing (sagging moment) clearm=26 mm

compute

comp1=(b-2*(cover+dial)-nbart*dia)

=(250-2*(40+8)-3*25)

=79

compute

comp2=(nbart-1)=(3-1)=2

Clear spacing

clear=comp1/comp2=79/2=39.5 mm

Spacing of bars - compression reinforcement

compute

comp1=(b-2*(cover+dial)-nbarc*diac)

=(250-2*(40+8)-2*12)

=130

compute

comp2=(nbarc-1)=(2-1)=1

Clear spacing

clear=comp1/comp2=130/1=130 mm

Deflection check

Actual span to depth ratio

L=5.4 m

l'd=L*1000/d=5.4*1000/340

=15.88

Percentage compression steel

rho'=100*As2/(b*d)

=100*31.16/(250*340)

=0.0367 %

Reference reinforcement ratio

rho0=(fck^0.5)/10=(30^0.5)/10

=0.5477 %

Basic span effective depth ratio terms (Clause 7.4.2)

N1=1.5*(fck^0.5)*rho0/(rho-rho')

=1.5*(30^0.5)*0.5477/(1.456-0.0367)

=3.17

N2=1/12*(fck^0.5)*(rho'/rho0)^0.5

=1/12*(30^0.5)*(0.0367/0.5477)^0.5

=0.1181

Page: 4

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rect. beam: flexure, span/depth, curtailment, laps

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC073 EC

Office: 1007

N=11+N1+N2=11+3.17+0.1181

=14.29

Factor for simply supported spans k=1.0

Flange beam factor

F1=1

Factor for long spans

F2=1.0

Tensile steel stress factor

F3=500/(fyk*As/Aspr)

=500/(500*1238/1473)

=1.19 (conservative)

Allowable span/depth ratio

l'da=k*N*F1*F2*F3=1*14.29*1*1*1.19

=17

DESIGN

SUMMARY

DEFLECTION

Shear check

Shear force due to ultimate load

Effective breadth for shear

Maximum concrete strut capacity

Percentage compression steel

Design shear stress

Strength reduction factor

Concrete strut capacity

Term for angle theta

Ratio shear area to spacing

Minimum ratio area to spacing

Number of shear legs

Area of shear legs

Spacing of links

Maximum spacing limited

Chosen spacing

Basic l/d ratio

Span factor

Flange beam factor F1

Long spans factor F2

Steel stress factor F3

Allowable l/d ratio

15.88

14.29

1

1

1

1.19

17

At simple support

VEd=110 kN

bw=b=250 mm

VRdm=0.2*fck*(1-fck/250)*bw*d/10^3

=0.2*30*(1-30/250)*250*340/10^3

=448.8 kN

rho'=100*As2/(bw*d)=100*200/(250*340)

=0.2353 %

vEd=VEd*10^3/(0.9*bw*d)

=110*10^3/(0.9*250*340)

=1.438 N/mm2

v=0.6*(1-fck/250)=0.6*(1-30/250)

=0.528 N/mm2

vRdm=0.138*fck*(1-fck/250)

=0.138*30*(1-30/250)

=3.643 N/mm2

Asw's=vEd*bw/(fyd*2.5)

=1.438*250/(434.8*2.5)

=0.3307

Aswm=0.08*bw*fck^0.5/fy

=0.08*250*30^0.5/500

=0.2191

nsl=2

Asw=nsl*PI/4*dial^2=2*3.142/4*8^2

=100.5 mm2

smax=INT(Asw/Asw's)=INT(100.5/0.3307)

=303 mm

smax=0.75*d=0.75*340=255 mm

s=250 mm

Page: 5

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rect. beam: flexure, span/depth, curtailment, laps

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC073 EC

Office: 1007

SHEAR SUMMARY

Shear force

110 kN

Design shear strength

1.438 N/mm2

Concrete strut capacity 3.643 N/mm2

Area/spacing ratio

0.3307

Diameter of links

8 mm

Area of links

100 mm2

Maximum spacing

255 mm

(based on 0.75d)

Actual spacing

250 mm

No 73

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Tee beam - flexure, span/depth check

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC075 BS

Office: 1007

Location: Example: small beam - high-yield steel - no compression steel

Bending in flanged beams with optional calculations for shear, lap

d' b

Calculations are based on formulae

hf

(o)(o)

in Clause 3.4.4.4 of BS8110: Part 1

A's

and thus assume the use of a simplified

d h

rectangular concrete stress-block, and

As

that the depth to the neutral axis is

o o

restricted to 0.5*d.

bw

Design to BS8110(1997) with partial safety factor for steel gammaS=1.15

Moment before redistribution

Mbef=12 kNm (ultimate value)

Beam being analysed is considered as non-continuous.

Characteristic concrete strength fcu=35 N/mm2

Max.aggregate size (for bar spc) hagg=15 mm

Char.strength of long'l bars

fy=500 N/mm2

Longitudinal reinforcement is high-yield steel.

Diameter of tension bars

dia=12 mm

Char.strength of link steel

fyv=500 N/mm2

Diameter of link legs

dial=6 mm

High-yield steel shear reinforcement.

Designed concrete mix to be used. Cover data from Tables A.4 & A.5 of

BS8500-1:2006.

Intended life of structure (for durability considerations) is 50 years.

Designated exposure class is XC1

Specified fixing tolerance

tol=10 mm

Chosen fire resistance period

fire=1 hours

From Table 3.4 of BS8110, minimum cover needed to all steel for simply

supported beam with a fire period of 1 hour/s is 20 mm

Minimum nominal cover required to satisfy fire resistance

requirements may be reduced to 15 mm provided that nominal

maximum size of aggregate does not exceed 15 mm.

Minimum nominal cover to all steel is 25 mm

Nominal concrete cover

cover=25 mm

Overall depth of section

h=275 mm

Effective depth of section

d=238 mm

Breadth of flange

b=400 mm

Breadth of rib

bw=200 mm

Thickness of flange

hf=100 mm

From Figure 3.2 of BS8110, minimum possible beam width complying

with a fire period of 1 hour/s is 200 mm

Breadth provided complies with fire regulations (Figure 3.2 of Code).

Page: 2

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Tee beam - flexure, span/depth check

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC075 BS

Office: 1007

Longitudinal reinforcement

Thus redistribution ratio betab=1

xmax=0.5*d=119 mm and K'=0.156 [Condition (b) in Clause 3.2.2.1].

Max.depth of conc.stress-block

dpmax=0.9*xmax=0.9*119=107.1 mm

As max.depth of stress-block of 107.1 mm exceeds flange thickness of

100 mm, stress-block may extend below flange: check resistance moment.

Moment capacity of flange alone

Mfl=b*hf*0.45*fcu*(d-hf/2)/1000000

=400*100*0.45*35*(238-100/2)

/1000000

=118.44 kNm

As this exceeds M, lower edge of stress-block does not fall below

underside of flange and section may be designed as a rectangular beam.

Applied-moment factor

K=M*1000*1000/(b*d^2*fcu)

=12*1000*1000/(400*238^2*35)

=0.015132

As this does not exceed the resistance-moment factor K' ( 0.156 ),

no compression steel is required.

and lever arm

z=d*(0.5+SQR(0.25-K/0.9))

=238*(0.5+SQR(0.25-0.015132/0.9))

=233.93 mm

but this must not exceed 0.95*d = 0.95*238 =226.1 mm,

so make

z=226.1 mm

Area of tension steel required

As=M*1000*1000/(z*fy/gammaS)

=12*1000*1000/(226.1*500/1.15)

=122.07 mm2

Min.number of tension bars reqd. nbrtmn=2

Area of tension steel provided

Aspr=226.19 mm2 ( 2 No. 12 mm bars)

Tension steel provided per0=100*Aspr/(b*hf+bw*(h-hf))

=100*226.19/(400*100+200*(275-100))

=0.30159 % of gross section.

As this does not exceed 4% (see Clause 3.12.6.1), the design is O.K.

Percentage of tension steel provided per=100*Aspr/(bw*h)

=100*226.19/(200*275)

=0.41126 % of web area.

As this is not less than minimum of 0.13 %, the design is O.K.

Maximum clear distance allowed between tension bars according to

Clause 3.12.11.2.4 is given by

cdist=47000*3*Aspr*betab/(2*fy*As)

=47000*3*226.19*1/(2*500*122.07)

=261.27 mm

which is satisfactory as it is less than 300 mm

Min.number of tension bars needed to meet bar-spacing requirements=2

Page: 3

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Tee beam - flexure, span/depth check

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC075 BS

Office: 1007

TENSION

REINFORCEMENT

SUMMARY

Diameter of bars

12 mm

Number of bars

2

arranged in a single layer

Cover to all steel

25 mm

Area of steel required

122.07 mm2

Area of steel provided

226.19 mm2

Percentage provided:

of gross section

0.30159 %

of web area

0.41126 %

Weight of steel provided 1.7756 kg/m

Max.permissible spacing 261 mm

Link size assumed

6 mm

btab=M/Mbef=12/12=1

Ratio of web width/flange width

bw'b=bw/b=200/400=0.5

Interpolating from Table 3.9 with bw/b=0.5

Basic ratio for simply-sup.span

bs'd=17.143

Area of tension steel provided

Aspr=226.19 mm2

Service stress in this steel

fs=2*fy*As/(3*Asprx*btab)

=2*500*122.07/(3*226.19*1)

=179.89 N/mm2

As applied-moment factor

M'bd2=M*1000*1000/(b*d^2)

=12*1000*1000/(400*238^2)

=0.52962 N/mm2

Mod.factor for tension steel from

equation 7 (Table 3.10) modf1=0.55+(477-fs)/(120*(.9+M'bd2))

=0.55+(477-179.89)/(120*(.9+0.52962))

=2.2819

but this cannot exceed 2, so

modf1=2

Mod.factor for no comp.steel

modf2=1

Maximum permissible

span/effective-depth ratio

ps'd=bs'd*modf1*modf2=17.143*2*1

=34.286

Span of beam (Clause 3.4.1.2-4)

span=7 m

Actual span/effective-depth ratio as'd=1000*span/d=1000*7/238

=29.412

As this does not exceed

34.286, this is Acceptable.

Bending-moment capacities at steel curtailment points

Page: 4

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Tee beam - flexure, span/depth check

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC075 BS

Office: 1007

Anchorage and lap lengths (Clause 3.12.8 of BS8110: Part 1)

Tension reinforcement:

Force in tension bar at yield

Ft=fy/gammaS*PI*dia^2/4

=500/1.15*3.1416*12^2/4

=49173 N

Ultimate anchorage bond stress

fbu=beta*SQR(fcu)=0.5*SQR(35)

=2.958 N/mm2

Anchorage and tension lap length lap=Ft/(PI*dia*fbu)

=49173/(3.1416*12*2.958)

=440.95 mm

=450 mm (rounded)

1.4 * tension lap length

=620 mm (rounded)

2 * tension lap length

=890 mm (rounded)

Shear reinforcement

:

Shear calculations

are in accordance

:

with Clauses 3.4.5

of Code.

o o

Support

:<Design section

av

Location for shear calculation:

0.25 m from support

Effective breadth for shear

bv=200 mm

Shear force due to ultimate load V=100 kN

Distance from support

av=250 mm

No.of tension bars effective at section nbars=2

Area of eff.longitudinal bars

As=nbars*PI*dias^2/4=2*3.1416*12^2/4

=226.19 mm2

Percentage of longitudinal steel per=100*As/(bv*d)

=100*226.19/(200*238)

=0.4752 %

Clause 3.4.5.2 limits the maximum shearing stress to 0.8fcu N/mm2

and thus limiting shear stress

vlim=0.8*SQR(fcu)=0.8*SQR(35)

=4.7329 N/mm2

Now using the formula given in Note 2 below Table 3.8, with f00d=400/d

and pcnt=100*As/(bv*d),

Design shear stress in concrete

vc=0.79*pcnt^(1/3)*f00d^.25/1.25

=0.79*0.4752^(1/3)*1.6807^.25/1.25

=0.56154 N/mm2

As characteristic concrete strength exceeds 25 N/mm2

therefore increase vc according to footnote in Table 3.8.

Modified design shear stress

vc=vc*(fcu/25)^(1/3)

=0.56154*(35/25)^(1/3)

=0.62819 N/mm2

Shear enhancement is ignored so

vc=0.62819 N/mm2

Design shear stress

v=V*1000/(bv*d)=100*1000/(200*238)

=2.1008 N/mm2

Page: 5

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Tee beam - flexure, span/depth check

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC075 BS

Office: 1007

Number of legs to be provided

nlegs=2

Total leg area

Asv=nlegs*(PI*dialr^2/4)

=2*(3.1416*6^2/4)

=56.549 mm2

As v ( 2.1008 N/mm2 ) exceeds (vc+0.4) ( 1.0282 N/mm2 ),

minimum spacing of links

sv=Asv*fyv/(gammaS*bv*(v-vc))

=56.549*500/(1.15*200*(2.1008

-0.62819))

=83.476 mm

=80 mm (rounded)

Chosen link spacing

sv'=80 mm

Use 6 mm links (two legs), spaced at 80 mm centres along beam.

Resistance provided by links alone vs=1.5366 N/mm2

As this exceeds 0.4 N/mm2, shear reinforcement exceeds nominal.

SHEAR

REINFORCEMENT

SUMMARY

Characteristic strength

Diameter of links

Number of legs

Spacing

Approx.weight of links

500 N/mm2

6 mm

2

80 mm

3.2237 kg/m

No 75

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Tee beam - flexure, span/depth check

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC075 EC

Office: 1007

Location: Ex1 - Continuous T-beam

Bending in flanged beams

b

Calculations are based on EN1992-1-1:2004

Eurocode 2:Design of concrete structures

and assume the use of a simplified

rectangular concrete stress-block, and

d h

that the depth to the neutral axis is

As

restricted to 0.45*d.

o o o

bw

Loading

Mbef=600 kNm

Beam being analysed is considered as continuous.

Section considered has a sagging moment.

Materials

Char yield strength of reinft

Max.aggregate size (for bar spc.)

Diameter of tension bars

Diameter of link legs

fyk=500 N/mm2

hagg=20 mm

dia=25 mm

dial=10 mm

Life of structure

50 years

Exposure class

XC1

Designed concrete

C 30 /37

Minimum cover

covern=30 mm

Fixing tolerance

tol=10 mm

Nominal cover (Cl. 4.4.1.1(2))

cover=40 mm

Section properties

h=650 mm

Effective depth of section

d=570 mm

Average web width

bw=350 mm

Flange thickness

hf=200 mm

Distance between beam supports

L=8.2 m

Section being considered is a T-beam.

Clear distance between beam webs b1=2250 mm

Clear distances are symmetrical

Maximum breadth of section

bmax=2*b1+bw=2*2250+350=4850 mm

For an end span

Lo=0.85*L*1000=0.85*8.2*1000

=6970 mm

Effective width

beff1=0.2*b1+0.1*Lo=0.2*2250+0.1*6970

=1147 mm

Flange width

b=2*beff1+bw=2*1147+350=2644 mm

Page: 2

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Tee beam - flexure, span/depth check

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC075 EC

Office: 1007

Main reinforcement

gams=1.15

Char yield strength of reinft.

fyk=fy=500 N/mm2

Partial safety factor for conc.

gamc=1.5

Char cylinder compress strength

fck=30 N/mm2 (concrete)

Design yield strength of reinft. fyd=fyk/gams=500/1.15=434.8 N/mm2

It is usual practice in the UK to restrict x/d to 0.45

Limit on factor

delta=0.85

Factor

K'=0.597*delta-0.18*delta^2-0.209

=0.597*0.85-0.18*0.85^2-0.209

=0.1684

Factor

K=M*1E6/(b*d^2*fck)

=600*1E6/(2644*570^2*30)

=0.0233

No compression reinforcement required.

Lever arm

z=d/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*K))

=570/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*0.0233))

=558 mm

Reduce lever arm to

z=0.95*d=0.95*570=541.5 mm

Depth to neutral axis

x=2.5*(d-z)=2.5*(570-541.5)

=71.25 mm

Tension reinforcement required

As=M*1E6/(fyd*z)

=600*1E6/(434.8*541.5)

=2548 mm2

Mean width of the tension zone

bt=bw=350 mm

Mean value axial tensile strength fctm=0.3*fck^(2/3)=0.3*30^(2/3)

=2.896 N/mm2

Minimum reinforcement required

Asmin=0.26*fctm*bt*d/fyk

=0.26*2.896*350*570/500

=300.5 mm2

Breadth of section

bw=2644 mm

Maximum reinforcement permitted

Asmax=0.04*bw*h=0.04*2644*650

=68744 mm2

Section 2.18 of PD6687 suggests that rho in flanged sections should

be based on the area of the concrete above the centroid of the

tension steel

Area term

At=bw*d+(b-bw)*hf

=2644*570+(2644-2644)*200

=1507080 mm2

Percentage area steel required

rho=100*As/At=100*2548/1507080

=0.1691 %

Number of tension bars required

nbart=INT(As/(PI*dia^2/4))+1

=INT(2548/(3.142*25^2/4))+1

=6

Area of tension steel provided

Aspr=nbart*PI*dia^2/4=6*3.142*25^2/4

=2945 mm2

Page: 3

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Tee beam - flexure, span/depth check

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC075 EC

Office: 1007

DESIGN

SUMMARY

FLEXURE

TENSION REINFORCEMENT

Overall depth

Effective depth

Flange width

Web width

Parameter K

Parameter K'

Lever arm ratio z/d

Steel area required

Steel area provided

Diameter of bars

Number of bars

Steel percentage req.

Minimum area of steel

Maximum area of steel

650 mm

570 mm

2644 mm

350 mm

0.0233

0.1684

0.95

2548 mm2

2945 mm2

25 mm

6

0.1691 %

300.5 mm2

68744 mm2

clearm=hagg+5=20+5=25 mm

Modified clear spacing

clearm=dia+1=25+1=26 mm

compute

comp1=(bw-2*(cover+dial)-nbart*dia)

=(2644-2*(40+10)-6*25)

=2394

compute

comp2=(nbart-1)=(6-1)=5

Clear spacing

clear=comp1/comp2=2394/5

=478.8 mm

Deflection check

Actual span to depth ratio

L=8.2 m

l'd=L*1000/d=8.2*1000/570

=14.39

Reference reinforcement ratio

rho0=(fck^0.5)/10=(30^0.5)/10

=0.5477 %

Basic span effective depth ratio terms (Clause 7.4.2)

N1=1.5*(fck^0.5)*rho0/rho

=1.5*(30^0.5)*0.5477/0.1691

=26.61

N2=3.2*(fck^0.5)*(rho0/rho-1)^1.5

=3.2*(30^0.5)*(0.5477/0.1691-1)^1.5

=58.72

N=11+N1+N2=11+26.61+58.72

=96.33

Factor for continuous end spans

k=1.3

Flange beam ratio

Ff=b/bw'=2644/350=7.554

Flange beam factor

F1=0.8

Factor for long spans

F2=7/L=7/8.2=0.8537

Tensile steel stress factor

F3=500/(fyk*As/Aspr)

=500/(500*2548/2945)

=1.156 (conservative)

Allowable span/depth ratio

l'da=k*N*F1*F2*F3

=1.3*96.33*0.8*0.8537*1.156

=98.84

Absolute value of span/depth

l'da=40*k=40*1.3=52

Page: 4

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Tee beam - flexure, span/depth check

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC075 EC

Office: 1007

DESIGN

SUMMARY

DEFLECTION

Shear check

Shear force due to ultimate load

Maximum concrete strut capacity

Design shear stress

Strength reduction factor

Concrete strut capacity

Term for angle theta

Ratio shear area to spacing

Minimum ratio area to spacing

Number of shear legs

Area of shear legs

Spacing of links

Maximum spacing limited

Chosen spacing

SHEAR SUMMARY

Basic l/d ratio

Span factor

Flange beam factor F1

Long spans factor F2

Steel stress factor F3

Allowable l/d ratio

14.39

96.33

1.3

0.8

0.8537

1.156

52

VEd=267 kN

VRdm=0.2*fck*(1-fck/250)*bw*d/10^3

=0.2*30*(1-30/250)*350*570/10^3

=1053 kN

vEd=VEd*10^3/(0.9*bw*d)

=267*10^3/(0.9*350*570)

=1.487 N/mm2

v=0.6*(1-fck/250)=0.6*(1-30/250)

=0.528 N/mm2

vRdm=0.138*fck*(1-fck/250)

=0.138*30*(1-30/250)

=3.643 N/mm2

Asw's=vEd*bw/(fyd*2.5)

=1.487*350/(434.8*2.5)

=0.4788

Aswm=0.08*bw*fck^0.5/fy

=0.08*350*30^0.5/500

=0.3067

nsl=4

Asw=nsl*PI/4*dial^2=4*3.142/4*10^2

=314.2 mm2

smax=INT(Asw/Asw's)=INT(314.2/0.4788)

=656 mm

smax=0.75*d=0.75*570=427.5 mm

s=125 mm

Shear force

Design shear strength

Concrete strut capacity

Area/spacing ratio

Diameter of links

Area of links

Maximum spacing

(based on 0.75d)

Actual spacing

267 kN

1.487 N/mm2

3.643 N/mm2

0.4788

10 mm

314 mm2

427.5 mm

125 mm

No 75

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rectangular and Tee beam - shear only

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC078 BS

Office: 1007

Location: Medium-sized section. Low shear force.

Shear in rectangular and flanged beams, with choice of av enhancement

are in accordance with

the requirements of

Clause 3.4.5

Support

av Design section

It is assumed that nominal shear reinforcement at least will be provided

Shear force due to ultimate loads V=400 kN

Overall depth of section

h=550 mm

Effective depth of section

d=500 mm

Effective breadth for shear

bv=200 mm

Characteristic concrete strength fcu=40 N/mm2

Distance to support

av=500 mm

Diameter of compression bars

diac=0 mm

Diameter of tension bars

dia=25 mm

Diameter of link legs

dial=8 mm

Number of tension bars at section nbars=2

Char.strength of link steel

fyv=500 N/mm2

Area of longitudinal steel

As=nbars*PI*dia^2/4=2*3.1416*25^2/4

=981.75 mm2

Percentages of longitudinal steel:

In terms of (bv*d):

per=100*As/(bv*d)

=100*981.75/(200*500)

=0.98175 %

In terms of (bv*h):

perg=100*As/(bv*h)

=100*981.75/(200*550)

=0.8925 %

From Table 3.8 with fcu=25 N/mm2, effective depth=500 mm and steel

percentage=0.98175 %, design concrete shear stress vc=0.62813 N/mm2.

Since characteristic concrete strength is between 25 and 40 N/mm2,

increase vc according to formula in footnote below Table 3.8. Then

vc=vc25*(fcu/25)^(1/3)

=0.62813*(40/25)^(1/3)

=0.73467 N/mm2

Since av is less than 2*d (see Clause 3.4.5.8),

maximum enhanced value of

vc=vc*2*d/av=0.73467*2*500/500

=1.4693 N/mm2

Design shear stress

v=V*1000/(bv*d)=400*1000/(200*500)

=4 N/mm2

Full shear enhancement due to support proximity taken into account.

Number of legs to be provided

nlegs=4

Total leg area

Asv=nlegs*(PI*dial^2/4)

=4*(3.1416*8^2/4)

=201.06 mm2

Since v (i.e. 4 N/mm2 exceeds (vc+0.4) (i.e. 1.8693 N/mm2 ,

minimum spacing of links

sv=fyv/gammaS*Asv/(bv*(v-vc))

=500/1.15*201.06/(200*(4-1.4693))

=172.72 mm

=170 mm (rounded)

Page: 2

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rectangular and Tee beam - shear only

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC078 BS

Office: 1007

Use 8 mm links ( 4 legs), spaced at 170 mm centres along beam.

Approx.total weight of links

5.8 kg per metre

No 78

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rectangular and Tee beam - shear only

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC078 EC

Office: 1007

Location: Default example

Shear in rectangular and flanged beams

Section data

Effective depth of section

Effective breadth for shear

Char cylinder compress strength

Char yield strength of reinft.

Diameter of links

Partial safety factor for reinft

Design yield strength of reinfnt

Shear

Strength reduction factor

Concrete strut capacity

Ratio shear area to spacing

Minimum ratio area to spacing

Number of shear legs

Area of shear legs

Spacing of links

Chosen spacing

SHEAR SUMMARY

h=600 mm

d=550 mm

bw=350 mm

fck=30 N/mm2 (concrete)

fyk=500 N/mm2

dial=10 N/mm2

gams=1.15

fywd=fyk/gams=500/1.15=434.78 N/mm2

vEd=VEd*10^3/(0.9*bw*d)

=345*10^3/(0.9*350*550)

=1.9913 N/mm2

v=0.6*(1-fck/250)=0.6*(1-30/250)

=0.528 N/mm2

vRdm=0.138*fck*(1-fck/250)

=0.138*30*(1-30/250)

=3.6432 N/mm2

Asw's=vEd*bw/(fywd*2.5)

=1.9913*350/(434.78*2.5)

=0.64121

Aswm=0.08*bw*fck^0.5/fyk

=0.08*350*30^0.5/500

=0.30672

nsl=2

Asw=nsl*PI/4*dial^2=2*3.1416/4*10^2

=157.08 mm2

smax=INT(Asw/Asw's)

=INT(157.08/0.64121)

=244 mm

s=225 mm

Shear force

Design shear strength

Concrete strut capacity

Area/spacing ratio

Area of links

Maximum spacing

Actual spacing

345 kN

1.9913 N/mm2

3.6432 N/mm2

0.64121

157 mm2

244 mm

225 mm

No 78

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Solid slab - flexure, tens & comp steel, span/d

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC082 BS

Office: 1007

Location: Typical continuous slab reinforced with high-yield steel

Bending in solid slabs (with comp.steel if reqd.), designed for a given

d'

Calculations are based on formulae

in Clause 3.4.4.4 of BS8110: Part 1 (o)

(o)

(o)

(o)

and thus assume the use of a

d

simplified rectangular concrete

h

stress-block, and that the depth to

o o o o o o o o o o o o

the neutral axis is restricted to d/2.

Design to BS8110(1997) with partial safety factor for steel gammaS=1.15

Moment before redistribution

Mbef=1875 kNm (total)

Slab containing section being analysed is considered as continuous.

Design moment (after redistrib.) M=1800 kNm (total)

Characteristic concrete strength fcu=30 N/mm2

Characteristic steel strength

fy=500 N/mm2

Longitudinal reinforcement is high-yield steel.

Diameter of tension bars

dia=20 mm

Designed concrete mix to be used. Cover data from Tables A.4 & A.5 of

BS8500-1:2006.

Intended life of structure (for durability considerations) is 50 years.

Designated exposure class is XC1

Specified fixing tolerance

tol=10 mm

Chosen fire resistance period

fire=2 hours

From Table 3.4 of BS8110, minimum cover needed to all steel for

continuous slab with a fire period of 2 hour/s is 25 mm

Minimum nominal cover to all steel is 25 mm

Nominal concrete cover

cover=25 mm

Overall thickness of slab

h=400 mm

From Figure 3.2 of BS8110, minimum possible slab thickness

complying with a fire period of 2 hour/s is 125 mm

Thickness provided complies with fire regulations (Fig. 3.2 of Code).

Maximum effective depth

dmax=h-cover-dia/2=400-25-20/2

=365 mm

Effective depth of section

d=365 mm

Breadth of slab

b=3000 mm

Longitudinal reinforcement

Redistribution

with resistance-moment factor

As applied-moment factor

perct=100*(Mbef-M)/Mbef

=100*(1875-1800)/1875

=4 %

(i.e. does not exceed 10%)

betab=M/Mbef=1800/1875=0.96

K'=0.156

K=M*10^6/(b*d^2*fcu)

=1800*10^6/(3000*365^2*30)

=0.15012

does not exceed resistance-moment factor K', no comp.steel is needed.

Page: 2

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Solid slab - flexure, tens & comp steel, span/d

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC082 BS

Office: 1007

and lever arm

z=d*(0.5+SQR(0.25-K/0.9))

=365*(0.5+SQR(0.25-0.15012/0.9))

=287.78 mm

but must not exceed 0.95*d=0.95*365 =346.75 mm

i.e. take

z=287.78 mm

Area of tension steel required

As=M*10^6/(z*fy/gammaS)

=1800*10^6/(287.78*500/1.15)

=14386 mm2 (total)

As 3*d>750 mm, maximum clear distance between bars

for tension steel

maxcl=750 mm, and

maximum spacing (c.to c.of bars) pchmx=750+dia=770 mm

Calculated c.to c.spacing for tension bars pch=b*PI/4*dia^2/As

=3000*3.1416/4*20^2/14386

=65.514 mm

As this does not exceed maximum permissible spacing of 770 mm,

employ this value.

Chosen spacing of tension bars

pch=60 mm

Number of tension bars needed

Not=INT((b-dia-2*cover)/pchTA)+1

=INT((3000-20-2*25)/60)+1

=49

To accommodate tension bars in width of slab available, they should be

respaced at 60 mm centres, with a side cover of 50 mm

Area of tension steel provided

Aspr=Not*PI*dia^2/4=49*3.1416*20^2/4

=15394 mm2 (total)

per=100*Aspr/(b*h)

=100*15393/(3000*400)

=1.2828 % of gross section.

As this falls within Code limits of 0.13% and 4%, this is satisfactory.

Basic clear dist.allowed between tension bars (see Cl.3.12.11.2.4)

is given by

cdist=47000*3*Aspr*betab/(2*fy*As)

=47000*3*15393*0.96/(2*500*14386)

=144.84 mm

which is satisfactory, as it is less than 300 mm.

As the amount of tension steel is not less than 1%, no change to the

calculated spacing cdist need be made [see Clause 3.12.11.2.7(b)].

As max.allowable pitch of cdist+dia=164.84 mm is not less than rounded

value determined above (i.e. 60 mm), the above pitch is satisfactory.

Minimum distribution steel required

=520 mm2/m width.

Diameter of distribution bars

diamn=12 mm

As 3*d exceeds 750, max.permiss.clear spacing of bars is 750 mm and

thus maximum permissible pitch

pchmx=750+diamn=750+12=762 mm

Max.pitch for distribution steel pchmn=1000*PI/4*diamn^2/Asmin

=1000*3.1416/4*12^2/520

=217.49 mm,

which is O.K. as it does not exceed the limit pchmx (i.e. 762. mm)

=200 mm (rounded)

Page: 3

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Solid slab - flexure, tens & comp steel, span/d

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC082 BS

Office: 1007

Spacing of distribution bars

pchDA=200 mm

Area of dist.steel provided

Asmpr=1000*PI/4*diamn^2/pchDA

=1000*3.1416/4*12^2/200

=565.49 mm2/m

TENSION

REINFORCEMENT

SUMMARY

Characteristic strength

Diameter of bars

Number of bars

Spacing of bars

Effective depth

Area of steel required

Area of steel provided

Percentage provided

Weight of steel provided

500 N/mm2

20 mm

49

60 mm

365 mm

14386 mm2

15393 mm2

1.2828 %

120.84 kg/m

DISTRIBUTION

REINFORCEMENT

SUMMARY

Characteristic strength

Diameter of bars

Spacing of bars

Depth to bar centres

Area of steel required

Area of steel provided

Percentage provided

Weight of steel provided

500 N/mm2

12 mm

200 mm

349 mm

520 mm2/m

565 mm2/m

0.14125 %

4.44 kg/m2

btab=M/Mbef=1800/1875=0.96

Basic ratio for slab

continuous at one edge

bs'd=23

(interpolated from Table 3.9)

Area of tension steel provided

Aspr=15393 mm2

Service stress in this steel

fs=2*fy*As/(3*Aspr*btab)

=2*500*14386/(3*15393*0.96)

=324.51 N/mm2

As applied-moment factor

M'bd2=M*10^6/(b*d^2)

=1800*10^6/(3000*365^2)

=4.5037

From equation 7

modf1=0.55+(477-fs)/(120*(0.9+M'bd2))

=0.55+(477-324.51)/(120*(0.9

+4.5037))

=0.78517

Mod.factor for tension steel

modf1=0.78517

Mod.factor for no comp.steel

modf2=1.0

Maximum permissible

span/effective-depth ratio

ps'd=bs'd*modf1*modf2=23*0.78517*1

=18.059

Effective span of slab

span=5 m

True span/effective-depth ratio

as'd=1000*span/d=1000*5/365

=13.699

As this does not exceed

18.059, this is Acceptable.

No 82

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Solid slab - flexure, tens & comp steel, span/d

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC082 EC

Office: 1007

Location: Ex1 - Continuous slab

Bending in solid slabs (with comp.steel if reqd.), designed per metre

d2

o

o

o

o

h

o

o

o

o

o

o

2004 Eurocode 2:Design of concrete

structures and assume the use of a

simplified rectangular concrete

stress-block & that the depth to

the NA is restricted to 0.45d.

Mbef=625 kNm

Section being analysed is considered as continuous.

Section considered has a hogging moment

Design BM (after redistribution) M=600 kNm

Materials

Char yield strength of reinft

Max.aggregate size (for bar spc.)

Diameter of tension bars

Diameter of distribution bars

fyk=500 N/mm2

hagg=20 mm

dia=25 mm

diad=12 mm

Life of structure

50 years

Exposure class

XC1

Designed concrete

C 30 /37

Minimum cover

covern=25 mm

Fixing tolerance

tol=10 mm

Nominal cover (Cl. 4.4.1.1(2))

cover=35 mm

Section properties

Effective depth of section

Breadth of section

Main reinforcement

Char yield strength of reinft.

Partial safety factor for conc.

Char cylinder compress strength

Design yield strength of reinft.

Redistribution ratio

Percentage redistribution

h=400 mm

d=350 mm

b=1000 mm

gams=1.15

fyk=fy=500 N/mm2

gamc=1.5

fck=30 N/mm2 (concrete)

fyd=fyk/gams=500/1.15=434.8 N/mm2

delta=M/Mbef=600/625=0.96

percnt=(1-delta)*100=(1-0.96)*100

=4 %

It is usual practice in the UK to restrict x/d to 0.45

Page: 2

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Solid slab - flexure, tens & comp steel, span/d

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC082 EC

Office: 1007

Limit on factor

delta=0.85

Factor

K'=0.597*delta-0.18*delta^2-0.209

=0.597*0.85-0.18*0.85^2-0.209

=0.1684

Factor

K=M*1E6/(b*d^2*fck)

=600*1E6/(1000*350^2*30)

=0.1633

No compression reinforcement required.

Lever arm

z=d/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*K))

=350/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*0.1633))

=288.9 mm

Depth to neutral axis

x=2.5*(d-z)=2.5*(350-288.9)

=152.7 mm

Tension reinforcement required

As=M*1E6/(fyd*z)

=600*1E6/(434.8*288.9)

=4776 mm2

Mean width of the tension zone

bt=bw=1000 mm

Mean value axial tensile strength fctm=0.3*fck^(2/3)=0.3*30^(2/3)

=2.896 N/mm2

Minimum reinforcement required

Asmin=0.26*fctm*bt*d/fyk

=0.26*2.896*1000*350/500

=527.2 mm2

Breadth of section

bw=1000 mm

Maximum reinforcement permitted

Asmax=0.04*bw*h=0.04*1000*400

=16000 mm2

Percentage area steel required

rho=100*As/(bw*d)=100*4776/(1000*350)

=1.365 %

Distribution steel

Asmpr=Asmin=527.2 mm2

Minimum distribution steel

Asmpr=0.2*As=0.2*4776=955.2 mm2

DESIGN

SUMMARY

FLEXURE

Overall depth

Effective depth

Parameter K

Parameter K'

Lever arm ratio z/d

Steel area (tension)

Steel percentage req.

Minimum area of steel

Maximum area of steel

Distribution steel

400 mm

350 mm

0.1633

0.1684

0.8255

4776 mm2/m

1.365 %

527.2 mm2/m

16000 mm2/m

955.2 mm2/m

Concrete" the minimum clear distance between bars is 75 mm

Minimum pitch (hogging moment)

pchmn=75+dia=75+25=100 mm

Maximum pitch of bars (<3h)

pchmx=400 mm

Calculated pitch of bars

pitch=1000*PI*dia^2/(4*As)

=1000*3.142*25^2/(4*4776)

=102.8 mm

Rounded spacing (c.to c.of bars) 100 mm

Chosen spacing of tension bars

pch=100 mm

Area of tension steel provided

Aspr=1000/pch*PI*dia^2/4

=1000/100*3.142*25^2/4

=4909 mm2/m

Page: 3

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Solid slab - flexure, tens & comp steel, span/d

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC082 EC

Office: 1007

Spacing of distribution steel

955.2 mm2/m

Diameter of distribution bars

diad=12 mm

Calculated pitch of bars

pitch=1000*PI*diad^2/(4*Asmpr)

=1000*3.142*12^2/(4*955.2)

=118.4 mm

Rounded spacing (c.to c.of bars) 110 mm

Chosen spacing of distn. bars

pchd=110 mm

Area of distn. steel provided

Asdpr=1000/pchd*PI*diad^2/4

=1000/110*3.142*12^2/4

=1028 mm2/m

TENSION REINFORCEMENT

DISTRIBUTION REINFORCEMENT

Shear check

Shear force due to ultimate load

Effective breadth for shear

Maximum concrete strut capacity

Diameter of bars

Spacing of bars

Area of steel required

Area of steel provided

Diameter of bars

Spacing of bars

Area of steel required

Area of steel provided

25 mm

100 mm

4776 mm2/m

4908 mm2/m

12 mm

110 mm

955.2 mm2/m

1028 mm2/m

VEd=250 kN

bw=b=1000 mm

VRdm=0.2*fck*(1-fck/250)*bw*d/10^3

=0.2*30*(1-30/250)*1000*350/10^3

=1848 kN

Consider 100% of tension reinforcement at the shear section.

Area of reinforcement at section Asl=Aspr=4908 mm2/m

Percentage area

rho1=100*Asl/(bw*d)

=100*4908/(1000*350)

=1.402 %

Partial concrete safety factor

gamc=1.5

Factor

CRdc=0.18/gamc=0.18/1.5=0.12

Factor

ks=1+(200/d)^0.5=1+(200/350)^0.5

=1.756

Term for shear resistance

vRdc=(rho1*fck)^(1/3)

=(1.402*30)^(1/3)

=3.478

Shear resistance

VRdc=CRdc*ks*vRdc*bw*d/1000

=0.12*1.756*3.478*1000*350/1000

=256.5 kN

Minimum stress

vmin=0.035*ks^1.5*fck^0.5

=0.035*1.756^1.5*30^0.5

=0.4461 N/mm2

Minimum shear resistance

VRdm=vmin*bw*d/1000

=0.4461*1000*350/1000

=156.1 kN

Page: 4

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Solid slab - flexure, tens & comp steel, span/d

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC082 EC

Office: 1007

SHEAR SUMMARY

Shear force

250 kN

Shear resistance

256.5 kN

Crack control check

Unfactored variable load on slab Qk=40 kN

Permanent load factor

gamG=1.35

Variable load factor

gamQ=1.5

As the slab is > 200 mm measures to control cracking are necessary.

The ratio (Gk+2Qk)/(G*Gk+Q*Qk) can be estimated from the shear

values at each end of the span as follows:

Factor 2 for variable load

psi2=0.3

compute

ratio1=Gk+psi2*Qk=100+0.3*40

=112

compute

ratio2=gamG*Gk+gamQ*Qk

=1.35*100+1.5*40

=195

compute

ratio=ratio1/ratio2=112/195

=0.5744

Redistribution ratio

delta=M/Mbef=600/625=0.96

SLS stress in reinforcement s

SLSs=500/1.15*(As/Aspr)*ratio*1/delta

=500/1.15*(4776/4908)*0.5744*1

/0.96

=253.1 N/mm2

Design crack width

wk=0.3 mm

Max allowable SLS stress s

SLSs2=TABLE 7.3 for pch=100

=320 N/mm2

The bar spacing 100 mm used complies with Table 7.3N of EC2 Part 1:2004

hence satisfactory.

No 82

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC086 BS

Office: 1007

Location: Typical two-way slab with all edges fixed

Design of two-way slabs rectangular slabs supporting uniform loads

Calculation of design moments in accordance with Clauses 3.5.3

of BS8110 throughout.

dead load = gk kN/m2

lx

live load = qk kN/m2

ly

Length of shorter side

Length of longer side

Constant

Characteristic dead load

Characteristic imposed load

Total design ultimate load

lx=6 m

ly=8 m

k=ly/lx=1.3333

gk=4 kN/m2

qk=5 kN/m2

n=1.4*gk+1.6*qk=1.4*4+1.6*5

=13.6 kN/m2

mstrwx=0.75*lx=4.5 m

mstrwy=0.75*ly=6 m

h=200 mm

fcu=30 N/mm2

fy=500 N/mm2

Width of middle strip long side

Overall depth of slab

Characteristic concrete strength

Characteristic strength of steel

Bond type (0,1 or 2)

Type=2

From equation 49, with bond coefficient of 0.5 (see Table 3.26),

design ultimate anchorage bond stress fbu=2.7386 N/mm2.

Size

Size

Size

Size

of

of

of

of

upper

lower

upper

lower

bars

bars

bars

bars

in

in

in

in

x-direction

x-direction

y-direction

y-direction

diaux=20 mm

diax=20 mm

diauy=16 mm

diay=16 mm

Designed concrete mix to be used. Cover data from Tables A.4 & A.5 of

BS8500-1:2006.

Intended life of structure (for durability considerations) is 50 years.

Designated exposure class is XC2

Specified fixing tolerance

tol=10 mm

Chosen fire resistance period

fire=2 hours

From Table 3.4 of BS8110, minimum cover needed to all steel for

continuous slab with a fire period of 2 hour/s is 25 mm

This applies to both top and bottom reinforcement.

Cover to reinforcement at bottom of slab:

Designed concrete mix to be used. Cover data from Tables A.4 & A.5 of

BS8500-1:2006.

Intended life of structure (for durability considerations) is 50 years.

Designated exposure class is XC2

Page: 2

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC086 BS

Office: 1007

Specified fixing tolerance

tol=10 mm

Nominal cover at top of slab

tcover=35 mm

Nominal cover at bottom of slab

bcover=35 mm

Effective depths:

Of top steel:

in x-direction dux=155 mm

in y-direction duy=dux-(diaux+diauy)/2

=155-(20+16)/2

=137 mm

Of bottom steel: in x-direction dx=155 mm

in y-direction dy=dx-(diax+diay)/2=155-(20+16)/2

=137 mm

From Figure 3.2 of BS8110, minimum possible slab thickness

complying with a fire period of 2 hour/s is 125 mm

Thickness provided complies with fire regulations (Figure 3.2 of Code).

/ / / / / / / / / /

//

/

gk kN/m2

/

/

/ lx=6 m

/

qk kN/m2

/

//

/ / / / / / / / / /

ly=8 m

Negative mt.coefft.at cont.edges

Positive mt.coefft.at midspan

Long-span coefft.at cont edges

Long-span coefft.at midspan

=0.047333

betsxp=TABLE 3.15 for row=2, k=1.3333

=0.035667

betsyn=0.032

betsyp=0.024

Design moment

msxe=betsxn*n*mstrwy*lx^2

=0.047333*13.6*6*6^2

=139.05 kNm

Resistance-moment factor

K'=0.156

As applied-moment factor

K=msxe*10^6/(1000*mstrwy*dux^2*fcu)

=139.05*10^6/(1000*6*155^2*30)

=0.032153

does not exceed resistance-moment factor K' the section is satisfactory.

Calculated lever arm

z=dux*(0.5+SQR(0.25-K/0.9))

=155*(0.5+SQR(0.25-0.032153/0.9))

=149.25 mm,

but must not exceed 0.95*dux=

0.95*155 =147.25 mm

i.e. take lever arm

z=147.25 mm

Area of tension steel required

Asxe=msxe*10^6/(fy/gammaS*z)

=139.05*10^6/(500/1.15*147.25)

=2171.9 mm2

Thus steel reqd.to resist bending Ascal=Asxe=2171.9 mm2

As 3*dux is less than 750 mm, maximum clear distance between bars

for tension steel

maxcsp=3*dux=3*155=465 mm, and

maximum pitch (c.to c.of bars)

pchm=3*dux+diaux=485 mm

Page: 3

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC086 BS

Office: 1007

Required pitch of tension bars

pchxe=1000*mstrwy*PI*diaux^2/(4*Asxe)

=1000*6*3.1416*20^2/(4*2171.9)

=867.9 mm

As this exceeds maximum permissible spacing of 485 mm, employ

spacing pchxe of

485 mm

=480 mm (rounded)

Chosen pitch for tension steel

pitchC=480 mm (centre to centre)

=480 mm (rounded)

Number of bars required

Noxe=INT(1000*mstrwy/pchxe)+1

=INT(1000*6/480)+1

=13

Area of tension steel provided

Aspxe=Noxe*PI*diaux^2/4

=13*3.1416*20^2/4

=4084.1 mm2

Spacing and proportion of steel (Clause 3.12.11.2.7):

Tension steel provided

per=Aspxe/(10*mstrwy*h)

=4084.1/(10*6*200)

=0.34034 % of gross section.

As this is within Code limits of 0.13 % and 4%, this is satisfactory.

As the slab depth does not exceed 200 mm, no check on the spacing

of bars is required [Clause 3.12.11.2.7(a2)].

Actual stress in steel

fs=fy/gammaS*Ascal/Aspxe

=500/1.15*2171.9/4084.1

=231.21 N/mm2

Min.anchorage-bond length reqd.

lb=diaux*fs/(4*fbu)

=20*231.21/(4*2.7386)

=422.13 mm

=425 mm (rounded)

Long span ly at continuous edges

Design moment

msye=betsyn*n*mstrwx*lx^2

=0.032*13.6*4.5*6^2

=70.502 kNm

Resistance-moment factor

K'=0.156

As applied-moment factor

K=msye*1000/(mstrwx*duy^2*fcu)

=70.502*1000/(4.5*137^2*30)

=0.027825

does not exceed resistance-moment factor K' the section is satisfactory.

Calculated lever arm

z=duy*(0.5+SQR(0.25-K/0.9))

=137*(0.5+SQR(0.25-0.027825/0.9))

=132.62 mm,

but must not exceed 0.95*duy=

0.95*137 =130.15 mm

i.e. take lever arm

z=130.15 mm

Area of tension steel required

Asye=msye*10^6/(fy/gammaS*z)

=70.502*10^6/(500/1.15*130.15)

=1245.9 mm2

Thus steel reqd.to resist bending Ascal=Asye=1245.9 mm2

As 3*duy is less than 750 mm, maximum clear distance between bars

for tension steel

maxcsp=3*duy=3*137=411 mm, and

maximum pitch (c.to c.of bars)

pchm=3*duy+diauy=427 mm

Reqd.pitch of tension bars

pchye=1000*mstrwx*PI*diauy^2/(4*Asye)

=1000*4.5*3.1416*16^2/(4*1245.9)

=726.2 mm

As this exceeds maximum permissible spacing of 427 mm, employ

spacing pchye of

427 mm

Page: 4

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC086 BS

Office: 1007

=420 mm (rounded)

Chosen pitch for tension steel

pitchC=420 mm (centre to centre)

Number of bars required

Noye=INT(1000*mstrwx/pchye)+1

=INT(1000*4.5/420)+1

=11

Area of tension steel provided

Aspye=Noye*PI*diauy^2/4

=11*3.1416*16^2/4

=2211.7 mm2

Spacing and proportion of steel (Clause 3.12.11.2.7):

Tension steel provided

per=Aspye/(10*mstrwx*h)

=2211.7/(10*4.5*200)

=0.24574 % of gross section.

As this is within Code limits of 0.13 % and 4%, this is satisfactory.

As the slab depth does not exceed 200 mm, no check on the spacing

of bars is required [Clause 3.12.11.2.7(a2)].

Actual stress in steel

fs=fy/gammaS*Ascal/Aspye

=500/1.15*1245.9/2211.7

=244.93 N/mm2

Min.anchorage-bond length reqd.

lb=diauy*fs/(4*fbu)

=16*244.93/(4*2.7386)

=357.74 mm

=360 mm (rounded)

Short span lx at midspan

Design moment

msxm=betsxp*n*mstrwy*lx^2

=0.035667*13.6*6*6^2

=104.77 kNm

Resistance-moment factor

K'=0.156

As applied-moment factor

K=msxm*10^6/(1000*mstrwy*dx^2*fcu)

=104.77*10^6/(1000*6*155^2*30)

=0.024228

does not exceed resistance-moment factor K' the section is satisfactory.

Calculated lever arm

z=dx*(0.5+SQR(0.25-K/0.9))

=155*(0.5+SQR(0.25-0.024228/0.9))

=150.71 mm,

but must not exceed 0.95*dx=0.95*155 =147.25 mm

i.e. take lever arm

z=147.25 mm

Area of tension steel required

Asxm=msxm*10^6/(fy/gammaS*z)

=104.77*10^6/(500/1.15*147.25)

=1636.5 mm2

Thus steel reqd.to resist bending Ascal=Asxm=1636.5 mm2

As 3*dx is less than 750 mm, maximum clear distance between bars

for tension steel

maxcsp=3*dx=3*155=465 mm, and

maximum pitch (c.to c.of bars)

pchm=3*dx+diax=485 mm

Reqd.pitch of tension bars

pchxm=1000*mstrwy*PI*diax^2/(4*Asxm)

=1000*6*3.1416*20^2/(4*1636.5)

=1151.8 mm

As this exceeds maximum permissible spacing of 485 mm, employ

spacing pchxe of

485 mm

=480 mm (rounded)

Chosen pitch for tension steel

pitchC=480 mm (centre to centre)

Number of bars required

Noxm=INT(1000*mstrwy/pchxm)+1

=INT(1000*6/480)+1

=13

Page: 5

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC086 BS

Office: 1007

Area of tension steel provided

Aspxm=Noxm*PI*diax^2/4

=13*3.1416*20^2/4

=4084.1 mm2

Spacing and proportion of steel (Clause 3.12.11.2.7):

Tension steel provided

per=Aspxm/(10*mstrwy*h)

=4084.1/(10*6*200)

=0.34034 % of gross section.

As this is within Code limits of 0.13 % and 4%, this is satisfactory.

As the slab depth does not exceed 200 mm, no check on the spacing

of bars is required [Clause 3.12.11.2.7(a2)].

Actual stress in steel

fs=fy/gammaS*Ascal/Aspxm

=500/1.15*1636.5/4084.1

=174.22 N/mm2

Min.anchorage-bond length reqd.

lb=diax*fs/(4*fbu)

=20*174.22/(4*2.7386)

=318.09 mm

=320 mm (rounded)

Long span ly at midspan

Design moment

msym=betsyp*n*mstrwx*lx^2

=0.024*13.6*4.5*6^2

=52.877 kNm

Resistance-moment factor

K'=0.156

As applied-moment factor

K=msym*1000/(mstrwx*dy^2*fcu)

=52.877*1000/(4.5*137^2*30)

=0.020868

does not exceed resistance-moment factor K' the section is satisfactory.

Calculated lever arm

z=dy*(0.5+SQR(0.25-K/0.9))

=137*(0.5+SQR(0.25-0.020868/0.9))

=133.75 mm,

but must not exceed 0.95*dy=0.95*137 =130.15 mm

i.e. take lever arm

z=130.15 mm

Area of tension steel required

Asym=msym*10^6/(fy/gammaS*z)

=52.877*10^6/(500/1.15*130.15)

=934.43 mm2

Thus steel reqd.to resist bending Ascal=Asym=934.43 mm2

Min.tension area (Table 3.25)

Asmin=permin/100*1000*mstrwx*h

=0.13/100*1000*4.5*200

=1170 mm2

As this exceeds the calculated area, make Asym=1170 mm2.

As 3*dy is less than 750 mm, maximum clear distance between bars

for tension steel

maxcsp=3*dy=3*137=411 mm, and

maximum pitch (c.to c.of bars)

pchm=3*dy+diay=427 mm

Reqd.pitch for tension steel

pchym=1000*mstrwx*PI*diay^2/(4*Asym)

=1000*4.5*3.1416*16^2/(4*1170)

=773.32 mm

As this exceeds maximum permissible spacing of 427 mm, employ

spacing pchym of

427 mm

=420 mm (rounded)

Chosen pitch for tension steel

pitchC=420 mm (centre to centre)

Number of bars required

Noym=INT(1000*mstrwx/pchym)+1

=INT(1000*4.5/420)+1

=11

Area of tension steel provided

Aspym=Noym*PI*diay^2/4

=11*3.1416*16^2/4

=2211.7 mm2

Page: 6

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC086 BS

Office: 1007

Spacing and proportion of steel (Clause 3.12.11.2.7):

Tension steel provided

per=Aspym/(10*mstrwx*h)

=2211.7/(10*4.5*200)

=0.24574 % of gross section.

As this is within Code limits of 0.13 % and 4%, this is satisfactory.

As the slab depth does not exceed 200 mm, no check on the spacing

of bars is required [Clause 3.12.11.2.7(a2)].

Actual stress in steel

fs=fy/gammaS*Ascal/Aspym

=500/1.15*934.43/2211.7

=183.7 N/mm2

Min.anchorage-bond length reqd.

lb=diay*fs/(4*fbu)

=16*183.7/(4*2.7386)

=268.3 mm

=270 mm (rounded)

Check on span/effective-depth ratio (in lx direction)

bs'd=26 (see Table 3.9.)

Area of tension steel provided

Aspxm=4084.1 mm2

Service stress

fs=2*fy*Asxm/(3*Aspxm)

=2*500*1636.5/(3*4084.1)

=133.57 N/mm2

Mod.factor for tension steel:

As applied-moment factor

M'bd2=msxm*10^6/(1000*mstrwy*dx^2)

=104.77*10^6/(1000*6*155^2)

=0.72684

From equation 7 (Table 3.10)

modf1=0.55+(477-fs)/(120*(0.9+M'bd2))

=0.55+(477-133.57)/(120*(0.9

+0.72684))

=2.3092

but this cannot exceed 2, so

modf1=2

Mod.factor for no comp.steel

modf2=1

Thus maximum permissible

span/effective-depth ratio

ps'd=bs'd*modf1*modf2=26*2*1

=52

Slab span

span=lx=6 m

Actual span/effective-depth ratio as'd=1000*span/dx=1000*6/155

=38.71

This does not exceed permiss.ratio of 52, and is thus acceptable.

SUMMARY OF REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED ( fy=500 N/mm2 )

At edges in x-direction:

Characteristic strength

Area of steel required Asxe

Area of steel provided Aspxe

Percentage of steel provided

Size of bars

Number of bars provided

Spacing of bars

Minimum bond length required

Effective depth adopted

Weight of steel provided

500 N/mm2

2171.9 mm2

4084.1 mm2

0.34034 %

20 mm

13

480 mm centres

425 mm

155 mm

32.06 kg/m run

Page: 7

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC086 BS

Office: 1007

At midspan in x-direction:

Characteristic strength

Area of steel required Asxm

Area of steel provided Aspxm

Percentage of steel provided

Size of bars

Number of bars provided

Spacing of bars

Minimum bond length required

Effective depth adopted

Weight of steel provided

500 N/mm2

1636.5 mm2

4084.1 mm2

0.34034 %

20 mm

13

480 mm centres

320 mm

155 mm

32.06 kg/m run

At edges in y-direction:

Characteristic strength

Area of steel required Asye

Area of steel provided Aspye

Percentage of steel provided

Size of bars

Number of bars provided

Spacing of bars

Minimum bond length required

Effective depth adopted

Weight of steel provided

500 N/mm2

1245.9 mm2

2211.7 mm2

0.24574 %

16 mm

11

420 mm centres

360 mm

137 mm

17.362 kg/m run

At midspan in y-direction:

Characteristic strength

Area of steel required Asym

Area of steel provided Aspym

Percentage of steel provided

Size of bars

Number of bars provided

Spacing of bars

Minimum bond length required

Effective depth adopted

Weight of steel provided

500 N/mm2

1170 mm2

2211.7 mm2

0.24574 %

16 mm

11

420 mm centres

270 mm

137 mm

17.362 kg/m run

Page: 8

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC086 BS

Office: 1007

Minimum tension reinforcement in edge strips

Asmin=permin/100*1000*h

=0.13/100*1000*200

=260 mm2 per metre

Diameter of distribution bars

diamin=12 mm

Maximum pitch (c.to c.of bars)

pchm=3*duy+diamin=3*137+12

=423 mm,

As this is less than 750 mm, this is satisfactory.

Reqd.pitch for distribution bars pchmin=1000*PI*diamin^2/(4*Asmin)

=1000*3.1416*12^2/(4*260)

=434.99 mm

As this exceeds maximum pitch found above, set pchmin=423 mm

=420 mm (rounded)

Chosen pitch for tension steel

pitchC=420 mm (centre to centre)

Area of dist.steel provided

Asmpro=1000*PI*diamin^2/(4*pchmin)

=1000*3.1416*12^2/(4*420)

=269.28 mm2/m

Minimum lap length reqd.

lb=295 mm

=300 mm (rounded)

Minimum reinforcement in edge strips:

Characteristic strength

Minimum area required Asmin

Steel area provided Asmpro

Percentage of steel provided

Size of bars

Spacing of bars

Minimum lap length required

Weight of steel provided

500 N/mm2

260 mm2 per m

269 mm2 per m

0.1345 %

12 mm

420 mm centres

300 mm

2.1117 kg/m2

No 86

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC086 EC

Office: 1007

Location: Ex1 - Typical two-way slab with all edges fixed

Design of two-way slabs rectangular slabs supporting uniform loads

The following design calculations are based on EC2 Part 1:2004 and the

ISE "Manual for the design of concrete building structures to EC2".

Partial safety factor for steel

gams=1.15

Partial safety factor for conc.

gamc=1.5

Partial safety factor for bond

gamb=1.5

gk kN/m2

lx

qk kN/m2

ly

gk = permanent load

qk = variable load

Length of longer side

Constant

Characteristic permanent load

Characteristic variable load

Permanent load factor

Variable load factor

Total design ultimate load

lx=6 m

ly=8 m

k'=ly/lx=1.3333

gk=4 kN/m2

qk=5 kN/m2

gamG=1.35

gamQ=1.5

n=gamG*gk+gamQ*qk=1.35*4+1.5*5

=12.9 kN/m2

The slab middle strips will be taken as three-quarters of the width and

each edge strip one-eighth of the width.

Middle strip width (short side)

mstrwx=0.75*lx=4.5 m

Middle strip width (long side)

mstrwy=0.75*ly=6 m

Overall depth of slab

h=200 mm

Char cylinder compress strength

fck=25 N/mm2 (concrete)

Char yield strength of reinft.

fyk=500 N/mm2

Mean value axial tensile strength fctm=0.3*fck^(2/3)=0.3*25^(2/3)

=2.565 N/mm2 (concrete)

Size

Size

Size

Size

of

of

of

of

upper

lower

upper

lower

bars

bars

bars

bars

in

in

in

in

x-direction

x-direction

y-direction

y-direction

diaux=20 mm

diax=20 mm

diauy=16 mm

diay=16 mm

Durability and cover to reinforcement

Life of structure

50 years

Exposure class

XC2

Designed concrete

C 25 /30

Minimum cover

covern=25 mm

Fixing tolerance

tol=10 mm

Nominal cover (Cl. 4.4.1.1(2))

cover=35 mm

Page: 2

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC086 EC

Office: 1007

Chosen fire resistance period

fire=2 hours

The slab thickness 200 mm and selected 35 mm nominal cover will

provide a fire period of 2 hour/s, hence satisfactory.

Reinforcement at bottom of slab:

Durability and cover to reinforcement

Life of structure

50 years

Exposure class

XC2

Designed concrete

C 25 /30

Minimum cover

covern=25 mm

Fixing tolerance

tol=10 mm

Nominal cover (Cl. 4.4.1.1(2))

cover=35 mm

Chosen fire resistance period

fire=2 hours

The slab thickness 200 mm and selected 35 mm nominal cover will

provide a fire period of 2 hour/s, hence satisfactory.

Nominal cover at top of slab

tcover=35 mm

Nominal cover at bottom of slab

bcover=35 mm

Effective depths:

Of top steel:

in x-direction dux=155 mm

in y-direction duy=dux-(diaux+diauy)/2

=155-(20+16)/2

=137 mm

Of bottom steel: in x-direction dx=155 mm

in y-direction dy=dx-(diax+diay)/2=155-(20+16)/2

=137 mm

/ / / / / / / / / /

//

/

gk kN/m2

/

/

/ lx=6 m

/

qk kN/m2

/

//

/ / / / / / / / / /

ly=8 m

Positive mt.coefft.at midspan

Long-span coefft.at cont edges

Long-span coefft.at midspan

Manual to EC2, Table 5.3.

=0.047333

betsxp=TABLE 5.3 for row=2, k'=1.3333

=0.035667

betsyn=0.032

betsyp=0.024

Design moment

M=betsxn*n*mstrwy*lx^2

=0.047333*12.9*6*6^2

=131.89 kNm

Size of upper bars

dia=20 mm

Breadth of section

b=1000 mm

Effective depth of section

d=dux=155 mm

Width of middle strip

wms=6 m

Page: 3

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC086 EC

Office: 1007

Design yield strength of reinft. fyd=fyk/gams=500/1.15=434.8 N/mm2

Redistribution ratio

delta=1

It is usual practice in the UK to restrict x/d to 0.45

Limit on factor

delta=0.85

Factor

K'=0.597*delta-0.18*delta^2-0.209

=0.597*0.85-0.18*0.85^2-0.209

=0.1684

Factor

K=M*1E6/(b*wms*d^2*fck)

=131.9*1E6/(1000*6*155^2*25)

=0.0366

Lever arm

z=d/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*K))

=155/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*0.0366))

=149.8 mm

Reduce lever arm to

z=0.95*d=0.95*155=147.3 mm

Tension reinforcement required

Asxe=M*1E6/(fyd*z)

=131.9*1E6/(434.8*147.3)

=2060 mm2

Mean width of the tension zone

bt=b*wms=1000*6=6000 mm

Minimum reinforcement required

Asmin=0.26*fctm*bt*d/fyk

=0.26*2.565*6000*155/500

=1240 mm2

Maximum reinforcement permitted

Asmax=0.04*bt*h=0.04*6000*200

=48000 mm2

Minimum pitch

pchmn=75 mm

Maximum pitch of bars (<3h)

pchmx=400 mm

Calculated pitch of tension bars pchxe=1000*mstrwy*PI*dia^2/(4*Asxe)

=1000*6*3.142*20^2/(4*2060)

=915 mm

Rounded spacing (c.to c.of bars) 900 mm

As this exceeds the maximum permissible spacing 400 mm, employ

spacing pchxe of

400 mm (maximum value)

Chosen spacing of tension bars

pchxe=400 mm

Number of bars required

Noxe=INT(1000*mstrwy/pchxe)+1

=INT(1000*6/400)+1

=16

Area of tension steel provided

Aspxe=Noxe*PI*dia^2/4=16*3.142*20^2/4

=5027 mm2

Ratio Areq/Aprov

rareas=Asxe/Aspxe=2060/5027

=0.4098

Tension steel provided

per=Aspxe/(10*mstrwy*h)

=5027/(10*6*200)

=0.4189 % of gross section.

Char axial tensile strength

fctk=0.7*fctm

=0.7*2.565

=1.795 N/mm2 (concrete)

Char anchorage bond strength

fbd=2.25*eta1*eta2*fctk/gamc

=2.25*1*1*1.795/1.5

=2.693 N/mm2

compute ratio Areq/Aprov

rareas=0.4098

Actual design stress in steel

fyd'=fyd*rareas=434.8*0.4098

=178.2 N/mm2

Anchorage bond length

lb=INT(dia*fyd'/(4*fbd))

=INT(20*178.2/(4*2.693))

=330 mm

Page: 4

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC086 EC

Office: 1007

Long span ly at continuous edges

Design moment

M=betsyn*n*mstrwx*lx^2

=0.032*12.9*4.5*6^2

=66.87 kNm

Size of upper bars

dia=16 mm

Breadth of section

b=1000 mm

Effective depth of section

d=duy=137 mm

Width of middle strip

wms=4.5 m

Design yield strength of reinft. fyd=fyk/gams=500/1.15=434.8 N/mm2

Redistribution ratio

delta=1

It is usual practice in the UK to restrict x/d to 0.45

Limit on factor

delta=0.85

Factor

K'=0.597*delta-0.18*delta^2-0.209

=0.597*0.85-0.18*0.85^2-0.209

=0.1684

Factor

K=M*1E6/(b*wms*d^2*fck)

=66.87*1E6/(1000*4.5*137^2*25)

=0.0317

Lever arm

z=d/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*K))

=137/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*0.0317))

=133.1 mm

Reduce lever arm to

z=0.95*d=0.95*137=130.2 mm

Tension reinforcement required

Asye=M*1E6/(fyd*z)

=66.87*1E6/(434.8*130.2)

=1182 mm2

Mean width of the tension zone

bt=b*wms=1000*4.5=4500 mm

Minimum reinforcement required

Asmin=0.26*fctm*bt*d/fyk

=0.26*2.565*4500*137/500

=822.3 mm2

Maximum reinforcement permitted

Asmax=0.04*bt*h=0.04*4500*200

=36000 mm2

Minimum pitch

pchmn=75 mm

Maximum pitch of bars (<3h)

pchmx=400 mm

Calculated pitch of tension bars pchye=1000*mstrwx*PI*dia^2/(4*Asye)

=1000*4.5*3.142*16^2/(4*1182)

=765.6 mm

Rounded spacing (c.to c.of bars) 750 mm

As this exceeds the maximum permissible spacing 400 mm, employ

spacing pchye of

400 mm (maximum value)

Chosen spacing of tension bars

pchye=400 mm

Number of bars required

Noye=INT(1000*mstrwx/pchye)+1

=INT(1000*4.5/400)+1

=12

Area of tension steel provided

Aspye=Noye*PI*dia^2/4=12*3.142*16^2/4

=2413 mm2

Ratio Areq/Aprov

rareas=Asye/Aspye=1182/2413

=0.4898

Tension steel provided

per=Aspye/(10*mstrwx*h)

=2413/(10*4.5*200)

=0.2681 % of gross section.

Char axial tensile strength

fctk=0.7*fctm

=0.7*2.565

=1.795 N/mm2 (concrete)

Char anchorage bond strength

fbd=2.25*eta1*eta2*fctk/gamc

=2.25*1*1*1.795/1.5

=2.693 N/mm2

Page: 5

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC086 EC

Office: 1007

compute ratio Areq/Aprov

rareas=0.4898

Actual design stress in steel

fyd'=fyd*rareas=434.8*0.4898

=213 N/mm2

Anchorage bond length

lb=INT(dia*fyd'/(4*fbd))

=INT(16*213/(4*2.693))

=316 mm

Short span lx at midspan

Design moment

M=betsxp*n*mstrwy*lx^2

=0.0357*12.9*6*6^2

=99.38 kNm

Size of upper bars

dia=20 mm

Breadth of section

b=1000 mm

Effective depth of section

d=dx=155 mm

Width of middle strip

wms=6 m

Design yield strength of reinft. fyd=fyk/gams=500/1.15=434.8 N/mm2

Redistribution ratio

delta=1

It is usual practice in the UK to restrict x/d to 0.45

Limit on factor

delta=0.85

Factor

K'=0.597*delta-0.18*delta^2-0.209

=0.597*0.85-0.18*0.85^2-0.209

=0.1684

Factor

K=M*1E6/(b*wms*d^2*fck)

=99.38*1E6/(1000*6*155^2*25)

=0.0276

Lever arm

z=d/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*K))

=155/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*0.0276))

=151.1 mm

Reduce lever arm to

z=0.95*d=0.95*155=147.3 mm

Tension reinforcement required

Asxm=M*1E6/(fyd*z)

=99.38*1E6/(434.8*147.3)

=1552 mm2

Mean width of the tension zone

bt=b*wms=1000*6=6000 mm

Minimum reinforcement required

Asmin=0.26*fctm*bt*d/fyk

=0.26*2.565*6000*155/500

=1240 mm2

Maximum reinforcement permitted

Asmax=0.04*bt*h=0.04*6000*200

=48000 mm2

Minimum pitch

pchmn=75 mm

Maximum pitch of bars (<3h)

pchmx=400 mm

Calculated pitch of tension bars pchxm=1000*mstrwy*PI*dia^2/(4*Asxm)

=1000*6*3.142*20^2/(4*1552)

=1214 mm

Rounded spacing (c.to c.of bars) 1200 mm

As this exceeds the maximum permissible spacing 400 mm, employ

spacing pchxm of

400 mm (maximum value)

Chosen spacing of tension bars

pchxm=400 mm

Number of bars required

Noxm=INT(1000*mstrwy/pchxm)+1

=INT(1000*6/400)+1

=16

Area of tension steel provided

Aspxm=Noxm*PI*dia^2/4=16*3.142*20^2/4

=5027 mm2

Ratio Areq/Aprov

rareas=Asxm/Aspxm=1552/5027

=0.3088

Tension steel provided

per=Aspxm/(10*mstrwy*h)

=5027/(10*6*200)

=0.4189 % of gross section.

Page: 6

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC086 EC

Office: 1007

Char axial tensile strength

fctk=0.7*fctm

=0.7*2.565

=1.795 N/mm2 (concrete)

Char anchorage bond strength

fbd=2.25*eta1*eta2*fctk/gamc

=2.25*1*1*1.795/1.5

=2.693 N/mm2

compute ratio Areq/Aprov

rareas=0.3088

Actual design stress in steel

fyd'=fyd*rareas=434.8*0.3088

=134.3 N/mm2

Anchorage bond length

lb=INT(dia*fyd'/(4*fbd))

=INT(20*134.3/(4*2.693))

=249 mm

Long span ly at midspan

Design moment

M=betsyp*n*mstrwx*lx^2

=0.024*12.9*4.5*6^2

=50.16 kNm

Size of upper bars

dia=16 mm

Breadth of section

b=1000 mm

Effective depth of section

d=dy=137 mm

Width of middle strip

wms=4.5 m

Design yield strength of reinft. fyd=fyk/gams=500/1.15=434.8 N/mm2

Redistribution ratio

delta=1

It is usual practice in the UK to restrict x/d to 0.45

Limit on factor

delta=0.85

Factor

K'=0.597*delta-0.18*delta^2-0.209

=0.597*0.85-0.18*0.85^2-0.209

=0.1684

Factor

K=M*1E6/(b*wms*d^2*fck)

=50.16*1E6/(1000*4.5*137^2*25)

=0.0238

Lever arm

z=d/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*K))

=137/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*0.0238))

=134.1 mm

Reduce lever arm to

z=0.95*d=0.95*137=130.2 mm

Tension reinforcement required

Asym=M*1E6/(fyd*z)

=50.16*1E6/(434.8*130.2)

=886.3 mm2

Mean width of the tension zone

bt=b*wms=1000*4.5=4500 mm

Minimum reinforcement required

Asmin=0.26*fctm*bt*d/fyk

=0.26*2.565*4500*137/500

=822.3 mm2

Maximum reinforcement permitted

Asmax=0.04*bt*h=0.04*4500*200

=36000 mm2

Minimum pitch

pchmn=75 mm

Maximum pitch of bars (<3h)

pchmx=400 mm

Calculated pitch of tension bars pchym=1000*mstrwx*PI*dia^2/(4*Asym)

=1000*4.5*3.142*16^2/(4*886.3)

=1021 mm

Rounded spacing (c.to c.of bars) 1000 mm

As this exceeds the maximum permissible spacing 400 mm, employ

spacing pchym of

400 mm (maximum value)

Chosen spacing of tension bars

pchym=400 mm

Number of bars required

Noym=INT(1000*mstrwx/pchym)+1

=INT(1000*4.5/400)+1

=12

Page: 7

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC086 EC

Office: 1007

Area of tension steel provided

Aspym=Noym*PI*dia^2/4=12*3.142*16^2/4

=2413 mm2

Ratio Areq/Aprov

rareas=Asym/Aspym=886.3/2413

=0.3674

Tension steel provided

per=Aspym/(10*mstrwx*h)

=2413/(10*4.5*200)

=0.2681 % of gross section.

Char axial tensile strength

fctk=0.7*fctm

=0.7*2.565

=1.795 N/mm2 (concrete)

Char anchorage bond strength

fbd=2.25*eta1*eta2*fctk/gamc

=2.25*1*1*1.795/1.5

=2.693 N/mm2

compute ratio Areq/Aprov

rareas=0.3674

Actual design stress in steel

fyd'=fyd*rareas=434.8*0.3674

=159.7 N/mm2

Anchorage bond length

lb=INT(dia*fyd'/(4*fbd))

=INT(16*159.7/(4*2.693))

=237 mm

Check on span/effective-depth ratio (in lx direction)

Effective span

L=6 m

Percentage area of steel required rho=100*Asxm/(b*mstrwy*d)

=100*1552/(1000*6*137)

=0.1888 %

Actual span to depth ratio

l'd=L*1000/d=6*1000/137

=43.8

Reference reinforcement ratio

rho0=(fck^0.5)/10=(25^0.5)/10

=0.5 %

Basic span effective depth ratio terms (Clause 7.4.2)

N1=1.5*(fck^0.5)*rho0/rho

=1.5*(25^0.5)*0.5/0.1888

=19.86

N2=3.2*(fck^0.5)*(rho0/rho-1)^1.5

=3.2*(25^0.5)*(0.5/0.1888-1)^1.5

=33.84

N=11+N1+N2=11+19.86+33.84

=64.7

Factor for interior spans

k=1.5

Flange beam factor

F1=1

Factor for long spans

F2=1.0

Tensile steel stress factor

F3=500/(fyk*As/Aspr)

=500/(500*1552/5027)

=3.238 (conservative)

Use limiting value of

F3=1.5

Allowable span/depth ratio

l'da=k*N*F1*F2*F3=1.5*64.7*1*1*1.5

=145.6

Absolute value of span/depth

l'da=40*k=40*1.5=60

Page: 8

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC086 EC

Office: 1007

DESIGN

SUMMARY

DEFLECTION

43.8

Basic l/d ratio

64.7

Span factor

1.5

Flange beam factor F1

1

Long spans factor F2

1

Steel stress factor F3

1.5

Allowable l/d ratio

60

Note: If the percentage reinforcement is less than 0.4% care should

be taken with the EC2 values as the deflection equations used give

unrealistically high values. Both EC2 Part 1:2004 Table 7.4N and

NA Table NA.5 give span/effective depth ratios for C30/37 concrete

and reinforcement percentage, =0.5% as follows:

Simply supported spans

20

End spans

26

Interior spans

30

SUMMARY OF REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED ( fy=500 N/mm2 )

At edges in x-direction:

Characteristic strength

Area of steel required Asxe

Area of steel provided Aspxe

Percentage of steel provided

Size of bars

Number of bars provided

Spacing of bars

Minimum bond length required

Effective depth adopted

500 N/mm2

2060 mm2

5027 mm2

0.4189 %

20 mm

16

400 mm centres

330 mm

155 mm

At midspan in x-direction:

Characteristic strength

Area of steel required Asxm

Area of steel provided Aspxm

Percentage of steel provided

Size of bars

Number of bars provided

Spacing of bars

Minimum bond length required

Effective depth adopted

500 N/mm2

1552 mm2

5027 mm2

0.4189 %

20 mm

16

400 mm centres

249 mm

155 mm

At edges in y-direction:

Characteristic strength

Area of steel required Asye

Area of steel provided Aspye

Percentage of steel provided

Size of bars

Number of bars provided

Spacing of bars

Minimum bond length required

Effective depth adopted

500 N/mm2

1182 mm2

2413 mm2

0.2681 %

16 mm

12

400 mm centres

316 mm

137 mm

Page: 9

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC086 EC

Office: 1007

At midspan in y-direction:

Characteristic strength

Area of steel required Asym

Area of steel provided Aspym

Percentage of steel provided

Size of bars

Number of bars provided

Spacing of bars

Minimum bond length required

Effective depth adopted

500 N/mm2

886.3 mm2

2413 mm2

0.2681 %

16 mm

12

400 mm centres

237 mm

137 mm

b=1000 mm

Minimum reinforcement required

Asmin=0.26*fctm*b*d/fyk

=0.26*2.565*1000*155/500

=206.7 mm2 per metre

Diameter of distribution bars

diamin=12 mm

Minimum pitch

pchmn=75 mm

Maximum pitch of bars (<3h)

pchmx=400 mm

Calculated pitch of tension bars pchmin=1000*PI*diamin^2/(4*Asmin)

=1000*3.142*12^2/(4*206.7)

=547.1 mm

Rounded spacing (c.to c.of bars) 500 mm

As this exceeds the maximum permissible spacing 400 mm, employ

spacing pchmin of

400 mm (maximum value)

Chosen spacing of tension bars

pchmin=400 mm

Area of dist.steel provided

Asmpro=1000*PI*diamin^2/(4*pchmin)

=1000*3.142*12^2/(4*400)

=282.7 mm2/m

Minimum reinforcement in edge strips:

Characteristic strength

Minimum area required Asmin

Steel area provided Asmpro

Size of bars

Spacing of bars

500 N/mm2

206 mm2 per m

282 mm2 per m

12 mm

400 mm centres

Shear check

Case 1

Area of tension steel provided

Effective depth of section

Location for shear calculation:

Shear force due to ultimate load

Effective breadth for shear

Maximum concrete strut capacity

As=2060 mm2

Aspr=5027 mm2

d=155 mm

Shear on long side of slab

VEd=55 kN

bw=b=1000 mm

VRdm=0.2*fck*(1-fck/250)*bw*d/10^3

=0.2*25*(1-25/250)*1000*155/10^3

=697.5 kN

Consider 100% of tension reinforcement at the shear section.

Page: 10

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Design of two-way slabs supporting uniform load

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC086 EC

Office: 1007

Area of reinforcement at section Asl=Aspr=5027 mm2/m

Percentage area

rho1=100*Asl/(bw*d)

=100*5027/(1000*155)

=3.243 %

Ratio Asl/(bw*d) exceeds the upper limit of 2.0%.

No 86

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Slender rectangular column - biaxial bending

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC092 BS

Office: 1007

Location: Column C1 (Ground to 1st floor)

Slender rectangular column subjected to biaxial bending and thrust

Y

Additional moments are calculated

in accordance with Clause 3.8.3

o

o

of BS8110, and section design is

h X X

charts in the IStructE/ICE 'Manual

h'

o

Y

b'

b

Depth of cross-section

h=500 mm

Width of cross-section

b=300 mm

Size of main bars

dia=25 mm

Chosen size of links

dial=8 mm

Characteristic concrete strength fcu=30 N/mm2

Characteristic steel strength

fy=500 N/mm2

Designed concrete mix to be used. Cover data from Tables A.4 & A.5 of

BS8500-1:2006.

Intended life of structure (for durability considerations) is 50 years.

Designated exposure class is XC2

Specified fixing tolerance

tol=10 mm

Chosen fire resistance (-4 hrs) fire=2 hours

From Table 3.4 of BS8110: Part 1, minimum cover required for column

with a fire period of 2 hour/s is 25 mm

Min.nominal cover to all steel is 35 mm

Nominal concrete cover

cover=35 mm

From Figure 3.2 of BS8110: Part 1, minimum possible dimension for

fully-exposed column with fire period of 2 hour/s is 300 mm

Breadth provided complies with fire regulations (Fig. 3.2 of Code).

Effective depth about X-X axis

h'=444.5 mm

Effective depth about Y-Y axis

b'=244.5 mm

Clear height between restraints

lo=6 m

Design ultimate axial load

N=1000 kN

Moments about X-X axis:

Larger initial end mt (positive) M2x=100 kNm

Smaller initial end moment

M1x=-60 kNm

Moments about Y-Y axis:

Larger initial end mt (positive) M2y=80 kNm

Smaller initial end moment

M1y=-50 kNm

About X-X axis:

Fixity condition at top (1-4)

ctx=2

Fixity condition at bottom (1-3) cbx=3

and column is unbraced about X-X axis.

About Y-Y axis:

Fixity condition at top (1-4)

cty=1

Fixity condition at bottom (1-3) cby=1

and column is braced about Y-Y axis.

Page: 2

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Slender rectangular column - biaxial bending

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC092 BS

Office: 1007

Calculation of effective heights

Effective height

lex=betx*lo=10.8 m

Y-Y axis: -value from Table 3.19 bety=0.75

Effective height

ley=bety*lo=4.5 m

Slenderness ratio in YY-plane

lex/h=21.6

Slenderness ratio in XX-plane

ley/b=15

Calculation of Nuz and reduction factor K

'Balanced' load

Nbl=0.25*fcu*b*h/1E3

=0.25*30*300*500/1E3

=1125 kN

Area assumed for this calculation Ase=600 mm2

'Pure' axial resistance

Nuz=(0.45*fcu*b*h+fy/gammaS*Ase)/1E3

=(0.45*30*300*500+500/1.15*600)/1E3

=2285.9 kN

As reduction factor

K=(Nuz-N)/(Nuz-Nbl)

=(2285.9-1000)/(2285.9-1125)

=1.1077

exceeds 1, take reduction factor K=1

Bending about minor axis (in X-X plane, to resist moment My)

minor-axis design moment

My=M2y=80 kNm

Bending about major axis (in Y-Y plane, to resist moment Mx)

Ultimate limit-state deflection

au=K*h*(lex/h)^2/2

=1*500*(10.8/500)^2/2

=0.11664 m

and additional moment

Madd=N*au=1000*0.11664=116.64 kNm

Assume M2x acts at the stiffer end, i.e.

major-axis design moment

Mx=M2x+Madd=100+116.64=216.64 kNm

Section design ratios for chart entry

the same point along the column. If this assumption is incorrect

the error is on the side of safety.

Axial load ratio

Nratio=N*1000/(b*h*fcu)

=1000*1000/(300*500*30)

=0.22222

From Table 3.22, -coefficient

beta=TABLE 3.24 for Nratio=0.22222

=0.74333

As Mx/h' exceeds My/b', calculate Mx'=Mx*10^6+beta*h'*My*10^6/b'

=216.64*10^6+0.74333*444.5*80

*10^6/244.5

=324.75E6 Nmm

and

Mratio=Mx'/(b*h^2*fcu)

=324.75E6/(300*500^2*30)

=0.14433

Page: 3

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Slender rectangular column - biaxial bending

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC092 BS

Office: 1007

with

d'h=h'/h=444.5/500=0.889

Design of main bars

'Manual for the design of reinforced concrete building structures':

With cover ratio of 0.90

per1=TABLE 8110.2 for Nratio

=0.22222, Mratio=0.14433

=0.26252

With cover ratio of 0.85

per2=TABLE 8110.3 for Nratio

=0.22222, Mratio=0.14433

=0.3047

Interpolating, we obtain

per=per1+(per2-per1)*(0.90-d'h)/0.05

=0.26252+(0.3047-0.26252)*(0.90

-0.889)/0.05

=0.2718

Actual steel percentage required p=100*alpha*fcu/fy=100*0.2718*30/500

=1.6308 %

Required area of reinforcement

Asc=p*b*h/100=1.6308*300*500/100

=2446.2 mm2

Area of two 25 mm diameter bars

area=981.75 mm2

Number of 25 mm bars required

nmin=2*INT(Asc/area)+2

=2*INT(2446.2/981.75)+2

=6

Number of bars provided

nbars=6

Percentage of steel provided

perpro=100*nbars*PI*dia^2/(4*b*h)

=100*6*3.1416*25^2/(4*300*500)

=1.9635 %

As this does not exceed the Code limit of 6%, this is acceptable.

Distributing the main bars uniformly along the b-faces gives a spacing

for a single layer of spabrx=INT(b''/(nbars/2-1))=INT(189/(6/2-1))

=94 mm

Spacing of main bars

Along the h-faces, the bar spacing (c.to c.) is 389 mm

Design of links

spalk=10*INT(12*dia/10)

=10*INT(12*25/10)

=300 mm (rounded)

This is satisfactory, as spacing does not exceed min.column dimension.

MAIN

REINFORCEMENT

SUMMARY

Characteristic strength

Area of steel required

Area of steel provided

Percentage provided

Weight of steel provided

Diameter of bars

Number of bars

to be placed along b-faces (spaced at 94 mm, assuming one

500 N/mm2

2446.2 mm2

2945.2 mm2

1.9635 %

23.12 kg/m

25 mm

6

layer).

Page: 4

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Slender rectangular column - biaxial bending

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC092 BS

Office: 1007

LINK

REINFORCEMENT

SUMMARY

Characteristic strength

Diameter of links

Max.longitudinal spacing

Approx.weight of links

500 N/mm2

8 mm

300 mm

1.8623 kg/m

24.982 kg/m

No 92

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Slender rectangular column - biaxial bending

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC092 EC

Office: 1007

Location: Biaxial bending example

Isolated rectangular section subject bending and thrust

Eurocode 2: Design of concrete

structures.

The main reinforcement design is

based on balancing, by iterative

means, of the two derived expressions

for areas of reinforcing steel one for axial load and the other

for bending.

One layer of steel is assumed for

the axis of bending.

Materials

Partial safety factor for conc.

Char cylinder compress strength

Char yield strength of reinft.

Design yield strength of reinft.

Max.aggregate size (for bar spc.)

Diameter of compression bars

Diameter of link legs

Z

o

h Y Y

d

Z

b'

b

gams=1.15

gamc=1.5

fck=30 N/mm2 (concrete)

fyk=500 N/mm2

fyd=fyk/gams=500/1.15=434.78 N/mm2

hagg=25 mm

dia=32 mm

dial=8 mm

Life of structure

50 years

Exposure class

XC1

Designed concrete

C 30 /37

Minimum cover

covern=35 mm

Fixing tolerance

tol=10 mm

Nominal cover (Cl. 4.4.1.1(2))

cover=45 mm

Section properties

Overall breadth of section

Depth to comp. reinforcement

Effective depth of section

Effective breadth of section

h=350 mm

b=350 mm

d2=69 mm

d=h-d2=350-69=281 mm

b'=b-d2=350-69=281 mm

Loading details

Design ultimate axial load

Larger initial end mt.(y-y axis)

Smaller initial end moment

Larger initial end mt.(z-z axis)

Smaller initial end moment

l=3.2 m

N=1650 kN

M2y=146.1 kNm

M1y=0 kNm

M2z=114.5 kNm

M1z=0 kNm

Page: 2

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Slender rectangular column - biaxial bending

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC092 EC

Office: 1007

Material values

Value

eta=1-(fck-50)/200=1-(30-50)/200

=1.1

As eta>1 then

eta=1

Design strength concrete

fcd=0.85*fck/gamc*eta=0.85*30/1.5*1

=17 N/mm2

Factor

lam=0.8

Slenderness - Clause 5.8.3.2

Column is considered to be braced.

Fixity condition at top (1-3)

cty=2

Fixity condition at bottom (1-3) cby=2

-value

bety=0.85

Effective height

loy=bety*l*1000=0.85*3.2*1000

=2720 mm

About Z-Z axis:

Column is considered to be braced.

Fixity condition at top (1-3)

ctz=2

Fixity condition at bottom (1-3) cbz=2

-value

betz=0.85

Effective height

loz=betz*l*1000=0.85*3.2*1000

=2720 mm

Check slenderness

Radius of gyration

Slenderness

Factor

Assume 8 /32 mm bars

Steel area

iy=h/(12)^0.5=350/(12)^0.5

=101.04 mm

lamy=loy/iy=2720/101.04=26.921

A=0.7 default

Asest=no*PI/4*dia^2=8*3.1416/4*32^2

=6434 mm2

Ratio of loads

w=Asest*fyd/(b*h*fcd)

=6434*434.78/(350*350*17)

=1.3433

Factor

B=(1+2*w)^0.5=(1+2*1.3433)^0.5

=1.92

Factor

C=1.7-M1y/M2y=1.7-0/146.1

=1.7

Relative normal force

n=NEd/(b*h*fcd)=1.65E6/(350*350*17)

=0.79232

Limiting slenderness

lamly=20*A*B*C/n^0.5

=20*0.7*1.92*1.7/0.79232^0.5

=51.338

Column is classified as being short in accordance with EC2 Part 1-1.

For Z-Z weaker axis:

Radius of gyration

Slenderness

Factor

Factor

iz=b/(12)^0.5=350/(12)^0.5

=101.04 mm

lamz=loz/iz=2720/101.04=26.921

A=0.7 default

B=1.92

Page: 3

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Slender rectangular column - biaxial bending

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC092 EC

Office: 1007

Factor

C=1.7-M1z/M2z=1.7-0/114.5

=1.7

Relative normal force

n=NEd/(b*h*fcd)=1.65E6/(350*350*17)

=0.79232

Limiting slenderness

lamlz=20*A*B*C/n^0.5

=20*0.7*1.92*1.7/0.79232^0.5

=51.338

Column is classified as being short in accordance with EC2 Part 1-1.

Design moments - Clause 5.8.8.2

Imperfections eccentricity

Load NEd eccentricity

Minimum eccentricity

Design bending moment

Design bending moment

Equivalent first order moment

Moment for 2nd. order effects

Design moment

Consider Z-Z axis:

Imperfections eccentricity

Load eccentricity

Minimum eccentricity

Design bending moment

e1=loy/400=2720/400=6.8 mm

e0=h/30=350/30=11.667 mm

e0=20 mm

Mo2=M2y*10^6+e1*NEd

=146.1*10^6+6.8*1.65E6

=157.32E6 Nmm

Mo1=ABS(M1y*10^6)+e1*NEd

=ABS(0*10^6)+6.8*1.65E6

=11.22E6 Nmm

Moe=0.6*Mo2+0.4*Mo1

=0.6*157.32E6+0.4*11.22E6

=98.88E6 Nmm

M2=0 (as column is not slender)

MEdy=Mo2=157.32E6 Nmm

e1=loz/400=2720/400=6.8 mm

e0=b/30=350/30=11.667 mm

e0=20 mm

Mo2=M2z*10^6+e1*NEd

=114.5*10^6+6.8*1.65E6

=125.72E6 Nmm

Design bending moment

Mo1=ABS(M1z*10^6)+e1*NEd

=ABS(0*10^6)+6.8*1.65E6

=11.22E6 Nmm

Equivalent first order moment

Moe=0.6*Mo2+0.4*Mo1

=0.6*125.72E6+0.4*11.22E6

=79.92E6 Nmm

Moment for 2nd. order effects

M2=0 (as column is not slender)

Design moment (z-z axis)

MEdz=Mo2=125.72E6 Nmm

One axis of bending only used to determine reinforcement, then

check for biaxial bending.

Moment ratio y-y axis

raty=MEdy/(b*h^2*fck)

=157.32E6/(350*350^2*30)

=0.12231

Moment ratio z-z axis

ratz=MEdz/(b^2*h*fck)

=125.72E6/(350^2*350*30)

=0.097741

Consider moment about y-y axis ( 157.32E6 Nmm ) and axial load.

Page: 4

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Slender rectangular column - biaxial bending

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC092 EC

Office: 1007

Axial load and moment considerations

Effective/overall-depth ratio

d2h=d2/h=69/350=0.19714

Axial load ratio

Nrat=NEd/(b*h*fck)

=1.65E6/(350*350*30)

=0.44898

Moment ratio

Mrat=MEd/(b*h^2*fck)

=157.32E6/(350*350^2*30)

=0.12231

Longitudinal reinforcement

Chart data for rectangular columns is taken from 'The Concrete Centre'

publication entitled 'Worked Examples to Eurocode 2: Volume 1'.

Ratio of d2/h

d2h=0.19714

From table with d2/h=0.20

NEd/(b.h.fck)=0.44898

MEd/(b.h^2.fck)=0.12231

Look-up value

As.fyk/(b.h.fck)=0.36224

From table with d2/h=0.15

NEd/(b.h.fck)=0.44898

MEd/(b.h^2.fck)=0.12231

Look-up value

As.fyk/(b.h.fck)=0.31565

Interpolating, we obtain

val=0.35958

Area of steel required

As=val*fck/fyk*b*h

=0.35958*30/500*350*350

=2642.9 mm2

Area of two 32 mm diameter bars is 1608.5 mm2

Number of 32 mm bars required

nbar=2*INT(As/area)+2

=2*INT(2642.9/1608.5)+2

=4

Number of bars provided

nbars=8

Area of steel provided

Aspro=nbars*PI*dia^2/4

=8*3.1416*32^2/4

=6434 mm2

Percentage of steel provided

perpro=100*Aspro/(b*h)

=100*6434/(350*350)

=5.2522 %

Permitted minimum & maximum areas of longitudinal reinforcement

Asmin=379.5 mm2

Maximum area of reinforcement

Asmax=0.04*b*h=0.04*350*350

=4900 mm2

Transverse reinforcement (links)

Maximum spacing is the minimum of

Based on main bar diameter

Minimum column dimension

Maximum dimension

Maximum spacing

This spacing should be reduced by

equal to the larger dimension of

below a beam or slab.

ldia=dia/4=32/4=8 mm

the three following distances.

smx1=20*dia=20*32=640 mm

smx2=b=350 mm

smx3=400 mm

smx=350 mm

a factor of 0.6 within a distance

the column cross-section above or

Page: 5

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Slender rectangular column - biaxial bending

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC092 EC

Office: 1007

Check for biaxial bending

Ratio of slenderness

sl=lamz/lamy=26.921/26.921

=1

Ratio 2, however check eccentricity condition.

Eccentricity (along y-y axis)

ey=MEdz/NEd=125.72E6/1.65E6

=76.194 mm

Eccentricity (along z-z axis)

ez=MEdy/NEd=157.32E6/1.65E6

=95.345 mm

Radius of gyration (y-y axis)

iy=(h^2/12)^0.5=(350^2/12)^0.5

=101.04 mm

Radius of gyration (z-z axis)

iz=(b^2/12)^0.5=(350^2/12)^0.5

=101.04 mm

Equivalent b dimension

beq=iy*12^0.5=101.04*12^0.5

=350 mm

Equivalent h dimension

heq=iz*12^0.5=101.04*12^0.5

=350 mm

Relative eccentricity (y-y axis) ey'h=ey/heq=76.194/350=0.2177

Relative eccentricity (z-z axis) ez'b=ez/beq=95.345/350=0.27242

Ratio of eccentricities

recc=ey'h/ez'b=0.2177/0.27242

=0.79914

As recc > 0.2 further check is required for biaxial bending.

Axial load

NEd=1.65E6 N

Axial resistance of section

NRd=b*h*fcd+Aspro*fyd

=350*350*17+6434*434.78

=4.8799E6 N

Ratio of load terms

Nr=NEd/NRd=1.65E6/4.8799E6

=0.33812

Value of power

a=TABLE 5 for Nr=0.33812

=1.1984

Moment of resistance

Load carried by concrete

Strain in the concrete

Strain in compression steel

Stress steel based on strain

Limit to steel stress

Force carried by comp. bars

Strain in tension steel

Steel stress based on strain

Bending term

Axial load term

x=210.7 mm

Nc=0.85*fck/1.5*b*lam*x

=0.85*30/1.5*350*0.8*210.7

=1.0029E6 N

esu=0.0035

esc=esu*(x-d2)/x

=0.0035*(210.7-69)/210.7

=0.0023538

sigsc=esc*200000=0.0023538*200000

=470.76 N/mm2

sigsc=fyk/1.15=500/1.15=434.78

Ns=Aspro/2*sigsc=6434/2*434.78

=1.3987E6 N

est=esu*(h-x-d2)/x

=0.0035*(350-210.7-69)/210.7

=0.0011678

sigst=est*200000=0.0011678*200000

=233.55 N/mm2

mrd1=(sigst+sigsc)*Aspro/2*(h/2-d2)

=(233.55+434.78)*6434/2*(350/2-69)

=227.9E6 Nmm

mrd2=Nc*(h/2-lam*x/2)

=1.0029E6*(350/2-0.8*210.7/2)

=90.986E6 Nmm

Page: 6

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Slender rectangular column - biaxial bending

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC092 EC

Office: 1007

Moment of resistance

MRd=mrd1+mrd2=227.9E6+90.986E6

=318.89E6 N/mm

Expression for biaxial bending

factor=(MEdy/MRdy)^a+(MEdz/MRdz)^a

=(157.32E6/318.89E6)^1.1984

+(125.72E6/318.89E6)^1.1984

=0.75655

Section suitable no additional reinforcement required to account for

biaxial bending.

DESIGN SUMMARY

Slenderness (Y-Y axis)

Column is short (Y-Y)

Slenderness (Z-Z axis)

Column is short (Z-Z)

Design axial load

Design bending moments:

Y-Y axis

Z-Z axis

Designed area of steel

Area of steel provided

Minimum area of steel

Maximum area of steel

Link diameter

Maximum link spacing

Resistance moment (Y-Y)

Resistance moment (Z-Z)

Biaxial bending factor

3.2 m

26.921

26.921

1650 kN

157.32 kNm

125.72 kNm

2642.9 mm2

6434 mm2

379.5 mm2

4900 mm2

8 mm

350 mm

318.89 kNm

318.89 kNm

0.75655

area can be increased provided that the concrete can be placed and

compacted sufficiently.

No 92

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rectangular beam/slab section

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC102 BS

Office: 1007

Design to BS8110(1997) with partial safety factor for steel gammaS=1.15

b

d' o

o

d h

o o o

Shear force due to ultimate loads

Axial load due to ultimate loads

Length of beam/slab

Overall depth of concrete section

Breadth of concrete section

Cover to all reinforcement

Eff.depth of concrete section

Depth to compression steel

BM at section after redistrib.

Characteristic concrete strength

Characteristic strength of links

Char.strength of longitud.bars

Bar is deformed round

Diameter of tension bars

Diameter of links

Section under consideration is at

Main reinforcement

Moment redistribution

are in accordance with BS8110.

Normal-weight concrete only.

Mbefor=181.42 kNm

V=50 kN

N=0 kN

len=5 m

h=400 mm

b=200 mm

cover=20 mm

d=357.5 mm

d'=40 mm

M=127 kNm

fcu=40 N/mm2

fyv=500 N/mm2

fy=500 N/mm2

Type=2

dia=25 mm

dial=10 mm

a support.

percnt=100*ABS((Mbefor-M)/Mbefor)

=100*ABS((181.42-127)/181.42)

=29.997 %

Betab ratio in Clause 3.4.4.3

betab=M/Mbefor=127/181.42

=0.70003

Limiting factor for comp steel

K'=0.402*(betab-0.4)-0.18*(betab

-0.4)^2

=0.402*(0.70003-0.4)-0.18*(0.70003

-0.4)^2

=0.10441

Compute

K=M*10^6/(b*d^2*fcu)

=127*10^6/(200*357.5^2*40)

=0.12421

As K exceeds K', compression reinforcement is required and

lever arm

z=d*(0.5+SQR(0.25-K'/0.9))

=357.5*(0.5+SQR(0.25-0.10441/0.9))

=309.61 mm

Depth to neutral axis

x=(d-z)/0.45=(357.5-309.61)/0.45

=106.42 mm

Area of compression reinforcement As'=(K-K')*fcu*b*d^2/(fy/gammaS*(d

-d'))

=(0.12421-0.10441)*40*200*357.5^2

/(500/1.15*(357.5-40))

=146.67 mm2

Increase compression reinforcement to comply with minimum percentage

Page: 2

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rectangular beam/slab section

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC102 BS

Office: 1007

given in Table 3.25

As'=0.2*b*h/100=0.2*200*400/100

=160 mm2

Diameter of compression bars

diac=12 mm

Number of compression bars reqd. nbarc=INT(As'/(PI*diac^2/4))+1

=INT(160/(3.1416*12^2/4))+1

=2

Area provided

As'pr=nbarc*PI*diac^2/4

=2*3.1416*12^2/4

=226.19 m2

Force in one fully-stressed bar

Fs=fy/gammaS*PI*diac^2/4

=500/1.15*3.1416*12^2/4

=49173 N

Bond coefficient

beta=TABLE 3.28 for Type=2, column=2

=0.63

Ultimate anchorage bond stress

fbu=beta*SQR(fcu)=0.63*SQR(40)

=3.9845 N/mm2

Minimum anchorage length

l=Fs/(PI*diac*fbu)

=49173/(3.1416*12*3.9845)

=327.36 mm

COMPRESSION

Characteristic strength

500 N/mm2

REINFORCEMENT

Diameter of bars

12 mm

SUMMARY

Number of bars

2

Area required

160 mm2

Area provided

226.19 mm2

See BS 8110 ( Anchorage length

330 mm

Cl.3.12.8.15 ( Lap length

410 mm

Area of tension reinforcement

Number of tension bars required

As=K'*fcu*b*d^2/(fy/gammaS*z)+As'

=0.10441*40*200*357.5^2/(500/1.15

*309.61)+160

=953.04 mm2

Asmin=0.13*b*h/100=0.13*200*400/100

=104 mm2 from Table 3.25

nbart=INT(As/(PI*dia^2/4))+1

=INT(953.04/(3.1416*25^2/4))+1

=2

Edge dist. of reinforcement

Clear distance between bars

edge=cover+dial=20+10=30

clear=(b-nbart*dia-2*edge)/(nbart-1)

=(200-2*25-2*30)/(2-1)

=90 mm

Max.permissible clear distance

pclear=75000*betab/fy

=75000*0.70003/500

=105 mm

Clear distance within permissible ( 90 mm 105 mm ).

Area of tension steel provided

Bond coefficient

Ultimate anchorage bond stress

Force in one fully-stressed bar

Based on bars at full stress:

Asprov=nbart*PI*dia^2/4

=2*3.1416*25^2/4

=981.75 mm2

beta=TABLE 3.28 for Type=2, column=1

=0.5

fbu=beta*SQR(fcu)=0.5*SQR(40)

=3.1623 N/mm2

Fs=fy/gammaS*PI*dia^2/4

=500/1.15*3.1416*25^2/4

=213423 N

Page: 3

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rectangular beam/slab section

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC102 BS

Office: 1007

Anchor length and tension lap

l=Fs/(PI*dia*fbu)

=213423/(3.1416*25*3.1623)

=859.31 mm

TENSION

REINFORCEMENT

SUMMARY

Characteristic strength

Diameter of bars

Number of bars

Area required

Area provided

See BS 8110 ( Anchorage & tension lap

: Part 1 : ( 1.4 * tension lap

Cl.3.12.8.13 ( 2.0 * tension lap

500 N/mm2

25 mm

2

953.04 mm2

981.75 mm2

860 mm

1210 mm

1730 mm

Shear reinforcement

Design shear stress

bv=b=200 mm

v=V*1000/(bv*d)=50*1000/(200*357.5)

=0.6993 N/mm2

Number of longitudinal bars in accordance with Clause 3.4.5.4.

No.of long.bars eff.for shear

nbars=2

Area of tens.steel prov.for shear Aspros=nbars*PI*dia^2/4

=2*3.1416*25^2/4

=981.75 mm2

Percentage provided

percnt=100*Aspros/(bv*d)

=100*981.75/(200*357.5)

=1.3731 %

Assuming at least nominal shear reinforcement is to be provided.

As eff.depth does not exceed 400 mm, depth-factor f00d=(400/d)^.25

=(400/357.5)^.25

=1.0285

Then from formula in Note 2 below Table 3.8, with pcnt=100*As/(bv*d),

Design shear stress in concrete

vc=0.79*pcnt^(1/3)*f00d/1.25

=0.79*1.3731^(1/3)*1.0285/1.25

=0.72246 N/mm2

As characteristic concrete strength exceeds 25 N/mm2

therefore increase vc according to footnote in Table 3.8.

Modified design shear stress

vc=vc*(40/25)^(1/3)

=0.72246*(40/25)^(1/3)

=0.84499 N/mm2

2

Design shear stress of 0.6993 N/mm does not exceed critical shear

stress of 0.84499 N/mm2 , so only nominal links need be provided.

Area of two legs of a link

Asv=nlegs*PI*dial^2/4=2*3.1416*10^2/4

=157.08 mm2

Provide minimum links to meet requirements of Table 3.7.

Spacing of links along member

sv=fyv/gammaS*Asv/(0.4*bv)

=500/1.15*157.08/(0.4*200)

=853.69 mm

Limit spacing to sv=0.75*d=268.13 mm in accordance with Clause 3.4.5.5.

Spacing limit for comp.bars

sv=12*diac=12*12=144 mm

Page: 4

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rectangular beam/slab section

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC102 BS

Office: 1007

SHEAR

Characteristic strength

500 N/mm2

REINFORCEMENT

Diameter of bars

10 mm

SUMMARY

Number of legs

2

Spacing

140 mm

Ensure that no longitudinal bar is

more than 150 mm from vertical leg

No102

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rectangular beam/slab section

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC102 EC

Office: 1007

Location: Default example

Rectangular beam/slab design

Eurocode 2:Design of concrete structures

and assume the use of a simplified

rectangular concrete stress-block, and

that the depth to the neutral axis is

restricted to 0.45*d.

d2 b

(o) (o)

As2

d h

As

o o o

Mbef=221 kNm

Shear force due to ultimate loads VEd=102 kN

Axial load due to ultimate loads NEd=0 kN

Length of beam/slab

L=5 m

Overall depth of concrete section h=500 mm

Breadth of concrete section

b=250 mm

The member containing the section being considered is supported

at both ends and is continuous at one or both ends.

Section considered has a hogging moment (support condition).

Materials

Char yield strength of reinft

Max.aggregate size (for bar spc.)

Diameter of tension bars

Diameter of link legs

fyk=500 N/mm2

hagg=20 mm

dia=25 mm

dial=10 mm

Life of structure

50 years

Exposure class

XC1

Designed concrete

C 30 /37

Minimum cover

covern=30 mm

Fixing tolerance

tol=5 mm

Nominal cover (Cl. 4.4.1.1(2))

cover=35 mm

Effective values

BM after redistribution

Effective depth

Main reinforcement

Char yield strength of reinft.

Partial safety factor for conc.

Char cylinder compress strength

Design yield strength of reinft.

It is usual practice in the UK to

Limit on factor

Factor

M=221 kNm

d=415 mm

gams=1.15

fyk=fy=500 N/mm2

gamc=1.5

fck=30 N/mm2 (concrete)

fyd=fyk/gams=500/1.15=434.8 N/mm2

restrict x/d to 0.45

delta=0.85

K'=0.597*delta-0.18*delta^2-0.209

=0.597*0.85-0.18*0.85^2-0.209

=0.1684

Page: 2

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rectangular beam/slab section

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC102 EC

Office: 1007

Factor

K=M*1E6/(b*d^2*fck)

=221*1E6/(250*415^2*30)

=0.1711

Lever arm

z=d/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*K'))

=415/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*0.1684))

=339.7 mm

Depth to neutral axis

x=2.5*(d-z)=2.5*(415-339.7)

=188.3 mm

Diameter of compression bars

diac=20 mm

Depth to compression steel

d2=55 mm

Stress

fsc=700*(x-d2)/x=700*(188.3-55)/188.3

=495.6 N/mm2

Limit fsc to fyd

fsc=fyd=434.8 N/mm2

Area of comp.steel required

As2=(K-K')*fck*b*d^2/(fsc*(d-d2))

=(0.1711-0.1684)*30*250*415^2

/(434.8*(415-55))

=22.23 mm2

Tension reinforcement

As=K'*fck*b*d^2/(fyd*z)+As2*fsc/fyd

=0.1684*30*250*415^2/(434.8*339.7)

+22.23*434.8/434.8

=1495 mm2

Mean width of the tension zone

bt=bw=250 mm

Mean value axial tensile strength fctm=0.3*fck^(2/3)=0.3*30^(2/3)

=2.896 N/mm2

Minimum reinforcement required

Asmin=0.26*fctm*bt*d/fyk

=0.26*2.896*250*415/500

=156.3 mm2

Minimum compression steel

As2min=0.002*b*h=0.002*250*500

=250 mm2

Revised compression steel area

As2=As2min=250 mm2

Breadth of section

bw=250 mm

Maximum reinforcement permitted

Asmax=0.04*bw*h=0.04*250*500

=5000 mm2

Percentage area steel required

rho=100*As/(bw*d)=100*1495/(250*415)

=1.441 %

Number of tension bars required

nbart=INT(As/(PI*dia^2/4))+1

=INT(1495/(3.142*25^2/4))+1

=4

Area of tension steel provided

Aspr=nbart*PI*dia^2/4=4*3.142*25^2/4

=1963 mm2

Number of compression bars

nbarc=INT(As2/(PI*diac^2/4))+1

=INT(250/(3.142*20^2/4))+1

=1

Adopt a minimum of nbarc=2

Area of compression steel

Asprc=nbarc*PI*diac^2/4

=2*3.142*20^2/4

=628.3 mm2

Page: 3

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rectangular beam/slab section

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC102 EC

Office: 1007

DESIGN

SUMMARY

FLEXURE

TENSION REINFORCEMENT

COMPRESSION REINFORCEMENT

Overall depth

Effective depth

Width of section

Parameter K

Parameter K'

Lever arm ratio z/d

Steel area provided

Diameter of bars

Number of bars

Steel area required

Steel percentage req.

Minimum area of steel

Maximum area of steel

Steel area provided

Diameter of bars

Number of bars

Steel area required

Minimum area required

500 mm

415 mm

250 mm

0.1711

0.1684

0.8185

1963 mm2

25 mm

4

1495 mm2

1.441 %

156.3 mm2

5000 mm2

628.3 mm2

20 mm

2

22.23 mm2

250 mm2

clearm=hagg+5=20+5=25 mm

Modified clear spacing

clearm=dia+1=25+1=26 mm

In accordance with the "Standard Method of Detailing Structural

Concrete" the minimum clear distance between bars

Minimum spacing (hogging moment) clearm=75 mm

Layers of reinforcement

layers=2

Maximum number of bars/layer

nbars=2

Clear spacing

clear=(b-2*(cover+dial)-nbars*dia)/(nbars-1)

=(250-2*(35+10)-2*25)/(2-1)

=110 mm

Spacing of bars - compression reinforcement

Compute

comp1=(b-2*(cover+dial)-nbarc*diac)

=(250-2*(35+10)-2*20)

=120

Compute

comp2=(nbarc-1)=(2-1)=1

Clear spacing

clear=comp1/comp2=120/1=120 mm

Shear reinforcement

Percentage compression steel

Design shear stress

Strength reduction factor

Concrete strut capacity

VRdm=0.2*fck*(1-fck/250)*bw*d/10^3

=0.2*30*(1-30/250)*250*415/10^3

=547.8 kN

rho'=100*As2/(bw*d)=100*250/(250*415)

=0.241 %

vEd=VEd*10^3/(0.9*bw*d)

=102*10^3/(0.9*250*415)

=1.092 N/mm2

v=0.6*(1-fck/250)=0.6*(1-30/250)

=0.528 N/mm2

Page: 4

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rectangular beam/slab section

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC102 EC

Office: 1007

Term for angle theta

vRdm=0.138*fck*(1-fck/250)

=0.138*30*(1-30/250)

=3.643 N/mm2

Ratio shear area to spacing

Asw's=vEd*bw/(fyd*2.5)

=1.092*250/(434.8*2.5)

=0.2512

Minimum ratio area to spacing

Aswm=0.08*bw*fck^0.5/fy

=0.08*250*30^0.5/500

=0.2191

Number of shear legs

nsl=2

Area of shear legs

Asw=nsl*PI/4*dial^2=2*3.142/4*10^2

=157.1 mm2

Spacing of links

smax=INT(Asw/Asw's)=INT(157.1/0.2512)

=625 mm

Maximum spacing limited

smax=0.75*d=0.75*415=311.3 mm

Chosen spacing

s=300 mm

SHEAR SUMMARY

Shear force

Design shear strength

Concrete strut capacity

Area/spacing ratio

Diameter of links

Area of links

Maximum spacing

(based on 0.75d)

Actual spacing

102 kN

1.092 N/mm2

3.643 N/mm2

0.2512

10 mm

157 mm2

311.3 mm

300 mm

No102

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Biaxially bent stocky column

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC104 BS

Office: 1007

Location: Columns C2-C6, D2-D6, E4 & E5

Design to BS8110(1997), partial safety factor for steel gammaS=1.15

h h'

z z

y

b'

b

Shear force in y-direction

Design ultimate axial load

Effective height of column

Depth of column cross-section

Width of column cross-section

Design ult.moment about y-axis

Cover to all reinforcement

Effective depth in y-direction

Effective depth in z-direction

Characteristic strength of conc.

Characteristic strength of steel

Clause 3.8.4.5 and ISE 'Manual

for the design of reinforced

concrete building structures'.

For effective height of column

see Clause 3.8.1.6 of BS8110.

Mz=160 kNm

Fy=100 kN

N=2460 kN

l=2.5 m

h=450 mm

b=250 mm

My=0 kNm

cover=20 mm

h'=394 mm

b'=194 mm

fcu=50 N/mm2

fy=500 N/mm2

Limiting slenderness ratio

slender=15

Allowable effective height

he=b*slender=250*15=3750 mm

Effective height of column within allowable for a stocky column.

Minimum eccentricity from z-axis

for application of axial load

ecc=20 mm

Axial load at nominal eccentricity is less than design ultimate moment

about the z-axis.

Minimum eccentricity from y-axis

for application of axial load

ecc=b*0.05=250*0.05=12.5 mm

Design for an ultimate moment about y-axis caused by axial load

at nominal eccentricity

My=N*ecc/1000=2460*12.5/1000

=30.75 kNm

Axial load considerations

Nratio=N*1000/(b*h*fcu)

=2460*1000/(250*450*50)

=0.43733

Ratio N/b.h.fcu is greater than 0.1 and design as a column is

appropriate.

Page: 2

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Biaxially bent stocky column

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC104 BS

Office: 1007

Equivalent moment about one axis

Coefficient

beta=TABLE 3.24 for Nratio=0.43733

=0.48893

Increased moment about one axis

Mz'=Mz*10^6+beta*h'*My*10^6/b'

=160*10^6+0.48893*394*30.75*10^6

/194

=190.53E6 Nmm

Effective/overall depth ratio

d'h=h'/h=394/450=0.87556

Moment ratio

Mratio=Mz'/(b*h^2*fcu)

=190.53E6/(250*450^2*50)

=0.075273

Round down for chart reading

d'h=INT(20*d'h)*0.05

=INT(20*0.87556)*0.05

=0.85

Main bars

'Manual for the design of reinforced concrete building structures'

published by the Institution of Structural Engineers.

Ratio read from ISE-type charts

p=per*fcu/fy=0.23016*50/500

=0.023016

Calculated area of reinforcement Asc=p*b*h=0.023016*250*450

=2589.3 mm2

Bar diameter for main steel

dia=32 mm

Area of two bars

area=2*PI*dia^2/4=2*3.1416*32^2/4

=1608.5 mm2

No.of bars required

nbar=2*INT(Asc/area)+2

=2*INT(2589.3/1608.5)+2

=4

Nett area of concrete

Ac=b*h-nbar*area/2=250*450-4*1608.5/2

=109283 mm2

Axial load is less than 0.2 x fcu x Ac and sufficient bars should

be provided at a spacing of not more than 250mm. See Clauses 3.8.6

and 3.12.11 for recommendations regarding spacing of bars.

Shear in column - Clause 3.8.4.6

vc=5 N/mm2

vy=Fy*1000/(b*h')=100*1000/(250*394)

=1.0152 N/mm2

No shear reinforcement is required to resist shear in y-direction.

Links

Make diameter of links

Spacing of links

Diam=dia/4=32/4=8 mm

8 mm

spac=10*INT(12*dia/10)

=10*INT(12*32/10)

=380 mm

spac=b=250 mm, as must not exceed

width.

Page: 3

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Biaxially bent stocky column

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC104 BS

Office: 1007

SUMMARY OF REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED

500 N/mm2

4

32 mm

VERTICAL

REINFORCEMENT

SUMMARY

Characteristic strength

Number of bars

Diameter of bars

LINK

REINFORCEMENT

SUMMARY

Diameter of links

8 mm

Spacing

250 mm

Links round every corner bar and each

alternate bar. Included angle must not

exceed 135 deg. No bar must be more

than 150 mm from a bar restrained by

a link. See Clause 3.12.7.2.

Due to the column being lightly loaded

sufficient longitudinal steel must be

provided to control cracking.

No104

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Biaxially bent stocky column

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC104 EC

Office: 1007

Location: Biaxial bending example

Isolated rectangular section subject bending and thrust

Shear force in z-direction

Design ultimate axial load

Effective height of column

Depth of column cross-section

Width of column cross-section

Z

o

h Y Y

d

Z

b'

b

Myy=146.1 kNm

VEd=0 kN

N=1650 kN

l=3.2 m

h=350 mm

b=350 mm

Materials

Char yield strength of reinft

Max.aggregate size (for bar spc.)

Diameter of compression bars

Diameter of link legs

fyk=500 N/mm2

hagg=25 mm

dia=32 mm

dial=8 mm

Eurocode 2: Design of concrete

structures.

The main reinforcement design is

based on balancing, by iterative

means, of the two derived expressions

for areas of reinforcing steel one for axial load and the other

for bending.

One layer of steel is assumed for

the axis of bending.

Life of structure

50 years

Exposure class

XC1

Designed concrete

C 30 /37

Minimum cover

covern=35 mm

Fixing tolerance

tol=10 mm

Nominal cover (Cl. 4.4.1.1(2))

cover=45 mm

Section properties

Effective depth of section

Effective breadth of section

d2=88 mm

d=h-d2=350-88=262 mm

b'=b-d2=350-88=262 mm

Loading details

Smaller initial end moment

Larger initial end mt.(z-z axis)

Smaller initial end moment

M2y=Myy=146.1 kNm

M1y=0 kNm

M2z=114.5 kNm

M1z=0 kNm

Page: 2

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Biaxially bent stocky column

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC104 EC

Office: 1007

Material values

gams=1.15

Characteristic yield strength

fyk=fy=500 N/mm2 steel

Design steel strength

fyd=fyk/gams=500/1.15=434.78 N/mm2

Partial safety factor for conc.

gamc=1.5

Value

eta=1-(fck-50)/200=1-(30-50)/200

=1.1

As eta>1 then

eta=1

Design strength concrete

fcd=0.85*fck/gamc*eta=0.85*30/1.5*1

=17 N/mm2

Factor

lam=0.8

Check slenderness - Clause 5.8.3.2

Column under consideration is braced.

Fixity condition at top

cty=2

Fixity condition at bottom

cby=2

-value from Table 3.19

bety=0.85

Effective height

loy=bety*l*1000=0.85*3.2*1000

=2720 mm

About Z-Z axis:

Column under consideration is braced.

Fixity condition at top

ctz=2

Fixity condition at bottom

cbz=2

-value from Table 3.19

betz=0.85

Effective height

loz=betz*l*1000=0.85*3.2*1000

=2720 mm

For y-y axis - (stronger axis)

Radius of gyration

Slenderness

Factor

Assume 8 /32 mm bars

Steel area

Ratio of loads

Factor

Factor

Relative normal force

Limiting slenderness

iy=h/(12)^0.5=350/(12)^0.5

=101.04 mm

lamy=loy/iy=2720/101.04=26.921

A=0.7 default

Asest=no*PI/4*dia^2=8*3.1416/4*32^2

=6434 mm2

w=Asest*fyd/(b*h*fcd)

=6434*434.78/(350*350*17)

=1.3433

B=(1+2*w)^0.5=(1+2*1.3433)^0.5

=1.92

C=1.7-M1y/M2y=1.7-0/146.1

=1.7

n=NEd/(b*h*fcd)=1.65E6/(350*350*17)

=0.79232

lamly=20*A*B*C/n^0.5

=20*0.7*1.92*1.7/0.79232^0.5

=51.338

Column is short

For z-z axis - (weaker axis)

Radius of gyration

iz=b/(12)^0.5=350/(12)^0.5

=101.04 mm

Page: 3

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Biaxially bent stocky column

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC104 EC

Office: 1007

Slenderness

lamz=loz/iz=2720/101.04=26.921

Factor

A=0.7 default

Factor

B=1.92

Factor

C=1.7-M1z/M2z=1.7-0/114.5

=1.7

Relative normal force

n=NEd/(b*h*fcd)=1.65E6/(350*350*17)

=0.79232

Limiting slenderness

lamlz=20*A*B*C/n^0.5

=20*0.7*1.92*1.7/0.79232^0.5

=51.338

Column is short

Design moments - Clause 5.8.8.2

Y-Y axis:

Nominal eccentricity of axial load NEd,

Due to imperfections

e1=l*1000/400=3.2*1000/400

=8 mm

Due to eccentricity of load

e0=h/30=350/30=11.667 mm

Minimum eccentricity

e0=20 mm

Design bending moment

Mo2=M2y*10^6+e1*NEd

=146.1*10^6+8*1.65E6

=159.3E6 Nmm

Design bending moment

Mo1=ABS(M1y*10^6)+e1*NEd

=ABS(0*10^6)+8*1.65E6

=13.2E6 Nmm

Equivalent first order moment

Moe=0.6*Mo1+0.4*Mo2

=0.6*13.2E6+0.4*159.3E6

=71.64E6 Nmm

Column not slender

Moment for 2nd. order effects

M2=0

Design moment

MEdy=Mo2=159.3E6 Nmm

Z-Z axis:

Nominal eccentricity of axial load NEd,

Due to imperfections

e1=l*1000/400=3.2*1000/400

=8 mm

Due to eccentricity of load

e0=b/30=350/30=11.667 mm

Minimum eccentricity

e0=20 mm

Design bending moment

Mo2=M2z*10^6+e1*NEd

=114.5*10^6+8*1.65E6

=127.7E6 Nmm

Design bending moment

Mo1=ABS(M1z*10^6)+e1*NEd

=ABS(0*10^6)+8*1.65E6

=13.2E6 Nmm

Equivalent first order moment

Moe=0.6*Mo1+0.4*Mo2

=0.6*13.2E6+0.4*127.7E6

=59E6 Nmm

Column not slender

Moment for 2nd. order effects

M2=0

Design moment (z-z axis)

MEdz=Mo2=127.7E6 Nmm

One axis of bending only used to determine reinforcement, then

check for bi-axial bending

Moment ratio y-y axis

raty=MEdy/(b*h^2*fck)

=159.3E6/(350*350^2*30)

=0.12385

Page: 4

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Biaxially bent stocky column

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC104 EC

Office: 1007

Moment ratio z-z axis

ratz=MEdz/(b^2*h*fck)

=127.7E6/(350^2*350*30)

=0.099281

Consider moment about y-y axis ( 159.3E6 Nmm ) and axial load

Main reinforcement

Two expressions have been derived for the area of reinforcing steel

required, one for axial load the other for moments. These can only

be solved iteratively, the last iteration to balance the expressions

based on the position of neutral axis depth "x" gives:

Depth to neutral axis

x=234.1 mm

Load carried by concrete

Nc=0.85*fck/1.5*b*lam*x

=0.85*30/1.5*350*0.8*234.1

=1.1143E6 N

Strain in the concrete

esu=0.0035

Strain in compression steel

esc=esu*(x-d2)/x

=0.0035*(234.1-88)/234.1

=0.0021843

Stress steel based on strain

sigsc=esc*200000=0.0021843*200000

=436.86 N/mm2

Limit to steel stress

sigsc=fyk/1.15=500/1.15=434.78

Strain in tension steel

est=esu*(h-x-d2)/x

=0.0035*(350-234.1-88)/234.1

=0.41713E-3

Steel stress based on strain

sigst=est*200000=0.41713E-3*200000

=83.426 N/mm2

Net stresses

sign=ABS(sigst-sigsc)

=ABS(83.426-434.78)

=351.36 N/mm2

Sum of steel stresses

sigt=sigst+sigsc=83.426+434.78

=518.21 N/mm2

Axial load term

AsN2=(NEd-Nc)/(sign)

=(1.65E6-1.1143E6)/(351.36)

=1524.6 mm2

compute

comp1=(MEd-Nc*(h/2-lam*x/2))

=(159.3E6-1.1143E6*(350/2-0.8

*234.1/2))

=68.639E6

compute

comp2=((h/2-d2)*sigt)

=((350/2-88)*518.21)

=45084

Bending moment term

AsM2=comp1/comp2=68.639E6/45084

=1522.5 mm2

Area of steel required

As=AsN2+AsM2=1524.6+1522.5

=3047.1 mm2

Longitudinal reinforcement

As=3047.1 mm2

Area of two 32 mm diameter bars is 1608.5 mm2

Number of 32 mm bars required

nbar=2*INT(As/area)+2

=2*INT(3047.1/1608.5)+2

=4

Number of bars provided

nbars=8

Page: 5

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Biaxially bent stocky column

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC104 EC

Office: 1007

Area of steel provided

Aspro=nbars*PI*dia^2/4

=8*3.1416*32^2/4

=6434 mm2

Percentage of steel provided

perpro=100*Aspro/(b*h)

=100*6434/(350*350)

=5.2522 %

Minimum area of longitudinal reinforcement

Expression 1

Asm1=0.1*NEd/fyd=0.1*1.65E6/434.78

=379.5 mm2

Expression 2

Asm2=0.002*b*h=0.002*350*350

=245 mm2

Minimum area

Asmin=Asm1=379.5 mm2

Maximum area of steel

Asmax=0.04*b*h=0.04*350*350

=4900 mm2

Transverse reinforcement (links)

ldia=dia/4=32/4=8 mm

Maximum spacing is the minimum of the following distances:

Based on main bar diameter

smx1=20*dia=20*32=640 mm

Minimum column dimension

smx2=b=350 mm

Maximum dimension

smx3=400 mm

Maximum spacing

smx=350 mm

This spacing should be reduced by a factor of 0.6 within a distance

equal to the larger dimension of the column cross-section above or

below a beam or slab.

Check for biaxial bending

Ratio of slenderness

sl=lamz/lamy=26.921/26.921

=1

Ratio < 2, however check eccentricity condition

Eccentricity (y-y axis)

ey=MEdy/NEd=159.3E6/1.65E6

=96.545 mm

Eccentricity (z-z axis)

ez=MEdz/NEd=127.7E6/1.65E6

=77.394 mm

Radius of gyration (y-y axis)

iy=(h^2/12)^0.5=(350^2/12)^0.5

=101.04 mm

Radius of gyration (z-z axis)

iz=(b^2/12)^0.5=(350^2/12)^0.5

=101.04 mm

Equivalent b dimension

beq=iy*12^0.5=101.04*12^0.5

=350 mm

Equivalent h dimension

heq=iz*12^0.5=101.04*12^0.5

=350 mm

Relative eccentricity (y-y axis) ey'h=ey/heq=96.545/350=0.27584

Relative eccentricity (z-z axis) ez'b=ey/beq=96.545/350=0.27584

Ratio of eccentricities

recc=ey'h/ez'b=0.27584/0.27584

=1

Further check required for biaxial bending

Axial load

NEd=1.65E6 N

Axial resistance of section

NRd=b*h*fcd+Aspro*fyd

=350*350*17+6434*434.78

=4.8799E6 N

Page: 6

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Biaxially bent stocky column

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC104 EC

Office: 1007

Ratio of load terms

Nr=NEd/NRd=1.65E6/4.8799E6

=0.33812

Value of power

a=TABLE 5 for Nr=0.33812

=1.1984

Moment of resistance

x=205.7 mm

Load carried by concrete

Nc=0.85*fck/1.5*b*lam*x

=0.85*30/1.5*350*0.8*205.7

=979132 N

Strain in the concrete

esu=0.0035

Strain in compression steel

esc=esu*(x-d2)/x

=0.0035*(205.7-88)/205.7

=0.0020027

Stress steel based on strain

sigsc=esc*200000=0.0020027*200000

=400.53 N/mm2

Force carried by comp. bars

Ns=Aspro/2*sigsc=6434/2*400.53

=1.2885E6 N

Strain in tension steel

est=esu*(h-x-d2)/x

=0.0035*(350-205.7-88)/205.7

=0.95795E-3

Steel stress based on strain

sigst=est*200000=0.95795E-3*200000

=191.59 N/mm2

Bending term

mrd1=(sigst+sigsc)*Aspro/2*(h/2-d2)

=(191.59+400.53)*6434/2*(350/2-88)

=165.72E6 Nmm

Axial load term

mrd2=Nc*(h/2-lam*x/2)

=979132*(350/2-0.8*205.7/2)

=90.785E6 Nmm

Moment of resistance

MRd=mrd1+mrd2=165.72E6+90.785E6

=256.51E6 N/mm

Expression for biaxial bending

factor=(MEdy/MRdy)^a+(MEdz/MRdz)^a

=(159.3E6/256.51E6)^1.1984

+(127.7E6/256.51E6)^1.1984

=0.99851

Section suitable no additional reinforcement required to account for

bi-axial bending.

Page: 7

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Biaxially bent stocky column

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC104 EC

Office: 1007

DESIGN SUMMARY

3.2 m

Slenderness (y-y axis)

26.921

Column is short (y-y)

Slenderness (z-z axis)

26.921

Column is short (z-z)

Design axial load

1650 kN

Design bending moments:

Y-Y axis

159.3 kNm

Z-Z axis

127.7 kNm

Designed area of steel

3047.1 mm2

Area of steel provided

6434 mm2

Minimum area of steel

379.5 mm2

Maximum area of steel

4900 mm2

Link diameter

8 mm

Maximum link spacing

350 mm

Resistance moment (y-y) 256.51 kNm

Resistance moment (z-z) 256.51 kNm

Biaxial bending factor

0.99851

Designed steel exceeds 4% of gross

area. However the maximum area can

be increased provided that the

concrete can be placed and

compacted sufficiently.

No104

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rectangular column section checking aid

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC105 BS

Office: 1007

REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN CHECKING AID TO BS 8110

Parameters: fcu=37 fck=30 fy=500 b=300 h=300 d'=45

Every corner bar and each alternate bar in the outer layer should be

supported by a link passing around the bar. No bar should be more than

150 mm from a restrained bar. Link sizes and spacing follow:

Main steel diameter

12

16

20

25

32

40

Minimum link diameter

6

6

6

8

8

10

Maximum link spacing

140

190

240

300

300

300

In the chart below: A,B,C etc. denote axial loads of values given.

When low value is not shown, the section should be designed as a beam.

Read along from moment to intercept with A,B,C etc. then down to

selection of bars (which may be restricted by depth to reinforcement).

180BCD

U

B C

D

l

B= 600 kN

B

C

D

t

C= 900 kN

B

C

D

i

160D=1200 kNBCD

m

E=1500 kN

B C

D

E

a

F=1800 kN

B

C

D

E

t

G=2100 kN

B

C

D

E

e

140H=2400 kNBCDE

B C

D

B

C

D

E

B

C

D

E

F

B

120BCDEF

e

B C

D

E

B C

D

E

B C

D

E

F

i

100BCDEFG

n

B C

D

E

G

g

B C

D

E

F

G

B C

D

E

F

80BCDEFG

B C

D

E

F

G

BC

D

E

F

H

o

C

D

E

H

m

60CDEFGH

e

C D

F

G

E

F

D

E

40DEFGH

D

E

N

20EFGH

1%2%3%

Area(mm)

400

800

1200

1600

2000

2400

2800

3200

3600

Number of

1

1

1

bars reqd

4

4

8

6 40

28

6 0 4

/

/

/

/

/ //

//

/ / /

Diameter

1

2

1

2 21

12

2 2 3

of bar(mm)

6

0

6

0 56

60

5 0 2

No105

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rectangular column section checking aid

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC105 BS

Office: 1007

REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN CHECKING AID TO BS 8110

Parameters: fcu=37 fck=30 fy=500 b=300 h=350 d'=50

Every corner bar and each alternate bar in the outer layer should be

supported by a link passing around the bar. No bar should be more than

150 mm from a restrained bar. Link sizes and spacing follow:

Main steel diameter

12

16

20

25

32

40

Minimum link diameter

6

6

6

8

8

10

Maximum link spacing

140

190

240

300

300

300

In the chart below: A,B,C etc. denote axial loads of values given.

When low value is not shown, the section should be designed as a beam.

Read along from moment to intercept with A,B,C etc. then down to

selection of bars (which may be restricted by depth to reinforcement).

300

U

A= 400 kN

B

A

l

B= 800 kN

B

A C

t

275C=1200 kNBAC

i

D=1600 kN

B

A C

m

E=2000 kN

B

A C

a

250F=2400 kNBAC

t

G=2800 kN

B

A C

D

e

B

A C

D

225BACD

B

A C

B

AC

B

200BACDE

e

B

A C

D

E

B

AC

D

E

d

175BACDE

i

B

AC

D

E

B

AC

D

F

g

150BACDEF

B

AC

D

E

B

C

D

125BCDEF

M

CA

D

E

CA

D

G

m

100CADEFG

e

CA

D

E

CA

D

t

75CDEFG

C

D

E

F

A D

50DEFG

k

25DEFG

m

1%2%3%4%

Area(mm)

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

4500

Number of

1

1

1

bars reqd

4

64

8

640

2 8

6 0 4

8

/

/

//

/

///

/ /

/ / /

/

Diameter

1

12

1

221

1 2

2 2 3

2

of bar(mm)

6

60

6

056

6 0

5 0 2

5

No105

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rectangular column section checking aid

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC105 BS

Office: 1007

REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN CHECKING AID TO BS 8110

Parameters: fcu=37 fck=30 fy=500 b=300 h=400 d'=50

Every corner bar and each alternate bar in the outer layer should be

supported by a link passing around the bar. No bar should be more than

150 mm from a restrained bar. Link sizes and spacing follow:

Main steel diameter

12

16

20

25

32

40

Minimum link diameter

6

6

6

8

8

10

Maximum link spacing

140

190

240

300

300

300

In the chart below: A,B,C etc. denote axial loads of values given.

When low value is not shown, the section should be designed as a beam.

Read along from moment to intercept with A,B,C etc. then down to

selection of bars (which may be restricted by depth to reinforcement).

450

U

B

l

B= 800 kN

B C

t

C=1200 kN

B

C

i

400D=1600 kNBC

m

E=2000 kN

B C

a

F=2400 kN

B

C

D

t

G=2800 kN

B C

D

e

350H=3200 kNBCD

B

C

D

B C

D

E

B C

D

E

B

300BCDE

e

B C

D

E

B C

D

E

F

d

B

C

D

E

F

i

250BCDEF

n

B C

D

E

B C

D

E

F

B C

D

E

F

G

200BCDEFG

B C

D

E

F

B C

D

E

F

B C

D

E

F

G

H

m

150BCDEFGH

e

BC

D

E

F

G

H

BC

D

E

F

G

C

D

E

F

100CDEFGH

D

E

F

G

D

E

F

D

E

F

G

H

N

50EFGH

G

H

G

H

G

H

1%2%3%4%

Area(mm)

600

1200

1800

2400

3000

3600

4200

4800

5400

Number of

1

1

1

1

1

bars reqd

4

4

8 640

28

6 04

2 8

604

/

/

/

/ ///

//

/ //

/ /

///

Diameter

1

2

1 221

12

2 23

2 2

324

of bar(mm)

6

0

6 056

60

5 02

0 5

250

No105

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rectangular column section checking aid

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC105 BS

Office: 1007

REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN CHECKING AID TO BS 8110

Parameters: fcu=37 fck=30 fy=500 b=300 h=450 d'=50

Every corner bar and each alternate bar in the outer layer should be

supported by a link passing around the bar. No bar should be more than

150 mm from a restrained bar. Link sizes and spacing follow:

Main steel diameter

12

16

20

25

32

40

Minimum link diameter

6

6

6

8

8

10

Maximum link spacing

140

190

240

300

300

300

In the chart below: A,B,C etc. denote axial loads of values given.

When low value is not shown, the section should be designed as a beam.

Read along from moment to intercept with A,B,C etc. then down to

selection of bars (which may be restricted by depth to reinforcement).

450BC

U

A= 500 kN

B

C

l

B=1000 kN

B

C

t

C=1500 kN

B

C

D

i

400D=2000 kNBCD

m

E=2500 kN

B

C

D

a

F=3000 kN

B

C

D

t

G=3500 kN

B

C

e

350BCDE

B

C

D

B

C

D

E

B

C

D

E

B

300BCDE

e

B

C

D

B

C

D

E

F

d

B

C

D

F

i

250BCDEF

n

D

E

C

D

C

D

200CDEF

C

D

G

M

C

D

G

o

E

F

m

150CDEFG

e

CA

D

C

D

C

D

E

100ADEFG

AD

D

E

N

50DEFG

1%2%3%

Area(mm)

600

1200

1800

2400

3000

3600

4200

4800

5400

Number of

1

1

1

1

1

bars reqd

4

4

8 640

28

6 04

2 8

604

/

/

/

/ ///

//

/ //

/ /

///

Diameter

1

2

1 221

12

2 23

2 2

324

of bar(mm)

6

0

6 056

60

5 02

0 5

250

No105

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rectangular column section checking aid

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC105 BS

Office: 1007

REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN CHECKING AID TO BS 8110

Parameters: fcu=37 fck=30 fy=500 b=300 h=500 d'=50

Every corner bar and each alternate bar in the outer layer should be

supported by a link passing around the bar. No bar should be more than

150 mm from a restrained bar. Link sizes and spacing follow:

Main steel diameter

12

16

20

25

32

40

Minimum link diameter

6

6

6

8

8

10

Maximum link spacing

140

190

240

300

300

300

In the chart below: A,B,C etc. denote axial loads of values given.

When low value is not shown, the section should be designed as a beam.

Read along from moment to intercept with A,B,C etc. then down to

selection of bars (which may be restricted by depth to reinforcement).

700BA

U

A= 600 kN

B A

C

l

B=1200 kN

B

A

C

t

C=1800 kN

B

A C

i

D=2400 kN

B A

C

m

600E=3000 kNBACD

a

F=3600 kN

B

A C

D

t

G=4200 kN

B A

C

D

B A

C

D

B

A C

500BACDE

B A

C

D

E

B

B

A

C

D

E

B

A C

D

E

B A C

D

d

400BACDEF

i

B

A C

D

E

F

n

B

A C

D

E

F

B A C

D

E

F

B

A C

D

E

300BACDEF

B A C

D

E

F

G

M

B A C

D

E

G

o

B

AC

D

F

G

B

AC

D

E

F

e

200BACDEFG

n

B C

D

C

D

F

G

C

D

E

F

A D

100DEFG

k

E

F

D

E

D

E

D

E

1%2%3%4%

Area(mm)

800

1600

2400

3200

4000

4800

5600

6400

7200

Number of

1

1

bars reqd

4 4

8 64

8

6 04

2 8

64

8

/

/ /

/ //

/

/ //

/ /

//

/

Diameter

1 2

1 22

2

2 23

2 2

34

3

of bar(mm)

6 0

6 05

0

5 02

0 5

20

2

No105

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rectangular column section checking aid

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC105 EC

Office: 1007

REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN CHECKING AID TO EUROCODE 2

Parameters: fcu=37 fck=30 fy=500 b=300 h=300 d'=45

Every corner bar and each alternate bar in the outer layer should be

supported by a link passing around the bar. No bar should be more than

150 mm from a restrained bar. Link sizes and spacing follow:

Main steel diameter

12

16

20

25

32

40

Minimum link diameter

6

6

6

8

8

10

Maximum link spacing

140

190

240

300

300

300

In the chart below: A,B,C etc. denote axial loads of values given.

When low value is not shown, the section should be designed as a beam.

Read along from moment to intercept with A,B,C etc. then down to

selection of bars (which may be restricted by depth to reinforcement).

180BC

U

B

C

l

B= 600 kN

C

D

t

C= 900 kN

B

C

D

i

160D=1200 kNBCD

m

E=1500 kN

B

C

D

a

F=1800 kN

B

C

D

E

t

G=2100 kN

B

C

D

E

e

140H=2400 kNBCDE

B C

D

E

B

C

D

B

C

D

E

F

B

120BCDEF

e

B

C

D

E

F

B

C

D

E

B

C

D

E

i

100BCDEFG

n

B

C

D

E

G

g

B

C

D

E

F

G

B C

D

E

F

80BCDEFG

B C

D

E

BC

D

E

F

B C

D

E

H

m

60BCDEFGH

e

BC D

F

G

n

BC D

E

t

BCD

E

40BCDEFGH

BCD

E

BCD E

k

BCD E

N

20BCDEFGH

BCD E

m

BCD E

BCD E

1%2%3%

Area(mm)

400

800

1200

1600

2000

2400

2800

3200

3600

Number of

1

1

1

bars reqd

4

4

8

6 40

28

6 0 4

/

/

/

/

/ //

//

/ / /

Diameter

1

2

1

2 21

12

2 2 3

of bar(mm)

6

0

6

0 56

60

5 0 2

No105

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rectangular column section checking aid

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC105 EC

Office: 1007

REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN CHECKING AID TO EUROCODE 2

Parameters: fcu=37 fck=30 fy=500 b=300 h=350 d'=50

Every corner bar and each alternate bar in the outer layer should be

supported by a link passing around the bar. No bar should be more than

150 mm from a restrained bar. Link sizes and spacing follow:

Main steel diameter

12

16

20

25

32

40

Minimum link diameter

6

6

6

8

8

10

Maximum link spacing

140

190

240

300

300

300

In the chart below: A,B,C etc. denote axial loads of values given.

When low value is not shown, the section should be designed as a beam.

Read along from moment to intercept with A,B,C etc. then down to

selection of bars (which may be restricted by depth to reinforcement).

300B

U

A= 400 kN

B A

l

B= 800 kN

B A

t

275C=1200 kNBA

i

D=1600 kN

B A

C

m

E=2000 kN

B A

C

a

250F=2400 kNBAC

t

G=2800 kN

B A

C

B A C

D

225BACD

B A

C

D

B

A

C

D

B

200BACDE

e

B A

C

D

E

n

B

A C

D

E

d

175BACDE

i

B A C

D

B

A C

D

E

F

g

150BACDEF

B A C

D

E

F

B

A C

D

E

125BACDEF

M

B C

D

E

B

C

D

G

m

100BCADEFG

e

B CA

D

E

n

B CA

D

t

75BCADEFG

BC

D

E

BC D

50BCDEFG

k

BCD

N

BCD

E

25BCDEFG

m

BCD

E

BCD

E

1%2%3%4%

Area(mm)

500

1000

1500

2000

2500

3000

3500

4000

4500

Number of

1

1

1

bars reqd

4

64

8

640

2 8

6 0 4

8

/

/

//

/

///

/ /

/ / /

/

Diameter

1

12

1

221

1 2

2 2 3

2

of bar(mm)

6

60

6

056

6 0

5 0 2

5

No105

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rectangular column section checking aid

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC105 EC

Office: 1007

REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN CHECKING AID TO EUROCODE 2

Parameters: fcu=37 fck=30 fy=500 b=300 h=400 d'=50

Every corner bar and each alternate bar in the outer layer should be

supported by a link passing around the bar. No bar should be more than

150 mm from a restrained bar. Link sizes and spacing follow:

Main steel diameter

12

16

20

25

32

40

Minimum link diameter

6

6

6

8

8

10

Maximum link spacing

140

190

240

300

300

300

In the chart below: A,B,C etc. denote axial loads of values given.

When low value is not shown, the section should be designed as a beam.

Read along from moment to intercept with A,B,C etc. then down to

selection of bars (which may be restricted by depth to reinforcement).

450

U

B

l

B= 800 kN

B

t

C=1200 kN

i

400D=1600 kNBC

m

E=2000 kN

B

C

a

F=2400 kN

B

C

t

G=2800 kN

B

C

e

350H=3200 kNBCD

B

C

D

B

C

D

B

C

D

E

B

300BCDE

e

B

C

D

E

B

C

D

E

B

C

D

E

F

i

250BCDEF

n

B C

D

E

F

B

C

D

E

B

C

D

E

F

G

200BCDEFG

B

C

D

E

F

G

B C

D

E

F

B C

D

E

F

G

H

m

150BCDEFGH

e

B C

D

E

F

G

H

BC

D

E

F

G

t

BC

D

E

F

100CDEFGH

C D

E

F

G

CD

E

F

k

CD E

G

H

N

50CDEFGH

CD E

G

H

m

CD E

G

H

CD E

G

H

1%2%3%4%

Area(mm)

600

1200

1800

2400

3000

3600

4200

4800

5400

Number of

1

1

1

1

1

bars reqd

4

4

8 640

28

6 04

2 8

604

/

/

/

/ ///

//

/ //

/ /

///

Diameter

1

2

1 221

12

2 23

2 2

324

of bar(mm)

6

0

6 056

60

5 02

0 5

250

No105

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rectangular column section checking aid

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC105 EC

Office: 1007

REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN CHECKING AID TO EUROCODE 2

Parameters: fcu=37 fck=30 fy=500 b=300 h=450 d'=50

Every corner bar and each alternate bar in the outer layer should be

supported by a link passing around the bar. No bar should be more than

150 mm from a restrained bar. Link sizes and spacing follow:

Main steel diameter

12

16

20

25

32

40

Minimum link diameter

6

6

6

8

8

10

Maximum link spacing

140

190

240

300

300

300

In the chart below: A,B,C etc. denote axial loads of values given.

When low value is not shown, the section should be designed as a beam.

Read along from moment to intercept with A,B,C etc. then down to

selection of bars (which may be restricted by depth to reinforcement).

450BAC

U

A= 500 kN

B

A

C

l

B=1000 kN

B A

C

t

C=1500 kN

B A

C

i

400D=2000 kNBAC

m

E=2500 kN

B

A C

D

a

F=3000 kN

B A

C

D

t

G=3500 kN

B

A

C

D

e

350BACD

B

A C

D

E

B A

C

D

B

A C

D

E

B

300BACDE

e

B A C

D

B

A C

D

B

AC

D

E

F

i

250BACDEF

n

B AC

D

E

F

B

C

D

B

C

D

200BCADEF

B

CA

D

E

B

CA

D

G

o

B C A

D

E

F

m

150BCADEFG

e

B C A

D

n

BC A

D

t

BC D

100BCDEFG

BCD

BCD

E

k

BCD

E

N

50BCDEFG

BCD

E

m

BCD

E

BCD

E

1%2%3%

Area(mm)

600

1200

1800

2400

3000

3600

4200

4800

5400

Number of

1

1

1

1

1

bars reqd

4

4

8 640

28

6 04

2 8

604

/

/

/

/ ///

//

/ //

/ /

///

Diameter

1

2

1 221

12

2 23

2 2

324

of bar(mm)

6

0

6 056

60

5 02

0 5

250

No105

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Rectangular column section checking aid

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC105 EC

Office: 1007

REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN CHECKING AID TO EUROCODE 2

Parameters: fcu=37 fck=30 fy=500 b=300 h=500 d'=50

Every corner bar and each alternate bar in the outer layer should be

supported by a link passing around the bar. No bar should be more than

150 mm from a restrained bar. Link sizes and spacing follow:

Main steel diameter

12

16

20

25

32

40

Minimum link diameter

6

6

6

8

8

10

Maximum link spacing

140

190

240

300

300

300

In the chart below: A,B,C etc. denote axial loads of values given.

When low value is not shown, the section should be designed as a beam.

Read along from moment to intercept with A,B,C etc. then down to

selection of bars (which may be restricted by depth to reinforcement).

700BA

U

A= 600 kN

B A

l

B=1200 kN

B A

t

C=1800 kN

B A

C

i

D=2400 kN

B A

C

m

600E=3000 kNBAC

a

F=3600 kN

B A

C

t

G=4200 kN

B A

C

D

e

B A

C

B A

C

D

500BACD

B A

C

B A

C

D

E

e

B A

C

D

E

B A

C

D

E

d

400BACDE

i

B A

C

D

E

F

n

B A C

D

E

F

g

B A

C

D

E

F

B A

C

D

E

300BACDEF

B A C

D

E

F

B A C

D

E

G

o

B

AC

D

G

m

B

A C

D

E

F

e

200BACDEFG

n

B

C

D

t

B C

D

F

G

BC

D

E

BC D

100BCDEFG

k

BCD

E

F

N

BCD

E

BCD

E

m

BCD

E

1%2%3%4%

Area(mm)

800

1600

2400

3200

4000

4800

5600

6400

7200

Number of

1

1

bars reqd

4 4

8 64

8

6 04

2 8

64

8

/

/ /

/ //

/

/ //

/ /

//

/

Diameter

1 2

1 22

2

2 23

2 2

34

3

of bar(mm)

6 0

6 05

0

5 02

0 5

20

2

No105

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Ground-supported concrete slab for industrial bldg

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC109

Office: 1007

Design of ground-supported concrete slabs: Pallet loading

CBR of subgrade

CBR=10 %

Type of sub-base is granular material.

Sub-base thickness

sbb=150 mm

>From Figure 1 of TR550, with CBR value for subgrade of 10

modulus of subgrade reaction

K=TABLE 2 for CBR=10

=53

>From Table given by Packard, with subgrade modulus K of 53 and

granular subbase, enhanced value of K=60.143 MN/m3.

Thus

K=K1=60.143 MN/m3

This is PALLET RACKING type of loading.

Loading category (1-5)

Lcat=2

Specified concrete grade

fcu=40 N/mm2

From Figure 2 in TR550 with fcu=40 N/mm2,

28-day modulus of rupture

mrupt=4.77 MN/m2

Allowable 90-day modulus of rupture

Amrupt=mrupt*1.1*1000

=4.77*1.1*1000

=5247 kN/m2

As concrete is made with crushed or angular aggregate, enhance

allowable 90-day modulus of rupture to Amrupt=1.2*Amrupt=1.2*5247

=6296.4 kN/m2

Poisson's ratio

u=0.15

From Figure 2 in TR550 with fcu=40 N/mm2,

static modulus of elasticity

E=31 kN/m2

Safety factor for load

Lsf=1.5

Leg load

Lload=4 tonnes

Depth of rack

d=900 mm

Leg spacing centre to centre

Lcc=2700 mm

Dist.from edge to first rack leg Defr=150 mm

Dist.between double rack legs

Dbr=300 mm

Aisle width

A=1500 mm

Design load for rack(single leg) Sld=Lload*Lsf=4*1.5=6 tonnes

Design load for rack(double leg) Dld=Lload*2*Lsf=4*2*1.5=12 tonnes

Length of base plate (in X-dir.) L=100 mm

Breadth of base plate (in Y-dir.) b=100 mm

Base

plate

Y

o

o

100 mm

o

o

100

fcap=2.5 tonnes

Number of wheels per axle

naxle=2

Thousands of load repetitions

nrpt=120

Radius of equivalent circ. area

Rw=100 mm

Axle load

Aload=6 tonnes

Load per wheel

LW=Aload/naxle=6/2=3 tonnes

>From Table 2 in TR550, with 120000 repetitions of load,

wheel-load safety-factor

wsf=1.81

Design load per wheel

Dlw=LW*wsf=3*1.81=5.43 tonnes

Page: 2

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Ground-supported concrete slab for industrial bldg

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC109

Office: 1007

Rad.of equiv.semi-circ.area (wheel at edge) SRw=SQR(Rw^2*2)

=SQR(100^2*2)

=141.42 mm

Wheel spacing centre-to-centre

Wcc=1500 mm

Radius of relative stiffness

l=(E*h^3*1E6/(12*(1-u^2)*K))^0.25

=(31*175^3*1E6/(12*(1-0.15^2)

*60.143))^0.25

=696.62 mm

STRESS CALCULATIONS

Stress influences

a) Rack positioned at edge of slab - Arrangement 1

Radius of equiv.semi-circ.area

R1=rde1=225.68 mm

Since R1 is less than 1.72h,

Equivalent radius of loaded area b1=SQR(1.6*(R1)^2+h^2)-0.675*h

=SQR(1.6*(225.68)^2+175^2)-0.675*175

=216.71 mm

Radius of equiv.circular area

R2=rdi=112.84 mm

Since R2 is less than 1.72h,

Equivalent radius of loaded area b2=SQR(1.6*(R2)^2+h^2)-0.675*h

=SQR(1.6*(112.84)^2+175^2)-0.675*175

=107.7 mm

Radius of equiv.semi-circ.area

R3=rse=112.84 mm

Since R3 is less than 1.72h,

Equivalent radius of loaded area b3=SQR(1.6*(R3)^2+h^2)-0.675*h

=SQR(1.6*(112.84)^2+175^2)-0.675*175

=107.7 mm

Radius of equiv.semi-circ.area

R4=rse=112.84 mm

Since R4 is less than 1.72h,

Equivalent radius of loaded area b4=SQR(1.6*(R4)^2+h^2)-0.675*h

=SQR(1.6*(112.84)^2+175^2)-0.675*175

=107.7 mm

900

300

900

R3

R1

R4

All dimensions are in millimetres

R1 and R2 have double legs

R3 and R4 have single legs

R2

150

2700

1. Edge stress beneath double-leg loaded point R1:

pe1=5.19*(1+0.54*u)*(Dld/h^2)=5.19*(1+0.54*0.15)*(12/175^2)

=0.0021984

and

qe1=pe1*(1.73718*LOG(l/b1)+0.43429*LOG(b1/25.4))*1E6

=0.0021984*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/216.71)+0.43429*LOG(216.71/25.4))*1E6

=6506.1 kN/m2

2. Internal stress beneath double-leg loaded point R2:

Page: 3

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Ground-supported concrete slab for industrial bldg

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC109

Office: 1007

qi2=2.7*(1+u)*(Dld/h^2)*(1.73718*LOG(l/b2)+1.069)*1E6

=2.7*(1+0.15)*(12/175^2)*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/107.7)+1.069)*1E6

=5246.4 kN/m2

3. Edge stress beneath single-leg loaded point R3:

p3=5.19*(1+0.54*u)*(Sld/h^2)=5.19*(1+0.54*0.15)*(6/175^2)

=0.0010992

and

qe3=p3*(1.73718*LOG(l/b3)+0.43429*LOG(b3/25.4))*1E6

=0.0010992*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/107.7)+0.43429*LOG(107.7/25.4))*1E6

=4254.4 kN/m2

4. Edge stress beneath single-leg loaded point R4:

p4=5.19*(1+0.54*u)*(Sld/h^2)=5.19*(1+0.54*0.15)*(6/175^2)

=0.0010992

and

qe4=p4*(1.73718*LOG(l/b4)+0.43429*LOG(b4/25.4))*1E6

=0.0010992*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/107.7)+0.43429*LOG(107.7/25.4))*1E6

=4254.4 kN/m2

Displacement of R2 from R1

D21=Defr+Lcc-R2=150+2700-112.84

=2737.2 mm

Displacement of R3 from R1

D31=Dbr/2+d-R3=300/2+900-112.84

=937.16 mm

Displacement of R4 from R1

D41=Dbr/2+d-R4=300/2+900-112.84

=937.16 mm

Ratio of displacement of R2 to l R21=D21/l=2737.2/696.62=3.9292

Ratio of displacement of R3 to l R31=D31/l=937.16/696.62=1.3453

Ratio of displacement of R4 to l R41=D41/l=937.16/696.62=1.3453

>From Figure 5 of TR550, with R21=3.9292, R31=1.3453 and R41=1.3453

Percentage effect at R1 due to R2 P21=0 %

Percentage effect at R1 due to R3 P31=-10.596 %

Percentage effect at R1 due to R4 P41=-10.596 %

Stress at R1 due to R2

qi21=qi2*P21/100=5246.4*0/100

=0 kN/m2

Stress at R1 due to R3

qe31=qe3*P31/100=4254.4*-10.596/100

=-450.77 kN/m2

Stress at R1 due to R4

qe41=qe4*P41/100=4254.4*-10.596/100

=-450.77 kN/m2

Total stress at R1

Tqe1=(qe1+qi21+qe31+qe41)*0.85

=(6506.1+0+-450.77+-450.77)*0.85

=4763.9 kN/m2

where 0.85 is the load-transfer factor at the edge.

b) Rack positioned at edge of slab - Arrangement 2

Radius of equiv.semi-circ.area

R1=rde2=178.41 mm

Since R1 is less than 1.72h,

Equivalent radius of loaded area b1=SQR(1.6*(R1)^2+h^2)-0.675*h

=SQR(1.6*(178.41)^2+175^2)-0.675*175

=167.45 mm

Radius of equiv.circular area

R2=rsi=56.419 mm

Since R2 is less than 1.72h,

Equivalent radius of loaded area b2=SQR(1.6*(R2)^2+h^2)-0.675*h

=SQR(1.6*(56.419)^2+175^2)-0.675*175

=70.867 mm

Radius of equiv.semi-circ.area

R3=rde2=178.41 mm

Since R3 is less than 1.72h,

Page: 4

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Ground-supported concrete slab for industrial bldg

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC109

Office: 1007

Equivalent radius of loaded area b3=SQR(1.6*(R3)^2+h^2)-0.675*h

=SQR(1.6*(178.41)^2+175^2)-0.675*175

=167.45 mm

Radius of equiv.semi-circ.area

R4=rde2=178.41 mm

Since R4 is less than 1.72h,

Equivalent radius of loaded area b4=SQR(1.6*(R4)^2+h^2)-0.675*h

=SQR(1.6*(178.41)^2+175^2)-0.675*175

=167.45 mm

2700

2700

150

R3

R1

R4

300

900

R2

LEG STRESSES i.e. from racks (from formulae 1-3 in TR550)

1. Edge stress beneath double-leg loaded point R1:

pe1=5.19*(1+0.54*u)*(Dld/h^2)=5.19*(1+0.54*0.15)*(12/175^2)

=0.0021984

and

qe1=pe1*(1.73718*LOG(l/b1)+0.43429*LOG(b1/25.4))*1E6

=0.0021984*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/167.45)+0.43429*LOG(167.45/25.4))*1E6

=7244.6 kN/m2

2. Internal stress beneath single-leg loaded point R2:

qi2=2.7*(1+u)*(Sld/h^2)*(1.73718*LOG(l/b2)+1.069)*1E6

=2.7*(1+0.15)*(6/175^2)*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/70.867)+1.069)*1E6

=3065.5 kN/m2

3. Edge stress beneath double-leg loaded point R3:

p3=5.19*(1+0.54*u)*(Dld/h^2)=5.19*(1+0.54*0.15)*(12/175^2)

=0.0021984

and

qe3=p3*(1.73718*LOG(l/b3)+0.43429*LOG(b3/25.4))*1E6

=0.0021984*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/167.45)+0.43429*LOG(167.45/25.4))*1E6

=7244.6 kN/m2

4. Edge stress beneath double-leg loaded point R4:

p4=5.19*(1+0.54*u)*(Dld/h^2)=5.19*(1+0.54*0.15)*(12/175^2)

=0.0021984

and

qe4=p4*(1.73718*LOG(l/b4)+0.43429*LOG(b4/25.4))*1E6

=0.0021984*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/167.45)+0.43429*LOG(167.45/25.4))*1E6

=7244.6 kN/m2

Displacement of R2 from R1

D21=Defr+Dbr+d-R2=150+300+900-56.419

=1293.6 mm

Displacement of R3 from R1

D31=Lcc-R3=2700-178.41=2521.6 mm

Page: 5

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Ground-supported concrete slab for industrial bldg

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC109

Office: 1007

Displacement of R4 from R1

D41=Lcc-R4=2700-178.41=2521.6 mm

Ratio of displacement of R2 to l R21=D21/l=1293.6/696.62=1.8569

Ratio of displacement of R3 to l R31=D31/l=2521.6/696.62=3.6197

Ratio of displacement of R4 to l R41=D41/l=2521.6/696.62=3.6197

>From Figure 5 of TR550, with R21=1.8569, R31=3.6197 and R41=3.6197

Percentage effect at R1 due to R2 P21=2.5584 %

Percentage effect at R1 due to R3 P31=-3.6972 %

Percentage effect at R1 due to R4 P41=-3.6972 %

Stress at R1 due to R2

qi21=qi2*P21/100=3065.5*2.5584/100

=78.428 kN/m2

Stress at R1 due to R3

qe31=qe3*P31/100=7244.6*-3.6972/100

=-267.85 kN/m2

Stress at R1 due to R4

qe41=qe4*P41/100=7244.6*-3.6972/100

=-267.85 kN/m2

Total stress at R1

Tqe2=(qe1+qi21+qe31+qe41)*0.85

=(7244.6+78.428+-267.85+-267.85)

*0.85

=5769.3 kN/m2

where 0.85 is the load-transfer factor at the edge.

c) Rack positioned at corner of slab - Arrangement 1

Radius of equiv.circular area

R1=rdc1=178.41 mm

Since R1 is less than 1.72h,

Equivalent radius of loaded area b1=SQR(1.6*(R1)^2+h^2)-0.675*h

=SQR(1.6*(178.41)^2+175^2)-0.675*175

=167.45 mm

Radius of equiv.semi-circ.area

R2=rse=112.84 mm

Since R2 is less than 1.72h,

Equivalent radius of loaded area b2=SQR(1.6*(R2)^2+h^2)-0.675*h

=SQR(1.6*(112.84)^2+175^2)-0.675*175

=107.7 mm

Radius of equiv.semi-circ.area

R3=rse=112.84 mm

Since R3 is less than 1.72h,

Equivalent radius of loaded area b3=SQR(1.6*(R3)^2+h^2)-0.675*h

=SQR(1.6*(112.84)^2+175^2)-0.675*175

=107.7 mm

Radius of equiv.semi-circ.area

R4=rde1=225.68

Since R4 is less than 1.72h,

Equivalent radius of loaded area b4=SQR(1.6*(R4)^2+h^2)-0.675*h

=SQR(1.6*(225.68)^2+175^2)-0.675*175

=216.71 mm

Point of max.stress from corner

Cr=2*SQR(SQR(2)*R1*l)

=2*SQR(SQR(2)*178.41*696.62)

=838.49 mm

Page: 6

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Ground-supported concrete slab for industrial bldg

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC109

Office: 1007

900

1500

900

/

R2

R3

R4

R1 /

838.49

/

/

/

150

150

300

R1 and R4 have double legs.

R2 and R3 have single legs.

Critical position is at a radius of 838.49 mm from corner

LEG STRESSES i.e. from racks (from formulae 1-3 in TR550)

1. Corner stress beneath double-leg loaded point R1:

qc1=41.2*(Dld/h^2)*(1-(SQR(R1/l))/(0.925+0.22*R1/l))*1E6

=41.2*(12/175^2)*(1-(SQR(178.41/696.62))/(0.925+0.22*178.41

/696.62))*1E6

=7818.5 kN/m2

2. Edge stress beneath single-leg loaded point R2:

p2=5.19*(1+0.54*u)*(Sld/h^2)=5.19*(1+0.54*0.15)*(6/175^2)

=0.0010992

and

qe2=p2*(1.73718*LOG(l/b2)+0.43429*LOG(b2/25.4))*1E6

=0.0010992*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/107.7)+0.43429*LOG(107.7/25.4))*1E6

=4254.4 kN/m2

3. Edge stress beneath single-leg loaded point R3:

p3=5.19*(1+0.54*u)*(Sld/h^2)=5.19*(1+0.54*0.15)*(6/175^2)

=0.0010992

and

qe3=p3*(1.73718*LOG(l/b3)+0.43429*LOG(b3/25.4))*1E6

=0.0010992*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/107.7)+0.43429*LOG(107.7/25.4))*1E6

=4254.4 kN/m2

4. Edge stress beneath double-leg loaded point R4:

p4=5.19*(1+0.54*u)*(Dld/h^2)=5.19*(1+0.54*0.15)*(12/175^2)

=0.0021984

and

qe4=p4*(1.73718*LOG(l/b4)+0.43429*LOG(b4/25.4))*1E6

=0.0021984*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/216.71)+0.43429*LOG(216.71/25.4))*1E6

=6506.1 kN/m2

Displacement of R2 from Cr

Displacement of R3 from Cr

D2Cr=Defr+Dbr+d-R2-Cr

=150+300+900-112.84-838.49

=398.67 mm

D3Cr=Defr+Dbr+d+A-R3-Cr

=150+300+900+1500-112.84-838.49

=1898.7 mm

Page: 7

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Ground-supported concrete slab for industrial bldg

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC109

Office: 1007

Displacement of R4 from Cr

D4Cr=Defr+Dbr+d+A+d+Dbr/2-R4-Cr

=150+300+900+1500+900+300/2

-225.68-838.49

=2835.8 mm

Ratio of displacement of R2 to l R2Cr=D2Cr/l=398.67/696.62

=0.57229

Ratio of displacement of R3 to l R3Cr=D3Cr/l=1898.7/696.62

=2.7255

Ratio of displacement of R4 to l R4Cr=D4Cr/l=2835.8/696.62

=4.0708

>From Figure 5 of TR550, with R2Cr=0.57229 R3Cr=2.7255 and R4Cr=4.0708

Percentage effect at Cr due to R2 P2Cr=4.4037 %

Percentage effect at Cr due to R3 P3Cr=-7.9272 %

Percentage effect at Cr due to R4 P4Cr=-1.8026 %

Stress at Cr due to R2

qe2Cr=qe2*P2Cr/100=4254.4*4.4037/100

=187.35 kN/m2

Stress at Cr due to R3

qe3Cr=qe3*P3Cr/100=4254.4*-7.9272/100

=-337.26 kN/m2

Stress at Cr due to R4

qe4Cr=qe4*P4Cr/100=6506.1*-1.8026/100

=-117.28 kN/m2

Total stress at Cr

Tqc1=0.7*(qc1+ABS(qe2Cr)+ABS(qe3Cr)+ABS(qe4Cr))

=0.7*(7818.5+ABS(187.35)+ABS(-337.26)+ABS(

-117.28))

=5922.3 kN/m2

where 0.7 is the factor for load transfer at the corner.

d) Rack positioned at corner of slab - Arrangement 2

Radius of equiv.circular area

R1=rdc2=178.41 mm

Since R1 is less than 1.72h,

Equivalent radius of loaded area b1=SQR(1.6*(R1)^2+h^2)-0.675*h

=SQR(1.6*(178.41)^2+175^2)-0.675*175

=167.45 mm

Radius of equiv.semi-circ.area

R2=rde2=178.41 mm

Since R2 is less than 1.72h,

Equivalent radius of loaded area b2=SQR(1.6*(R2)^2+h^2)-0.675*h

=SQR(1.6*(178.41)^2+175^2)-0.675*175

=167.45 mm

Radius of equiv.semi-circ.area

R3=rde2=178.41 mm

Since R3 is less than 1.72h,

Equivalent radius of loaded area b3=SQR(1.6*(R3)^2+h^2)-0.675*h

=SQR(1.6*(178.41)^2+175^2)-0.675*175

=167.45 mm

Point of max.stress from corner

Cr=2*SQR(SQR(2)*R1*l)

=2*SQR(SQR(2)*178.41*696.62)

=838.49 mm

Page: 8

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Ground-supported concrete slab for industrial bldg

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC109

Office: 1007

2700

2700

150

/

R1 /

R2

R3

300

838.49 /

/

/

150

All dimensions are in millimetres.

R1, R2 and R4 have double legs.

Critical position is at a radius of 838.49 mm from corner

LEG STRESSES i.e. from racks (from formulae 1-3 in TR550)

1. Corner stress beneath double-leg loaded point R1:

qc1=41.2*(Dld/h^2)*(1-(SQR(R1/l))/(0.925+0.22*R1/l))*1E6

=41.2*(12/175^2)*(1-(SQR(178.41/696.62))/(0.925+0.22*178.41

/696.62))*1E6

=7818.5 kN/m2

2. Edge stress beneath double-leg loaded point R2:

p2=5.19*(1+0.54*u)*(Dld/h^2)=5.19*(1+0.54*0.15)*(12/175^2)

=0.0021984

and

qe2=p2*(1.73718*LOG(l/b2)+0.43429*LOG(b2/25.4))*1E6

=0.0021984*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/167.45)+0.43429*LOG(167.45/25.4))*1E6

=7244.6 kN/m2

3. Edge stress beneath double-leg loaded point R3:

p3=5.19*(1+0.54*u)*(Dld/h^2)=5.19*(1+0.54*0.15)*(12/175^2)

=0.0021984

and

qe3=p3*(1.73718*LOG(l/b3)+0.43429*LOG(b3/25.4))*1E6

=0.0021984*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/167.45)+0.43429*LOG(167.45/25.4))*1E6

=7244.6 kN/m2

Displacement of R2 from Cr

D2Cr=Defr+Lcc-R2-Cr

=150+2700-178.41-838.49

=1833.1 mm

Displacement of R3 from Cr

D3Cr=Defr+Lcc+Lcc-R3-Cr

=150+2700+2700-178.41-838.49

=4533.1 mm

Ratio of displacement of R2 to l R2Cr=D2Cr/l=1833.1/696.62

=2.6314

Ratio of displacement of R3 to l R3Cr=D3Cr/l=4533.1/696.62

=6.5072

>From Figure 5 of TR550, with R2Cr=2.6314 and R3Cr=6.5072

Percentage effect at Cr due to R2 P2Cr=-8.4167 %

Percentage effect at Cr due to R3 P3Cr=0 %

Stress at Cr due to R2

qe2Cr=qe2*P2Cr/100=7244.6*-8.4167/100

=-609.76 kN/m2

Page: 9

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Ground-supported concrete slab for industrial bldg

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC109

Office: 1007

Stress at Cr due to R3

qe3Cr=qe3*P3Cr/100=7244.6*0/100

=0 kN/m2

Total stress at Cr

Tqc2=0.7*(qc1+ABS(qe2Cr)+ABS(qe3Cr))

=0.7*(7818.5+ABS(-609.76)+ABS(0))

=5899.8 kN/m2

where 0.7 is the factor for load transfer at the corner.

e) Rack positioned internally

Radius of equiv.circular area

Since R1 is less than 1.72h,

Equivalent radius of loaded area

Radius of equiv.circular area

Since R2 is less than 1.72h,

Equivalent radius of loaded area

Radius of equiv.circular area

Since R3 is less than 1.72h,

Equivalent radius of loaded area

Radius of equiv.circular area

Since R4 is less than 1.72h,

Equivalent radius of loaded area

Radius of equiv.circular area

Since R5 is less than 1.72h,

Equivalent radius of loaded area

R1=rdi=112.84 mm

b1=SQR(1.6*(R1)^2+h^2)-0.675*h

=SQR(1.6*(112.84)^2+175^2)-0.675*175

=107.7 mm

R2=rsi=56.419 mm

b2=SQR(1.6*(R2)^2+h^2)-0.675*h

=SQR(1.6*(56.419)^2+175^2)-0.675*175

=70.867 mm

R3=rsi=56.419 mm

b3=SQR(1.6*(R3)^2+h^2)-0.675*h

=SQR(1.6*(56.419)^2+175^2)-0.675*175

=70.867 mm

R4=rdi=112.84 mm

b4=SQR(1.6*(R4)^2+h^2)-0.675*h

=SQR(1.6*(112.84)^2+175^2)-0.675*175

=107.7 mm

R5=rdi=112.84 mm

b5=SQR(1.6*(R5)^2+h^2)-0.675*h

=SQR(1.6*(112.84)^2+175^2)-0.675*175

=107.7 mm

LEG STRESSES i.e. from racks (from formulae 1-3 in TR550)

1. Internal stress beneath double-leg loaded point R1:

qi1=2.7*(1+u)*(Dld/h^2)*(1.73718*LOG(l/b1)+1.069)*1E6

=2.7*(1+0.15)*(12/175^2)*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/107.7)+1.069)*1E6

=5246.4 kN/m2

2. Internal stress beneath single-leg loaded point R2:

qi2=2.7*(1+u)*(Sld/h^2)*(1.73718*LOG(l/b2)+1.069)*1E6

=2.7*(1+0.15)*(6/175^2)*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/70.867)+1.069)*1E6

=3065.5 kN/m2

3. Internal stress beneath single-leg loaded point R3:

qi3=2.7*(1+u)*(Sld/h^2)*(1.73718*LOG(l/b3)+1.069)*1E6

=2.7*(1+0.15)*(6/175^2)*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/70.867)+1.069)*1E6

=3065.5 kN/m2

4. Internal stress beneath double-leg loaded point R4:

qi4=2.7*(1+u)*(Dld/h^2)*(1.73718*LOG(l/b4)+1.069)*1E6

=2.7*(1+0.15)*(12/175^2)*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/107.7)+1.069)*1E6

=5246.4 kN/m2

5. Internal stress beneath double-leg loaded point R5:

Page: 10

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Ground-supported concrete slab for industrial bldg

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC109

Office: 1007

qi5=2.7*(1+u)*(Dld/h^2)*(1.73718*LOG(l/b5)+1.069)*1E6

=2.7*(1+0.15)*(12/175^2)*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/107.7)+1.069)*1E6

=5246.4 kN/m2

300

R2

Y

2700

2700

R4

900

R1

R3

R5

R2 and R3 have single legs.

All dimensions are in millimetres.

=993.58 mm

Displacement of R3 from R1 D31=d+Dbr/2-R3=900+300/2-56.419

=993.58 mm

Displacement of R4 from R1 D41=Lcc-R4=2700-112.84=2587.2 mm

Displacement of R5 from R1 D51=Lcc-R5=2700-112.84=2587.2 mm

Ratio of displacement of R2 to l R21=D21/l=993.58/696.62=1.4263

Ratio of displacement of R3 to l R31=D31/l=993.58/696.62=1.4263

Ratio of displacement of R4 to l R41=D41/l=2587.2/696.62=3.7139

Ratio of displacement of R5 to l R51=D51/l=2587.2/696.62=3.7139

Orientated about X-X axis

>From Figure 5 of TR550, with R21=1.4263 and R31=1.4263

and R41=3.7139 and R51=3.7139

Percentage effect on R1 due to R2 P21=-5.5397 %

Percentage effect on R1 due to R3 P31=-5.5397 %

Percentage effect on R1 due to R4 P41=0 %

Percentage effect on R1 due to R5 P51=0 %

Stress at R1 due to R2

qi21x=qi2*P21x/100=3065.5*-5.5397/100

=-169.82 kN/m2

Stress at R1 due to R3

qi31x=qi3*P31x/100=3065.5*-5.5397/100

=-169.82 kN/m2

Stress at R1 due to R4

qi41x=qi4*P41x/100=5246.4*0/100

=0 kN/m2

Stress at R1 due to R5

qi51x=qi5*P51x/100=5246.4*0/100

=0 kN/m2

Total internal stress at R1

Tqix=qi1+qi21x+qi31x+qi41x+qi51x

=5246.4+-169.82+-169.82+0+0

=4906.7 kN/m2

Orientated about Y-Y axis

>From Figure 5 of TR550, with R21=1.4263 and R31=1.4263

and R41=3.7139 and R51=3.7139

Percentage effect on R1 due to R2 P21=6.1846 %

Percentage effect on R1 due to R3 P31=6.1846 %

Percentage effect on R1 due to R4 P41=-2.6873 %

Percentage effect on R1 due to R5 P51=-2.6873 %

Page: 11

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Ground-supported concrete slab for industrial bldg

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC109

Office: 1007

Stress at R1 due to R2

qi21y=qi2*P21y/100=3065.5*6.1846/100

=189.59 kN/m2

Stress at R1 due to R3

qi31y=qi3*P31y/100=3065.5*6.1846/100

=189.59 kN/m2

Stress at R1 due to R4

qi41y=qi4*P41y/100=5246.4*-2.6873/100

=-140.99 kN/m2

Stress at R1 due to R5

qi51y=qi5*P51y/100=5246.4*-2.6873/100

=-140.99 kN/m2

Total internal stress at R1

Tqiy=qi1+qi21y+qi31y+qi41y+qi51y

=5246.4+189.59+189.59+-140.99+

-140.99

=5343.6 kN/m2

WHEEL LOADING

WHEEL STRESSES i.e. from forklift or other trucks

Since radius of equivalent circular area is less than 1.72h,

equivalent radius of circular area bw1=SQR(1.6*Rw^2+h^2)-0.675*h

=SQR(1.6*100^2+175^2)-0.675*175

=97.803 mm

Since radius of equivalent semi-circular area is less than 1.72h,

equivalent radius of semi-circ. area bw=SQR(1.6*SRw^2+h^2)-0.675*h

=SQR(1.6*141.42^2+175^2)-0.675

*175

=132.12 mm

1. Edge stress due to wheel load:

ew=5.19*(1+0.54*u)*(Dlw/h^2)=5.19*(1+0.54*0.15)*(5.43/175^2)

=0.99476E-3

and

qew=ew*(1.73718*LOG(l/bw)+0.43429*LOG(bw/25.4))*1E6

=0.99476E-3*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/132.12)+0.43429*LOG(132.12/25.4))

*1E6

=3585.3 kN/m2

2. Corner stress due to wheel load:

qcw=41.2*(Dlw/h^2)*(1-(SQR(Rw/l))/(0.925+0.22*Rw/l))*1E6

=41.2*(5.43/175^2)*(1-(SQR(100/696.62))/(0.925+0.22*100/696.62))*1E6

=4411.7 kN/m2

3. Internal stress due to rack leg beneath double-leg point R1:

Radius of equiv.circular area

R1=rdi=112.84 mm

Since R1 is less than 1.72h,

Equivalent radius of loaded area b1=SQR(1.6*(R1)^2+h^2)-0.675*h

=SQR(1.6*(112.84)^2+175^2)-0.675*175

=107.7 mm

Since R1=112.84 mm and b1=107.7 mm for double-leg located internally,

qi1=2.7*(1+u)*(Dld/h^2)*(1.73718*LOG(l/b1)+1.069)*1E6

=2.7*(1+0.15)*(12/175^2)*(1.73718*LOG(696.62/107.7)+1.069)*1E6

=5246.4 kN/m2

Page: 12

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Ground-supported concrete slab for industrial bldg

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC109

Office: 1007

Wheel loads

a) Wheel stress at the edge

141.42

1500

W2

W1

500

W1 and W2 are wheel loads.

R1

Displacement of W2 from W1

Dw2w1=Wcc-SRw=1500-141.42

=1358.6 mm

Displacement of R1 from W1

D1w1=500-R1=500-112.84=387.16 mm

Ratio of displacement of W2 to l Rw2w1=Dw2w1/l=1358.6/696.62

=1.9502

Ratio of displacement of R1 to l R1w1=D1w1/l=387.16/696.62

=0.55577

>From Figure 5 of TR550, with Dw2w1/l=1.9502 and D1w1/l=0.55577

percentage effect of W2 on W1

Pw2w1=-11.36 %

percentage effect of R1 on W1

p1w1=27.412 %

Stress at W1 due to W2

qw2w1=qew*Pw2w1/100=3585.3*-11.36/100

=-407.28 kN/m2

Stress at W1 due to R1

q1w1=qi1*p1w1/100=5246.4*27.412/100

=1438.2 kN/m2

Total stress at W1

Tqwe=(qew+qw2w1+q1w1)*0.85

=(3585.3+-407.28+1438.2)*0.85

=3923.7 kN/m2

where 0.85 is the load-transfer factor at the edge.

b) Wheel stress at the corner

Dist.of critical point from corner Cr=2*SQR(SQR(2)*Rw*l)

=2*SQR(SQR(2)*100*696.62)

=627.75 mm

100

1500

141.42

W1

/

W2

627.75

/

/

All dimensions are in millimetres.

/

W1 and W2 are wheel loads

=1500+100-141.42-627.75

=830.83 mm

Ratio of displacement W2 to l

Rw2s=Dw2s/l=830.83/696.62

=1.1927

>From Figure 5 of TR550, with Dw2s/l=1.1927

percentage effect of W2 on Cr

Pw2s=-9.4806 %

Page: 13

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Ground-supported concrete slab for industrial bldg

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC109

Office: 1007

Stress at Cr due to W2

qw2s=qcw*Pw2s/100=4411.7*-9.4806/100

=-418.25 kN/m2

Total corner stress

Tqwc=(qcw+qw2s)*0.7

=(4411.7+-418.25)*0.7

=2795.4 kN/m2

where 0.7 is the load-transfer factor at the edge.

SUMMARY OF RESULTS

Concrete grade specified

Allowable 90-day modulus of rupture

Thus the calculated stresses are:

Edge stress in slab due to rack 1

Edge stress in slab due to rack 2

Corner stress in slab due to rack 1

Corner stress in slab due to rack 2

Internal stress in slab due to rack

Internal stress in slab due to rack

Edge stress in slab due to wheel

Corner stress in slab due to wheel

Minimum suitable slab thickness

fcu=40 N/mm2

Amrupt=6296.4 kN/m2

REstress1=4763.9

REstress2=5769.3

RCstress1=5922.3

RCstress2=5899.8

RIstressx=4906.7

RIstressy=5343.6

WEstress =3923.7

WCstress =2795.4

h=175 mm

kN/m2

kN/m2

kN/m2

kN/m2

kN/m2

kN/m2

kN/m2

kN/m2

No109

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC110 BS

Office: 1007

Location: Typical problem

Design of r.c.pad footing with shear checks

All calculations to requirements

in Clauses 3.4.4.4 and 3.11 of

BS8110: Part 1.

Moment & shear are positive in

directions shown.

M

N

V

A

B

lx

lx

cx

cy

ly

la

lb

N=1606 kN

Ultimate moment in column

M=163.6 kNm

Ultimate shear force at base top V=73 kN

Column dimension in X-direction

cx=450 mm

Column dimension in Y-direction

cy=450 mm

Base length [in bending (X) dir.] lx=3.6 m

Width of base (i.e. in Y-dir.)

ly=2.8 m

Note: A separate check should be made to ensure the resistance of the

base against sliding due to this shear force.

Left distance to edge of column

la=lm-cx/2000=1.8-450/2000

=1.575 m

Right distance to edge of column lb=lx-lm-cx/2000=3.6-1.8-450/2000

=1.575 m

Characteristic steel strength

fy=500 N/mm2

Characteristic concrete strength fcu=35 N/mm2

High-yield reinforcement

Ultimate bond stress (3.12.8.4)

fbu=0.50*SQR(fcu)=0.50*SQR(35)

=2.958 N/mm2

Overall thickness of base

h=500 mm

Assuming self-weight of reinforced concrete conc=24 kN/m3

Self-weight of base (factored)

Swt=1.4*conc*lx*ly*h/1000

=1.4*24*3.6*2.8*500/1000

=169.34 kN

Designed concrete mix to be used. Cover data from Tables A.4 & A.5 of

BS8500-1:2006.

Intended life of structure (for durability considerations) is 50 years.

Designated exposure class is XC2

Specified fixing tolerance

tol=10 mm

Cover to reinforcement

cover=35 mm

Page: 2

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC110 BS

Office: 1007

Ground pressures

Note: As these pressures are calculated from factored loads and moments

they are also factored values and thus not true bearing pressures

Taking moments about left edge

Mlh=N*(la+cx/2E3)+Swt*lx/2+V*h/1E3+M

=1606*(1.575+450/2E3)+169.34*3.6

/2+73*500/1E3+163.6

=3395.7 kNm

Distance of line of action

from left edge of base

y=Mlh/(N+Swt)=3395.7/(1606+169.34)

=1.9127 m

N

:

e

:

AB

< y ->

since y>lx/2, eccentricity

e=y-lx/2=1.9127-3.6/2=0.11271 m

Since eccentricity does not exceed lx/6, centroid of load lies within

the middle-third, giving a trapezoidal distribution of pressure, which

varies linearly from pa=143.04 kN/m2 at A to pb=209.21 kN/m2 at B.

pa

pb

Uniform pressure due to self wt.

Pressure at end A

Pressure at end B

z=ly*lx^2/6=2.8*3.6^2/6=6.048 m3

ps=Swt/(lx*ly)=169.34/(3.6*2.8)

=16.8 kN/m2

pa=(N+Swt)/(lx*ly)-(N+Swt)*e/z

=(1606+169.34)/(3.6*2.8)-(1606

+169.34)*0.11271/6.048

=143.04 kN/m2

pb=(N+Swt)/(lx*ly)+(N+Swt)*e/z

=(1606+169.34)/(3.6*2.8)+(1606

+169.34)*0.11271/6.048

=209.21 kN/m2

Page: 3

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC110 BS

Office: 1007

Ultimate moments and shears

assume effective depth

ds=0.85*h/1000=0.85*500/1000=0.425 m

Ultimate moment (at left face of column)

Mda=(3*(pa-ps)+(pb-pa)*la/lx)*ly*la^2/6

=(3*(143.04-16.8)+(209.21-143.04)*1.575/3.6)

*2.8*1.575^2/6

=471.93 kNm

Ultimate moment (at right face of column)

Mdb=(3*(pb-ps)-(pb-pa)*lb/lx)*ly*lb^2/6

=(3*(209.21-16.8)-(209.21-143.04)*1.575/3.6)

*2.8*1.575^2/6

=634.71 kNm

Ultimate shear (near left face of column)

Vda=(2*(pa-ps)+(pb-pa)*(la-ds)/lx)*ly*(la-ds)/2

=(2*(143.04-16.8)+(209.21-143.04)*(1.575

-0.425)/3.6)*2.8*(1.575-0.425)/2

=440.52 kN

Ultimate shear (near right face of column)

Vdb=(2*(pb-ps)-(pb-pa)*(lb-ds)/lx)*ly*(lb-ds)/2

=(2*(209.21-16.8)-(209.21-143.04)*(1.575

-0.425)/3.6)*2.8*(1.575-0.425)/2

=585.53 kN

Design for

Vdx=585.53

and

Mdx=634.71

The maximum moment is reduced to one-half of

317.41 kNm at a distance of 0.47 m from the

kN

kNm

this value (i.e. about

RH face of the column.

diax=16 mm

Since specified bar size does not exceed cover,

Effective depth

dx=h-cover-0.5*diax=500-35-0.5*16

=457 mm

Crit.dist.for curtailment calcs. lc=((1000*lx-cx)/2+lcx-lcxc)/1000

=((1000*3.6-450)/2+457-930)/1000

=1.102 m from edge

At this point, soil pressure

px=pb-(pb-pa)*lc/lx

=209.21-(209.21-143.04)*1.102/3.6

=188.96 kN/m2

and total bending moment

Md=lc^2/6*(2*pb+px)*ly

=1.102^2/6*(2*209.21+188.96)*2.8

=344.21 kNm

Min.anchorage-bond

length required with 90-bob lcx1=INT(fy*diax/(fbu*4*gammaS))+1-12*diax

=INT(500*16/(2.958*4*1.15))+1-12*16

=396 mm

As this is less than effective depth, increase as per Cl.3.12.9.1(a).

Thus min.length required beyond theoretical termination=929 mm

Min. 50%-bar-curtailment point

lcxp=0.929 m from column face.

Specified bar-curtailment point

lcxcm=0.93 m from column face so OK

Applied-moment factor

K=Mdx*10^6/(1000*ly*dx^2*fcu)

=634.71*10^6/(1000*2.8*457^2*35)

=0.031011

Page: 4

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC110 BS

Office: 1007

This does not exceed resistance-moment factor K'=0.156 so section is OK

Lever arm

z=dx*(0.5+SQR(0.25-K/0.9))

=457*(0.5+SQR(0.25-0.031011/0.9))

=440.67 mm,

but must not exceed

0.95*dx= 0.95*457 =434.15 mm,

i.e. take

z=434.15 mm

Area of tension steel required

Asx=Mdx*10^6/(fy/gammaS*z)

=634.71*10^6/(500/1.15*434.15)

=3362.5 mm2

Since base width ( ly=2.8 m ) exceeds ( 1.5*cy+4.5*dx=2.7315 m )

Clause 3.11.3.2 requires that two-thirds of the required reinforcement

must be concentrated within a width (3d+cy) located centrally under the

column.

Thus over central strip

Asx1=2/3*Asx=2/3*3362.5=2241.7 mm2,

and over remainder of base

Asx2=Asx/3=3362.5/3=1120.8 mm2

Width of central strip

widY1=(cy+3*dx)/1000=(450+3*457)/1000

=1.821 m

Total width of outer edge strips widY2=ly-widY1=2.8-1.821

=0.979 m

Reinforcement: central strip of width 1.821 m

Since 3*dx is not less than 750 mm, maximum clear distance between

bars for tension steel

maxcsp=750 mm, and

maximum pitch (c.to c.of bars)

pchm=750+diax=766 mm

Calculated bar spacing (c.to c.) pitch=1000*widY*PI*diax^2/(4*Asx)

=1000*1.821*3.1416*16^2/(4

*2241.7)

=163.33 mm

Since this does not exceed maximum permissible spacing of 766 mm,

adopt this value.

Round bar spacing (c.to c.) to

160 mm (rounded)

Revised number of bars required

Nox=INT(1000*widY1/pchx)+1

=INT(1000*1.821/160)+1

=12

Revised width of edge strip steel wdY2=ly*1000-(Nox-1)*pchx

=2.8*1000-(12-1)*160

=1040 mm

Area of tension steel provided

Asprx=Nox*PI*diax^2/4

=12*3.1416*16^2/4

=2412.7 mm2

Check spacing and proportion of steel (Clause 3.12.11.2.7)

per=Asprx/(10*widY*h)

=2412.7/(10*1.821*500)

=0.26499 % of gross section.

As this is within Code limits of 0.13 % and 4%, this is satisfactory.

As the area of tension steel provided does not exceed 0.3%, no check

on the spacing of bars is needed [see Clause 3.12.11.2.7(a3)].

Since percentage of steel provided is at least twice the minimum

permissible proportion, 50% of these bars will be curtailed at a

distance of 930 mm from the face of the column.

Page: 5

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC110 BS

Office: 1007

Reinforcement: edge strips, each of width 0.4895 m

Since 3*dx is not less than 750 mm, maximum clear distance between

bars for tension steel

maxcsp=750 mm, and

maximum pitch (c.to c.of bars)

pchm=750+diax=766 mm

Calculated bar spacing (c.to c.) pitch=1000*widY*PI*diax^2/(4*Asx)

=1000*0.979*3.1416*16^2/(4

*1120.8)

=175.62 mm

Since this does not exceed maximum permissible spacing of 766 mm,

adopt this value.

Round bar spacing (c.to c.) to

175 mm (rounded)

Revised number of bars required

Nox=2*INT(wdY2/pchx/2)+2

=2*INT(1040/175/2)+2

=6

Area of tension steel provided

Asprx=Nox*PI*diax^2/4=6*3.1416*16^2/4

=1206.4 mm2

Check spacing and proportion of steel (Clause 3.12.11.2.7)

per=Asprx/(10*widY*h)

=1206.4/(10*0.979*500)

=0.24645 % of gross section.

As this is within Code limits of 0.13 % and 4%, this is satisfactory.

As the area of tension steel provided does not exceed 0.3%, no check

on the spacing of bars is needed [see Clause 3.12.11.2.7(a3)].

Since percentage of steel provided is less than twice the minimum

permissible proportion, bar curtailment is not possible.

Shear across base in X-direction

Absolute maximum shear stress

Vmax=0.8*SQR(fcu)=0.8*SQR(35)

=4.7329 N/mm2

Dist.to critical shear plane

avX=alphX*dx

=1.5*457

=685.5 mm from col.face

Shear: central strip of width 1.821 m

pcnt=Asprx/(10*widY*dx)

=2412.7/(10*1.821*457)

=0.28992 %

Assuming no specific shear reinforcement is to be provided

Using the appropriate formula given in Note 2 below Table 3.8,

Design concrete shear stress

vc=0.45261 N/mm2

Since dist.from col.face is less than 2*dx, enhance as per Cl.3.4.5.8.

Enhanced design shear stress

0.60348 N/mm2

Ultimate shear stress

v=Vdx/(ly*dx)=585.53/(2.8*457)

=0.45759 N/mm2

As actual shear stress (v=0.45759 N/mm2 does not exceed design stress

(vc=0.60348 N/mm2 , no shear steel is needed across Y-direction faces.

Page: 6

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC110 BS

Office: 1007

Shear: edge strips, each of width 0.4895 m

pcnt=Asprx/(10*widY*dx)

=1206.4/(10*0.979*457)

=0.26964 %

Assuming no specific shear reinforcement is to be provided

Using the appropriate formula given in Note 2 below Table 3.8,

Design concrete shear stress

vc=0.4418 N/mm2

Since dist.from col.face is less than 2*dx, enhance as per Cl.3.4.5.8.

Enhanced design shear stress

0.58906 N/mm2

Ultimate shear stress

v=Vdx/(ly*dx)=585.53/(2.8*457)

=0.45759 N/mm2

As actual shear stress (v=0.45759 N/mm2 does not exceed design stress

(vc=0.58906 N/mm2 , no shear steel is needed across Y-direction faces.

Reinforcement to resist bending in Y-direction

design for a uniform moment in Y-direction. Hence

Ultimate bending moment

Mdy=N*(ly-cy/1000)^2/(8*ly)

=1606*(2.8-450/1000)^2/(8*2.8)

=395.94 kNm

For initial shear calculations,

assume effective depth

ds=0.85*h/1000=0.85*500/1000

=0.425 m

Ultimate shear force

Vdy=N*(ly-cy/1000-2*ds)/(2*ly)

=1606*(2.8-450/1000-2*0.425)/(2

*2.8)

=430.18 kN

The maximum moment is reduced to one-half of this value (i.e. 197.97

kNm) at a distance of 0.9326 m from the column face.

Diameter of Y-direction bars

Actual effective depth

Crit.dist.for curtailment calcs.

diay=12 mm

dy=dx-diax/2-diay/2=457-16/2-12/2

=443 mm

lc=((1000*ly-cy)/2+lcy-lcyc)/1000

=((1000*2.8-450)/2+443-920)/1000

=0.698 m from edge

Md=Mdy/2=395.94/2=197.97 kNm

Min.anchorage-bond

length required with 90-bob lcy1=INT(fy*diay/(fbu*4*gammaS))+1-12*diay

=INT(500*12/(2.958*4*1.15))+1-12*12

=297 mm

As this is less than effective depth, increase as per Cl.3.12.9.1(a).

Thus min.length required beyond theoretical termination=915 mm

Min. 50%-bar-curtailment point

lcyp=0.915 m from column face.

Specified bar-curtailment point

lcycm=0.92 m from column face so OK

Applied-moment factor

K=Mdy*10^6/(1000*lx*dy^2*fcu)

=395.94*10^6/(1000*3.6*443^2*35)

=0.016012

This does not exceed resistance-moment factor K'=0.156 so section is OK

Lever arm

z=dy*(0.5+SQR(0.25-K/0.9))

=443*(0.5+SQR(0.25-0.016012/0.9))

=434.97 mm,

but must not exceed

0.95*dy= 0.95*443 =420.85 mm,

i.e. take

z=420.85 mm.

Page: 7

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC110 BS

Office: 1007

Area of tension steel required

Asy=Mdy*10^6/(fy/gammaS*z)

=395.94*10^6/(500/1.15*420.85)

=2163.9 mm2

Since base width ( lx=3.6 m ) exceeds ( 1.5*cx+4.5*dy=2.6595 m )

Clause 3.11.3.2 requires that two-thirds of the required reinforcement

must be concentrated within a width (3d+cx) located centrally under the

column.

Thus over central strip

Asy1=2/3*Asy=2/3*2163.9=1442.6 mm2

and over remainder of base

Asy2=Asy/3=2163.9/3=721.29 mm2

Width of central strip

widX1=(cx+3*dy)/1000=(450+3*443)/1000

=1.779 m

Total width of outer edge strips widX2=lx-widX1=3.6-1.779

=1.821 m

Reinforcement: central strip of width 1.779 m

Since 3*dy is not less than 750 mm, maximum clear distance between

bars for tension steel

maxcsp=750 mm, and

maximum pitch (c.to c.of bars)

pchm=750+diay=762 mm

Calculated bar spacing (c.to c.) pitch=1000*widX*PI*diay^2/(4*Asy)

=1000*1.779*3.1416*12^2/(4

*1442.6)

=139.47 mm

Since this does not exceed maximum permissible spacing of 762 mm,

adopt this value.

Round bar spacing (c.to c.) to

130 mm (rounded)

Revised number of bars required

Noy=INT(1000*widX1/pchy)+1

=INT(1000*1.779/130)+1

=14

Revised width of edge strip steel wdX2=lx*1000-(Noy-1)*pchy

=3.6*1000-(14-1)*130

=1910 mm

Area of tension steel provided

Aspry=Noy*PI*diay^2/4

=14*3.1416*12^2/4

=1583.4 mm2

Check spacing and proportion of steel (Clause 3.12.11.2.7)

per=Aspry/(10*widX*h)

=1583.4/(10*1.779*500)

=0.17801 % of gross section.

As this is within Code limits of 0.13 % and 4%, this is satisfactory.

As the area of tension steel provided does not exceed 0.3%, no check

on the spacing of bars is needed [see Clause 3.12.11.2.7(a3)].

Since percentage of steel provided is less than twice the minimum

permissible proportion, bar curtailment is not possible.

Reinforcement: edge strips, each of width 0.9105 m

Asmin=Pmin1*1000*widX*h

=0.0013*1000*1.821*500

=1183.7 mm2

Since calculated area required is less than this value, provide

Asy=1183.7 mm2

Since 3*dy is not less than 750 mm, maximum clear distance between

bars for tension steel

maxcsp=750 mm, and

Page: 8

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC110 BS

Office: 1007

maximum pitch (c.to c.of bars)

pchm=750+diay=762 mm

Calculated bar spacing (c.to c.) pitch=1000*widX*PI*diay^2/(4*Asy)

=1000*1.821*3.1416*12^2/(4

*1183.7)

=174 mm

Since this does not exceed maximum permissible spacing of 762 mm,

adopt this value.

Round bar spacing (c.to c.) to

170 mm (rounded)

Revised number of bars required

Noy=2*INT(wdX2/pchy/2)+2

=2*INT(1910/170/2)+2

=12

Area of tension steel provided

Aspry=Noy*PI*diay^2/4

=12*3.1416*12^2/4

=1357.2 mm2

Check spacing and proportion of steel (Clause 3.12.11.2.7)

per=Aspry/(10*widX*h)

=1357.2/(10*1.821*500)

=0.14906 % of gross section.

As this is within Code limits of 0.13 % and 4%, this is satisfactory.

As the area of tension steel provided does not exceed 0.3%, no check

on the spacing of bars is needed [see Clause 3.12.11.2.7(a3)].

Shear across base in Y-direction

avY=alphY*dy

=1.5*443

=664.5 mm from column face.

pcnt=Aspry/(10*widX*dy)

=1583.4/(10*1.779*443)

=0.20091 %

Assuming no specific shear reinforcement is to be provided

Using the appropriate formula given in Note 2 below Table 3.8,

Design concrete shear stress

vc=0.40365 N/mm2

Since dist.from col.face is less than 2*dy, enhance as per Cl.3.4.5.8.

Enhanced design shear stress

0.5382 N/mm2

Ultimate shear stress

v=Vdy/(lx*dy)=430.18/(3.6*443)

=0.26974 N/mm2

As actual shear stress (v=0.26974 N/mm2 does not exceed design stress

(vc=0.5382 N/mm2 , no shear steel is needed across X-direction faces.

Shear: edge strips, each of width 0.9105 m

pcnt=Aspry/(10*widX*dy)

=1357.2/(10*1.821*443)

=0.16824 %

Assuming no specific shear reinforcement is to be provided

Using the appropriate formula given in Note 2 below Table 3.8,

Design concrete shear stress

vc=0.38046 N/mm2

Since dist.from col.face is less than 2*dy, enhance as per Cl.3.4.5.8.

Enhanced design shear stress

0.50729 N/mm2

Page: 9

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC110 BS

Office: 1007

Ultimate shear stress

v=Vdy/(lx*dy)=430.18/(3.6*443)

=0.26974 N/mm2

As actual shear stress (v=0.26974 N/mm2 does not exceed design stress

(vc=0.50729 N/mm2 , no shear steel is needed across X-direction faces.

Check punching shear at critical plane (Clause 3.11.3.4)

In X-direction:

Dist.from col.face to crit.plane avX=1.5*dx=1.5*457=685.5 mm

Punching-shear-perimeter length

PerY=cy+3*dy=450+3*443=1779 mm

Punching-shear-perimeter length does not exceed central-strip width so

Punching-shear-perimeter length of over central strip PerY1=1779 mm

Punching-shear-perimeter length of over edge strips

PerY2=0 mm

Over central strip:

Area of steel provided

AsProv=Asprx=2412.7 mm2

Breadth of section

EffB=widY1*1000=1.821*1000

=1821 mm

Assuming no specific shear reinforcement is to be provided

Using the appropriate formula given in Note 2 below Table 3.8,

Design concrete shear stress

vc=0.45261 N/mm2

Over edges of base:

Area of steel provided

AsProv=Asprx=1206.4 mm2

Breadth of section

EffB=widY2*1000=0.979*1000

=979 mm

Assuming no specific shear reinforcement is to be provided

Using the appropriate formula given in Note 2 below Table 3.8,

Design concrete shear stress

vc=0.4418 N/mm2

In Y-direction:

Dist.from col.face to crit.plane avY=1.5*dy=1.5*443=664.5 mm

Punching-shear-perimeter length

PerX=cx+3*dx=450+3*457=1821 mm

Length of punching-shear perimeter exceeds width of central strip, so

Punching-shear-perimeter length over central strip PerX1=1779 mm

Punching-shear-perimeter length over edge strips

PerX2=42 mm

Over central strip:

Area of steel provided

AsProv=Aspry=1583.4 mm2

Breadth of section

EffB=widX1*1000=1.779*1000

=1779 mm

Assuming no specific shear reinforcement is to be provided

Using the appropriate formula given in Note 2 below Table 3.8,

Design concrete shear stress

vc=0.40365 N/mm2

Over edges of base:

Area of steel provided

AsProv=Aspry=1357.2 mm2

Breadth of section

EffB=widX2*1000=1.821*1000

=1821 mm

Assuming no specific shear reinforcement is to be provided

Using the appropriate formula given in Note 2 below Table 3.8,

Design concrete shear stress

vc=0.38046 N/mm2

If

Vprx=dx*(vcX1*PerY1+vcX2*PerY2)

=457*(0.45261*1779+0.4418*0)

=367973 N

and

Vpry=dy*(vcY1*PerX1+vcY2*PerX2)

=443*(0.40365*1779+0.38046*42)

=325196 N

Punching-shear resistance prov.

Vprov=2*(Vprx+Vpry)/1000

=2*(367973+325196)/1000

=1386.3 kN

Page: 10

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC110 BS

Office: 1007

Ultimate effective shear force at critical

plane (taking account of moment) Veff=N*(1+1.5*ABS(M)/(N*PerY/1000))

=1606*(1+1.5*ABS(163.6)/(1606

*1779/1000))

=1743.9 kN

Av.bearing stress below column

pf=pa-(pa-pb)*(la+cx/2000)/lx

=143.04-(143.04-209.21)*(1.575+450

/2000)/3.6

=176.13 kN/m2

Reduction in punching load due to

direct load transfer to subbase

Vred=pf*(cy+2*avX)*(cx+2*avY)/1E6

=176.13*(450+2*685.5)*(450+2

*664.5)/1E6

=570.57 kN

Punching-shear resistance reqd.

Vreq=Veff-Vred=1743.9-570.57

=1173.4 kN

As the resistance required (Vreq=1173.4 kN does not exceed that

provided (Vprov=1386.3 kN), no punching shear reinforcement is needed.

Check punching shear at column face

uo=2*(cx+cy)=2*(450+450)

=1800 mm

Punching-shear resistance prov.

VpRes=Vmax*uo*(dx+dy)/2000

=4.7329*1800*(457+443)/2000

=3833.6 kN

Punching-shear resistance reqd.

N=1606 kN

Punching-shear stress on perimeter of column is satisfactory.

Page: 11

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC110 BS

Office: 1007

SUMMARY OF REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED IN X-DIRECTION

Since base width ( 2.8 m ) exceeds ( 3cy/2+9dx/2)=2.7315 m )

according to Cl.3.11.3.2, two-thirds of steel must be concentrated

within central zone extending 1d from each column face ( i.e. total

width =1.821 m ).

CENTRAL ZONE

EDGE ZONES

Diameter of bars

16 mm

Number of bars required 12

Alternate bars curtailed at 930

mm from either side of column face.

Max spacing of bars

160 mm

Area required

2241.7 mm2

Area provided

2412.7 mm2

Percentage provided

0.26 %

Number of bars required 6

Max spacing of bars

175 mm

(Note: reduce spacing of outermost

bars to obtain side cover.)

Area required

1120.8 mm2

Area provided

1206.4 mm2

Percentage provided

0.25 %

Total number of bars

18

Effective depth

457 mm

Total steel area reqd.

3362.5 mm2

Total steel area prov.

3619.1 mm2

Av.percentage provided

0.26 %

Av.weight of steel prov. 10.146 kg/m2

Page: 12

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC110 BS

Office: 1007

SUMMARY OF REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED IN Y-DIRECTION

Since base width ( 3.6 m ) exceeds ( 3cx/2+9dy/2=2.6685 m ),

according to Cl.3.11.3.2, two-thirds of steel must be concentrated

within central zone extending 1d from each column face ( i.e.total

width =1.779 m ).

CENTRAL ZONE

EDGE ZONES

QUANTITIES

Total

Total

Total

Total

Diameter of bars

12 mm

Number of bars required 14

Max spacing of bars

130 mm

Area required

1442.6 mm2

Area provided

1583.4 mm2

Percentage provided

0.18 %

Number of bars required 12

Max spacing of bars

170 mm

(Note: reduce spacing of outermost

bars to obtain side cover.)

Area required

1183.7 mm2

Area provided

1357.2 mm2

Percentage provided

0.15 %

(Note: steel area required is minimum

permitted by Table 3.25.)

Total number of bars

26

Effective depth

443 mm

Total steel area reqd.

2626.2 mm2

Total steel area prov.

2940.5 mm2

Av.percentage provided

0.16 %

Av.weight of steel prov. 6.412 kg/m2

volume of concrete required

area of formwork (base sides only)

volume of reinforcement

weight of reinforcement

5.04 m3

6.4 m2

18486 cm3

145.11 kg

No110

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC110 EC

Office: 1007

Location: Typical problem

Design of reinforced concrete pad footing with shear checks

and IStructE Manual to EC2.

Moment & shear are positive in

directions shown.

MEd

NEd

VEd'

A

B

lx

lx

cx

cy

ly

la

lb

NEd=1606 kN

Ultimate moment in column

MEd=163.6 kNm

Ultimate shear force at base top VEd'=73 kN

Column dimension in X-direction

cx=450 mm

Column dimension in Y-direction

cy=450 mm

Base length (bending in X-dir.)

lx=3.6 m

Width of base (i.e. in Y-dir.)

ly=2.8 m

Partial safety factor for steel

gams=1.15

Partial safety factor for conc.

gamc=1.5

Note: A separate check should be made to ensure the resistance of the

base against sliding due to this shear force.

Left distance to edge of column

la=lm-cx/2000=1.8-450/2000

=1.575 m

Right distance to edge of column lb=lx-lm-cx/2000=3.6-1.8-450/2000

=1.575 m

Char cylinder compress strength

fck=28 N/mm2 (concrete)

Char yield strength of reinft.

fyk=500 N/mm2

Design yield strength of reinft. fyd=fyk/gams=500/1.15=434.78 N/mm2

Mean value axial tensile strength fctm=0.3*fck^(2/3)=0.3*28^(2/3)

=2.7663 N/mm2 (concrete)

All reinft. in pad footing to be high-yield ribbed bars Grade 500.

Char axial tensile strength

fctk=0.7*fctm=0.7*2.7663

=1.9364 N/mm2 (concrete)

Char anchorage bond strength

fbd=2.25*eta1*eta2*fctk/gamc

=2.25*1*1*1.9364/1.5

=2.9046 N/mm2

Overall thickness of base

h=550 mm

Assuming self-weight of reinforced concrete conc=25 kN/m3

Self-weight of base (factored)

Swt=1.35*conc*lx*ly*h/1000

=1.35*25*3.6*2.8*550/1000

=187.11 kN

Diameter of X-direction bars

diax=16 mm

Diameter of Y-direction bars

diay=12 mm

Page: 2

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC110 EC

Office: 1007

Durability and cover to reinforcement

Life of structure

50 years

Exposure class

XC2

Designed concrete

C 28 /35

Minimum cover

covern=25 mm

Fixing tolerance

tol=10 mm

Nominal cover (Cl. 4.4.1.1(2))

cover=35 mm

Ground pressures

The pressures below will be calculated from factored loads and moments

and they are not allowable bearing pressures.

Taking moments about left edge

Mlh=NEd*(la+cx/2E3)+Swt*lx/2+VEd'*h

/1E3+MEd

=1606*(1.575+450/2E3)+187.11*3.6

/2+73*550/1E3+163.6

=3431.3 k

Distance of line of action

from left edge of base

y=Mlh/(NEd+Swt)=3431.3/(1606+187.11)

=1.9136 m

NEd

:

e

:

AB

< y ->

since y>lx/2, eccentricity

e=y-lx/2=1.9136-3.6/2=0.11363 m

Since eccentricity does not exceed lx/6, centroid of load lies within

the middle-third, giving a trapezoidal distribution of pressure, which

varies linearly from pa=144.2 kN/m2 at A to pb=211.58 kN/m2 at B.

pa

pb

Uniform pressure due to self wt.

Pressure at end A

Pressure at end B

z=ly*lx^2/6=2.8*3.6^2/6=6.048 m3

ps=Swt/(lx*ly)=187.11/(3.6*2.8)

=18.563 kN/m2

pa=(NEd+Swt)/(lx*ly)-(NEd+Swt)*e/z

=(1606+187.11)/(3.6*2.8)-(1606

+187.11)*0.11363/6.048

=144.2 kN/m2

pb=(NEd+Swt)/(lx*ly)+(NEd+Swt)*e/z

=(1606+187.11)/(3.6*2.8)+(1606

+187.11)*0.11363/6.048

=211.58 kN/m2

Page: 3

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC110 EC

Office: 1007

Ultimate moments and shears

assume effective depth

ds=0.85*h/1000=0.85*550/1000=0.4675 m

Ultimate moment (at left face of column)

Mda=(3*(pa-ps)+(pb-pa)*la/lx)*ly*la^2/6

=(3*(144.2-18.563)+(211.58-144.2)*1.575/3.6)

*2.8*1.575^2/6

=470.44 kNm

Ultimate moment (at right face of column)

Mdb=(3*(pb-ps)-(pb-pa)*lb/lx)*ly*lb^2/6

=(3*(211.58-18.563)-(211.58-144.2)*1.575

/3.6)*2.8*1.575^2/6

=636.19 kNm

Ultimate shear (near left face of column)

Vda=(2*(pa-ps)+(pb-pa)*(la-ds)/lx)*ly*(la-ds)/2

=(2*(144.2-18.563)+(211.58-144.2)*(1.575

-0.4675)/3.6)*2.8*(1.575-0.4675)/2

=421.74 kN

Ultimate shear (near right face of column)

Vdb=(2*(pb-ps)-(pb-pa)*(lb-ds)/lx)*ly*(lb-ds)/2

=(2*(211.58-18.563)-(211.58-144.2)*(1.575

-0.4675)/3.6)*2.8*(1.575-0.4675)/2

=566.4 kN

Effective depth X-direction

dx=h-cover-0.5*diax=550-35-0.5*16

=507 mm

Design shear force at 1.0dx

Vdx=566.4 kN

Design moment at RH column face

Mdx=636.19 kNm

The maximum moment is reduced to one-half of this value ( i.e. about

318.01 kNm ) at a distance of 0.47 m from the RH face of the column.

Reinforcement to resist bending in X-direction

diax=16 mm

Since specified bar size does not exceed cover,

Effective depth

dx=507 mm

Redistribution ratio

delta=1.0

It is usual practice in the UK to restrict x/d to 0.45

Limit on factor

delta=0.85

Factor

K'=0.597*delta-0.18*delta^2-0.209

=0.597*0.85-0.18*0.85^2-0.209

=0.1684

Factor

K=Mdx*10^6/(1000*ly*dx^2*fck)

=636.2*10^6/(1000*2.8*507^2*28)

=0.0316

Lever arm

z=dx/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*K))

=507/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*0.0316))

=492.5 mm

Reduce lever arm to

z=0.95*dx=0.95*507=481.7 mm

Area of tension steel required

Asx=Mdx*10^6/(fyk/gams*z)

=636.2*10^6/(500/1.15*481.7)

=3038 mm2

Since base width ( ly=2.8 m ) does not exceed ( 1.5*cy+4.5*dx=2.957 m )

no bar re-spacing is necessary in X-direction.

Page: 4

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC110 EC

Office: 1007

Calculated bar spacing (c.to c.) pitch=1000*widY*PI*diax^2/(4*Asx)

=1000*2.8*3.142*16^2/(4*3038)

=185.3 mm

Since this does not exceed maximum permissible spacing of 300 mm,

adopt this value.

Round bar spacing (c.to c.) to

180 mm (rounded)

Revised number of bars required

Nox=INT(1000*ly/pchx)+1

=INT(1000*2.8/180)+1

=16

Area of tension steel provided

Asprx=Nox*PI*diax^2/4

=16*3.142*16^2/4

=3217 mm2

Check spacing and proportion of steel

per=Asprx/(10*widY*h)

=3217/(10*2.8*550)

=0.2089 % of gross section.

As this is within Code limits of 0.15 % and 4%, this is satisfactory.

Furthermore as the area of tension steel provided does not exceed 0.5%,

the bar spacing of 180 mm is satisfactory (refer to IStructE Standard

Method of Detailing Structural Concrete for further information).

Shear across base in X-direction

Shear enhancement

Design shear force @ 1.0dx

Maximum concrete strut capacity

Area of reinforcement at section

Percentage area

Partial concrete safety factor

Factor

Factor

Term for shear resistance

Shear resistance

Minimum stress

Minimum shear resistance

Modified shear resistance

beta'=2*dx/avX=2*507/507

=2

VEd=Vdx=566.4 kN

VRdm=0.2*fck*(1-fck/250)*bw*d/10^3

=0.2*28*(1-28/250)*2800*507/10^3

=7059 kN

Asl=Aspr=3217 mm2

rho1=100*Asl/(bw*d)

=100*3217/(2800*507)

=0.2266 %

gamc=1.5

CRdc=0.18/gamc=0.18/1.5=0.12

ks=1+(200/d)^0.5=1+(200/507)^0.5

=1.628

vRdc=(rho1*fck)^(1/3)

=(0.2266*28)^(1/3)

=1.851

VRdc=beta'*CRdc*ks*vRdc*bw*d/1000

=2*0.12*1.628*1.851*2800*507/1000

=1027 kN

vmin=beta'*0.035*ks^1.5*fck^0.5

=2*0.035*1.628^1.5*28^0.5

=0.7695 N/mm2

VRdm=vmin*bw*d/1000

=0.7695*2800*507/1000

=1092 kN

VRdc=VRdm=1092 kN

Page: 5

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC110 EC

Office: 1007

SHEAR SUMMARY

Shear force

Shear resistance

566.4 kN

1092 kN

Reinforcement to resist bending in Y-direction

design for a uniform moment in Y-direction. Hence

Ultimate bending moment

Mdy=NEd*(ly-cy/1000)^2/(8*ly)

=1606*(2.8-450/1000)^2/(8*2.8)

=395.9 kNm

For initial shear calculations,

assume effective depth

ds=0.85*h/1000=0.85*550/1000

=0.4675 m

Ultimate shear force @ 1.0ds

Vdy=NEd*(ly-cy/1000-2*ds)/(2*ly)

=1606*(2.8-450/1000-2*0.4675)/(2

*2.8)

=405.8 kN

The maximum moment is reduced to one-half of this value (i.e. 198

kNm) at a distance of 0.9326 m from the column face.

Diameter of Y-direction bars

Actual effective depth

diay=12 mm

dy=dx-diax/2-diay/2=507-16/2-12/2

=493 mm

Redistribution ratio

delta=1.0

It is usual practice in the UK to restrict x/d to 0.45

Limit on factor

delta=0.85

Factor

K'=0.597*delta-0.18*delta^2-0.209

=0.597*0.85-0.18*0.85^2-0.209

=0.1684

Factor

K=Mdy*10^6/(1000*lx*dy^2*fck)

=395.9*10^6/(1000*3.6*493^2*28)

=0.0162

Lever arm

z=dy/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*K))

=493/2*(1+SQR(1-3.529*0.0162))

=485.9 mm

Reduce lever arm to

z=0.95*dy=0.95*493=468.4 mm

Area of tension steel required

Asy=Mdy*10^6/(fyk/gams*z)

=395.9*10^6/(500/1.15*468.4)

=1944 mm2

Since base width ( lx=3.6 m ) exceeds ( 1.5*cx+4.5*dy=2.885 m )

two-thirds of the required reinforcement must be concentrated within

a width (3d+cx) located centrally under the column.

Thus over central strip

Asy1=2/3*Asy=2/3*1944=1296 mm2

and over remainder of base

Asy2=Asy/3=1944/3=648.1 mm2

Width of central strip

widX1=(cx+3*dy)/1000=(450+3*493)/1000

=1.929 m

Total width of outer edge strips widX2=lx-widX1=3.6-1.929

=1.671 m

Reinforcement: central strip of width 1.929 m

Asy=Pmin1*1000*widX*h

=0.0015*1000*1.929*550

=1591 mm2

Page: 6

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC110 EC

Office: 1007

Calculated bar spacing (c.to c.) pitch=1000*widX*PI*diay^2/(4*Asy)

=1000*1.929*3.142*12^2/(4*1591)

=137.1 mm

Since this does not exceed maximum permissible spacing of 300 mm,

adopt this value.

Round bar spacing (c.to c.) to

130 mm (rounded)

Revised number of bars required

Noy=INT(1000*widX1/pchy)+1

=INT(1000*1.929/130)+1

=15

Revised width of edge strip steel wdX2=lx*1000-(Noy-1)*pchy

=3.6*1000-(15-1)*130

=1780 mm

Area of tension steel provided

Aspry=Noy*PI*diay^2/4

=15*3.142*12^2/4

=1696 mm2

Check spacing and proportion of steel

per=Aspry/(10*widX*h)

=1696/(10*1.929*550)

=0.1599 % of gross section.

As this is within Code limits of 0.15 % and 4%, this is satisfactory.

Furthermore as the area of tension steel provided does not exceed 0.5%,

the bar spacing of 130 mm is satisfactory (refer to IStructE Standard

Method of Detailing Structural Concrete for further information).

Reinforcement: edge strips, each of width 0.8355 m

Asy=Pmin1*1000*widX*h

=0.0015*1000*1.671*550

=1379 mm2

Calculated bar spacing (c.to c.) pitch=1000*widX*PI*diay^2/(4*Asy)

=1000*1.671*3.142*12^2/(4*1379)

=137.1 mm

Since this does not exceed maximum permissible spacing of 300 mm,

adopt this value.

Round bar spacing (c.to c.) to

130 mm (rounded)

Revised number of bars required

Noy=2*INT(wdX2/pchy/2)+2

=2*INT(1780/130/2)+2

=14

Area of tension steel provided

Aspry=Noy*PI*diay^2/4

=14*3.142*12^2/4

=1583 mm2

Check spacing and proportion of steel

per=Aspry/(10*widX*h)

=1583/(10*1.671*550)

=0.1723 % of gross section.

As this is within Code limits of 0.15 % and 4%, this is satisfactory.

Furthermore as the area of tension steel provided does not exceed 0.5%,

the bar spacing of 130 mm is satisfactory (refer to IStructE Standard

Method of Detailing Structural Concrete for further information).

Page: 7

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC110 EC

Office: 1007

Shear across base in Y-direction

pcnt=Aspry/(10*widX*dy)

=1696/(10*1.929*493)

=0.1784 %

Shear enhancement

beta'=2*dy/avY=2*493/493

=2

Design shear force @ 1.0dy

VEd=Vdy=405.8 kN (from column face)

Maximum concrete strut capacity

VRdm=0.2*fck*(1-fck/250)*bw*d/10^3

=0.2*28*(1-28/250)*1929*493/10^3

=4729 kN

Area of reinforcement at section Asl=Aspr=1696 mm2

Percentage area

rho1=100*Asl/(bw*d)

=100*1696/(1929*493)

=0.1784 %

Partial concrete safety factor

gamc=1.5

Factor

CRdc=0.18/gamc=0.18/1.5=0.12

Factor

ks=1+(200/d)^0.5=1+(200/493)^0.5

=1.637

Term for shear resistance

vRdc=(rho1*fck)^(1/3)

=(0.1784*28)^(1/3)

=1.709

Shear resistance

VRdc=beta'*CRdc*ks*vRdc*bw*d/1000

=2*0.12*1.637*1.709*1929*493/1000

=638.6 kN

Minimum stress

vmin=beta'*0.035*ks^1.5*fck^0.5

=2*0.035*1.637^1.5*28^0.5

=0.7758 N/mm2

Minimum shear resistance

VRdm=vmin*bw*d/1000

=0.7758*1929*493/1000

=737.7 kN

Modified shear resistance

VRdc=VRdm=737.7 kN

SHEAR SUMMARY

Shear force

Shear resistance

405.8 kN

737.7 kN

Shear: edge strips, each of width 0.8355 m

pcnt=Aspry/(10*widX*dy)

=1583/(10*1.671*493)

=0.1922 %

Shear enhancement

beta'=2*dy/avY=2*493/493

=2

Design shear force @ 1.0dy

VEd=Vdy=405.8 kN (from column face)

Maximum concrete strut capacity

VRdm=0.2*fck*(1-fck/250)*bw*d/10^3

=0.2*28*(1-28/250)*1671*493/10^3

=4097 kN

Area of reinforcement at section Asl=Aspr=1583 mm2

Page: 8

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC110 EC

Office: 1007

Percentage area

rho1=100*Asl/(bw*d)

=100*1583/(1671*493)

=0.1922 %

Partial concrete safety factor

gamc=1.5

Factor

CRdc=0.18/gamc=0.18/1.5=0.12

Factor

ks=1+(200/d)^0.5=1+(200/493)^0.5

=1.637

Term for shear resistance

vRdc=(rho1*fck)^(1/3)

=(0.1922*28)^(1/3)

=1.752

Shear resistance

VRdc=beta'*CRdc*ks*vRdc*bw*d/1000

=2*0.12*1.637*1.752*1671*493/1000

=567.2 kN

Minimum stress

vmin=beta'*0.035*ks^1.5*fck^0.5

=2*0.035*1.637^1.5*28^0.5

=0.7758 N/mm2

Minimum shear resistance

VRdm=vmin*bw*d/1000

=0.7758*1671*493/1000

=639.1 kN

Modified shear resistance

VRdc=VRdm=639.1 kN

SHEAR SUMMARY

Shear force

Shear resistance

405.8 kN

639.1 kN

Check punching shear at column face

Eccentricity factor

beta=1.15

Punching shear at column face

VEd=beta*NEd=1.15*1606=1847 kN

Column perimeter

uo=2*(cx+cy)=2*(450+450)

=1800 mm

Strength reduction factor

v=0.6*(1-fck/250)=0.6*(1-28/250)

=0.5328

Design concrete compress strength fcd=fck/gamc=28/1.5=18.67 N/mm2

Average effective depth

dav=(dx+dy)/2=(507+493)/2

=500 mm

Maximum shear resistance

VRdmax=0.5*v*fcd*uo*dav/1000

=0.5*0.5328*18.67*1800*500/1000

=4476 kN

The punching shear at column face ( VEd=1847 kN ) is less than the

maximum shear resistance ( VRdmax=4476 kN ), hence OK.

Check punching shear at critical plane

pf=pa-(pa-pb)*(la+cx/2000)/lx

=144.2-(144.2-211.6)*(1.575+450

/2000)/3.6

=177.9 kN/m2

compute

comp=2*(2*dav*cx+2*dav*cy)

=2*(2*500*450+2*500*450)

=1800000

Upward force within control per. Vup=pf*(cx*cy+PI*(2*dav)^2+comp)/1E6

=177.9*(450*450+3.142*(2*500)^2

+1800000)/1E6

=915.1 kN

Page: 9

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC110 EC

Office: 1007

Punching-shear resistance reqd.

VEd=pf*lx*ly-Vup=177.9*3.6*2.8-915.1

=878 kN

Basic control perimeter at 2d

u1=2*(cx+cy)+2*PI*(2*dav)

=2*(450+450)+2*3.142*(2*500)

=8083 mm

Shear stress at control perimeter vEd=beta*VEd*1000/(u1*dav)

=1.15*878*1000/(8083*500)

=0.2498 N/mm2

compute

k=1+(200/dav)^0.5=1+(200/500)^0.5

=1.632

Reinforcement ratio

p1=0.0021

Design punching shear resistance vRdc=(0.18/gamc)*k*(100*p1*fck)^0.333

=(0.18/1.5)*1.632*(100*0.0021

*28)^0.333

=0.3534 N/mm2

Shear enhancement 2d/av

senh=1

Enhanced punching shear resist.

vRdc=senh*vRdc=1*0.3534

=0.3534 N/mm2

The min design punching shear resistance governs and will be adopted.

Design punching shear resistance vRdc=senh*0.035*k^1.5*fck^0.5

=1*0.035*1.632^1.5*28^0.5

=0.3863 N/mm2

As vEd vRdc punching shear reinforcement is not necessary.

SUMMARY OF REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED IN X-DIRECTION

Since base width ( 2.8 m ) does not exceed ( 3cy/2+9dx/2=4.2 m )

bars should be spaced uniformly across base.

Diameter of bars

16 mm

Total number of bars

16

Max spacing of bars

180 mm

(Note: reduce spacing as necessary

to accommodate bars required)

Effective depth

507 mm

Total steel area reqd.

3038 mm2

Total steel area prov.

3217 mm2

Page: 10

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Pad footing, uniaxial bending, incl section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC110 EC

Office: 1007

SUMMARY OF REINFORCEMENT REQUIRED IN Y-DIRECTION

Since base width ( 3.6 m ) exceeds ( 3cx/2+9dy/2=2.894 m )

two-thirds of steel must be concentrated within central zone

extending 1d from each column face ( i.e.total width =1.929 m ).

CENTRAL ZONE

EDGE ZONES

QUANTITIES

Diameter of bars

12 mm

Number of bars required 15

Max spacing of bars

130 mm

Area required

1591 mm2

Area provided

1696 mm2

Percentage provided

0.16 %

Number of bars required 14

Max spacing of bars

130 mm

(Note: reduce spacing as necessary

to accommodate bars required)

Area required

1379 mm2

Area provided

1583 mm2

Percentage provided

0.17 %

Total number of bars

29

Effective depth

493 mm

Total steel area reqd.

2970 mm2

Total steel area prov.

3280 mm2

Total concrete volume

Total area of formwork

(base sides only).

5.544 m3

7.04 m2

No110

Page: 1

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Deep beams - Kong's method

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC111

Office: 1007

Design of deep beam using Kong simplified method

See Table 148 of Reinforced Concrete Designer's Handbook 10th edition.

a1

CLine

.

opening

:

opening

h

if

.

if

provided

:

provided

l

Span between centres of supports l=3 m

Overall depth of beam

h=2 m

Breadth of beam

b=0.5 m

Total self-weight of beam

SelfWt=24*b*h*l=24*0.5*2*3

=72 kN

Uniform load:

Load per unit length

w=500 kN/m

Total applied load

F=w*l=500*3=1500 kN

Dist. to point of application

a1=l/4=3/4=0.75 m

Maximum bending moment

M=(F+SelfWt)*l/8=(1500+72)*3/8

=589.5 kNm

Maximum shearing force

V=(F+SelfWt)/2=(1500+72)/2

=786 kN

Principal diagonal crack acts at 69 degrees to the horizontal.

Grade of concrete

fcu=30 N/mm2

Yield strength of reinforcement

fy=500 N/mm2

Normal-weight concrete is used.

Value of concrete constant

k1=0.7

From table of data given by Kong, Robins and Sharp, concrete cylinder

splitting tensile strength

Ft=2.74 N/mm2

Reinforcement assumed to consist of deformed high-yield bars.

Value of reinforcement constant

k2=225

Designed concrete mix to be used. Cover data from Tables A.4 & A.5 of

BS8500-1:2006.

Intended life of structure (for durability considerations) is 50 years.

Designated exposure class is XC1

Specified fixing tolerance

tol=10 mm

Chosen fire resistance period

fire=2 hours

From Table 3.4 of BS8110, minimum cover needed to all steel for simply

supported beam with a fire period of 2 hour/s is 35 mm.

Cover to all bars

cover=35 mm

From Figure 3.2 of BS8110, minimum possible beam width complying

with a fire period of 2 hour/s is 200 mm

Breadth provided complies with fire regulations (Figure 3.2 of Code).

Page: 2

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Deep beams - Kong's method

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC111

Office: 1007

Main reinforcement

TYPICAL STEEL

ARRANGEMENT

: provide nominal

opening

:

opening

vertical links

throughout span

:

(max. diameter

assumed to be

12 mm

in this

proforma)

horizontal shear bars (or links) below opening (if required)

main reinforcement

Note:If shear steel is needed, bars must be

provided both above and below opening.

From Table 148 in RCD Handbook using formulae A and B.

Calculated steel area

Asreq=1900*M/(fy*h)

=1900*589.5/(500*2)

=1120.1 mm2

Minimum breadth of beam required bmin=650*V/(k1*1000*(h-0.35*a1)*Ft)

=650*786/(0.7*1000*(2-0.35*0.75)

*2.74)

=153.31 mm

Calculated area of main steel is less than minimum percentage of 0.13 %,

i.e. 1300 mm2 , as specified in Table 3.25 of BS8110:

Part 1 (or equivalent) and must be increased accordingly.

Area of main tension steel reqd

Asreq=AsMin=1300 mm2

Steel corresponding to minimum allowable proportion only needed.

Diameter of main tension bars

dia=12 mm

Number of main bars

NumBar=12

Steel area provided

AsProv=NumBar*PI*(dia)^2/4

=12*3.1416*(12)^2/4

=1357.2 mm2

Effective depth of main bars

d=1925 mm

MAIN TENSION

REINFORCEMENT

SUMMARY

Characteristic strength

Diameter of bars

Number of bars

Area required

Area provided

Percentage provided

500 N/mm2

12 mm

12

1300 mm2

1357.2 mm2

0.13572 %

Shearing reinforcement

with

Vx1=k1*(h-0.35*a1)*Ft*b*1000^2/1000

=0.7*(2-0.35*0.75)*2.74*0.5*1000^2/1000

=1666.3 kN

and

Vx2=k2*AsProv*d*(SIN(ThetaL))^2/(1000*1000*h)

=225*1357.2*1925*(SIN(1.212))^2/(1000*1000*2)

=257.68 kN

Page: 3

Reinforced concrete design to BS8110 & Eurocode 2

Made by: IFB

Deep beams - Kong's method

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC111

Office: 1007

Shear resistance from main bars

V1=Vx1+Vx2=1666.3+257.68

=1923.9 kN

As this value exceeds the applied shear force of 786 kN, no

specific shearing reinforcement is needed. Provide nominal steel only.

Anti-cracking steel

Ldia=12 mm

As the overall beam depth exceeds 750 mm, Clauses 3.12.5.4 and

3.12.11.2.6 of BS8110 require 11 No. 12 mm horizontal bars to be

provided at 130 mm centres near each face over a height of 1333.3 mm

from the bottom of the section. The main tension steel and any shear

bars provided may be considered to contribute to this reinforcement.

According to Clause 3.12.5.4 of BS8110, as beam breadth is less than

500 mm, take a value of b of 500 mm.

Minimum bar diameter

mDia=SQR(sb*bEquiv/fy)

=SQR(130*500/500)

=11.402 mm

As the diameter of the horizontal bars provided is 12 mm

the requirements of BS8110 in this respect are met.

ANTI-CRACKING

REINFORCEMENT

SUMMARY

Characteristic strength

Diameter of bars

Number of bars (each face)

Spacing

500 N/mm2

12 mm

11

130 mm

No111

Page: 1

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Rectangular section with axial load and bending

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC250 BS

Office: 1007

Location: Rectangular section with axial load and bending

y

z

z d

Calculations in accordance

with BS5268-2:2002.

b

Design BM about zz (positive)

Design shear force in y direction

Design axial load (+ve compress)

Member is in compression.

Eff length for bending about zz

Depth of section

Width of section

Eff length for bending about yy

Mz=0.5 kNm

V=0 kN

F=5 kN

Lez'=2.346 m

d=97 mm

b=97 mm

Lez=Lez'*1000=2.346*1000

=2346 mm

Ley'=0 m

Ley=Ley'*1000=0*1000=0 mm

Section properties

Inertia about zz axis

Inertia about yy axis

Area of cross section

Radius of gyration about zz axis

Radius of gyration about yy axis

Slenderness

Slenderness ratio about yy axis

zz axis controls SR

h=b=97 mm

Iz=b*d^3/12=97*97^3/12=7.3774E6 mm4

Iy=d*b^3/12=97*97^3/12=7.3774E6 mm4

A=b*d=97*97=9409 mm2

iz=SQR(Iz/A)=SQR(7.3774E6/9409)

=28.001 mm

iy=SQR(Iy/A)=SQR(7.3774E6/9409)

=28.001 mm

lambdz=Lez/iz=2346/28.001

=83.781

lambdy=Ley/iy=0/28.001=0

lambda=lambdz=83.781

Page: 2

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Rectangular section with axial load and bending

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC250 BS

Office: 1007

Grade stresses

cparg=7.1 N/mm2

Bending parallel to grain

bparg=5.8 N/mm2

Shear parallel to grain

sparg=0.67 N/mm2

Mean modulus of elasticity

Emean=9100 N/mm2

Minimum modulus of elasticity

Emin=6000 N/mm2

Modification factors

Timber service class modification

Modification factors:

Bending parallel to grain

Tension parallel to grain

Compression parallel to grain

Compression to grain

Shear parallel to grain

Mean & min modulus of elasticity

Duration of loading

Depth factor

tmclass=1

factor K2=1 as Table 16.

K2ben=1.0

K2ten=1.0

K2com=1.0

K2per=1.0

K2shr=1.0

K2mod=1.0

K3=1.25

K7=(300/d)^0.11=(300/97)^0.11

=1.1322

Member is not in a load-sharing system as defined by Clause 2.9.

Modulus of elasticity

E=Emin*K2mod=6000*1=6000 N/mm2

Load-sharing modification factor K8=1.0

For compression members with slenderness ratios equal to or greater

than 5, the permissible stress should be calculated as the product

of the grade compression parallel to the grain stress, modified as

appropriate for size, moisture content, duration of load and

load sharing, and the modification factor K12 given by table, or

calculated as follows using the equation in annex B. The value

of modulus of elasticity should be the minimum modulus of elasticity.

The compression parallel to the grain stress required for entry to

annex B should be the grade stress modified only for moisture

content and duration of load.

Compr. parallel to grain stress

sigc=K2com*K3*cparg=1*1.25*7.1

=8.875 N/mm2

Modulus of elasticity

E=Emin*K2mod=6000*1=6000 N/mm2

Factor for annex B

C=PI^2*E/(1.5*lambda^2*sigc)

=3.1416^2*6000/(1.5*83.781^2*8.875)

=0.63372

Eccentricity factor

eta=0.005*lambda=0.005*83.781

=0.41891

Modification factor

K12=(0.5+(1+eta)*C/2)-((0.5+(1+eta)*C/2)^2-C)^0.5

=(0.5+(1+0.41891)*0.63372/2)-((0.5+(1

+0.41891)*0.63372/2)^2-0.63372)^0.5

=0.4319

Page: 3

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Rectangular section with axial load and bending

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC250 BS

Office: 1007

Permissible stresses

sigcad=K2com*K3*K8*K12*cparg

=1*1.25*1*0.4319*7.1

=3.8331 N/mm2

Permissible bending stress

sigmad=K2ben*K3*K7*K8*bparg

=1*1.25*1.1322*1*5.8

=8.2087 N/mm2

Axial compression

for the selection of material for columns. Particular attention

should therefore be paid to the straightness of columns, e.g. by

limiting bow to approximately 1/300 of the length.

Applied compression stress

sigca=F*1000/A=5*1000/9409

=0.53141 N/mm2

Bending

sigma=Mz*1E6*(d/2)/Iz

=0.5*1E6*(97/2)/7.3774E6

=3.287 N/mm2

Euler critical stress

sige=PI^2*E/lambda^2

=3.1416^2*6000/83.781^2

=8.4364 N/mm2

Bending stress modification fact bsmf=1-1.5*sigca*K12/sige

=1-1.5*0.53141*0.4319/8.4364

=0.95919

Interaction factor

factor=sigma/(sigmad*bsmf)+sigca

/sigcad

=3.287/(8.2087*0.95919)

+0.53141/3.8331

=0.55611

Interaction factor less than or equal to unity therefore OK.

DESIGN

SUMMARY

Depth of section

97 mm

Width of section

97 mm

Strength class C18 to Table 8

Timber moisture class

1

Applied comprn stress

0.53141 N/mm2

Permiss comprn stress

3.8331 N/mm2

Applied bending stress 3.287 N/mm2

Permiss bending stress 8.2087 N/mm2

Interaction factor

0.55611

No250

Page: 1

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Rectangular section with axial load and bending

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC250 EC

Office: 1007

Location: Rectangular section with axial load and bending

z

y

y h

about y-y axis, in accordance

with Eurocode 5 incorporating

National Annex Amendment No.2.

b

Design BM about yy (positive)

Design shear force in z direction

Design axial load (+ve compress)

The member under consideration is

Eff length for bending about yy

Depth of section

Width of section

Eff length for bending about zz

Md=0.725 kNm

Vd=0 kN

Nd=7.25 kN

in compression.

ley=2.346 m

h=97 mm

b=97 mm

Ley=ley*1000=2.346*1000=2346 mm

lez=0 m

Lez=lez*1000=0*1000=0 mm

Section properties

Inertia about yy axis

Inertia about zz axis

Area of cross section

Radius of gyration about yy axis

Radius of gyration about zz axis

Slenderness

Slenderness ratio about zz axis

Controlling slenderness ratio

lardim=97 mm

Iy=b*h^3/12=97*97^3/12=7.3774E6 mm4

Iz=h*b^3/12=97*97^3/12=7.3774E6 mm4

A=b*h=97*97=9409 mm2

iy=SQR(Iy/A)=SQR(7.3774E6/9409)

=28.001 mm

iz=SQR(Iz/A)=SQR(7.3774E6/9409)

=28.001 mm

lambdy=Ley/iy=2346/28.001

=83.781

lambdz=Lez/iz=0/28.001=0

lambda=lambdy=83.781

fc0k=18 N/mm2

Bending parallel to grain

fmk=18 N/mm2

Shear parallel to grain

fvk=3.4 N/mm2

Mean modulus of elasticity

E0mean=9000 N/mm2

5th percentile mod of elasticity E005=6000 N/mm2

Page: 2

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Rectangular section with axial load and bending

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC250 EC

Office: 1007

Modification factors

with a max moisture content of 12%.

Medium-term duration factor

kmod=0.8

Depth factor (Clause 3.2)

kh=(150/h)^0.2=(150/97)^0.2

=1.0911

Member is not in a load-sharing system as defined by Clause 6.6.

Load-sharing modification factor ksys=1.0

For compression members the compressive strength needs to be be modified

by the following instability factors (EC5 Clause 6.3.2):

Relative slenderness ratio yy

rsry=lambdy/PI*(fc0k/E005)^0.5

=83.781/3.1416*(18/6000)^0.5

=1.4607

Relative slenderness ratio zz

rsrz=lambdz/PI*(fc0k/E005)^0.5

=0/3.1416*(18/6000)^0.5

=0

From eq 6.27 and 6.28 of EC5,

Factor for yy axis

ky=0.5*(1+0.2*(rsry-0.3)+rsry^2)

=0.5*(1+0.2*(1.4607-0.3)+1.4607^2)

=1.6829

Factor for zz axis

kz=0.5*(1+0.2*(rsrz-0.3)+rsrz^2)

=0.5*(1+0.2*(0-0.3)+0^2)

=0.47

Instability factor

kcy=1/(ky+(ky^2-rsry^2)^0.5)

=1/(1.6829+(1.6829^2-1.4607^2)^0.5)

=0.39704

Instability factor

kcz=1/(kz+(kz^2-rsrz^2)^0.5)

=1/(0.47+(0.47^2-0^2)^0.5)

=1.0638

Max instability factor

kcz=1

The shear strength parallel to the grain will be reduced by 33% to

allow for possible drying splits and glue-line failure (refer to EC5

Part 1-1 Clause 6.1.7(2) for further clarification).

Shear reduction factor

ksh=0.67

Lateral stability factor - Clause 6.3.3

bending in the evaluation of bending parallel to grain.

Effective length about zz

Le=0 m

The effective length about zz will be taken as 0.1 m.

Critical bending stress

cbs=0.78*b^2*E005/(h*Le*1000)

=0.78*97^2*6000/(97*0.1*1000)

=4539.6 N/mm2

Relative slenderness (bending)

rsb=(fmk/cbs)^0.5=(18/4539.6)^0.5

=0.062969

Reduced bending strength factor

kcrit=1.0

Page: 3

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Rectangular section with axial load and bending

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC250 EC

Office: 1007

Design strengths

gamM=1.3 (individually marked)

Design compressive strength

fc0d=ksys*kmod*fc0k/gamM=1*0.8*18/1.3

=11.077 N/mm2

Design bending strength

fmd=kh*ksys*kmod*fmk/gamM

=1.0911*1*0.8*18/1.3

=12.086 N/mm2

Design compression strength

for the selection of material for columns. Particular attention

should therefore be paid to the straightness of columns, e.g. by

limiting bow to approximately 1/300 of the length.

Design compression stress

sc0d=Nd*1000/A=7.25*1000/9409

=0.77054 N/mm2

2

Since sc0d fc0d ( 0.77054 N/mm 11.077 N/mm2 ) design

compression stress is within the design compression strength.

Design bending strength

smd=Md*1E6*(h/2)/Iy

=0.725*1E6*(97/2)/7.3774E6

=4.7662 N/mm2

Column is non-stocky hence use Clause 6.3.2 and 6.3.3 of EC5,

Interaction factor

fact1=sc0d/(kcy*fc0d)+smd/fmd

=0.77054/(0.39704*11.077)

+4.7662/12.086

=0.56956

Interaction factor

fact2=(smd/(kcrit*fmd))^2+sc0d/(kcz*fc0d)

=(4.7662/(1*12.086))^2+0.77054/(1

*11.077)

=0.22508

Governing interaction factor

factor=0.56956

Interaction equation is satisfied, therefore OK.

DESIGN

SUMMARY

Depth of section

97 mm

Width of section

97 mm

Timber strength class C18.

Timber moisture class

1

Design compr. stress

0.77054 N/mm2

Design compr. strength

11.077 N/mm2

Design bending stress

4.7662 N/mm2

Design bending strength 12.086 N/mm2

Interaction factor

0.56956 1

No250

Page: 1

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Rectangular Glulam column/tie with axial load

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC251 BS

Office: 1007

Location: Glulam section with axial load & bending

z z d

tp

y

b

horizontal laminations.

Calculations in accordance

with BS5268-2:2002.

Mz'=21.5 kNm

Design shear force in y direction V'=25 kN

Design axial load (+ve compress) F'=30.9 kN

Mz=21.5E6 Nmm

V=25000 N

F=30900 N

Member is in compression.

Eff length for bending about zz

Lez'=4.5 m

Number of laminates in section

np=10

Thickness of laminates in section tp=45 mm

Width of section

b=135 mm

Depth of section

d=tp*np=45*10=450 mm

Glulam beam laterally restrained with support restraint as Table 19.

Eff length for bending about yy

Ley'=0 m

Grade stresses

taken as the product of the strength class stresses given in Table 8

for the relevant grade and species and the modification factors of

Table 24.

Chosen species is a Softwood.

Strength class C22 to Table 8

Section properties

Inertia about zz axis

Inertia about yy axis

Area of cross section

Radius of gyration about zz axis

Radius of gyration about yy axis

h=d=450 mm

Iz=b*d^3/12=135*450^3/12

=1.0252E9 mm4

Iy=d*b^3/12=450*135^3/12

=92.264E6 mm4

A=b*d=135*450=60750 mm2

iz=SQR(Iz/A)=SQR(1.0252E9/60750)

=129.9 mm

iy=SQR(Iy/A)=SQR(92.264E6/60750)

=38.971 mm

Page: 2

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Rectangular Glulam column/tie with axial load

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC251 BS

Office: 1007

Slenderness

lambdz=Lez/iz=4500/129.9

=34.641

Slenderness ratio about yy axis

lambdy=Ley/iy=0/38.971

=0

zz axis controls slenderness ratio lambda=lambdz=34.641

Grade stresses

Bending parallel to grain

Shear parallel to grain

Mean modulus of elasticity

Minimum modulus of elasticity

Modification factors

Timber service class modification

Modification factors:

Bending parallel to grain

Tension parallel to grain

Compression parallel to grain

Compression to grain

Shear parallel to grain

Mean & min modulus of elasticity

Duration of loading

Depth factor

cparg=7.5 N/mm2

bparg=6.8 N/mm2

sparg=0.71 N/mm2

Emean=9700 N/mm2

Emin=6500 N/mm2

tmclass=1

factor K2=1 as Table 16.

K2ben=1.0

K2ten=1.0

K2com=1.0

K2per=1.0

K2shr=1.0

K2mod=1.0

K3=1.25

K7=0.81*(d^2+92300)/(d^2+56800)

=0.81*(450^2+92300)/(450^2+56800)

=0.92089

Member is not in a load-sharing system as defined by Clause 2.9

Load-sharing modification factor K8=1.0

Modification

Modification

Modification

Modification

factor

factor

factor

factor

K15

K17

K19

K20

K15=1.42

K17=1.04

K19=2.34

K20=1.07

to calculate deflections and displacements under both dead and

imposed loads.

Modulus of elasticity

E=Emean*K2mod*K20=9700*1*1.07

=10379 N/mm2

For compression members with slenderness ratios equal to or greater

than 5, the permissible stress should be calculated as the product

of the grade compression parallel to the grain stress, modified as

appropriate for size, moisture content, duration of load and

load sharing, and the modification factor K12 given by table, or

calculated as follows using the equation in annex B. The value

of modulus of elasticity should be the mean modulus of elasticity

modified by K20.

The compression parallel to the grain stress required for entry to

annex B should be the grade stress modified only for moisture

content and duration of load.

Page: 3

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Rectangular Glulam column/tie with axial load

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC251 BS

Office: 1007

Compress parallel to grain stress sigc=K2com*K3*cparg=1*1.25*7.5

=9.375 N/mm2

Modified modulus of elasticity

10379 N/mm2

Factor for annex B

C=PI^2*E/(1.5*lambda^2*sigc)

=3.1416^2*10379/(1.5*34.641^2*9.375)

=6.0703

Eccentricity factor

eta=0.005*lambda=0.005*34.641

=0.17321

Modification factor

K12=(0.5+(1+eta)*C/2)-((0.5+(1+eta)*C/2)^2-C)^0.5

=(0.5+(1+0.17321)*6.0703/2)-((0.5+(1+0.17321)

*6.0703/2)^2-6.0703)^0.5

=0.83282

Permissible stresses

sigcad=K2com*K3*K8*K12*K17*cparg

=1*1.25*1*0.83282*1.04*7.5

=8.1199 N/mm2

Permissible bending stress

sigmad=K2ben*K3*K7*K8*K15*bparg

=1*1.25*0.92089*1*1.42*6.8

=11.115 N/mm2

Permissible shear stress

torad=K2shr*K3*K8*K19*sparg

=1*1.25*1*2.34*0.71

=2.0768 N/mm2

Axial compression

for the selection of material for columns. Particular attention

should therefore be paid to the straightness of columns, e.g. by

limiting bow to approximately 1/300 of the length.

Applied compression stress

sigca=F/A=30900/60750=0.50864 N/mm2

Bending stress

sigma=Mz*(d/2)/Iz

=21.5E6*(450/2)/1.0252E9

=4.7188 N/mm2

Euler critical stress

sige=PI^2*E/lambda^2

=3.1416^2*10379/34.641^2

=85.364 N/mm2

Bending stress modification fact bsmf=1-1.5*sigca*K12/sige

=1-1.5*0.50864*0.83282/85.364

=0.99256

Interaction factor

factor=sigma/(sigmad*bsmf)+sigca

/sigcad

=4.7188/(11.115*0.99256)

+0.50864/8.1199

=0.49036

Interaction factor less than or equal to unity therefore OK.

Page: 4

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Rectangular Glulam column/tie with axial load

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC251 BS

Office: 1007

Shear stress

tora=3*V/(2*b*d)=3*25000/(2*135*450)

=0.61728 N/mm2

2

Since tora torad ( 0.61728 N/mm 2.0768 N/mm2 ) shear stress

does not exceed permissible therefore OK.

DESIGN

SUMMARY

Laminate Thickness

Number of laminates

Depth of section

Width of section

45 mm

10

450 mm

135 mm

GRADE STRESSES

Bending

6.8 N/mm2

Compression // to grain 7.5 N/mm2

Shear

0.71 N/mm2

Modulus of elasticity

9700 N/mm2

Strength class C22 to Table 8

Moisture service class

1

Dry stresses are appropriate

Applied comprn stress

Permiss comprn stress

Applied bending stress

Permiss bending stress

Interaction factor

Applied shear stress

Permiss shear stress

0.50864 N/mm2

8.1199 N/mm2

4.7188 N/mm2

11.115 N/mm2

0.49036

0.61728 N/mm2

2.0768 N/mm2

No251

Page: 1

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Rectangular Glulam column/tie with axial load

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC251 EC

Office: 1007

Location: Glulam section with axial load & bending

y y h

tp

z

b

bending about yy axis with

horizontal laminations.

Design is based on EC5

incorporating National

Annex Amendment No.2.

Md'=31.175 kNm

Design shear force in z direction Vd'=36.25 kN

Design axial load (+ve compress) Nd'=44.805 kN

Member under consideration is in compression.

Eff length for bending about yy

ley'=4.5 m

Number of laminates in section

np=10

Thickness of laminates in section tp=45 mm

Width of section

b=135 mm

Depth of section

h=tp*np=45*10=450 mm

Eff length for bending about zz

lez'=0 m

Glulam strength class GL36h

Section properties

Inertia about yy axis

Inertia about zz axis

Area of cross section

Radius of gyration about yy axis

Radius of gyration about zz axis

Slenderness

Slenderness ratio about zz axis

Controlling slenderness ratio

lardim=450 mm

Iy=b*h^3/12=135*450^3/12

=1.0252E9 mm4

Iz=h*b^3/12=450*135^3/12

=92.264E6 mm4

A=b*h=135*450=60750 mm2

iy=SQR(Iy/A)=SQR(1.0252E9/60750)

=129.9 mm

iz=SQR(Iz/A)=SQR(92.264E6/60750)

=38.971 mm

lambdy=Ley/iy=4500/129.9

=34.641

lambdz=Lez/iz=0/38.971=0

lambda=lambdy=34.641

Page: 2

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Rectangular Glulam column/tie with axial load

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC251 EC

Office: 1007

Characteristic strength properties - BS EN 1194:1999

fc0k=31 N/mm2

Bending parallel to grain

fmk=36 N/mm2

Shear parallel to grain

fvk=4.3 N/mm2

Mean modulus of elasticity

E0mean=14700 N/mm2

5th percentile mod of elasticity E005=11900 N/mm2

Modification factors

with a max moisture content of 12%.

Medium-term duration factor

kmod=0.8

Depth factor (Clause 3.3)

kh=(600/h)^0.1=(600/450)^0.1

=1.0292

Member is in a load-sharing system as defined by Clause 6.6

Load-sharing modification factor ksys=1.2

For compression members the compressive strength needs to be be modified

by the following instability factors (EC5 Clause 6.3.2):

Relative slenderness ratio yy

rsry=lambdy/PI*(fc0k/E005)^0.5

=34.641/3.1416*(31/11900)^0.5

=0.56279

Relative slenderness ratio zz

rsrz=lambdz/PI*(fc0k/E005)^0.5

=0/3.1416*(31/11900)^0.5

=0

From expressions 6.27 and 6.28 of EC5,

Factor for yy axis

ky=0.5*(1+0.1*(rsry-0.3)+rsry^2)

=0.5*(1+0.1*(0.56279-0.3)+0.56279^2)

=0.67151

Factor for zz axis

kz=0.5*(1+0.1*(rsrz-0.3)+rsrz^2)

=0.5*(1+0.1*(0-0.3)+0^2)

=0.485

Instability factor

kcy=1/(ky+(ky^2-rsry^2)^0.5)

=1/(0.67151+(0.67151^2

-0.56279^2)^0.5)

=0.96356

Instability factor

kcz=1/(kz+(kz^2-rsrz^2)^0.5)

=1/(0.485+(0.485^2-0^2)^0.5)

=1.0309

Max instability factor

kcz=1

The shear strength parallel to the grain will be reduced by 33% to

allow for possible drying splits and glue-line failure (refer to EC5

Part 1-1 Clause 6.1.7(2) for further clarification).

Shear reduction factor

ksh=0.67

Lateral stability factor - EC5 Clause 6.3.3

bending in the evaluation of bending parallel to grain.

Effective length about zz

Le=3.6 m

Critical bending stress

cbs=0.78*b^2*E005/(h*Le*1000)

=0.78*135^2*11900/(450*3.6*1000)

=104.42 N/mm2

Relative slenderness (bending)

rsb=(fmk/cbs)^0.5=(36/104.42)^0.5

=0.58716

Page: 3

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Rectangular Glulam column/tie with axial load

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC251 EC

Office: 1007

Reduced bending strength factor

kcrit=1.0

Design strengths

Design compression strength

Design bending strength

Design shear strength

gamM=1.25

fc0d=ksys*kmod*fc0k/gamM

=1.2*0.8*31/1.25

=23.808 N/mm2

fmd=kh*ksys*kmod*fmk/gamM

=1.0292*1.2*0.8*36/1.25

=28.455 N/mm2

fvd=ksh*ksys*kmod*fvk/gamM

=0.67*1.2*0.8*4.3/1.25

=2.2126 N/mm2

for the selection of material for columns. Particular attention

should therefore be paid to the straightness of columns, e.g. by

limiting bow to approximately 1/300 of the length.

Design compression stress

sc0d=Nd/A=44805/60750=0.73753 N/mm2

Design bending strength

smd=Md*(h/2)/Iy

=31.175E6*(450/2)/1.0252E9

=6.8422 N/mm2

Column is non-stocky hence use EC5 Clause 6.3.2 & 6.3.3.

Interaction factor

fact1=sc0d/(kcy*fc0d)+smd/fmd

=0.73753/(0.96356*23.808)

+6.8422/28.455

=0.27261

Interaction factor

fact2=(smd/(kcrit*fmd))^2+sc0d/(kcz

*fc0d)

=(6.8422/(1*28.455))^2+0.73753

/(1*23.808)

=0.088799

Governing interaction factor

factor=0.27261

Interaction equation is satisfied, therefore OK.

Design Shear strength

svd=Vd/(0.67*b*h)

=36250/(0.67*135*450)

=0.89061 N/mm2

Since svd fvd ( 0.89061 N/mm2 2.2126 N/mm2 ) design shear stress

does not exceed the design shear strength, therefore OK.

Page: 4

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Rectangular Glulam column/tie with axial load

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC251 EC

Office: 1007

DESIGN

SUMMARY

Laminate thickness

Number of laminates

Depth of section

Width of section

45 mm

10

450 mm

135 mm

Bending

36 N/mm2

Compression // to grain 31 N/mm2

Shear

4.3 N/mm2

Modulus of elasticity

14700 N/mm2

Glulam strength class GL36h

Moisture service class

1

Dry stresses are appropriate

Design comprn stress

Design comprn strength

Design bending strength

Design bending strength

Interaction factor

Design shear stress

Design shear strength

0.73753 N/mm2

23.808 N/mm2

6.8422 N/mm2

28.455 N/mm2

0.27261

0.89061 N/mm2

2.2126 N/mm2

No251

Page: 1

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Biaxial bending of timber section

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC253 BS

Office: 1007

Location: Biaxial bending of timber section

Dead+imposed

_ _

_ _

///

ooo

L

bi-axial bending to

BS5268-2:2002

Beam span

L=2.2 m

Depth of section

d=172 mm

Width of section

b=63 mm

Beam laterally restrained with support restraint as Table 19.

Strength class C18 to Table 8

Timber service class adopted

tmclass=1

Timber service class modification factor K2=1 as Table 16.

Modification factors:

Bending parallel to grain

K2ben=1.0

Tension parallel to grain

K2ten=1.0

Compression parallel to grain

K2com=1.0

Compression to grain

K2per=1.0

Shear parallel to grain

K2shr=1.0

Mean & min modulus of elasticity K2mod=1.0

Loading

force W and axis Y-Y, and

also as shown in the diagram.

Load W is applied vertically

and is to be resolved into

components in each of the axes

X-X and Y-Y.

Load W is applied in the

vertical direction only.

____

X

_)_theta__

Wvd=0.44 kN/m

Live vertical load W

Wvl=0.44 kN/m

Total Vertical load W

W=Wvd+Wvl=0.44+0.44=0.88 kN/m

Angle of X-X axis of rafter to horizontal

theta=30 degrees

Force resolved along Y-Y axis

Wx=W*COS(RAD(theta))

=0.88*COS(RAD(30))

=0.7621 kN/m

Force resolved along X-X axis

Wy=W*SIN(RAD(theta))

=0.88*SIN(RAD(30))

=0.44 kN/m

Axial load (+ve Compress)

Fa'=0 kN

Fa=0 N

Page: 2

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Biaxial bending of timber section

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC253 BS

Office: 1007

Section properties

Ix=b*d^3/12=63*172^3/12=26.714E6 mm4

Inertia about y-y axis

Iy=d*b^3/12=172*63^3/12=3.584E6 mm4

Area of cross section

A=b*d=63*172=10836 mm2

Radius of gyration abt x-x axis

ix=SQR(Ix/A)=SQR(26.714E6/10836)

=49.652 mm

Radius of gyration abt y-y axis

iy=SQR(Iy/A)=SQR(3.584E6/10836)

=18.187 mm

Bending moments and reactions

Max span BM about Y-Y

Max SF in direction of X-X axis

Max SF in direction of Y-Y axis

Design shear force

Grade stresses

Bending parallel to grain

Shear parallel to grain

Compression to grain

Mean modulus of elasticity

Minimum modulus of elasticity

Mx=Wx*L^2/8=0.7621*2.2^2/8

=0.46107 kNm

My=Wy*L^2/8=0.44*2.2^2/8

=0.2662 kNm

Rx=Wx*L/2=0.7621*2.2/2=0.83831 kN

Ry=Wy*L/2=0.44*2.2/2=0.484 kN

Fve=SQR(Rx^2+Ry^2)

=SQR(0.83831^2+0.484^2)

=0.968 kN

cparg=7.1 N/mm2

bparg=5.8 N/mm2

sparg=0.67 N/mm2

cperd=2.2 N/mm2

Emean=9100 N/mm2

Emin=6000 N/mm2

Modification factors

Duration of loading

K3=1

For bending about X-X axis depth factor based on depth d

Depth factor

Kx7=(300/d)^0.11=(300/172)^0.11

=1.0631

For bending about Y-Y axis depth factor based on width b

Depth factor

Ky7=1.17

Member is not in a load-sharing system as defined by Clause 2.9.

Modulus of elasticity

E=Emin*K2mod=6000*1=6000 N/mm2

Load-sharing modification factor K8=1.0

Permissible stresses

Permissible bending stress Y-Y

Shear parallel to grain

xsigmad=K2ben*K3*Kx7*K8*bparg

=1*1*1.0631*1*5.8

=6.166 N/mm2

ysigmad=K2ben*K3*Ky7*K8*bparg

=1*1*1.17*1*5.8

=6.786 N/mm2

torad=K2shr*K3*K8*sparg=1*1*1*0.67

=0.67 N/mm2

Page: 3

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Biaxial bending of timber section

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC253 BS

Office: 1007

Bending

=0.46107*1E6*(172/2)/26.714E6

=1.4843 N/mm2

Applied bending stress about Y-Y sigmay=My*1E6*(b/2)/Iy

=0.2662*1E6*(63/2)/3.584E6

=2.3396 N/mm2

Factor due to bending about X-X

factx=sigmax/xsigmad=1.4843/6.166

=0.24072

Factor due to bending about Y-Y

facty=sigmay/ysigmad=2.3396/6.786

=0.34478

Interaction factor

factor=factx+facty=0.24072+0.34478

=0.5855

Interaction factor less than or equal to unity therefore combined

stresses are satisfactory.

Check for deflection (including shear defln as reqd by Clause 2.10.7)

Deflect about X-X axis without shear

Delx=5*Wx*L^4*1E12/384/E/Ix

=5*0.7621*2.2^4*1E12/384/6000/26.714E6

=1.4503 mm

Deflect about Y-Y axis without shear

Dely=5*Wy*L^4*1E12/384/E/Iy=5*0.44*2.2^4*1E12/384/6000/3.584E6

=6.2411 mm

Modulus of rigidity

G=E/16=6000/16=375 N/mm2

Shape factor for rect section

KF=1.2

Shear area for beam

Ay=d*b/KF=172*63/1.2=9030 mm2

Add X-X deflect due to shear

dsux=Wx*L^2*10^6/(8*Ay*G)

=0.7621*2.2^2*10^6/(8*9030*375)

=0.13616 mm

Add Y-Y deflect due to shear

dsuy=Wy*L^2*10^6/(8*Ay*G)

=0.44*2.2^2*10^6/(8*9030*375)

=0.078612 mm

Total deflection about X-X

Defx=Delx+dsux=1.4503+0.13616

=1.5864 mm

Total deflection about Y-Y

Defy=Dely+dsuy=6.2411+0.078612

=6.3197 mm

Resultant deflection

DEL=SQR(Defx^2+Defy^2)

=SQR(1.5864^2+6.3197^2)

=6.5158

Limiting deflection

DELlim=0.003*L*10^3=0.003*2.2*10^3

=6.6 mm

Since DEL DELlim ( 6.5158 mm 6.6 mm ), deflection OK.

Shear and bearing

tora=Fve*1E3/(0.67*b*d)

=0.968*1E3/(0.67*63*172)

=0.13333 N/mm2

0.67 N/mm2 ), shear stress

does not exceed permissible.

Length of bearing

lb=100 mm

From BS5268-2 Table 18, bearing is < 75 mm from joist end.

Page: 4

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Biaxial bending of timber section

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC253 BS

Office: 1007

Bearing Modification factor

K4=1.0

Member assumed to have support over the full depth 'd' and width 'b'.

Bearing stress from load Wx

sigba1=Rx*1000/(lb*b)

=0.83831*1000/(100*63)

=0.13307 N/mm2

Bearing stress from load Wy

sigba2=Ry*1000/(lb*d)

=0.484*1000/(100*172)

=0.02814 N/mm2

Compress to grain (no wane)

sigbad=K2per*K3*K4*K8*cperd

=1*1*1*1*2.2

=2.2 N/mm2

As sigba1 sigbad ( 0.13307 N/mm2 2.2 N/mm2 ), bearing

stress does not exceed permissible from load Wx.

As sigba2 sigbad ( 0.02814 N/mm2 2.2 N/mm2 ), bearing

stress does not exceed permissible from load Wy.

DESIGN

SUMMARY

Member: 172 mm x 63 mm

Strength class C18 to Table 8

Bending stress X-X 1.4843 N/mm2

Bending stress Y-Y 2.3396 N/mm2

Permiss bending X-X 6.166 N/mm2

Permiss bending Y-Y 6.786 N/mm2

Interaction factor 0.5855

Deflection

6.5158 mm

Limiting deflection 6.6 mm

Shear stress

0.13333 N/mm2

Permissible shear

0.67 N/mm2

Wx Bearing stress

0.13307 N/mm2

Wy Bearing stress

0.02814 N/mm2

Permissible bearing 2.2 N/mm2

No253

Page: 1

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Biaxial bending of timber section

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC253 EC

Office: 1007

Location: Biaxial bending of timber section

Permanent + imposed

_ _

_ _

///

ooo

L

incorporating National

Beam span

L=2.2 m

Depth of section

h=172 mm

Width of section

b=63 mm

Bearing length

lb=100 mm

Beam laterally restrained with support restraint.

Timber strength class C18.

Timber service class 1 : Internal use, continuously heated or similar

with a max moisture content of 12%.

Partial safety factors

Variable actions factor

Material partial factor M

gamG=1.35

gamQ=1.5

gamM=1.3 (individually marked)

Ultimate loads

GkQk

resolved into yy and zz

components.

____

y

_)_theta__

Permanent load

Variable load

Design vertical load

Angle of yy axis to horizontal

Design load (bending about yy)

Design load (bending about zz)

Permanent axial load (+ve Comp)

Gk=0.44 kN/m

Qk=0.44 kN/m

Fv=Gk*gamG+Qk*gamQ=0.44*1.35+0.44*1.5

=1.254 kN/m

theta=30 degrees

Fyd=Fv*COS(RAD(theta))

=1.254*COS(RAD(30))

=1.086 kN/m

Fzd=Fv*SIN(RAD(theta))

=1.254*SIN(RAD(30))

=0.627 kN/m

Nper=0 kN

Page: 2

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Biaxial bending of timber section

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC253 EC

Office: 1007

Variable axial load (+ve Comp)

Nvar=0 kN

Design axial load (+ve Comp)

Nd'=Nper*gamG+Nvar*gamQ=0*1.35+0*1.5

=0 kN

Nd= Nd'*1000= 0*1000=0 N

Section properties

Inertia about zz axis

Area of cross section

Radius of gyration yy axis

Radius of gyration zz axis

Iy=b*h^3/12=63*172^3/12=26.714E6 mm4

Iz=h*b^3/12=172*63^3/12=3.584E6 mm4

A=b*h=63*172=10836 mm2

iy=SQR(Iy/A)=SQR(26.714E6/10836)

=49.652 mm

iz=SQR(Iz/A)=SQR(3.584E6/10836)

=18.187 mm

Myd=Fyd*L^2/8=1.086*2.2^2/8

=0.65703 kNm

Design bending moment about zz

Mzd=Fzd*L^2/8=0.627*2.2^2/8

=0.37934 kNm

Max SF in direction of yy axis

Vyd=Fyd*L/2=1.086*2.2/2=1.1946 kN

Max SF in direction of zz axis

Vzd=Fzd*L/2=0.627*2.2/2=0.6897 kN

Design shear force (resultant)

Vrd=SQR(Vyd^2+Vzd^2)

=SQR(1.1946^2+0.6897^2)

=1.3794 kN

Characteristic strength properties - Table 1 in BS EN 338:2009(E)

fc0k=18 N/mm2

Bending parallel to grain

fmk=18 N/mm2

Shear parallel to grain

fvk=3.4 N/mm2

Compression to grain

fc90k=2.2 N/mm2

Mean modulus of elasticity

E0mean=9000 N/mm2

5th percentile mod.of elasticity E005=6000 N/mm2

Modification factors

kmod=0.6

Bearing modification factor

kc90=1.5

Creep deformation factor

kdef=0.6

For bending about yy axis the depth factor will be based on depth h.

Depth factor (Clause 3.3)

kyh=1.0

For bending about zz axis the depth factor will be based on width b.

Depth factor (Clause 3.2)

kzh=(150/b)^0.2=(150/63)^0.2

=1.1895

Member is not in a load-sharing system as defined by Clause 6.6.

Load-sharing modification factor ksys=1.0

The shear strength parallel to the grain will be reduced by 33% to

allow for possible drying splits and glue-line failure (refer to EC5

Part 1-1 Clause 6.1.7(2) for further clarification).

Shear reduction factor

ksh=0.67

Page: 3

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Biaxial bending of timber section

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC253 EC

Office: 1007

Lateral stability factor - EC5 Part 1-1, Clause 6.3.3

bending in the evaluation of bending parallel to grain.

Effective length about zz

Le=1.76 m

Critical bending stress

cbs=0.78*b^2*E005/(h*Le*1000)

=0.78*63^2*6000/(172*1.76*1000)

=61.36 N/mm2

Relative slenderness (bending)

rsb=(fmk/cbs)^0.5=(18/61.36)^0.5

=0.54162

Reduced bending strength factor

kcrit=1.0

Design strengths

Design bending strength zz

Design shear strength

parallel to grain

Design bending stress about zz

fmyd=kyh*ksys*fmk*kmod/gamM

=1*1*18*0.6/1.3

=8.3077 N/mm2

fmzd=kzh*ksys*fmk*kmod/gamM

=1.1895*1*18*0.6/1.3

=9.8817 N/mm2

fvd=ksh*ksys*fvk*kmod/gamM

=0.67*1*3.4*0.6/1.3

=1.0514 N/mm2

smyd=Myd*1E6*(h/2)/Iy

=0.65703*1E6*(172/2)/26.714E6

=2.1151 N/mm2

smzd=Mzd*1E6*(b/2)/Iz

=0.37934*1E6*(63/2)/3.584E6

=3.334 N/mm2

facty=smyd/fmyd=2.1151/8.3077

=0.2546

Factor due to bending about zz

factz=smzd/fmzd=3.334/9.8817

=0.33739

Interaction factor

fact1=0.7*facty+factz

=0.7*0.2546+0.33739

=0.51561

Interaction factor

fact2=facty+0.7*factz

=0.2546+0.7*0.33739

=0.49077

Interaction factor

factor=fact1=0.51561

Interaction factor less than or equal to unity therefore combined

stresses are satisfactory.

Check for deflection (shear and creep effects considered)

F=Gk*(1+kdef)+Qk*(1+0.3*kdef)

=0.44*(1+0.6)+0.44*(1+0.3*0.6)

=1.2232 kN/m

Page: 4

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Biaxial bending of timber section

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC253 EC

Office: 1007

Force resolved along zz axis

Fy=F*COS(RAD(theta))

=1.2232*COS(RAD(30))

=1.0593 kN/m

Force resolved along yy axis

Fz=F*SIN(RAD(theta))

=1.2232*SIN(RAD(30))

=0.6116 kN/m

Mean modulus of elasticity

E0mean=9000 N/mm2

Deflection about yy axis without shear but including creep effects;

Dely=5*Fy*L^4*1E12/384/E0mean/Iy

=5*1.0593*2.2^4*1E12/384/9000/26.714E6

=1.3439 mm

Deflection about zz axis without shear but including creep effects;

Delz=5*Fz*L^4*1E12/384/E0mean/Iz

=5*0.6116*2.2^4*1E12/384/9000/3.584E6

=5.7834 mm

Mean value of shear modulus

Gmean=E0mean/16=9000/16=562.5 N/mm2

Shape factor for rect section

KF=1.2

Shear area for beam

Az=h*b/KF=172*63/1.2=9030 mm2

Actual deflection including shear and creep effects

Add yy deflect due to shear

dsuy=Fy*L^2*10^6/(8*Az*Gmean)

=1.0593*2.2^2*10^6/(8*9030*562.5)

=0.12617 mm

Add zz deflect due to shear

dsuz=Fz*L^2*10^6/(8*Az*Gmean)

=0.6116*2.2^2*10^6/(8*9030*562.5)

=0.072847 mm

Total deflection about yy

Defy=Dely+dsuy=1.3439+0.12617

=1.4701 mm

Total deflection about zz

Defz=Delz+dsuz=5.7834+0.072847

=5.8563 mm

Resultant deflection

DEL=SQR(Defy^2+Defz^2)

=SQR(1.4701^2+5.8563^2)

=6.038

Limiting deflection

DELlim=L/250*10^3=2.2/250*10^3

=8.8 mm

Since DEL DELlim ( 6.038 mm 8.8 mm ), deflection OK.

Design Shear and bearing strengths

=1.3794*1E3/(0.67*63*172)

=0.19 N/mm2

Since svd fvd ( 0.19 N/mm2 1.0514 N/mm2 ), shear stress

does not exceed the design shear strength.

Member assumed to have support over the full depth 'h' and width 'b'.

Design bearing stress from Fyd

sc90d1=Vyd*1000/(lb*b)

=1.1946*1000/(100*63)

=0.18962 N/mm2

Design bearing stress from Fzd

sc90d2=Vzd*1000/(lb*h)

=0.6897*1000/(100*172)

=0.040099 N/mm2

Design bearing strength

fc90d=kc90*ksys*fc90k=1.5*1*2.2

=3.3 N/mm2

2

As sc90d1 fc90d ( 0.18962 N/mm 3.3 N/mm2 ), design bearing

stress is within the design strength from load Fyd.

As sc90d2 fc90d ( 0.040099 N/mm2 3.3 N/mm2 ), design bearing

stress is within the design strength from load Fzd.

Page: 5

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Biaxial bending of timber section

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC253 EC

Office: 1007

Member: 172 mm x 63 mm

Timber strength class C18.

Bending stress yy

2.1151 N/mm2

Bending stress zz

3.334 N/mm2

Design bending strength yy 8.3077 N/mm2

Design bending strength zz 9.8817 N/mm2

Interaction factor

0.51561

Deflection

6.038 mm

DESIGN

Limiting deflection

8.8 mm

SUMMARY

Shear stress

0.19 N/mm2

Design shear strength

1.0514 N/mm2

Fyd Bearing stress

0.18962 N/mm2

Fzd Bearing stress

0.040099 N/mm2

Design bearing strength

3.3 N/mm2

No253

Page: 1

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Bolted joint

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC273 BS

Office: 1007

Location: Bolt design

Bolted joint comprising 2 members with bolts in single shear

F

(2)

:

(1)

ELEVATION

PLAN

(1)

t1

t2

(2)

Member 1:

Thickness of thinner member

Strength class C24 to Table 8

Timber characteristic density

Angle between grain and load

Member:2

Thickness of other member

Strength class C24 to Table 8

Timber characteristic density

Angle between grain and load

F

In line connection

alp1'= 0 & alp2'= 0

(1) = member 1

(2) = member 2

t1=47 mm

pk1=350 kg/m3

alp1'=0 degrees

alp1=RAD(alp1')=0 radians

t2=47 mm

pk2=350 kg/m3

alp2'=0 degrees

alp2=RAD(alp2')=0 radians

Joint to be connected by bolts

K2b=1.33

Fixing diameter (8 to 36 mm)

bd=16 mm

Bolts should comply with BS EN 20898-2 and washers with BS4320. Bolts

to have a minimum tensile strength of 400N/mm2. Bolt holes should be

drilled to as near as practicable to 16 mm diameter, but in no case

should bolt holes exceed 18 mm diameter.

Nominal diameter of washer

48 mm

Nominal washer thickness

4 mm

Bolts should protrude one complete thread from the nut.

Bolt shear capacities

Constant

Kd=1

Load duration for bolt/dowel connection = Medium term.

Fixing spacing parallel to the grain alphapar=64 mm

K90 factor

K90=1.35+0.015*bd=1.35+0.015*16

=1.59

Embedded strength for timber 1

K factor for timber 1

Ka=0.75593

Embedding strength

fhod=0.050*(1-0.01*bd)*pk1*Ka

=0.050*(1-0.01*16)*350*0.75593

=11.112

Embedding strength (Timb 1) fhd1=fhod/((K90*SIN(alp1)^2)+COS(alp1)^2)

=11.112/((1.59*SIN(0)^2)+COS(0)^2)

=11.112

Page: 2

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Bolted joint

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC273 BS

Office: 1007

Embedded strength for timber 2

K factor for timber 2

Ka=0.75593

Embedding strength

fhod=0.050*(1-0.01*bd)*pk2*Ka

=0.050*(1-0.01*16)*350*0.75593

=11.112

Embedding strength (Timb 2) fhd2=fhod/((K90*SIN(alp2)^2)+COS(alp2)^2)

=11.112/((1.59*SIN(0)^2)+COS(0)^2)

=11.112

Factor

beta=fhd2/fhd1=11.112/11.112

=1

Equations G1

G2

G3

G4

G5

G6

8356.4

8356.4

4603.5

6628.7

6628.7

9197.5

Minimum value of equations G1 to G6 Gmin=4603.5

Basic bolt shear capacity

Mod factor for moisture content

Mod factor for number of bolts

Permissible bolt load

Number of bolts required

basic=1*Gmin/(Fd*Kd)

=1*4603.5/(1400*1)

=3.2882 kN

K56=1

K57=1

pbl=basic*K56*K57=3.2882*1*1

=3.2882 kN

n=INT(F/pbl)+1=INT(4.55/3.2882)+1

=2

The fixing spacing in the direction of load should be not less than

64 mm. For loading parallel to the grain, the spacing across the

grain between fixings or rows of fixings should be not less than

64 mm.

For loading perpendicular to the grain, the spacing parallel to the

grain between fixings or rows of fixings should be not less than

79 mm.

When two timber members are fixed together at right-angles to each

other, the minimum bolt/dowel spacing should be 80 mm.

The distance from the end of the timber to the centre of the nearest

bolt/dowel hole for parallel to the grain loading should be not less

than 64 mm where the bolts/dowels are bearing away from the end of

the member, or 112 mm where bolts/dowels are bearing towards the

end of the member.

The distance from the edge of the timber to the centre of the nearest

bolt/dowel hole should be not less than 24 mm except when

loading is perpendicular to the grain and then the distance from the

edge of the timber towards which the fixings are bearing and the

centre of the nearest fixing hole, should be not less than 64 mm.

Page: 3

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Bolted joint

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC273 BS

Office: 1007

DESIGN

SUMMARY

Permissible load on each bolt

Number of bolts required per joint

Load capacity of the joint

4.55 kN

3.2882 kN

2

6.5765 kN

No273

Page: 1

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Bolted joint

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC273 EC

Office: 1007

Location: Bolt design

Joint comprising 2 members (fasteners in single shear)

Fd'=5.8 kN

Fd'

(2)

:

(1)

ELEVATION

PLAN

(1)

t1

t2

(2)

Member 1:

Thickness of thinner member

Timber strength class C24.

Timber characteristic density

Angle between grain and load

Member 2:

Thickness of other member

Timber strength class C24.

Timber characteristic density

Angle between grain and load

Fd'

In line connection

alp1'= 0 & alp2'=0

(1) = member 1

(2) = member 2

t1=47 mm

pk1=350 kg/m3

alp1'=0 degrees

alp1=RAD(alp1')=0 radians

t2=47 mm

pk2=350 kg/m3

alp2'=0 degrees

alp2=RAD(alp2')=0 radians

Bolt/dowel diameter (8 to 30 mm) bd=16 mm

Fasteners should comply with BS EN 20898-2 and have a minimum tensile

strength of 400 N/mm2 as per EN 1993-1-8 Table 3.1 (i.e. class 4.6).

Bolt holes should be drilled to as near as practicable to 16 mm

diameter, but in no case should bolt holes exceed 17 mm diameter.

Dowel pre-bored holes in timber members should have 16 mm diameter.

Minimum diameter of bolt washer

48 mm

Minimum washer thickness

4.8 mm

Bolts should protrude one complete thread from the nut. Washers should

always be fitted beneath the bolt head and the nut (EC5 10.4.3(2)).

Fastener shear capacities

with a max moisture content of 12%.

Long-term duration factor

kmod=0.7

Basic loads are in kN and will be derived from EC5 Section 8.

Charact fastener yield moment

MyRk=0.3*400*bd^2.6=0.3*400*16^2.6

=162141 Nmm

K90 factor

K90=1.35+0.015*bd=1.35+0.015*16

=1.59

Timber 1 Embedded strength:

Charact.embedment strength

fhok1=0.082*(1-0.01*bd)*pk1

=0.082*(1-0.01*16)*350

=24.108 N/mm2

Page: 2

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Bolted joint

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC273 EC

Office: 1007

Denominator (expression 8.31)

denom1=((K90*SIN(alp1)^2)+COS(alp1)^2)

=((1.59*SIN(0)^2)+COS(0)^2)

=1

Embedment strength (Timber 1)

fh1k=fhok1/denom1=24.108/1

=24.108 N/mm2

Timber 2 Embedded strength:

Charact.embedment strength

fhok2=0.082*(1-0.01*bd)*pk1

=0.082*(1-0.01*16)*350

=24.108 N/mm2

Denominator (expression 8.31)

denom2=((K90*SIN(alp2)^2)+COS(alp2)^2)

=((1.59*SIN(0)^2)+COS(0)^2)

=1

Embedment strength (Timber 2)

fh2k=fhok2/denom2=24.108/1

=24.108 N/mm2

Factor

beta=fh2k/fh1k=24.108/24.108

=1

Equations a

b

c

d

e

f

18129

18129

7509.4

9560.3

9560.3

12862

Min value of equations (a)-(f)

Gmin=7509.4

Char fastener shear resistance

basic=Gmin/1000=7509.4/1000

=7.5094 kN

Material factor for connections

Design resistance per fastener

gamM=1.3

pbl=kmod*basic/gamM=0.7*7.5094/1.3

=4.0435 kN

Number of fasteners required

n=INT(Fd'/pbl)+1=INT(5.8/4.0435)+1

=2

As fasteners will be positioned in one or more rows parallel to the

grain direction, the load carrying capacity parallel to the grain

should be calculated using the effective number of fasteners as per

EC5 expression 8.34.

Total No of fasteners at joint

n=2

Number of fasteners per row

nfpr=2

Lines of fasteners to be adopted rpl=1

Spacing between fasteners

a1=80 mm

Effect No of fasteners per row

nef=nfpr^0.9*(a1/(13*bd))^0.25

=2^0.9*(80/(13*16))^0.25

=1.4695

The effective lateral load design capacity of the connection parallel

to the grain is given by the following expression:

Effective joint design capacity

Fvef=rpl*nef*pbl=1*1.4695*4.0435

=5.9421 kN

Since Fd' n*pbl ( 5.8 8.087 ) the design axial load at

the joint is within the joint design resistance. Hence OK.

Minimum bolt spacings

accordance with EC5 Table 8.4. Refer to EC5 Figure 8.7 for key

to symbols used below.

Angle alpha

alpha=0 radians

Spacing parallel to grain

a1=(4+COS(alpha))*bd=(4+COS(0))*16

=80 mm

Spacing perpendicular to grain

a2=4*bd=4*16=64 mm

End distance (loaded end)

a3t=7*bd=7*16=112 mm

Page: 3

Timber design to BS5268 and Eurocode 5

Made by: IFB

Bolted joint

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC273 EC

Office: 1007

End distance (unloaded end)

a3c=4*bd=4*16=64 mm

Edge distance (loaded edge)

a4t=3*bd=3*16=48 mm

Edge distance (unloaded edge)

a4c=3*bd=3*16=48 mm

DESIGN

SUMMARY

Number of fasteners per joint

Effective joint design capacity

5.8 kN

2

5.9421 kN

No273

Page: 1

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

I beam section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC410 BS

Office: 1007

Location: Ex1 - 'Steelwork Design Guide' Example 4

y

z z

>t<

T

y

I section beam

Calculations in accordance

with BS5950-1:2000.

All loads and moments are

factored.

B

Design

Design

Design

Length

shear force

axial load (+ve comp)

of member

Mz=282 kNm

Fv=152 kN

F=0 kN

L=9 m

Dimensions (mm): D=449.8 B=152.4 t=7.6 T=10.9 r=10.2

Properties (cm): Iz=21400 Iy=645 Sz=1100 Sy=133 J=21.4

A=66.6 ry=3.112

Strength of steel - Clause 3.1.1

Young's Modulus

E=205 kN/mm2

Classification - Clause 3.5.2

Parameter (Table 11 Note b)

e=(275/py)^0.5=(275/275)^0.5

=1

Outstand

b=B/2=152.4/2=76.2 mm

Ratio

b'T=b/T=76.2/10.9=6.9908

As b/T 9e ( 9 ), outstand element of compression

flange is classified as Class 1 plastic.

Classify web of section:

Depth between fillets

d=D-2*(T+r)=449.8-2*(10.9+10.2)

=407.6 mm

Ratio

d't=d/t=407.6/7.6=53.632

For sections with neutral axis at mid-depth

As d/t 80e ( 80 ), web is classified as Class 1 plastic.

Shear buckling

Page: 2

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

I beam section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC410 BS

Office: 1007

Shear capacity - Clause 4.2.3

Shear area

Av=t*D=7.6*449.8=3418.5 mm2

Shear capacity

Pv=0.6*py*Av/10^3=0.6*275*3418.5/10^3

=564.05 kN

Design shear force

Fv=152 kN

Since Fv Pv ( 152 kN 564.05 kN ) applied shear force

within the shear capacity.

Moment capacity - Clause 4.2.5

Elastic modulus

Zz=Iz/(D/20)=21400/(449.8/20)

=951.53 cm3

Moment capacity for compact sec

Mc=py*Sz/10^3=275*1100/10^3

=302.5 kNm

Since Mz Mc ( 282 kNm 302.5 kNm ) applied moment within

the moment capacity.

Restraint assumptions

resistance to lateral-torsional buckling must be checked

The member is provided with intermediate restraints to each flange

and will be checked using the procedure of Clause 4.3.5.2

Resistance to lateral-torsional buckling - Section 4.3

for the minor axis of the member is taken as follows:

Length between restraints

LT=3 m

Compression flange laterally restrained.

Nominal torsional restraint about longitudinal axis.

Both flanges fully restrained against rotation on plan.

Normal loading conditions therefore

Effective length (Table 13)

Le=0.7*LT=0.7*3=2.1 m

Lateral torsional resistance moment - Clause 4.3.6

Slenderness of section

lambda=Le*100/ry=2.1*100/3.112

=67.48

Buckling parameter

u=(4*Sz^2*(1-Iy/Iz)/(A^2*((D-T)

/10)^2))^0.25

=(4*1100^2*(1-645/21400)/(66.6^2

*((449.8-10.9)/10)^2))^0.25

=0.86093

Torsional index

x=0.566*((D-T)/10)*(A/J)^0.5

=0.566*((449.8-10.9)/10)*(66.6

/21.4)^0.5

=43.824

Ratio

ratio=lambda/x=67.48/43.824

=1.5398

Slenderness factor

v=1/((1+0.05*ratio^2)^0.25)

=1/((1+0.05*1.5398^2)^0.25)

=0.97238

Page: 3

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

I beam section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC410 BS

Office: 1007

Ratio w

betaw=1.0

Equivalent slenderness

lamLT=u*v*lambda*(betaw)^0.5

=0.86093*0.97238*67.48*(1)^0.5

=56.491

Limiting slenderness

lamlo=0.4*((PI^2*E*10^3)/py)^0.5

=0.4*((3.1416^2*205*10^3)

/275)^0.5

=34.31

Perry coefficient

etaLT=0.007*(lamLT-lamlo)

=0.007*(56.491-34.31)

=0.15527

Elastic strength

pe=PI^2*E*10^3/(lamLT^2)

=3.1416^2*205*10^3/(56.491^2)

=634 N/mm2

Factor

phiLT=(py+(etaLT+1)*pe)/2

=(275+(0.15527+1)*634)/2

=503.72 N/mm2

Factor

pey=pe*py=634*275=174351

Bending strength

pb=(pey)/(phiLT+((phiLT^2-pey)^0.5))

=(174351)/(503.72+((503.72^2

-174351)^0.5))

=221.97 N/mm2

Buckling resistance moment

Mb=Sz*pb/10^3=1100*221.97/10^3

=244.17 kNm

Clause 4.3.6.6 and Table 18

Maximum moment on segment

MLT=282 kNm

Far end BM

betaM=-158 kNm

Table 18 beta factor

beta=betaM/MLT=-158/282=-0.56028

Equivalent uniform moment factor mLT=TABLE 18 for beta=-0.56028

=0.44

Since Mz Mb/mLT ( 282 kNm 554.92 kNm ), section OK for

lateral torsional buckling resistance.

UNIVERSAL BEAM

SECTION

SUMMARY

DESIGN

SUMMARY

Section is satisfactory for axial,

bending, shear, and local capacity,

and overall buckling checks.

Factored shear force

152 kN

Shear capacity

564.05 kN

Factored moment

282 kNm

Moment capacity

302.5 kNm

Buckling resistance

244.17 kNm

Moment factor mLT

0.44

Resistance (Mb/mLT)

554.92 kNm

No410

Page: 1

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

I beam section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC410 EC

Office: 1007

Location: Example 12 Steel Building Design

z

y y

tw

tf

z

Design

Design

Design

Length

Calculations in accordance

with BS EN 1993-1-1:2005.

Internal forces and moments

have been determined by

elastic global analysis.

factored.

shear force

axial load (+ve comp)

of member

MyEd=146 kNm

VzEd=46 kN

NEd=1100 kN

L=6 m

Steel section properties

Dimensions (mm): h=453.4 b=189.9 tw=8.5 tf=12.7 r=10.2

Properties (cm): Iy=29400 Iz=1450 Wply=1470 Wplz=237 It=37.1

A=85.5 iy=18.543 iz=4.1181

Strength of steel - Table 3.1 (amended by N.A.)

Yield strength

fy=355 N/mm2

Ultimate strength

fu=470 N/mm2

Young's modulus

E=210000 N/mm2

Section Classification

Parameter (Table 5)

e=(235/fy)^0.5=(235/355)^0.5

=0.81362

Outstand

c=(b-tw-2*r)/2=(189.9-8.5-2*10.2)/2

=80.5 mm

Ratio

c't=c/tf=80.5/12.7=6.3386

As c/tf 9e ( 7.3225 ), outstand element of compression

flange is classified as Class 1 plastic.

Classify web element of section:

Depth between fillets

d=h-2*(tf+r)=453.4-2*(12.7+10.2)

=407.6 mm

Ratio

c'tw=d/tw=407.6/8.5=47.953

Ratio

ad=0.5*(1+NEd*10^3/(fy*tw*d))

=0.5*(1+1100*10^3/(355*8.5*407.6))

=0.94718

Page: 2

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

I beam section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC410 EC

Office: 1007

Factor

psic=2*NEd*10/(A*fy)-1

=2*1100*10/(85.5*355)-1

=-0.27518

Limiting ratio

c't3=42*e/(0.67+0.33*psic)

=42*0.81362/(0.67+0.33*-0.27518)

=59

Web is semi-compact.

Moment resistance - Clause 6.2.5

Wely=Iy/(h/20)=29400/(453.4/20)

=1296.9 cm3

Moment resistance

McRd=Wely*fy/10^3=1296.9*355/10^3

=460.39 kNm

Unity factor

unity=MyEd/McRd=146/460.39

=0.31712

Section chosen is considered suitable.

Shear plastic resistance - Clause 6.2.6

Shear area

Avz=A*100-2*b*tf+(tw+2*r)*tf

=85.5*100-2*189.9*12.7+(8.5+2

*10.2)*12.7

=4093.6 mm2

Shear plastic resistance

VplRd=Avz*fy/SQR(3)/1000

=4093.6*355/SQR(3)/1000

=839.02 kN

Unity factor

Unity=VzEd/VplRd=46/839.02

=0.054826

Section chosen is considered suitable.

Note: No M-V interaction has to be considered as actual shear force

is less than 0.5VplRd ( 46 kN < 419.51 kN )

Shear buckling - Clause 6.2.6(6)

hw=h-2*tf=453.4-2*12.7=428 mm

Buckling ratio

hw't=hw/tw=428/8.5=50.353

As hw/tw 72e ( 58.58 ), no check for shear buckling is required.

Bending and axial force - Clause 6.2.9

NRd=A*fy/10=85.5*355/10=3035.3 kN

Maximum longitudinal stress

sigmax=MyEd*10^3/Wely+NEd*10/A

=146*10^3/1296.9+1100*10/85.5

=241.23 N/mm2

Section is suitable for the combination of bending and axial force.

Effective lengths for compressive resistance

Ly=6 m (major axis bending)

Length between restraints (z-z)

Lz=3 m (minor axis bending)

Effective length about y-y axis

Lcry=1.0*Ly*1000=1.0*6*1000

=6000 mm

Page: 3

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

I beam section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC410 EC

Office: 1007

Effective length about z-z axis

Lcrz=1.0*Lz*1000=1.0*3*1000

=3000 mm

Elastic critical force

Non-dimensional slenderness

Slenderness about z-z axis

Reduction factor

Imperfection factor

Factor

Imperfection factor

Factor

Reduction factor

Ncry=PI^2*E*Iy*10^7/(Lcry*10^3)^2

=3.1416^2*210000*29400*10^7

/(6000*10^3)^2

=16926 kN

Ncrz=PI^2*E*Iz*10^7/(Lcrz*10^3)^2

=3.1416^2*210000*1450*10^7/(3000

*10^3)^2

=3339.2 kN

lamy=SQR(A*10^2*fy/(Ncry*10^3))

=SQR(85.5*10^2*355/(16926*10^3))

=0.42346

lamz=SQR(A*10^2*fy/(Ncrz*10^3))

=SQR(85.5*10^2*355/(3339.2*10^3))

=0.9534

alpha=0.21 (curve a)

phiy=0.5*(1+alpha*(lamy-0.2)+lamy^2)

=0.5*(1+0.21*(0.42346-0.2)

+0.42346^2)

=0.61312

chiy=1/(phiy+SQR(phiy^2-lamy^2))

=1/(0.61312+SQR(0.61312^2

-0.42346^2))

=0.9465

alpha=0.34 (curve b)

phiz=0.5*(1+alpha*(lamz-0.2)+lamz^2)

=0.5*(1+0.34*(0.9534-0.2)

+0.9534^2)

=1.0826

chiz=1/(phiz+SQR(phiz^2-lamz^2))

=1/(1.0826+SQR(1.0826^2-0.9534^2))

=0.62681

chi=0.62681

NbRd=chi*A*fy/(gamM1*10)

=0.62681*85.5*355/(1*10)

=1902.5 kN

Unity factor

unity=NEd/NbRd=1100/1902.5

=0.57818

Section chosen is suitable.

Page: 4

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

I beam section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC410 EC

Office: 1007

Lateral torsional buckling

K=1

Length for LTB

LT=3 m

Shear modulus

G=80770 N/mm2

Warping constant

Iw=Iz/4*((h-tf)/10)^2

=1450/4*((453.4-12.7)/10)^2

=704035 cm6

Terms for Critical moment Mcr:

Euler term

Et=PI^2*E*Iz/((K*LT)^2*100)

=3.1416^2*210000*1450/((1*3)^2*100)

=3.3392E6 N

Load to shear centre distance

zg=h/2=453.4/2=226.7 mm

Shear modulus term

Gt=(K*LT)^2*G*It/(PI^2*E*Iz)*10^6

=(1*3)^2*80770*37.1/(3.1416^2

*210000*1450)*10^6

=8973.9 mm2

Square root term

Sr=(K^2*Iw*100/Iz+Gt)^0.5

=(1^2*704035*100/1450+8973.9)^0.5

=239.85 mm

Maximum moment on section

M=146 kNm

Far end moment

psiM=0 kNm

Factor

psi=psiM/M=0/146=0

Coefficient C1

C1=TABLE 3.1 for psi=0

=1.77

Factor

kc=1/(1.33-0.33*psi)=1/(1.33-0.33*0)

=0.75188

Critical moment

Mcr=C1*Et*Sr/10^6

=1.77*3.3392E6*239.85/10^6

=1417.6 kNm

Non-dimensional slenderness

lamLT=(Wely*fy/(Mcr*10^3))^0.5

=(1296.9*355/(1417.6*10^3))^0.5

=0.56988

Limiting slenderness value

lamLT0=0.4

As MyEd/Mcr 0.16 ( 0.10299 0.16 )

Lateral torsional buckling effects are ignored.

Modification factor

ChiLT=1.0

Design buckling resistance moment MybRd=ChiLT*Wely*fy/(gamM1*10^3)

=1*1296.9*355/(1*10^3)

=460.39 kNm

Coefficients C and interaction factors k

Factor Cmy

Maximum end moment

Mh(1)=0 kNm

Maximum span moment

Ms(1)=146 kNm

End moment

pMh(1)=0 kNm

Factor

ah=Mh(i)/Ms(i)=0/146=0

Factor

psi=1

Equivalent uniform moment factor Cm=0.9+0.1*ah=0.9+0.1*0=0.9

Equivalent uniform moment factor Cmy=Cm=0.9

Page: 5

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

I beam section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC410 EC

Office: 1007

Factor CmLT

Maximum end moment

Mh(2)=146 kNm

Maximum span moment

Ms(2)=79 kNm

End moment

pMh(2)=0 kNm

Factor

as=Ms(i)/Mh(i)=79/146=0.5411

Factor

psi=pMh(i)/Mh(i)=0/146=0

Equivalent uniform moment factor Cm=0.2+0.8*as=0.2+0.8*0.5411

=0.63288

Equivalent uniform moment factor CmLT=Cm=0.63288

Interaction factors kij

Interaction factor

Interaction factor

Interaction factor

Term for factor

Interaction factor

Interaction factor

Interaction factor

kyy1=Cmy*(1+0.6*lamy*NEd/(chiy*NRd))

=0.9*(1+0.6*0.42346*1100/(0.9465

*3035.3))

=0.98756

kyy2=Cmy*(1+0.6*NEd/(chiy*NRd))

=0.9*(1+0.6*1100/(0.9465*3035.3))

=1.1068

kyy=0.98756

Nr=NEd/(chiz*NRd)

=1100/(0.62681*3035.3)

=0.57818

kzy1=1-0.05*lamz/(CmLT-0.25)*Nr

=1-0.05*0.9534/(0.63288-0.25)

*0.57818

=0.92801

kzy2=1-0.05/(CmLT-0.25)*Nr

=1-0.05/(0.63288-0.25)*0.57818

=0.9245

kzy=0.92801

Interaction equations

NEd

MyEd

+ kyy 1

y.NRd

LT.McRd

compute

Unity factor

comp1=kyy*MyEd/(ChiLT*McRd)

=0.98756*146/(1*460.39)

=0.31318

Unity1=NEd/(chiy*NRd)+comp1

=1100/(0.9465*3035.3)+0.31318

=0.69607

NEd

MyEd

+ kzy 1

z.NRd

LT.McRd

compute

comp2=kzy*MyEd/(ChiLT*McRd)

=0.92801*146/(1*460.39)

=0.2943

Page: 6

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

I beam section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC410 EC

Office: 1007

Unity factor

Unity2=NEd/(chiz*NRd)+comp2

=1100/(0.62681*3035.3)+0.2943

=0.87247

Section chosen is suitable.

SECTION

DESIGN

SUMMARY

Design compression load

Axial resistance

Buckling resistance

Design BM y-y axis

Moment resistance (y-y)

Interaction factors

S 355

1100 kN

3035.3 kN

1902.5 kN

146 kNm

460.39 kNm

0.69607 1

0.87247 1

No410

Page: 1

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Portal frame rafter design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC411 BS

Office: 1007

Location: Example 13, 'Steelwork Design Guide'

y

a'

z z

>t<

T

y

B

Rafter stability

Calculations in accordance

BS5950-1 : 2000 Clause 5.3

Annex G - Members with one

laterally restrained. All

and moments are factored.

with

and

flange

loads

Design

Design

Design

Length

shear force

axial load (+ve comp)

of member

Mz=283.8 kNm

Fv=150 kN

F=92.615 kN

L=12.145 m

Section properties

Dimensions (mm): D=406.4 B=177.9 t=7.9 T=12.8 r=10.2

Properties (cm): Iz=21600 Iy=1200 Sz=1200 Sy=209 J=33.3

A=76.5 rz=16.803 ry=3.9606

Strength of steel - Clause 3.1.1

Young's Modulus

E=205 kN/mm2

Classification - Clause 3.5.2

Parameter (Table 11 Note b)

e=(275/py)^0.5=(275/275)^0.5

=1

Outstand

b=B/2=177.9/2=88.95 mm

Ratio

b'T=b/T=88.95/12.8=6.9492

As b/T 9e ( 9 ), outstand element of compression

flange is classified as Class 1 plastic.

Classify web of section:

Depth between fillets

d=D-2*(T+r)=406.4-2*(12.8+10.2)

=360.4 mm

Ratio

d't=d/t=360.4/7.9=45.62

Stress ratios for use with Table 11 limiting values defined in 3.5.4

Ratio

r1=F*10^3/(d*t*py)

=92.615*10^3/(360.4*7.9*275)

=0.11829

Page: 2

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Portal frame rafter design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC411 BS

Office: 1007

Limiting value for Class 1

d'tl1=80*e/(1+r1)=80*1/(1+0.11829)

=71.538

As d/t d'tl1, web is classified as Class 1 plastic.

Shear buckling

Shear capacity - Clause 4.2.3

Shear area

Shear capacity

Av=t*D=7.9*406.4=3210.6 mm2

Pv=0.6*py*Av/10^3=0.6*275*3210.6/10^3

=529.74 kN

Design shear force

Fv=150 kN

Since Fv Pv ( 150 kN 529.74 kN ) applied shear force

within the shear capacity.

Moment capacity - Clause 4.2.5

Elastic modulus

Z=Iz/(D/20)=21600/(406.4/20)

=1063 cm3

Moment capacity for compact sec

Mcz=py*Sz/10^3=275*1200/10^3

=330 kNm

Since Mz Mcz ( 283.8 kNm 330 kNm ) applied moment within

the moment capacity.

Adjacent to the plastic hinge - Clause 5.3.3

plastic hinge to the

adjacent restraint

Lu

Radius of gyration

Torsional index

Ratio

Ratio

Ratio

Max dist from hinge to restraint

Coefficient

38 ry

fc

py ^2 x ^2 ^0.5

+ .

130

275

36

F'=89.537 kN

ry=(Iy/A)^0.5=(1200/76.5)^0.5

=3.9606 cm

x=0.566*((D-T)/10)*(A/J)^0.5

=0.566*((406.4-12.8)/10)*(76.5

/33.3)^0.5

=33.766

fc=F'*10/A=89.537*10/76.5

=11.704 N/mm2

rfc'=fc/130=11.704/130=0.090032

rpy'=py/275=275/275=1

rx'=x/36=33.766/36=0.93795

Lu=38*ry*10/(rfc'+rpy'^2*rx'^2)^0.5

=38*3.9606*10/(0.090032+1^2

*0.93795^2)^0.5

=1528.3 mm

betau=0.44+x/270-fc/200

=0.44+33.766/270-11.704/200

=0.50654

Page: 3

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Portal frame rafter design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC411 BS

Office: 1007

Coefficient

Ko=(180+x)/300=(180+33.766)/300

=0.71255

Coefficient

K=0.8+0.08*x-(x-10)*fc/2000

=0.8+0.08*33.766-(33.766-10)*11.704

/2000

=3.3622

Far end bending moment value

Mf=279.1 kNm

Ratio of moments

beta=Mf/Mz=279.1/283.8=0.98344

Coefficient

phi=1.0

Max dist from hinge to restraint Lm'=phi*Lu=1*1528.3=1528.3 mm

Provide a restraint at

Lm=1100 mm below plastic hinge

and check member beyond this restraint as given in Section 4 of BS5950.

Away from the plastic hinge position

Lateral restraints

Ly=1500 mm

Torsional restraints

Lyt=4500 mm

Local capacity check - Clause 4.8.3.2

Design moment

M1=279.1 kNm

Design axial load

F1=92.615 kN

F

A.py

Mz

Mcz

Unity factor

uf=F1*10/(A*py)+M1/Mcz

=92.615*10/(76.5*275)+279.1/330

=0.88978

The interaction formula is satisfied.

Effective length z-z axis

flexural buckling the effective length Lz will be taken as the

actual length of the rafter.

Length of rafter

Lz=15524 mm

Compressive resistance - Section 4.7

Limiting slenderness

lamb0=0.2*(PI^2*E*1000/py)^0.5

=0.2*(3.1416^2*205*1000/275)^0.5

=17.155

For buckling about y-y axis

Slenderness

lambdy=Ly/(ry*10)=1500/(3.9606*10)

=37.873

Robertson constant for I section a=3.5 for table 24(b)

Perry factor

eta=0.001*a*(lambdy-lamb0)

=0.001*3.5*(37.873-17.155)

=0.072514

Page: 4

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Portal frame rafter design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC411 BS

Office: 1007

Euler strength

pe=PI^2*E*1000/lambdy^2

=3.1416^2*205*1000/37.873^2

=1410.6 N/mm2

Factor

phi=(py+(eta+1)*pe)/2

=(275+(0.072514+1)*1410.6)/2

=893.92 N/mm2

Compressive strength

pcy=pe*py/(phi+(phi^2-pe*py)^0.5)

=1410.6*275/(893.92+(893.92^2

-1410.6*275)^0.5)

=252.68 N/mm2

Compression resistance

Pcy=A*pcy/10=76.5*252.68/10

=1933 kN

For buckling about z-z axis

Radius of gyration

rz=(Iz/A)^0.5=(21600/76.5)^0.5

=16.803 cm

Slenderness

lambdx=Lz/(rz*10)=15524/(16.803*10)

=92.386

Robertson constant for I section a=2.0 for table 24(a)

Perry factor

eta=0.001*a*(lambdx-lamb0)

=0.001*2*(92.386-17.155)

=0.15046

Euler strength

pe=PI^2*E*1000/lambdx^2

=3.1416^2*205*1000/92.386^2

=237.05 N/mm2

Factor

phi=(py+(eta+1)*pe)/2

=(275+(0.15046+1)*237.05)/2

=273.86 N/mm2

Compressive strength

pcz=pe*py/(phi+(phi^2-pe*py)^0.5)

=237.05*275/(273.86+(273.86^2

-237.05*275)^0.5)

=174.82 N/mm2

Compression resistance

Pcz=A*pcz/10=76.5*174.82/10

=1337.3 kN

Compressive resistance

Pc=1337.3 kN

Since F Pc ( 92.615 kN 1337.3 kN ), design axial compressive

load does not exceed compression resistance.

Clause 4.3.6.6 and Table 18

Maximum moment on segment

MLT=M1=279.1 kNm

Far end BM

betaM=247.83 kNm

Table 18 beta factor

beta=betaM/MLT=247.83/279.1

=0.88796

Equivalent uniform moment factor mLT=TABLE 18 for beta=0.88796

=0.95518

Resistance to lateral-torsional buckling - Section 4.3

for the major axis of the member is taken as follows:

Effective length

LT=Ly=1500 mm

Page: 5

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Portal frame rafter design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC411 BS

Office: 1007

Lateral-torsional resistance moment - Clause 4.3.6

Slenderness of section

lambda=LT/(ry*10)=1500/(3.9606*10)

=37.873

Torsional index

x=0.566*((D-T)/10)*(A/J)^0.5

=0.566*((406.4-12.8)/10)*(76.5

/33.3)^0.5

=33.766

Ratio

ratio=lambda/x=37.873/33.766

=1.1216

Slenderness factor

v=1/((1+0.05*ratio^2)^0.25)

=1/((1+0.05*1.1216^2)^0.25)

=0.98486

Ratio w

betaw=1.0

Buckling parameter

u=(4*Sz^2*(1-Iy/Iz)/(A^2*((D-T)

/10)^2))^0.25

=(4*1200^2*(1-1200/21600)/(76.5^2

*((406.4-12.8)/10)^2))^0.25

=0.88012

Equivalent slenderness

lamLT=u*v*lambda*(betaw)^0.5

=0.88012*0.98486*37.873*(1)^0.5

=32.828

Limiting slenderness

lamlo=0.4*((PI^2*E*10^3)/py)^0.5

=0.4*((3.1416^2*205*10^3)

/275)^0.5

=34.31

As the equivalent slenderness is less than the limiting slenderness

Bending strength

pb=py=275 N/mm2

Buckling resistance moment

Mb=Sz*pb/10^3=1200*275/10^3

=330 kNm

Major axis flexural buckling - Table 26

Length between restraints z axis Lz=15524 mm

The member is loaded between restraints and the equation given in the

notes to Table 26 is used to determine mz.

Moments on member segment

Quarter point

m2=-162.85 kNm

Mid-span

m3=131.77 kNm

Three quarter point

m4=273.69 kNm

Maximum Moment on segment

Mz'=573.68 kNm

Maximum moment on central half

M24=273.69 kNm

Equivalent uniform moment factor mz=0.2+(0.1*m2+0.6*m3+0.1*m4)/Mz'

=0.2+(0.1*-162.85+0.6*131.77+0.1

*273.69)/573.68

=0.35714

Limiting value of m

mzlim=0.8*M24/Mz'=0.8*273.69/573.68

=0.38166

Revised moment factor

mz=mzlim=0.38166

Page: 6

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Portal frame rafter design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC411 BS

Office: 1007

Member buckling resistance

For major axis in-plane buckling

F

Pcz

mz.M

Mcz

F

1 + 0.5

Pcz

Unity relationship

unity=F/Pcz+mz*M1/Mcz*(1+0.5*F/Pcz)

=92.615/1337.3+0.38166*279.1

/330*(1+0.5*92.615/1337.3)

=0.40322

The unity relationship is satisfied.

For out-of-plane buckling:

Fc

Pcy

mLT.MLT

Mb

Unity relationship

ufy=F/Pcy+mLT*ABS(MLT)/Mb

=92.615/1933+0.95518*ABS(279.1)/330

=0.85577

The unity relationship is satisfied.

Hogging moment region

Dimensions (mm): Da=536.7 Ba=210 ta=10.8 Ta=17.4 ra=12.7

da=476.5

Properties (cm): Ja=101 Aa=129 xh=33.218

Vertical overall depth of section Do=810 mm

Restrictions to haunch

to the uniform doubly symmetrical I-section.

The additional T-section

should be obtained from a similar or larger I-section.

Area of uniform flange

Auf=B*T=177.9*12.8=2277.1 mm2

Area of haunch flange

Ahf=Ba*Ta=210*17.4=3654 mm2

Geometry of the haunch

Ly=1500 mm

Length measured on slope

Lh=3000 mm

Distance to 1st lateral restraint Lp=1226.6 mm from eaves connection

Distance between effective torsional restraints to both flanges

eaves to 1st. torsional restraint Lty1=1226.6 mm

Page: 7

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Portal frame rafter design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC411 BS

Office: 1007

Load and moment values at eaves

BM1=573.68 kNm

Axial load

Fc1=126.2 kN

Combined section properties at eaves

cross-section normal to the axis of the parent (unhaunched) member

Section properties are based on the smallest section depth between

restraints.

Overall depth

Do'=Do*COS(theta)=810*COS(0.2606)

=782.65 mm

Depth of smallest section

Dr=Do'-(Do'-D)*Lty1/Lh

=782.65-(782.65-406.4)*1226.6/3000

=628.81 mm

At section where moment is applied:

Total plastic modulus

Sx=3617.6 cm3

At minimum section between restraints:

Depth of haunch section

Dc=Dr-D=628.81-406.4=222.41 mm

Area of haunch

Ah=59.374 cm2

Total area

At=A+Ah=76.5+59.374=135.87 cm2

Total second moment of area

Ixx=71183 cm4

Total second moment of area

Iyy=2545.9 cm4

Radius gyration about minor axis ryy=SQR(Iyy/At)=SQR(2545.9/135.87)

=4.3286 cm

Torsional constant haunch

Ja=(Ba*Ta^3+(Dc-Ta)*ta^3)/30000

=(210*17.4^3+(222.41-17.4)*10.8^3)

/30000

=45.485 cm4

Torsional constant

Jt=Ja+J=45.485+33.3=78.785 cm3

Dist between flange shear crs

hs=(Dr*COS(theta)-T/2-Ta/2)/10

=(628.81*COS(0.2606)-12.8/2-17.4

/2)/10

=59.248 cm

Torsional index

xt=(0.566*hs)*(At/Jt)^0.5

=(0.566*59.248)*(135.87/78.785)^0.5

=44.039

Lateral buckling resistance - Annex G Section G.2

and a non-restrained compression flange, its resistance to overall outof-plane buckling should be checked as follows:

Mx(i) Mb(i)(1-Fc/Pc)

Compressive strength: Perry strut formula from Annex C

Slenderness

lambda=LTy/(ry*10)=1226.6/(3.9606*10)

=30.97

Distance between ref. axes

a'=245 mm

Term from Annex G.2.3

y'=1+((2*a')/(hs*10))^2

=1+((2*245)/(59.248*10))^2

=1.684

Page: 8

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Portal frame rafter design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC411 BS

Office: 1007

y''=(1/20)*((lambda/xt)^2)

=(1/20)*((30.97/44.039)^2)

=0.024727

y=(y'/(y'+y''))^0.5

=(1.684/(1.684+0.024727))^0.5

=0.99274

Minor axis slenderness ratio

lambTC=y*lambda=0.99274*30.97

=30.745

Limiting slenderness

lamb0=0.2*(PI^2*E*1000/py)^0.5

=0.2*(3.1416^2*205*1000/275)^0.5

=17.155

Robertson constant for I section a=3.5 for table 24(b)

Perry factor

eta=0.001*a*(lambTC-lamb0)

=0.001*3.5*(30.745-17.155)

=0.047566

Euler strength

pe=PI^2*E*1000/lambTC^2

=3.1416^2*205*1000/30.745^2

=2140.4 N/mm2

Factor

phi=(py+(eta+1)*pe)/2

=(275+(0.047566+1)*2140.4)/2

=1258.6 N/mm2

Compressive strength

pc=pe*py/(phi+(phi^2-pe*py)^0.5)

=2140.4*275/(1258.6+(1258.6^2

-2140.4*275)^0.5)

=260.87 N/mm2

Compressive resistance

Pc=pc*At/10=260.87*135.87/10

=3544.5 kN

Since Fc Pc ( 126.2 kN 3544.5 kN ), design axial compressive

load does not exceed compressive resistance.

Equivalent uniform moment factor - Annex G Section G.4.2

nt=1.0

As the member is not loaded between torsional restraints use the

procedure of Annex G.4.2

Larger end moment

BM=573.68 kNm

Smaller end moment

Ms=419.19 kNm

Ratio of moments

betat=Ms/BM=419.19/573.68

=0.7307

Equivalent uniform moment factor mt=TABLE 39 for betat=0.7307, y

=0.99274

=0.85535

Term from Annex G Section G.2.4.2 vt'=4*a'/(hs*10)=4*245/(59.248*10)

=1.6541

yh=0.02*(lambda/xh)^2

=0.02*(30.97/33.218)^2

=0.017385

vt=(vt'/(y'+y''+yh))^0.5

=(1.6541/(1.684+0.024727

+0.017385))^0.5

=0.97891

In accordance with Figure G.3 the segment is defined as

a tapered segment.

Maximum depth within length Lty

Dmax=Do'=782.65 mm

Minimum depth within length Lty

Dmin=Dr=628.81 mm

Page: 9

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Portal frame rafter design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC411 BS

Office: 1007

Taper factor G.2.5

c=1+3/(xt-9)*(Dmax/Dmin-1)^2/3

=1+3/(44.039-9)*(782.65/628.81-1)^2/3

=1.0017

Equivalent slenderness

lamTB=c*nt*vt*lambda

=1.0017*1*0.97891*30.97

=30.369

Limiting slenderness

lamlo=0.4*((PI^2*E*10^3)/py)^0.5

=0.4*((3.1416^2*205*10^3)

/275)^0.5

=34.31

The equivalent slenderness is less than the limiting slenderness.

Bending strength

pb=py=275 N/mm2

Buckling resistance moment

Mb=Sx*pb/10^3=3617.6*275/10^3

=994.83 kNm

Mx(i) Mb(i)(1-Fc/Pc)

Resistance moment

Mbi=Mb*(1-Fc/Pc)

=994.83*(1-126.2/3544.5)

=959.41 kNm

Applied moment

Mxi=BM=573.68 kNm

The relationship is satisfied, thus the stability is ensured between

effective torsional restraints for the section chosen.

Between first and second torsional restraints

1st to 2nd torsional restraint

Lty2=1500 mm

Load and moment

Axial load

BM2=419.19 kNm

Fc2=122.77 kN

Overall depth

Do'=Dr=628.81 mm

Depth of smallest section

Dr=Do'-(Do'-D)*Lty2/(Lh-Lty1)

=628.81-(628.81-406.4)*1500/(3000

-1226.6)

=440.69 mm

At section where moment is applied:

Total plastic modulus

Sx=2569.6 cm3

At minimum section between restraints:

Depth of haunch section

Dc=Dr-D=440.69-406.4=34.289 mm

Area of haunch

Ah=39.056 cm2

Total area

At=A+Ah=76.5+39.056=115.56 cm2

Total second moment of area

Ixx=35031 cm4

Total second moment of area

Iyy=2543.9 cm4

Radius gyration about minor axis ryy=SQR(Iyy/At)=SQR(2543.9/115.56)

=4.6919 cm

Torsional constant haunch

Ja=(Ba*Ta^3+(Dc-Ta)*ta^3)/30000

=(210*17.4^3+(34.289-17.4)*10.8^3)

/30000

=37.585 cm4

Page: 10

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Portal frame rafter design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC411 BS

Office: 1007

Torsional constant

Jt=Ja+J=37.585+33.3=70.885 cm3

Dist between flange shear crs

hs=(Dr*COS(theta)-T/2-Ta/2)/10

=(440.69*COS(0.2606)-12.8/2-17.4

/2)/10

=41.071 cm

Torsional index

xt=(0.566*hs)*(At/Jt)^0.5

=(0.566*41.071)*(115.56/70.885)^0.5

=29.68

Substituting values

BM=BM2=419.19 kNm

in equations

Fc=Fc2=122.77 kN

Lateral buckling resistance - Annex G Section G.2

and a non-restrained compression flange, its resistance to overall outof-plane buckling should be checked as follows:

Mx(i) Mb(i)(1-Fc/Pc)

Compressive strength: Perry strut formula from Annex C

Slenderness

lambda=LTy/(ry*10)=1500/(3.9606*10)

=37.873

Distance between ref. axes

a'=245 mm

Term from Annex G.2.3

y'=1+((2*a')/(hs*10))^2

=1+((2*245)/(41.071*10))^2

=2.4234

y''=(1/20)*((lambda/xt)^2)

=(1/20)*((37.873/29.68)^2)

=0.081413

y=(y'/(y'+y''))^0.5

=(2.4234/(2.4234+0.081413))^0.5

=0.98361

Minor axis slenderness ratio

lambTC=y*lambda=0.98361*37.873

=37.253

Limiting slenderness

lamb0=0.2*(PI^2*E*1000/py)^0.5

=0.2*(3.1416^2*205*1000/275)^0.5

=17.155

Robertson constant for I section a=3.5 for table 24(b)

Perry factor

eta=0.001*a*(lambTC-lamb0)

=0.001*3.5*(37.253-17.155)

=0.070342

Euler strength

pe=PI^2*E*1000/lambTC^2

=3.1416^2*205*1000/37.253^2

=1457.9 N/mm2

Factor

phi=(py+(eta+1)*pe)/2

=(275+(0.070342+1)*1457.9)/2

=917.75 N/mm2

Compressive strength

pc=pe*py/(phi+(phi^2-pe*py)^0.5)

=1457.9*275/(917.75+(917.75^2

-1457.9*275)^0.5)

=253.42 N/mm2

Compressive resistance

Pc=pc*At/10=253.42*115.56/10

=2928.5 kN

Since Fc Pc ( 122.77 kN 2928.5 kN ), design axial compressive

load does not exceed compressive resistance.

Page: 11

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Portal frame rafter design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC411 BS

Office: 1007

Equivalent uniform moment factor - Annex G Section G.4.2

nt=1.0

As the member is not loaded between torsional restraints use the

procedure of Annex G.4.2

Larger end moment

BM=419.19 kNm

Smaller end moment

Ms=251 kNm

Ratio of moments

betat=Ms/BM=251/419.19=0.59877

Equivalent uniform moment factor mt=TABLE 39 for betat=0.59877, y

=0.98361

=0.78939

Term from Annex G Section G.2.4.2 vt'=4*a'/(hs*10)=4*245/(41.071*10)

=2.3861

yh=0.02*(lambda/xh)^2

=0.02*(37.873/33.218)^2

=0.025999

vt=(vt'/(y'+y''+yh))^0.5

=(2.3861/(2.4234+0.081413

+0.025999))^0.5

=0.97099

In accordance with Figure G.3 the segment is defined as

a tapered segment.

Maximum depth within length Lty

Dmax=Do'=628.81 mm

Minimum depth within length Lty

Dmin=Dr=440.69 mm

Taper factor G.2.5

c=1+3/(xt-9)*(Dmax/Dmin-1)^2/3

=1+3/(29.68-9)*(628.81/440.69-1)^2/3

=1.0088

Equivalent slenderness

lamTB=c*nt*vt*lambda

=1.0088*1*0.97099*37.873

=37.099

Limiting slenderness

lamlo=0.4*((PI^2*E*10^3)/py)^0.5

=0.4*((3.1416^2*205*10^3)

/275)^0.5

=34.31

Perry coefficient

etaLT=0.007*(lamTB-lamlo)

=0.007*(37.099-34.31)

=0.019521

Elastic strength

pe=PI^2*E*10^3/(lamTB^2)

=3.1416^2*205*10^3/(37.099^2)

=1470.1 N/mm2

Factor

phiLT=(py+(etaLT+1)*pe)/2

=(275+(0.019521+1)*1470.1)/2

=886.88 N/mm2

Factor

pey=pe*py=1470.1*275=404268

Bending strength

pb=(pey)/(phiLT+((phiLT^2-pey)^0.5))

=(404268)/(886.88+((886.88^2

-404268)^0.5))

=268.58 N/mm2

Buckling resistance moment

Mb=Sx*pb/10^3=2569.6*268.58/10^3

=690.17 kNm

Mx(i) Mb(i)(1-Fc/Pc)

Resistance moment

Mbi=Mb*(1-Fc/Pc)

=690.17*(1-122.77/2928.5)

=661.23 kNm

Page: 12

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Portal frame rafter design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC411 BS

Office: 1007

Applied moment

Mxi=BM=419.19 kNm

The relationship is satisfied, thus the stability is ensured between

effective torsional restraints for the section chosen.

The section is suitable.

DESIGN SUMMARY

1500

1500

1500

<><><>

810

leg

C.L

X

X

X

X

C.L. of member

*

1226.6 mm

Lateral restraint

<>

1226.6 mm

Torsional restraint

<>

X lateral restraint

* torsional restraint

UNIVERSAL BEAM

HAUNCH SECTION

533 x 210 x 101 UB Grade S 275

Section is satisfactory for bending,

buckling resistance between intermediate

restraints and overall buckling between

torsional restraints.

Restraint spacing:

Adjacent to rafter hinge

Along the rafter

At eaves position

Lateral restraints

Torsional restraints

Lateral restraint

Torsional restraint

Torsional restraint

1100 mm

1500 mm

4500 mm

1226.6 mm

1226.6 mm

2726.6 mm

No411

Page: 1

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Portal frame rafter design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC411 EC

Office: 1007

Location: Ex1 - Based on example 13, 'Steelwork Design Guide'

z

y y

tw

tf

z

b

Rafter stability

BS EN 1993-1-:2005 Clause 6.3.5

and Annex BB.3.

This proforma assumes that rafter

plastic hinge forms just below the

portal apex at the point of maximum

sagging moment.

Loads and moments are factored.

MyEd=283.8 kNm

Design shear force

VzEd=150 kN

Design axial load (+ve comp)

NEd=92.615 kN

Length of member

L=12.145 m

NOTE: The length of member above is the uniform length and does not

include the length of the haunch.

Steel section properties

Dimensions (mm): h=406.4 b=177.9 tw=7.9 tf=12.8 r=10.2

Properties (cm): Iy=21600 Iz=1200 Wply=1200 Wplz=209 It=33.3

A=76.5 iy=16.803 iz=3.9606

Strength of steel - Table 3.1 (amended by N.A.)

Yield strength

fy=275 N/mm2

Ultimate strength

fu=410 N/mm2

Young's modulus

E=210000 N/mm2

Partial factors for resistance

Resistance partial factor

gamM0=1.0

gamM1=1.0

Section classification

Parameter (Table 5)

e=(235/fy)^0.5=(235/275)^0.5

=0.92442

Outstand

c=(b-tw-2*r)/2=(177.9-7.9-2*10.2)/2

=74.8 mm

Ratio

c't=c/tf=74.8/12.8=5.8437

As c/tf 9e ( 8.3197 ), outstand element of compression

flange is classified as Class 1 plastic.

Page: 2

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Portal frame rafter design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC411 EC

Office: 1007

Classify web element of section:

Depth between fillets

d=h-2*(tf+r)=406.4-2*(12.8+10.2)

=360.4 mm

Ratio

c'tw=d/tw=360.4/7.9=45.62

Ratio

ad=0.5*(1+NEd*10^3/(fy*tw*d))

=0.5*(1+92.615*10^3/(275*7.9*360.4))

=0.55914

Limiting ratio

c't1=396*e/(13*ad-1)

=396*0.92442/(13*0.55914-1)

=58.395

Web is Class 1 plastic.

Shear buckling

hw=h-2*tf=406.4-2*12.8=380.8 mm

Buckling ratio

hw'tw=hw/tw=380.8/7.9=48.203

Since hw/tw 72e ( 66.558 ) no check for shear buckling is required.

Shear plastic resistance - Clause 6.2.6

Shear Area

Avz=A*100-2*b*tf+(tw+2*r)*tf

=76.5*100-2*177.9*12.8+(7.9+2

*10.2)*12.8

=3458 mm2

Shear plastic resistance

VplRd=Avz*fy/SQR(3)/(gamM0*1000)

=3458*275/SQR(3)/(1*1000)

=549.03 kN

Design shear force

VzEd=150 kN

Since VzEd VplRd ( 150 kN 549.03 kN ) design shear force

within the shear plastic resistance.

Moment resistance - Clause 6.2.5

McRdy=fy*Wply/(gamM0*10^3)

=275*1200/(1*10^3)

=330 kNm

Since MyEd McRdy ( 283.8 kNm 330 kNm ) design moment within

the moment resistance.

Adjacent to the plastic hinge - Annex BB.3

provided. The maximum distance from the plastic hinge to the adjacent

lateral restraints is derived from the following expression:

Lm'

38 iz

1

NEd'

1

(Wply)^2 fy ^2 ^0.5

. + . .

57.4 A 756(C1)^2

A.It

235

Correction factor

Coefficient

compute

NEd'=89.537 kN

kc=1

C1=1/kc^2=1/1^2=1

comp1=NEd'*10/(A*57.4)

=89.537*10/(76.5*57.4)

=0.20391 N/mm2

Page: 3

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Portal frame rafter design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC411 EC

Office: 1007

compute

comp2=Wply^2/(756*C1^2*A*It)

=1200^2/(756*1^2*76.5*33.3)

=0.74771

compute

comp3=(fy/235)^2=(275/235)^2

=1.3694

Max dist from hinge to restraint Lm'=38*iz*10/(comp1+comp2+comp3)^0.5

=38*3.9606*10/(0.20391+0.74771

+1.3694)^0.5

=987.88 mm

Max dist from hinge to restraint Lm'=Lm' mm

Provide a restraint at

Lm=975 mm below plastic hinge

and check member beyond this restraint as per Cl. 6.3 of EC3 Part 1-1.

Away from the plastic hinge position - uniform section

Consider buckling about the z-z axis (i.e. the minor axis).

Dist.between lateral restraints

Lz=1500 mm

Dist.between torsional restraints Lzt=4500 mm

Cross-section resistance - Clause 6.2(7)

Consider the first purlin down from the rafter plastic hinge position.

Design moment

MyEd1=279.1 kNm

Design axial load

NEd1=92.615 kN

NEd

A.fy

MyEd

McRdy

Unity factor

uf=NEd1*10/(A*fy)+MyEd1/McRdy

=92.615*10/(76.5*275)+279.1/330

=0.88978

The interaction formula is satisfied.

Effective length about y-y axis (major axis)

flexural buckling the effective length Ly will be taken as the actual

length of the rafter.

Length of the whole rafter

Ly=15524 mm

Elastic critical force

Effective length about z-z axis

Buckling force about y-y axis

Lcry=1.0*Ly=1.0*15524=15524 mm

Lcrz=1.0*Lz=1.0*1500=1500 mm

Ncry=PI^2*E*Iy*10^7/(Lcry*10^3)^2

=3.1416^2*210000*21600*10^7

/(15524*10^3)^2

=1857.7 kN

Buckling force about z-z axis

Ncrz=PI^2*E*Iz*10^7/(Lcrz*10^3)^2

=3.1416^2*210000*1200*10^7/(1500

*10^3)^2

=11054 kN

As the ratio of applied load to buckling load is less than 0.4, then

Page: 4

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Portal frame rafter design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC411 EC

Office: 1007

Reduction factor z-z axis

chiz=1.0

Non-dimensional slenderness

Slenderness about z-z axis

lamy=SQR(A*10^2*fy/(Ncry*10^3))

=SQR(76.5*10^2*275/(1857.7*10^3))

=1.0642

lamz=SQR(A*10^2*fy/(Ncrz*10^3))

=SQR(76.5*10^2*275/(11054*10^3))

=0.43625

Imperfection factor

alpha=0.21

Factor

phiy=0.5*(1+alpha*(lamy-0.2)+lamy^2)

=0.5*(1+0.21*(1.0642-0.2)

+1.0642^2)

=1.157

Reduction factor y-y axis

chiy=1/(phiy+SQR(phiy^2-lamy^2))

=1/(1.157+SQR(1.157^2-1.0642^2))

=0.62074

Reduction factor

chi=0.62074

Design buckling resistance

Design buckling resistance

Unity factor

NRd=A*fy/10=76.5*275/10=2103.8 kN

NbRd=chi*A*fy/(gamM1*10)

=0.62074*76.5*275/(1*10)

=1305.9 kN

unity=NEd1/NbRd=92.615/1305.9

=0.070921

Lateral torsional buckling

Length for LTB

Shear modulus

Warping constant

Terms for Critical moment Mcr:

Euler term

Maximum moment on member

Far end moment

K=1

LT=Lz/1000=1500/1000=1.5 m

G=80770 N/mm2

Iw=Iz/4*((h-tf)/10)^2

=1200/4*((406.4-12.8)/10)^2

=464763 cm6

Et=PI^2*E*Iz/((K*LT)^2*100)

=3.1416^2*210000*1200/((1*1.5)^2

*100)

=11.054E6 N

Gt=(K*LT)^2*G*It/(PI^2*E*Iz)*10^6

=(1*1.5)^2*80770*33.3/(3.1416^2

*210000*1200)*10^6

=2433.2 mm2

Sr=(K^2*Iw*100/Iz+Gt)^0.5

=(1^2*464763*100/1200+2433.2)^0.5

=202.89 mm

M=283.8 kNm

psiM=247 kNm

Page: 5

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Portal frame rafter design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC411 EC

Office: 1007

Factor

psi=psiM/M=247/283.8=0.87033

Coefficient C1

C1=TABLE 3.1 for psi=0.87033

=1.0726

Factor

kc=1/(1.33-0.33*psi)

=1/(1.33-0.33*0.87033)

=0.95897

Critical moment

Mcr=C1*Et*Sr/10^6

=1.0726*11.054E6*202.89/10^6

=2405.6 kNm

Non-dimensional slenderness

lamLT=(Wply*fy/(Mcr*10^3))^0.5

=(1200*275/(2405.6*10^3))^0.5

=0.37038

Limiting slenderness value

lamLT0=0.4

As lamLT lamLT0,

Lateral torsional buckling effects are ignored.

Modification factor

ChiLT=1.0

Design buckling resistance moment MybRd=ChiLT*Wply*fy/(gamM1*10^3)

=1*1200*275/(1*10^3)

=330 kNm

Coefficients C and interaction factors k

Factor Cmy

Maximum end moment

Mh(1)=573 kNm

Maximum span moment

Ms(1)=-279 kNm

End moment

pMh(1)=-247 kNm

Factor

as=Ms(i)/Mh(i)=-279/573=-0.48691

Factor

psi=pMh(i)/Mh(i)=-247/573

=-0.43106

Equivalent uniform moment factor Cm=0.2*(-psi)-0.8*as

=0.2*(--0.43106)-0.8*-0.48691

=0.47574

Equivalent uniform moment factor Cmy=Cm=0.47574

Factor CmLT

Interaction factors kij

Interaction factor

Interaction factor

Interaction factor

Term for factor

Interaction factor

CmLT=1.0

kyy1=Cmy*(1+(lamy-0.2)*NEd/(chiy*NRd))

=0.47574*(1+(1.0642-0.2)*92.615

/(0.62074*2103.8))

=0.5049

kyy2=Cmy*(1+0.8*NEd/(chiy*NRd))

=0.47574*(1+0.8*92.615/(0.62074

*2103.8))

=0.50273

kyy=0.50273

Nr=NEd/(chiz*NRd)=92.615/(1*2103.8)

=0.044024

kzy1=1-0.1*lamz/(CmLT-0.25)*Nr

=1-0.1*0.43625/(1-0.25)*0.044024

=0.99744

Page: 6

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Portal frame rafter design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC411 EC

Office: 1007

Interaction factor

kzy2=1-0.1/(CmLT-0.25)*Nr

=1-0.1/(1-0.25)*0.044024

=0.99413

Interaction factor

kzy=0.99744

Interaction equations

NEd

MyEd

+ kyy 1

y.NRd

LT.McRdy

Unity factor

Unity1=NEd1/(chiy*NRd)+kyy*MyEd1/(ChiLT*McRdy)

=92.615/(0.62074*2103.8)+0.50273*279.1

/(1*330)

=0.49611

Section chosen is suitable.

NEd

MyEd

+ kzy 1

z.NRd

LT.McRdy

Unity factor

Unity2=NEd1/(chiz*NRd)+kzy*MyEd1/(ChiLT*McRdy)

=92.615/(1*2103.8)+0.99744*279.1/(1*330)

=0.88762

Section chosen is suitable.

Hogging moment region

Dimensions (mm): ha=536.7 ba=210 twa=10.8 tfa=17.4

ra=12.7 da=476.5

Properties (cm): Ita=101 Aa=129 xh=33.218

Vertical overall depth of section ho=810 mm

Haunch geometry

Lz=1500 mm

Haunch length measured on slope

Lh=3000 mm (from column face)

Distance to 1st lateral restraint Lp=1226.6 mm (from column face)

Distance between effective torsional restraints to both flanges,

eaves to end of haunch

Ltz1=Lp+Lz=1226.6+1500=2726.6 mm

Pitch of rafter

Theta=14.6 degrees

Pitch in radians

theta=RAD(Theta)=0.25482 radians

Overall depth

ho'=ho*COS(theta)=810*COS(0.25482)

=783.84 mm

Haunch stability - based on EC3 Part 1-1, Annex BB.3

the face of the column the bolt connections provide lateral restraint to

both flanges. Based on Annex BB.3 lateral torsional buckling effects may

be ignored where the limiting length Ls and basic critical length Lk are

not exceeded.

Page: 7

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Portal frame rafter design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC411 EC

Office: 1007

1500 mm

1500 mm

1500 mm

1500 mm

1500 mm

<><><><><>

810

leg

C.L

X

X

X

X

X

X

C.L. of member

*

*

*

<Ls><Lk>

X lateral restraint

* torsional restraint

compute

comp1=((5.4*(fy/E)*(h/tf)^2-1))^0.5

=((5.4*(275/210000)*(406.4

/12.8)^2-1))^0.5

=2.4756

Basic critical length

Lk=(5.4+600*fy/E)*h/tf*iz*10/comp1

=(5.4+600*275/210000)*406.4/12.8

*3.9606*10/2.4756

=3142.1 mm

Vertical depth (unhaunched sect.) hs=h/COS(theta)=406.4/COS(0.25482)

=419.96 mm

Vertical depth of haunch

hh=ho-hs=810-419.96=390.04 mm

Length between points at which the compression flange is laterally

restrained (Annex BB.3.3.3)

Ly=Ltz1=2726.6 mm

Length of haunch within length Ly Lh'=Ltz1=2726.6 mm

Taper factor (Annex BB.3.3.3)

c=1+3/((h/tf)-9)*(hh/hs)^0.67*(Lh'

/Ly)^0.5

=1+3/((406.4/12.8)-9)*(390.04

/419.96)^0.67*(2726.6/2726.6)^0.5

=1.1255

From the I.Struct.E publication entitled 'Manual for the design of

steelwork building structures to EC3' conservatively the limiting

length between torsional restraints Ls can be taken as follows:

Limiting length

Ls=Lk/c=3142.1/1.1255=2791.7 mm

As Ls < Lh ( 2791.7 mm < 3000 mm ) the limiting length does not exceed

the length of the haunch, provide lateral restraint to both flanges at

mid-span and end of the haunch.

Point of contraflexure

be less or equal to the basic critical length Lk.

Dist.to point of contraflexure

Lcon=2776 mm (from haunch end)

Basic critical length

Lk=3142.1 mm

As Lcon Lk ( 2776 mm 3142.1 mm ) the distance from the end of

haunch to the point of contraflexure is less or equal to the basic

critical length Lk=3142.1 mm and therefore no additional bottom flange

restrain is required.

The section is considered to be suitable.

Page: 8

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Portal frame rafter design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC411 EC

Office: 1007

DESIGN SUMMARY

UNIVERSAL BEAM

HAUNCH SECTION

533 x 210 x 101 UKB Grade S 275

Section is satisfactory for bending,

buckling resistance between intermediate

restraints and overall buckling between

torsional restraints.

Restraint spacing:

Adjacent to rafter hinge

975 mm

Lateral restraints

Torsional restraints

1500 mm

4500 mm

At eaves position

Lateral restraint

Torsional restraint

Torsional restraint

1226.6 mm

1226.6 mm

2726.6 mm

No411

Page: 1

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

RHS beam section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC412 BS

Office: 1007

Location: Example 3 'SHS Design Examples'

y

z

z

T

y

Calculations in accordance

with BS5950-1:2000 Sections

4.7 and 4.8.

All loads and moments are

factored.

B

Factored bending moment axis zz

Factored SF in y direction

Axial load (+ve compression)

Length of member

Mz=5.04 kNm

Fv=5.6 kN

F=598 kN

L=3.6 m

Properties (cm): A=35.8 rx=5.85 Zx=163 Sx=192 Ix=1220 J=1910 C=240

Effective lengths - Clause 4.7.2

Length of member

Length between restraints z axis

Length between restraints y axis

Effective length about z-z axis

Effective length about y-y axis

3600 mm

Lz=3600 mm

Ly=1800 mm

Lez=Kz*Lz=0.85*3600=3060 mm

Ley=Ky*Ly=1*1800=1800 mm

Design strength

py=275 N/mm2

Young's Modulus

E=205 kN/mm2

Classification - Clause 3.5.2

Parameter (Table 12 Note b)

e=(275/py)^0.5=(275/275)^0.5

=1

Internal flange size

b=B-3*t=150-3*6.3=131.1 mm

Ratio - local buckling of flange b't=b/t=131.1/6.3=20.81

Web depth

d=D-3*t=150-3*6.3=131.1 mm

Ratio - local buckling of web

d't=d/t=131.1/6.3=20.81

As b/t 28e or 80e - d/t ( 28 ), internal element of

compression flange is classified as Class 1 plastic.

Classify web of section:

Ratio

r1=F*10^3/(2*d*t*py)

=598*10^3/(2*131.1*6.3*275)

=1.3164

Page: 2

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

RHS beam section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC412 BS

Office: 1007

Value limited

r1=1

Limiting local buckling ratio

d'tlim=40*e=40*1=40

As d't < 64e/(1+0.6r1) ( 40 ), web is classified

as class 1 plastic.

Web shear

Shear area

Shear

Shear

Since

shear

Av=(D/(D+B))*A*100

=(150/(150+150))*35.8*100

=1790 mm2

capacity

Pv=0.6*py*Av/10^3=0.6*275*1790/10^3

=295.35 kN

force

Fv=5.6 kN

Fv Pv ( 5.6 kN 295.35 kN ), shear force within

capacity.

Moment capacities

Moment capacity for compact sec

Mc=py*Sz/10^3=275*192/10^3

=52.8 kNm

As Mz Mc ( 5.04 kNm 52.8 kNm ), applied moment is OK.

Local capacity check - Clause 4.8.3.2

F

A.py

Mz

Mc

1.0

Unity factor

uf=F*10/(A*py)+Mz/Mc

=598*10/(35.8*275)+5.04/52.8

=0.70287

The interaction formula is satisfied.

Slenderness - Clause 4.7.2

Slenderness (major axis)

Controlling slenderness ratio

lam'y=Ley/(ry*10)=1800/(5.85*10)

=30.769

lam'z=Lez/(rz*10)=3060/(5.85*10)

=52.308

lambda=52.308

Limiting slenderness

lamb0=0.2*(PI^2*E*1000/py)^0.5

=0.2*(3.1416^2*205*1000/275)^0.5

=17.155

For buckling about y-y axis

Robertson cont.for hollow sect.

a=2.0 for table 24(a) hot finished

Perry factor

eta=0.001*a*(lam'y-lamb0)

=0.001*2*(30.769-17.155)

=0.027228

Euler strength

pe=PI^2*E*1000/lam'y^2

=3.1416^2*205*1000/30.769^2

=2137.1 N/mm2

Page: 3

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

RHS beam section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC412 BS

Office: 1007

Factor

phi=(py+(eta+1)*pe)/2

=(275+(0.027228+1)*2137.1)/2

=1235.1 N/mm2

Compressive strength

pcy=pe*py/(phi+(phi^2-pe*py)^0.5)

=2137.1*275/(1235.1+(1235.1^2

-2137.1*275)^0.5)

=266.7 N/mm2

Compression resistance

Pcy=A*pcy/10=35.8*266.7/10

=954.8 kN

For buckling about z-z axis

Robertson cont.for hollow sect.

a=2.0 for table 24(a) hot finished

Perry factor

eta=0.001*a*(lam'z-lamb0)

=0.001*2*(52.308-17.155)

=0.070305

Euler strength

pe=PI^2*E*1000/lam'z^2

=3.1416^2*205*1000/52.308^2

=739.47 N/mm2

Factor

phi=(py+(eta+1)*pe)/2

=(275+(0.070305+1)*739.47)/2

=533.23 N/mm2

Compressive strength

pcz=pe*py/(phi+(phi^2-pe*py)^0.5)

=739.47*275/(533.23+(533.23^2

-739.47*275)^0.5)

=248.66 N/mm2

Compression resistance

Pcz=A*pcz/10=35.8*248.66/10

=890.21 kN

Compressive resistance

Pc=890.21 kN

Since F Pc ( 598 kN 890.21 kN ), design axial compressive

load does not exceed compression resistance, section OK.

Equivalent uniform moment factors - Clause 4.8.3.3.4

The member is loaded between restraints and the equation given in the

notes to Table 18 is used to determine mLT.

Moments on member segment

Quarter point

m2=0 kNm

Mid-span

m3=5.04 kNm

Three quarter point

m4=0 kNm

Maximum Moment on segment

Mz=5.04 kNm

Equivalent uniform moment factor mLT=0.2+(0.15*m2+0.5*m3+0.15*m4)/Mz

=0.2+(0.15*0+0.5*5.04+0.15*0)/5.04

=0.7

Major axis flexural buckling - Table 26

Length between restraints z axis Lz=3600 mm

The member is loaded between restraints and the equation given in the

notes to Table 26 is used to determine mz.

Moments on member segment

Quarter point

mz2=0 kNm

Mid-span

mz3=5.04 kNm

Three quarter point

mz4=0 kNm

Maximum Moment on segment

Mz=5.04 kNm

Page: 4

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

RHS beam section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC412 BS

Office: 1007

Maximum moment on central half

M24=5.04 kNm

Equivalent uniform moment factor mz=0.2+(0.1*mz2+0.6*mz3+0.1*mz4)/Mz

=0.2+(0.1*0+0.6*5.04+0.1*0)/5.04

=0.8

Limiting value of m

mzlim=0.8*M24/Mz=0.8*5.04/5.04

=0.8

Buckling resistance - Clause 4.3.6

not be checked separately for resistance to lateral-torsional

buckling.

Buckling resistance moment

Mb=Mc=52.8 kNm

Clause 4.3.6.6 and Table 18

The member is loaded between restraints and the equation given in the

notes to Table 18 is used to determine mLT.

Moments on member segment

Quarter point

m2=0 kNm

Mid-span

m3=5.04 kNm

Three quarter point

m4=0 kNm

Maximum Moment on segment

Mz=5.04 kNm

Equivalent uniform moment factor mLT=0.2+(0.15*m2+0.5*m3+0.15*m4)/Mz

=0.2+(0.15*0+0.5*5.04+0.15*0)/5.04

=0.7

Since Mz < Mb/mLT ( 5.04 kNm < 75.429 kNm ), section is OK for

lateral torsional buckling resistance.

Member buckling resistance

F

Pcz

mz.Mz

F

1 + 0.5

Mc

Pcz

1.0

Unity relationship

unity=F/Pcz+mz*Mz/Mc*(1+0.5*F/Pcz)

=598/890.21+0.8*5.04/52.8*(1

+0.5*598/890.21)

=0.77377

The unity relationship is satisfied.

For out-of-plane buckling,

Fc

Pcy

mLT.Mz

0.5

Mc

Unity relationship

1.0

ufy=F/Pcy+0.5*mLT*Mz/Mc

=598/954.8+0.5*0.7*5.04/52.8

=0.65972

The unity relationship is satisfied.

Page: 5

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

RHS beam section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC412 BS

Office: 1007

HOT FINISHED

SQUARE HOLLOW SECTION

SECTION

SUMMARY

150 x 150 x 6.3 SHS Grade S 275

Section is satisfactory for axial

load, and overall buckling check.

Axial load

598 kN

Compression resistance 890.21 kN

Maximum moment z axis

5.04 kNm

Moment capacity

52.8 kNm

Local capacity check

0.70287 1

Overall buckling checks 0.77377 < 1

0.65972 1

No412

Page: 1

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

RHS beam section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC412 EC

Office: 1007

Location: SCI example

z

y

y

t

z

Calculations in accordance

with BS EN 1993-1-1:2005.

Internal forces and moments

have been determined by

elastic global analysis.

All forces and moments are

factored.

b

Moment about y-y axis

Shear force

Axial load (+ve compression)

Length of member

MyEd=10.1 kNm

VzEd=11.2 kN

NEd=525 kN

L=3.6 m

Properties (cm): A=28.7 iy=5.9 Wely=134 Wply=156 Iy=1000 It=1550

Wt=197

Axial load compressive

Strength of steel - Table 3.1 (amended by N.A.)

Yield strength

fy=355 N/mm2

Ultimate strength

fu=470 N/mm2

Young's modulus

E=210000 N/mm2

Section classification

limits in the "part subject to compression" section of Table 5.2.

Parameter (Table 5.2)

e=(235/fy)^0.5=(235/355)^0.5

=0.81362

Depth between fillets

C=b-3*t=150-3*5=135 mm

Ratio

C't=C/t=135/5=27

Classify internal element of section:

As C/t 38e ( 30.917 ), internal element in compression is

classified as Class 2 compact.

Moment resistance

Moment resistance

Unity factor

Section chosen is suitable.

McRd=Wply*fy/10^3=156*355/10^3

=55.38 kNm

unity=MyEd/McRd=10.1/55.38

=0.18238

Page: 2

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

RHS beam section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC412 EC

Office: 1007

Shear plastic resistance

Shear area

Avz=A*100*h/(b+h)

=28.7*100*150/(150+150)

=1435 mm2

Shear plastic resistance

VplRd=Avz*fy/SQR(3)/1000

=1435*355/SQR(3)/1000

=294.12 kN

Unity factor

Unity=VzEd/VplRd=11.2/294.12

=0.03808

Section chosen is suitable.

M-V interaction

V=11.2 kN

No M-V interaction has to be considered as actual shear force is less

than 0.5VplRd ( 11.2 kN < 147.06 kN ).

Bending and axial force - Clause 6.2.9

MyRd=McRd=55.38 kNm

Axial ratio

n=NEd/(A*fy/10)=525/(28.7*355/10)

=0.51529

Area ratio

aw=(A-2*b*t/100)/A

=(28.7-2*150*5/100)/28.7

=0.47735

Moment resistance

MNRd=MyRd*(1-n)/(1-0.5*aw)

=55.38*(1-0.51529)/(1-0.5*0.47735)

=35.259 kNm

Section is suitable for the combination of bending and axial force.

Effective length

Length between restraints (z-z)

Effective length about y-y axis

Effective length about z-z axis

Elastic critical force

Ly=3.6 m

Lz=1.8 m

Lcry=1.0*Ly*1000=1.0*3.6*1000

=3600 mm

Lcrz=1.0*Lz*1000=1.0*1.8*1000

=1800 mm

Ncry=PI^2*E*Iy*10^7/(Lcry*10^3)^2

=3.1416^2*210000*1000*10^7/(3600

*10^3)^2

=1599.2 kN

Ncrz=PI^2*E*Iz*10^7/(Lcrz*10^3)^2

=3.1416^2*210000*1000*10^7/(1800

*10^3)^2

=6397 kN

Page: 3

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

RHS beam section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC412 EC

Office: 1007

Non-dimensional slenderness

lamy=SQR(A*10^2*fy/(Ncry*10^3))

=SQR(28.7*10^2*355/(1599.2*10^3))

=0.79817

Slenderness about z-z axis

lamz=SQR(A*10^2*fy/(Ncrz*10^3))

=SQR(28.7*10^2*355/(6397*10^3))

=0.39909

Reduction factor

Factor

Factor

Reduction factor

Design buckling resistance

Axial resistance

Design buckling resistance

Unity factor

alpha=0.21

phiy=0.5*(1+alpha*(lamy-0.2)+lamy^2)

=0.5*(1+0.21*(0.79817-0.2)

+0.79817^2)

=0.88135

chiy=1/(phiy+SQR(phiy^2-lamy^2))

=1/(0.88135+SQR(0.88135^2

-0.79817^2))

=0.79674

alpha=0.21

phiz=0.5*(1+alpha*(lamz-0.2)+lamz^2)

=0.5*(1+0.21*(0.39909-0.2)

+0.39909^2)

=0.60054

chiz=1/(phiz+SQR(phiz^2-lamz^2))

=1/(0.60054+SQR(0.60054^2

-0.39909^2))

=0.95303

chi=0.79674

NRd=A*fy/10=28.7*355/10=1018.9 kN

NbRd=chi*NRd=0.79674*1018.9

=811.76 kN

unity=NEd/NbRd=525/811.76

=0.64674

Coefficient factor Cmy

Maximum end moment

Mh(1)=10.1 kNm

Maximum span moment

Ms(1)=-10.1 kNm

End moment

pMh(1)=10.1 kNm

Factor

ah=Mh(i)/Ms(i)=10.1/-10.1

=-1

Factor

psi=1

Equivalent uniform moment factor Cm=0.9+0.1*ah=0.9+0.1*-1

=0.8

Page: 4

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

RHS beam section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC412 EC

Office: 1007

Equivalent uniform moment factor Cmy=Cm=0.8

Interaction factors kij

Interaction factor

Interaction factor

Interaction factor

Interaction factor

Lateral torsional buckling

Length for LTB

Shear modulus

Terms for critical moment Mcr:

Euler term

Far end moment

Factor

Coefficient C1

Factor

Critical moment

Non-dimensional slenderness

kyy1=Cmy*(1+(lamy-0.2)*NEd/(chiy*NRd))

=0.8*(1+(0.79817-0.2)*525

/(0.79674*1018.9))

=1.1095

kyy2=Cmy*(1+0.8*NEd/(chiy*NRd))

=0.8*(1+0.8*525/(0.79674*1018.9))

=1.2139

kyy=1.1095

kzy=0.6*kyy=0.6*1.1095=0.66569

K=1

LT=1.8 m

G=80770 N/mm2

Et=PI^2*E*Iz/((K*LT)^2*100)

=3.1416^2*210000*1000/((1*1.8)^2

*100)

=6.397E6 N

Gt=(K*LT)^2*G*It/(PI^2*E*Iz)*10^6

=(1*1.8)^2*80770*1550/(3.1416^2

*210000*1000)*10^6

=195708 mm2

M=10.1 kNm

psiM=-10.1 kNm

psi=psiM/M=-10.1/10.1=-1

C1=TABLE 3.1 for psi=-1

=2.55

kc=1/(1.33-0.33*psi)=1/(1.33-0.33*-1)

=0.60241

Mcr=C1*Et*Gt^0.5/10^6

=2.55*6.397E6*195708^0.5/10^6

=7216.4 kNm

lamLT=(Wply*fy/(Mcr*10^3))^0.5

=(156*355/(7216.4*10^3))^0.5

=0.087603

lamLT0=0.4

As lamLT lamLT0,

The segment of the beam is not subject to lateral torsional buckling.

Modification factor

ChiLT=1.0

Design buckling resistance moment MybRd=ChiLT*Wply*fy/10^3

=1*156*355/10^3

=55.38 kNm

Interaction equations

NEd

MyEd

+ kyy 1.0

y.NRd

LT.McRd

Page: 5

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

RHS beam section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC412 EC

Office: 1007

Unity factor

Unity1=NEd/(chiy*NRd)+kyy*MyEd/(ChiLT*McRd)

=525/(0.79674*1018.9)+1.1095*10.1/(1

*55.38)

=0.84909

Section chosen is suitable.

NEd

MyEd

+ kzy 1.0

z.NRd

LT.McRd

Unity factor

Unity2=NEd/(chiz*NRd)+kzy*MyEd/(ChiLT*McRd)

=525/(0.95303*1018.9)+0.66569*10.1/(1

*55.38)

=0.66209

Section chosen is suitable.

HOT FINISHED

SQUARE HOLLOW SECTION

DESIGN

SUMMARY

150 x 150 x 5 SHS Grade S 355

Design BM y-y axis

10.1 kNm

Moment resistance (y-y) 55.38 kNm

Design compression load 525 kN

Buckling resistance

811.76 kN

Interaction factors

0.84909 1

0.66209 1

No412

Page: 1

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

CHS beam and column section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC414 BS

Office: 1007

Location: Default example

y

D z

z

y

Design moment axis zz

Design SF in y direction

Axial load (+ve compression)

Length of member

Factored moment about axis yy

Calculations in accordance

with BS 5950:Part 1:2000

Sections 4.7 and 4.8.

All loads and moments

are factored.

Mz=5.04 kNm

Fv=5.6 kN

F=598 kN

L=3.6 m

My=0 kNm

Properties (cm): A=29.641 r=6.6739 Z=136.32 S=178.08 I=1320.2

Strength of steel - Clause 3.1.1

Design strength

py=275 N/mm2

Young's Modulus

E=205 kN/mm2

Effective lengths - Clause 4.7.2

Length of member

Length between restraints z axis

Length between restraints y axis

Effective length about z-z axis

Effective length about y-y axis

3600 mm

Lz=3600 mm

Ly=1800 mm

Lez=Kz*Lz=0.85*3600=3060 mm

Ley=Ky*Ly=1*1800=1800 mm

Clause 4.8.1 - members with combined moment and axial forces states

that CHS should be classified separately for axial compression and

for bending.

Parameter (Table 12 Note b)

e=(275/py)^0.5=(275/275)^0.5

=1

Ratio for local buckling

D't=D/t=193.7/5=38.74

For axial load:

As D/t 80e^2 ( 80 ), the section is at least semi-compact.

For moment:

As D/t 40e^2 ( 40 ), the section is class 1 plastic.

Page: 2

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

CHS beam and column section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC414 BS

Office: 1007

Web shear

Shear area

Av=0.6*A*100=0.6*29.641*100

=1778.5 mm2 Cl 4.2.3(g)

Shear capacity

Pv=0.6*py*Av/10^3=0.6*275*1778.5/10^3

=293.45 kN

Applied shear force

Fv=5.6 N

Since Fv Pv ( 5.6 kN 293.45 kN ), shear force within

shear capacity.

Moment capacities

Moment capacity for compact sec

Mc=py*S/10^3=275*178.08/10^3

=48.972 kNm

Since Mz Mc ( 5.04 kNm 48.972 kNm ), applied moment within

moment capacity.

Local capacity check - Clause 4.8.3.2

A.py

Mz

Mc

My

Mc

1.0

Unity factor

uf=F*10/(A*py)+Mz/Mc+My/Mc

=598*10/(29.641*275)+5.04/48.972+0

/48.972

=0.83655

The interaction formula is satisfied.

Slenderness - Clause 4.7.2

Slenderness (major axis)

Controlling slenderness ratio

lam'y=Ley/(r*10)=1800/(6.6739*10)

=26.971

lam'z=Lez/(r*10)=3060/(6.6739*10)

=45.85

lambda=45.85

Limiting slenderness

lamb0=0.2*(PI^2*E*1000/py)^0.5

=0.2*(3.1416^2*205*1000/275)^0.5

=17.155

For buckling about y-y axis

Robertson cont.for hollow sect.

a=2.0 for table 24(a) hot finished

Perry factor

eta=0.001*a*(lam'y-lamb0)

=0.001*2*(26.971-17.155)

=0.019632

Euler strength

pe=PI^2*E*1000/lam'y^2

=3.1416^2*205*1000/26.971^2

=2781.4 N/mm2

Factor

phi=(py+(eta+1)*pe)/2

=(275+(0.019632+1)*2781.4)/2

=1555.5 N/mm2

Page: 3

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

CHS beam and column section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC414 BS

Office: 1007

Compressive strength

pcy=pe*py/(phi+(phi^2-pe*py)^0.5)

=2781.4*275/(1555.5+(1555.5^2

-2781.4*275)^0.5)

=269.15 N/mm2

Compression resistance

Pcy=A*pcy/10=29.641*269.15/10

=797.79 kN

For buckling about z-z axis

Robertson cont.for hollow sect.

a=2.0 for table 24(a) hot finished

Perry factor

eta=0.001*a*(lam'z-lamb0)

=0.001*2*(45.85-17.155)

=0.057391

Euler strength

pe=PI^2*E*1000/lam'z^2

=3.1416^2*205*1000/45.85^2

=962.43 N/mm2

Factor

phi=(py+(eta+1)*pe)/2

=(275+(0.057391+1)*962.43)/2

=646.33 N/mm2

Compressive strength

pcz=pe*py/(phi+(phi^2-pe*py)^0.5)

=962.43*275/(646.33+(646.33^2

-962.43*275)^0.5)

=255.08 N/mm2

Compression resistance

Pcz=A*pcz/10=29.641*255.08/10

=756.09 kN

Compressive resistance

Pc=756.09 kN

Since F Pc ( 598 kN 756.09 kN ), design axial compressive

load does not exceed compression resistance, section OK.

Equivalent uniform moment factors - Clause 4.8.3.3.4

The member is loaded between restraints and the equation given in the

notes to Table 18 is used to determine mLT.

Moments on member segment

Quarter point

m2=0 kNm

Mid-span

m3=5.04 kNm

Three quarter point

m4=0 kNm

Maximum Moment on segment

Mz=5.04 kNm

Equivalent uniform moment factor mLT=0.2+(0.15*m2+0.5*m3+0.15*m4)/Mz

=0.2+(0.15*0+0.5*5.04+0.15*0)/5.04

=0.7

Major axis flexural buckling - Table 26

Length between restraints z axis Lz=3600 mm

The member is loaded between restraints and the equation given in the

notes to Table 26 is used to determine mz.

Moments on member segment

Quarter point

mz2=0 kNm

Mid-span

mz3=5.04 kNm

Three quarter point

mz4=0 kNm

Maximum Moment on segment

Mz=5.04 kNm

Maximum moment on central half

M24=5.04 kNm

Equivalent uniform moment factor mz=0.2+(0.1*mz2+0.6*mz3+0.1*mz4)/Mz

=0.2+(0.1*0+0.6*5.04+0.1*0)/5.04

=0.8

Page: 4

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

CHS beam and column section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC414 BS

Office: 1007

Limiting value of m

mzlim=0.8*M24/Mz=0.8*5.04/5.04

=0.8

Buckling resistance - Clause 4.3.6.1

need not be checked separately and the buckling resistance moment is:

Buckling resistance

Mb=Mc=48.972 kNm

Member buckling resistance

F

Pcz

mz.Mz

F

1 + 0.5

Mc

Pcz

1.0

Unity relationship

unity=F/Pcz+mz*Mz/Mc*(1+0.5*F/Pcz)

=598/756.09+0.8*5.04/48.972*(1

+0.5*598/756.09)

=0.90581

The unity relationship is satisfied.

For out-of-plane buckling,

Fc

Pcy

0.5

mLT.Mz

Mc

1.0

Unity relationship

ufy=F/Pcy+0.5*mLT*Mz/Mc

=598/797.79+0.5*0.7*5.04/48.972

=0.7856

The unity relationship is satisfied.

HOT FINISHED

CIRCULAR HOLLOW

SECTION & DESIGN

SUMMARY

193.7 mm O.D. x 5 mm CHS Grade S 275

Section is satisfactory for bending

axial load, local capacity and

overall buckling check.

Axial load

598 kN

Compression resistance 756.09 kN

Maximum moment z zxis

5.04 kNm

Moment capacity

48.972 kNm

Local capacity check

0.83655 1

Overall buckling check 0.90581 1

No414

Page: 1

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

CHS beam and column section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC414 EC

Office: 1007

Location: Default example - intermediate column length

Z

Y

Y

Z

Moment about y-y axis

Shear force

Axial load (+ve compression)

Length of member

Moment about z-z axis

Accompanying shear force

Axial load is compressive.

Calculations in accordance

with BS EN 1993-1-1:2005.

Internal forces and moments

have been determined by

elastic global analysis.

All forces and moments are

factored.

MyEd=50

VzEd=22

NEd=760

L=7 m

MzEd=50

VyEd=22

kNm

kN

kN

kNm

kNm

Properties (cm): A=59.439 iy=8.3663 Wely=340.32 Wply=447.63 Iy=4160.4

It=8320.9

Strength of steel - Table 3.1 (amended by N.A.)

Yield strength

fy=355 N/mm2

Ultimate strength

fu=470 N/mm2

Young's modulus

E=210000 N/mm2

Section classification

e=(235/fy)^0.5=(235/355)^0.5

=0.81362

Ratio for local buckling

C't=D/t=244.5/8=30.563

As C/t 50e^2 ( 33.099 ), the section is Class 1 plastic.

Moment resistance

Moment resistance

Unity factor

Section chosen is suitable.

McRd=Wply*fy/10^3=447.63*355/10^3

=158.91 kNm

unity=MyEd/McRd=50/158.91

=0.31465

Page: 2

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

CHS beam and column section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC414 EC

Office: 1007

Shear plastic resistance

Shear area

Avz=2*A*100/PI=2*59.439*100/3.1416

=3784 mm2

Shear plastic resistance

VplRd=Avz*fy/SQR(3)/1000

=3784*355/SQR(3)/1000

=775.57 kN

Unity factor

Unity=VzEd/VplRd=22/775.57

=0.028366

Section chosen is suitable.

Unity factor

Unity=VyEd/VplRd=22/775.57

=0.028366

Section chosen is suitable.

M-V interaction

V=22 kN

No M-V interaction has to be considered as actual shear force is less

than 0.5VplRd ( 22 kN < 387.78 kN ).

Bending and axial force - Clause 6.2.9

Axial ratio

n=NEd/(A*fy/10)=760/(59.439*355/10)

=0.36018

Assumed ratio of area of

aw=0.5

Moment resistance

MNRd=McRd*(1-n)/(1-0.5*aw)

=158.91*(1-0.36018)/(1-0.5*0.5)

=135.56 kNm

2

MyEd

+

MNRd

2

MzEd

MNRd

1.0

Unity expression

unity=(MyEd/MNRd)^2+(MzEd/MNRd)^2

=(50/135.56)^2+(50/135.56)^2

=0.27207

Section is suitable for the combination of bending and axial force.

Effective length

Length between restraints (z-z)

Effective length about y-y axis

Effective length about z-z axis

Ly=7 m

Lz=7 m

Lcry=1.0*Ly*1000=1.0*7*1000

=7000 mm

Lcrz=1.0*Lz*1000=1.0*7*1000

=7000 mm

Page: 3

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

CHS beam and column section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC414 EC

Office: 1007

Elastic critical force

Ncry=PI^2*E*Iy*10^7/(Lcry*10^3)^2

=3.1416^2*210000*4160.4*10^7

/(7000*10^3)^2

=1759.8 kN

Buckling force about z-z axis

Ncrz=PI^2*E*Iz*10^7/(Lcrz*10^3)^2

=3.1416^2*210000*4160.4*10^7

/(7000*10^3)^2

=1759.8 kN

Non-dimensional slenderness

Reduction factor

Factor

Reduction factor y-y axis

For buckling about z-z axis

Factor

Reduction factor z-z axis

Reduction factor

Design buckling resistance

Axial resistance

Unity factor

Section chosen is suitable.

lamy=SQR(A*10^2*fy/(Ncry*10^3))

=SQR(59.439*10^2*355/(1759.8

*10^3))

=1.095

lamz=SQR(A*10^2*fy/(Ncrz*10^3))

=SQR(59.439*10^2*355/(1759.8

*10^3))

=1.095

alpha=0.21

phiy=0.5*(1+alpha*(lamy-0.2)+lamy^2)

=0.5*(1+0.21*(1.095-0.2)+1.095^2)

=1.1935

chiy=1/(phiy+SQR(phiy^2-lamy^2))

=1/(1.1935+SQR(1.1935^2-1.095^2))

=0.59943

alpha=0.21

phiz=0.5*(1+alpha*(lamz-0.2)+lamz^2)

=0.5*(1+0.21*(1.095-0.2)+1.095^2)

=1.1935

chiz=1/(phiz+SQR(phiz^2-lamz^2))

=1/(1.1935+SQR(1.1935^2-1.095^2))

=0.59943

chi=0.59943

NRd=A*fy/10=59.439*355/10

=2110.1 kN

unity=NEd/NRd=760/2110.1

=0.36018

Page: 4

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

CHS beam and column section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC414 EC

Office: 1007

Coefficient factor

Factor Cmy:

Member under consideration is not loaded between lateral restraints.

Maximum moment on segment

Mcm=50 kNm

Far end bending moment

pM(1)=-50 kNm

Table 3.1 psi factor

psi=pM(i)/Mcm=-50/50=-1

Moment factor

Cm=0.6+0.4*psi=0.6+0.4*-1

=0.2

Factor limited

Cm=0.4

Equivalent uniform moment factor Cmy=Cm=0.4

Factor Cmz:

Member under consideration is not loaded between lateral restraints.

Maximum moment on segment

Mcm=50 kNm

Far end bending moment

pM(2)=-50 kNm

Table 3.1 psi factor

psi=pM(i)/Mcm=-50/50=-1

Moment factor

Cm=0.6+0.4*psi=0.6+0.4*-1

=0.2

Factor limited

Cm=0.4

Equivalent uniform moment factor Cmz=Cm=0.4

Interaction factors kij

Interaction factor

Interaction factor

Interaction factor

Interaction factor

Interaction factor

Interaction factor

Interaction factor

Interaction factor

Lateral torsional buckling

Effective length parameter

Shear modulus

Terms for Critical moment Mcr:

Euler term

kyy1=Cmy*(1+(lamy-0.2)*NEd/(chiy*NRd))

=0.4*(1+(1.095-0.2)*760/(0.59943

*2110.1))

=0.61511

kyy2=Cmy*(1+0.8*NEd/(chiy*NRd))

=0.4*(1+0.8*760/(0.59943*2110.1))

=0.59228

kyy=0.59228

kzy=0.6*kyy=0.6*0.59228=0.35537

kzz1=Cmz*(1+(lamz-0.2)*NEd/(chiz*NRd))

=0.4*(1+(1.095-0.2)*760/(0.59943

*2110.1))

=0.61511

kzz2=Cmz*(1+0.8*NEd/(chiz*NRd))

=0.4*(1+0.8*760/(0.59943*2110.1))

=0.59228

kzz=0.59228

kyz=0.6*kzz=0.6*0.59228=0.35537

LT=7 m

K=0.85

G=80770 N/mm2

Et=PI^2*E*Iz/(K*LT^2*100)

=3.1416^2*210000*4160.4/(0.85*7^2

*100)

=2.0704E6 N

Gt=K*LT^2*G*It/(PI^2*E*Iz)*10^6

=0.85*7^2*80770*8320.9/(3.1416^2

*210000*4160.4)*10^6

=3.2462E6 mm2

Page: 5

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

CHS beam and column section design

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC414 EC

Office: 1007

Maximum moment on section

M=50 kNm

Far end moment

psiM=-50 kNm

Factor

psi=psiM/M=-50/50=-1

Coefficient C1

C1=TABLE 3.1 for psi=-1

=2.55

Factor

kc=1/(1.33-0.33*psi)=1/(1.33-0.33*-1)

=0.60241

Critical moment

Mcr=C1*Et*Gt^0.5/10^6

=2.55*2.0704E6*3.2462E6^0.5/10^6

=9512 kNm

Non-dimensional slenderness

lamLT=(Wply*fy/(Mcr*10^3))^0.5

=(447.63*355/(9512*10^3))^0.5

=0.12925

Limiting slenderness value

lamLT0=0.4

As lamLT lamLT0,

The segment of the beam is not subject to lateral torsional buckling.

Modification factor

ChiLT=1.0

Design buckling resistance moment MybRd=ChiLT*Wply*fy/10^3

=1*447.63*355/10^3

=158.91 kNm

Interaction equations

NEd

MyEd

MzEd

+ kyy + kyz 1.0

y.NRd

LT.McRd

McRd

Unity factor Unity1=NEd/(chiy*NRd)+kyy*MyEd/(ChiLT*McRd)+kyz*MzEd/McRd

=760/(0.59943*2110.1)+0.59228*50/(1*158.91)+0.35537

*50/158.91

=0.89904

Section chosen is suitable.

NEd

MyEd

MzEd

+ kzy + kzz 1.0

z.NRd

LT.McRd

McRd

Unity factor Unity2=NEd/(chiz*NRd)+kzy*MyEd/(ChiLT*McRd)+kzz*MzEd/McRd

=760/(0.59943*2110.1)+0.35537*50/(1*158.91)+0.59228

*50/158.91

=0.89904

Section chosen is suitable.

HOT FINISHED

CIRCULAR HOLLOW

DESIGN

SUMMARY

244.5 mm O.D. x 8 mm CHS Grade S 355

Design BM y-y axis

50 kNm

Moment resistance (y-y) 158.91 kNm

Design BM z-z axis

50 kNm

Moment resistance (z-z) 158.91 kNm

Design compression load 760 kN

Axial resistance

2110.1 kN

Interaction factors

0.89904 1

0.89904 1

No414

Page: 1

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007

Location: Ex1 from 'Slim Floor Construction Using Deep Decking'

non-composite beam.

Calculations are in

accordance with BS5950

and SCI publication

entitled 'Slim Floor

Construction Using Deep

Decking'.

Assumptions:

during the construction stage

In the construction stage the beam is assumed to be

torsional fixed and warping free at the supports

For the imposed loading condition the beam is assumed

laterally restrained

The steel deck is propped by a central line of props.

Bay details

Beam span

Beam cross-centres

L1=7.5 m

L2=7.5 m

Beam properties

Dimensions (mm): D=266.7 B=258.8 T=20.5 t=12.8 r=12.7

Properties (cm): Ixx=17500 Iyy=5930 Juc=172 A=136

Strength of steel - Clause 3.1.1

Design strength

Young's modulus

Poisson's ratio

Shear modulus

py=345 N/mm2

E=205 kN/mm2

neu=0.3

G=E/(2*(1+neu))=205/(2*(1+0.3))

=78.846 kN/mm2

Plate properties

Tp

Bp

Thickness of plate

Width of plate

Area of plate

Tp=15 mm

Bp=460 mm

Ap=Tp*Bp/100=15*460/100=69 cm2

Page: 2

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007

Concrete details

Concrete Grade

fcu=30 N/mm2

For buildings of normal usage the modular ratio is assumed to be 2/3

of the value due to short term loading and 1/3 of the value due to

long term loading.

Assuming light weight concrete

Modular ratio (LWC)

Alphae=15

Loading (unfactored)

Dead loads:

Self weight of beam:

UC section

Plate self weight

Self weight of beam + plate

Floor loading

Air dry density

Wet density for

Deck spans onto

wuc=serM*9.81/1000=107*9.81/1000

=1.0497 kN/m

wpl=wuc*Ap/A=1.0497*69/136

=0.53255 kN/m

ws=(wuc+wpl)/L2 kN/m2

=0.21 kN/m2

concrete

for concrete

Dc=18 kN/m3

concrete

D'c=19 kN/m3

the supporting beam.

<Ct>

- - mesh

_____________

_____________

/

\

/

\

__/

\_____________/

\__

<p>

Slab depth

Depth of profiling

Centres of profiles

Width at inside of profile

Width at outside of profile

Dry weight of slab + troughs

Wet weight of slab + troughs

Dry weight surrounding beam

Wet weight surrounding beam

Dry weight of concrete

Wet weight of concrete

Deck and end closures

Construction load

Dp

Ds

<b>

Ds=300 mm

Dp=285 mm

Ct=600 mm

b=548 mm

p=424 mm

wd=(Ds-Dp/(2*Ct)*(b+p))*Dc/1000

=(300-285/(2*600)*(548+424))*18/1000

=1.2447 kN/m2

ww=(Ds-Dp/(2*Ct)*(b+p))*D'c/1000

=(300-285/(2*600)*(548+424))*19/1000

=1.3139 kN/m2

wsd=Bp*Dp*Dc/(L1*L2*10^6)

=460*285*18/(7.5*7.5*10^6)

=0.041952 kN/m2

wsw=Bp*Dp*D'c/(L1*L2*10^6)

=460*285*19/(7.5*7.5*10^6)

=0.044283 kN/m2

wud=1.29 kN/m2

wuw=1.36 kN/m2

wg=0.2 kN/m2

wc=0.5 kN/m2

Page: 3

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007

Floor & minor services

wf=0.25 kN/m2

Ceiling

wci=0 kN/m2

Imposed loads:

Occupancy

Partitions

Total imposed loading

Imposed load reduction

Revised imposed load

wo=3.5 kN/m2

wp=1 kN/m2

wi'=wo+wp=3.5+1=4.5 kN/m2

wr=L1*L2*wi'/1000=7.5*7.5*4.5/1000

=0.25312 kN/m2

wi=wi'-wr=4.5-0.25=4.25 kN/m2

Loading combinations

The load case combinations outlined below follow the design criteria

listed in the SCI publication.

Case 1 - Construction stage. Only one span constructed and subject to

construction load. This load combination is not applicable to

this type of construction.

Case 2(a) - Construction stage. Two spans constructed, one subject to

construction load. Deck props in position.

Eccentric loading (deck only)

Eccentric loading

Axial loading

W21=wg*1.4*L2/4*L1=0.2*1.4*7.5/4*7.5

=3.9375 kN

W22=((wuw+wg)*1.4+wc*1.6)*L1*L2/4

=((1.36+0.2)*1.4+0.5*1.6)*7.5*7.5/4

=41.963 kN

W23=ws*1.4*L2*L1=0.21*1.4*7.5*7.5

=16.538 kN

3.9375 kN

41.963 kN

16.538 kN

Total applied load

W2=W21+W22+W23=3.9375+41.963+16.538

=62.438 kN

Check: Lateral torsional buckling combined with torsion.

Case 2(b) - Construction stage (plastic capacity). Two spans

constructed, both subject to construction load.

Deck props in position.

41.963 kN

41.963 kN

16.538 kN

Total axial load

W2a=W23+2*W22=16.538+2*41.963

=100.46 kN

Page: 4

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007

Case 3(a) - In-service stage. Only one span subject to imposed load

This load case is not required.

Case 3(b) - In-service stage (ultimate combined bending check)

Axial loading

W33=(wi*1.6+(wud+ws+wf+wg+wci)*1.4)*L2*L1

=(4.25*1.6+(1.29+0.21+0.25+0.2+0)*1.4)

*7.5*7.5

=536.06 kN

536.06 kN

Check: Maximum loading for moment capacity.

Section classification

Outstand

Ratio

Compact limiting value of ratio

b/T ratio within limiting value

Compact limiting value of ratio

Depth between fillets

Ratio

d/t ratio within limiting value

e=(275/py)^0.5=(275/345)^0.5

=0.89281

b'=B/2=258.8/2=129.4 mm

b'T=b'/T=129.4/20.5=6.3122

b'Tlim=10*e=10*0.89281=8.9281

of 10e.

d'tlim=100*e=100*0.89281

=89.281

d=D-2*(T+r)=266.7-2*(20.5+12.7)

=200.3 mm

d't=d/t=200.3/12.8=15.648

of 100e.

Design strength

pyp=355 N/mm2

Torsional constant of plate

Jp=Tp^3*Bp/30000=15^3*460/30000

=51.75 cm4

Area of plate & bottom flange

Ab=Bp*Tp+B*T=460*15+258.8*20.5

=12205 mm2

Neutral axis is in plate

Top of plate to centre of area

hc=Tp-Ab/(2*Bp)=15-12205/(2*460)

=1.7333 mm

Distance between flange centroids hs=D-T/2+hc=266.7-20.5/2+1.7333

=258.18 mm

Total area

At=A+Ap=136+69=205 cm2

Taking area moments about bottom surface of plate

Distance to centroid

ybar=(A*(D/2+Tp)+Ap*Tp/2)/At

=(136*(266.7/2+15)+69*15/2)/205

=100.94 mm

Second moment of Area about neutral axis:

Ix=Ixx+A*((D/2-ybar+Tp)/10)^2+Ap*((ybar-Tp/2)/10)^2

=17500+136*((266.7/2-100.94+15)/10)^2+69*((100.94-15/2)

/10)^2

=26581 cm4

Page: 5

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007

Second moment of area

Iy=Iyy+Tp/10*(Bp/10)^3/12

=5930+15/10*(460/10)^3/12

=18097 cm4

Radius of gyration about y-y

ry=(Iy/At)^0.5=(18097/205)^0.5

=9.3956 cm

Equal area axis above the bottom flange

When the design strengths of the UC and the plate are not the same

the SCI Slim Floor publication adopts the approach that the different

design strengths should be used to determine the plastic modulus Sx.

Design strength of plate

pyp=355 N/mm2

Modified plate area

Ap=Ap*pyp/py=69*355/345=71 cm2

Modified total area

At=A+Ap=136+71=207 cm2

Depth between flanges of beam

df=D-2*T=266.7-2*20.5=225.7 mm

The Equal-Area axis lies in the flange of the beam.

Distance from top of plate

yea=(At/2-Ap)*100/B

=(207/2-71)*100/258.8

=12.558 mm

Distance to centre of areas

y1=T-yea=20.5-12.558=7.942 mm

y2=df/2+y1=225.7/2+7.942

=120.79 mm

y3=df+y1+T/2=225.7+7.942+20.5/2

=243.89 mm

Ignoring the fillets, the plastic modulus of the combined section is

Sx=(Ap*(yea+Tp/2)*100+B*yea^2/2+B*y1^2/2+t*df*y2+B*T*y3)/10^3

=(71*(12.558+15/2)*100+258.8*12.558^2/2+258.8*7.942^2/2+12.8*225.7

*120.79+258.8*20.5*243.89)/10^3

=1813.9 cm3

Transverse plate bending

stress effects (if any) in the plate. In some instances the transverse moment may have such an effect as to reduce the moment capacity

for overall bending of the section.

Maximum transverse moment, M, in the plate is obtained from:

M

Mp

(c^2-sigma^2)

2.c.pyp

Mp=plate moment capacity

c =(4pyp^2-3sigma^2)^0.5

Design strength

pyp=355 N/mm2

Bending moment

Mx=W2a*L1/8=100.46*7.5/8

=94.184 kNm

Longitudinal bending stress

sigma=Mx*10^3/Sx=94.184*10^3/1813.9

=51.924 N/mm2

Stress

c=(4*pyp^2-3*sigma^2)^0.5

=(4*355^2-3*51.924^2)^0.5

=704.28 N/mm2

Ratio of moments

M'Mp=(c^2-sigma^2)/(2*c*pyp)

=(704.28^2-51.924^2)/(2*704.28

*355)

=0.98655

Page: 6

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007

The ratio of plate transverse moment/ moment capacity of

plate must not exceed 0.98655 otherwise the longitudinal bending

capacity of the beam is reduced.

Assuming clearance of 25 mm between beam flange and floor slab

Distance to load W22

as=(Bp-B'-2*25)/4+25

=(460-260-2*25)/4+25

=62.5 mm

Plate transverse moment (total)

M'=W22*as/10^3=41.963*62.5/10^3

=2.6227 kNm

Unit length moment

M=M'/L1=2.6227/7.5=0.34969 kNm per m.

Plate section modulus (total)

Sxp'=Tp^2*L1/4=15^2*7.5/4

=421.88 cm3

Unit length section modulus

Sxp=Sxp'/L1

=421.88/7.5

=56.25 cm3 per m

Plate moment capacity

Mp=Sxp*pyp/10^3=56.25*355/10^3

=19.969 kNm per m

Ratio of moment

Mr=M/Mp=0.34969/19.969=0.017512

Since Mr M'Mp ( 0.017512 0.98655 ) biaxial bending has no

influence on the overall bending of the section.

Case 2a - Construction loading - One side loaded

Buckling Check

Mx

( fbyt + fw )

0.5 Mx

+ 1 + 1.0

Mb/mLT

py

Mb/mLT

Bending moment

Eccentricity of load

Torsional moment

Mx=W2*L1/8=62.438*7.5/8=58.535 kNm

ecc=B/2+as=258.8/2+62.5=191.9 mm

Tq=(W22-W21)*ecc/10^3

=(41.963-3.9375)*191.9/10^3

=7.297 kNm

Nominal torsional restraint about longitudinal axis.

Both flanges free to rotate on plan.

Normal loading conditions therefore

Effective length (Table 13)

Le=1.0*L1*1000=1.0*7.5*1000

=7500 mm

Resistance to lateral torsional buckling - Clause 4.3.6

gamma=(1-Iy/Ix)=(1-18097/26581)

=0.31918

Buckling parameter

u=(4*Sx^2*gamma/(At^2*(hs/10)^2))^0.25

=(4*1813.9^2*0.31918/(207^2*(258.18

/10)^2))^0.25

=0.61927

Torsional constant of section

J=Juc+Jp=172+51.75=223.75 cm4

Torsional index of section

x=0.566*hs/10*(At/J)^0.5

=0.566*258.18/10*(207/223.75)^0.5

=14.056

Second moment of area of flanges in transverse bending

Page: 7

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007

Flange only

Icf=T*B^3/120000=20.5*258.8^3/120000

=2961.2 cm4

Flange and plate

Itf=Icf+Tp*Bp^3/120000

=2961.2+15*460^3/120000

=15128 cm4

Ratio of moment areas of flanges eta=Icf/(Icf+Itf)

=2961.2/(2961.2+15128)

=0.1637

Factor for psi

keta=1.0

Slenderness of section

lambda=Le/(ry*10)=7500/(9.3956*10)

=79.824

Ratio

ratio=lambda/x=79.824/14.056

=5.6792

Monosymmetry index

psi=keta*(2*eta-1)=1*(2*0.1637-1)

=-0.67261

Slenderness factor v=((4*eta*(1-eta)+1/20*ratio^2+psi^2)^0.5+psi)^-0.5

=((4*0.1637*(1-0.1637)+1/20*5.6792^2+

-0.67261^2)^0.5+-0.67261)^-0.5

=1.0294

Ratio w

betaw=1.0

Equivalent slenderness

lamLT=u*v*lambda*(betaw)^0.5

=0.61927*1.0294*79.824*(1)^0.5

=50.884

Limiting slenderness

lamlo=0.4*((PI^2*E*10^3)/py)^0.5

=0.4*((3.1416^2*205*10^3)

/345)^0.5

=30.632

Perry coefficient

etaLT=2*0.007*(lamLT-lamlo)

=2*0.007*(50.884-30.632)

=0.28353

Elastic strength

pe=PI^2*E*10^3/(lamLT^2)

=3.1416^2*205*10^3/(50.884^2)

=781.42 N/mm2

Factor

phiLT=(py+(etaLT+1)*pe)/2

=(345+(0.28353+1)*781.42)/2

=673.99 N/mm2

Factor

pey=pe*py=781.42*345=269592

Bending strength

pb=(pey)/(phiLT+((phiLT^2-pey)^0.5))

=(269592)/(673.99+((673.99^2

-269592)^0.5))

=244.26 N/mm2

Buckling resistance moment

Mb=Sx*pb/10^3=1813.9*244.26/10^3

=443.05 kNm

Equivalent uniform moment factor mLT=0.925

Warping constant

H=(hs/10)^2*Icf*Itf/Iy

=(258.18/10)^2*2961.2*15128/18097

=1.6501E6 cm6

Torsional bending constant

a=(E*H/(G*J))^0.5*10

=(205*1.6501E6/(78.846*223.75))^0.5

*10

=1384.7 mm

Length of beam

L=7500 mm

Distance along member

z=L/2=7500/2=3750 mm

Hyperbolic sine of z/a

t1=SNH(z/a)=SNH(3750/1384.7)

=7.4675

Page: 8

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007

Hyperbolic tangent of L/2a

t2=TNH(L/(2*a))=TNH(7500/(2*1384.7))

=0.99115

Hyperbolic cosine of z/a

t3=CSH(z/a)=CSH(3750/1384.7)

=7.5342

term

t4=L^2/(2*a^2)*(z/L-(z^2/L^2))

=7500^2/(2*1384.7^2)*(3750/7500

-(3750^2/7500^2))

=3.6671

Angle of twist

phi=Tq*a/(G*J*10)*a/L*(t4+t3-t2*t1-1)

=7.297*1384.7/(78.846*223.75*10)

*1384.7/7500*(3.6671+7.5342

-0.99115*7.4675-1)

=0.029606 rad

Torsional moment (y-y axis)

Myt=Mx*phi=58.535*0.029606

=1.733 kNm

Torsional bending stress (y-y)

fbyt=Myt*(B/2)/Iy*10^2

=1.733*(258.8/2)/18097*10^2

=1.2392 N/mm2

Distance bet. flange centroids

hs=258.18 mm

Centroid to top flange centroid

ht=D+Tp-T/2-ybar

=266.7+15-20.5/2-100.94

=170.51 mm

Centroid to bot. fl. centroid

hb=hs-ht=258.18-170.51=87.675 mm

Distance centroid to shear ctr.

yo=(hb*Itf-ht*Icf)/(Icf+Itf)

=(87.675*15128-170.51*2961.2)

/(2961.2+15128)

=45.411 mm

Distance to shear centre

h1=ht+yo=170.51+45.411=215.92 mm

Normalised warping function(top) Wno=h1*B/2=215.92*258.8/2

=27940 mm2

Second derivative of phi

phi''=Tq/(G*J*10*a)*a/L*(-1+t3-t2*t1)

=7.297/(78.846*223.75*10*1384.7)

*1384.7/7500*(-1+7.5342-0.99115

*7.4675)

=-4.7829E-9 rad/mm2

Consider phi'' as positive

phi''=4.7829E-9 rad/mm2

Torsional stress in flange

fw=E*10^3*Wno*phi''

=205*10^3*27940*4.7829E-9

=27.395 N/mm2

Unity factor

uf=mLT*Mx/Mb+((fbyt+fw)/py)*(1+0.5*Mx*mLT/Mb)

=0.925*58.535/443.05+((1.2392+27.395)/345)*(1

+0.5*58.535*0.925/443.05)

=0.21028

As uf 1 a whole ' internal bay' could be cast without any undue

influence of torsion combined with bending.

Local capacity check

fbx + fbyt + fw py

Bending normal stress

Combined stress

Since fcb py ( 68.439 N/mm2

fbx=Mx*(D+Tp-ybar)/Ix*100

=58.535*(266.7+15-100.94)/26581*100

=39.805 N/mm2

fcb=fbx+fbyt+fw=39.805+1.2392+27.395

=68.439 N/mm2

345 N/mm2 ), section is suitable.

Page: 9

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007

Horizontal deflection - top flange of beam

=19.125 kN

Torsional moment

Tq=W1*ecc/10^3=19.125*191.9/10^3

=3.6701 kNm

Angle of twist

phi=Tq*a/(G*J*10)*a/L*(t4+t3-t2*t1-1)

=3.6701*1384.7/(78.846*223.75*10)

*1384.7/7500*(3.6671+7.5342

-0.99115*7.4675-1)

=0.014891 rad

Distance: shear centre/top flange ys=D+Tp-ybar+yo

=266.7+15-100.94+45.411

=226.17 mm

Horizontal movement

hy=ys*phi=226.17*0.014891

=3.3678 mm

The maximum horizontal movement of the top flange ( 3.3678 mm ) occurs

at midspan. Arbitrarily, a limit of 20 mm to movement of the top

flange would be within normal tolerances. The deck connected to

either side of the beam to the flange plate plus the closure flashing

will provide additional stiffness. This additional stiffness has not

been included in the above.

Design Case 3(b) - In-service stage (imposed loading)

moment capacity is considered.

Moment capacity for compact sect. Mc=py*Sx/10^3=345*1813.9/10^3

=625.79 kNm

Loading due to flooring

Wi1=((wud+wf+wci)*1.4+wi*1.6)*L1*L2/2

=((1.29+0.25+0)*1.4+4.25*1.6)*7.5

*7.5/2

=251.89 kN

Loading due to self weight

Wi2=(ws+wg)*1.4*L1*L2

=(0.21+0.2)*1.4*7.5*7.5

=32.288 kN

W3

W1

251.89 kN

251.89 kN

W2

32.288 kN

Total factored load

Bending moment

W33=536.06 kN

Mx=W33*L1/8=536.06*7.5/8

=502.56 kNm

Since Mx Mc ( 502.56 kNm 625.79 kNm ), the section is suitable

for moment capacity.

Page: 10

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007

Vertical shear

Shear force

Fv=W33/2=536.06/2=268.03 kN

Shear area

Av=t*D=12.8*266.7=3413.8 mm2

Shear capacity

Pv=0.6*py*Av/10^3=0.6*345*3413.8/10^3

=706.65 kN

Since Fv Pv ( 268.03 kN 706.65 kN ), design shear force within

shear capacity.

Elastic section properties

Serviceability

Concrete area

Acs=df*Bp/(100*Alphae)

=225.7*460/(100*15)

=69.215 cm2

Concrete second moment of area

Icxs=Bp*df^3/(120000*Alphae)

=460*225.7^3/(120000*15)

=2938.2 cm4

Elastic N.A. below mid-height

ycs=Ap*(D+Tp)/(2*(At+Acs))/10

=69*(266.7+15)/(2*(207+69.215))/10

=3.5185 cm

Composite second moment of area:

Ixs=Ixx+A*ycs^2+Icxs+Acs*ycs^2+Ap*((D+Tp)/20-ycs)^2

=17500+136*3.5185^2+2938.2+69.215*3.5185^2+69*((266.7

+15)/20-3.5185)^2

=30683 cm4

(b) Cracked section properties used for elastic stresses. Assume

the elastic neutral axis height 'ye' is below the centroid of the

UC section.

Term

k1=Bp/(2*Alphae)=460/(2*15)

=15.333 mm

Term

k2=At*10^2+Bp/Alphae*df/2

=207*10^2+460/15*225.7/2

=24161 mm

Term

k3=Bp/(2*Alphae)*(df/2)^2-Ap*100*(D+Tp)/2

=460/(2*15)*(225.7/2)^2-69*100*(266.7+15)/2

=-776593 mm

Elastic N.A. below mid-height

ye=(-k2+(k2^2-4*k1*k3)^0.5)/(20*k1)

=(-24161+(24161^2-4*15.333*

-776593)^0.5)/(20*15.333)

=3.1513 cm

Concrete area in steel units

Asc=Bp/(10*Alphae)*(df/20+ye)

=460/(10*15)*(225.7/20+3.1513)

=44.271 cm2

Second moment of area of UC

k4=Ixx+A*ye^2=17500+136*3.1513^2

=18851 cm4

Second moment of area of plate

k5=Ap*((D+Tp)/20-ye)^2

=69*((266.7+15)/20-3.1513)^2

=8248.7 cm4

Second moment of area of concrete k6=Bp/(120*Alphae)*(df/20+ye)^3

=460/(120*15)*(225.7/20+3.1513)^3

=768.86 cm4

Page: 11

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007

Second moment of area of concrete k7=Asc*((df/20+ye)/2)^2

=44.271*((225.7/20+3.1513)/2)^2

=2306.6 cm4

Combined second moment of area

Ixc=k4+k5+k6+k7

=18851+8248.7+768.86+2306.6

=30175 cm4

Elastic modulus of concrete

Zc=Ixc*Alphae/(df/20+ye)

=30175*15/(225.7/20+3.1513)

=31353 cm3

Elastic modulus steel (top)

Zst=Ixc/(D/20+ye)

=30175/(266.7/20+3.1513)

=1830.3 cm3

Elastic modulus steel (bottom)

Zsb=Ixc/((D/2+Tp)/10-ye)

=30175/((266.7/2+15)/10-3.1513)

=2582.6 cm3

Construction stage (steel beam + plate only)

Loading:

Self weight

Ws=ws*L1*L2=0.21*7.5*7.5

=11.813 kN

Decking

Wg=wg*L1*L2/2=0.2*7.5*7.5/2

=5.625 kN

Concrete

Wu=wuw*L1*L2/2=1.36*7.5*7.5/2

=38.25 kN

Total load

Wsb=Ws+Wg+Wu=11.813+5.625+38.25

=55.688 kN

Maximum moment

Mxs=Wsb*L1/8=55.688*7.5/8

=52.207 kNm

Second moment of area

Ix=26581 cm4

Compressive stress

fc=Mxs*10^3*(D+Tp-ybar)/10/Ix

=52.207*10^3*(266.7+15-100.94)/10

/26581

=35.502 N/mm2

Tensile stress

ft=Mxs*10^3*ybar/10/Ix

=52.207*10^3*100.94/10/26581

=19.826 N/mm2

Composite stage - cracked section

Loading

Wcc=(wi+wf+wci)*L1*L2

=(4.25+0.25+0)*7.5*7.5

=253.13 kN

Moment

Mxcc=Wcc*L1/8=253.13*7.5/8

=237.3 kNm

Dead loading (prop removed)

Wdcc=(wud+wg)*L1*L2/2

=(1.29+0.2)*7.5*7.5/2

=41.906 kN

Moment

Mxdc=Wdcc*L1/8=41.906*7.5/8

=39.287 kNm

Total moment

Mxc=Mxcc+Mxdc=237.3+39.287

=276.59 kNm

Maximum concrete stress

fcc=Mxc*10^3/Zc=276.59*10^3/31353

=8.8218 N/mm2

2

As fcc fcu/2 ( 8.8218 N/mm 15 N/mm2 ), the concrete

serviceability stresses are acceptable.

Page: 12

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007

Steel compressive stress

fsc=Mxc*10^3/Zst=276.59*10^3/1830.3

=151.12 N/mm2

Steel tensile stress

fst=Mxc*10^3/Zsb=276.59*10^3/2582.6

=107.1 N/mm2

Combine steel stresses for composite and construction stages.

Compression (combined)

fcc=fc+fsc=35.502+151.12

=186.62 N/mm2

2

As fcc py ( 186.62 N/mm 345 N/mm2 ), serviceability stresses

are acceptable.

Tension

ftc=ft+fst=19.826+107.1=126.92 N/mm2

2

As ftc pyp ( 126.92 N/mm 355 N/mm2 ), serviceability stresses

are acceptable.

Transverse plate bending (elastic condition)

Longitudinal stress

sigmat=ftc=126.92 N/mm2

Plate bending:

Deck + concrete loads

Wdc=(wud+wg)*L1*L2/2

=(1.29+0.2)*7.5*7.5/2

=41.906 kN

Imposed + service loads

Wic=(wi+wf+wci)*L1*L2/2

=(4.25+0.25+0)*7.5*7.5/2

=126.56 kN

Flange plate line load

Wpl=Wdc+Wic=41.906+126.56

=168.47 kN

Plate bending moment

Mpl=Wpl*as/10^3=168.47*62.5/10^3

=10.529 kNm

Plate elastic modulus

Zpl=L1*Tp^2/6=7.5*15^2/6

=281.25 cm3

Transverse bending stress

sigtt=Mpl*10^3/Zpl=10.529*10^3/281.25

=37.438 N/mm2

Combined stress must be less than or equal to py,

i.e.

(sigtt^2 + sigmat^2 + sigtt.sigmat)^0.5 py

combined stress

sigmac=(sigtt^2+sigmat^2+sigtt*sigmat)^0.5

=(37.438^2+126.92^2+37.438*126.92)^0.5

=149.21 N/mm2

As sigmac pyp ( 149.21 N/mm2 355 N/mm2 ), serviceability

stresses are acceptable.

Hence, serviceability stresses for steel and concrete are OK.

Deflections

Loading

Deflection due to self weights

Wsb=55.688 kN

dc=5*Wsb*L^3/(384*E*Ix*10^4)

=5*55.688*7500^3/(384*205*26581

*10^4)

=5.6137 mm

Additional deflection due to prop removal

Loading

Wsp=Wg+Wu=5.625+38.25=43.875 kN

Concrete hardened around the steel section use:

Second moment of area

Ixs=30683 cm4

Page: 13

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007

Additional deflection

dca=5*Wsp*L^3/(384*E*Ixs*10^4)

=5*43.875*7500^3/(384*205*30683

*10^4)

=3.8317 mm

Imposed loading

Wi=wi*L1*L2=4.25*7.5*7.5

=239.06 kN

Deflection due to imposed load

di=dca*Wi/Wsp=3.8317*239.06/43.875

=20.878 mm

Deflection to span ratio

1: 359

Minor services and flooring

Wm=(wf+wci)*L1*L2=(0.25+0)*7.5*7.5

=14.063 kN

Deflection due to minor loads

dd=dca*Wm/Wsp=3.8317*14.063/43.875

=1.2281 kN

Total deflection

dt=dc+dca+di+dd

=5.6137+3.8317+20.878+1.2281

=31.551 mm

Deflection to span ratio

1: 237

Note: Where construction stage deflections of the steel deck are

considered to be high, account should be taken of the increased

concrete weight due to ponding. Refer to manufacturers' literature

for further details.

Natural frequency

Dead loading

wd=(wud+wf+ws+wg+wci)

=(1.29+0.25+0.21+0.2+0)

=1.95 kN/m2

Imposed load

wo=3.5 kN/m2

Imposed load reduction

wr=L1*L2*wo/1000=7.5*7.5*3.5/1000

=0.19688 kN/m2

Revised imposed load

wri=wo-wr=3.5-0.2=3.3 kN/m2

Total load

W=(wd+0.1*wri)*L1*L2

=(1.95+0.1*3.3)*7.5*7.5

=128.25 kN

Deflection due to permanent loads dp=5*W*L^3/(384*E*Ixs*10^4)

=5*128.25*7500^3/(384*205*30683

*10^4)

=11.2 mm

Natural frequency

Hf=18/SQR(dp)=18/SQR(11.2)

=5.3784 Hz

As Hf 4 the floor structure is satisfactory for natural frequency.

Welding

Design strength of fillet weld

pw=220 N/mm2

For the weld design all of the vertical shear is assumed to act

through the flange plate except for the own weight of steelwork

and concrete infill.

Loading due to flooring

W1=((wud+wf+wci)*1.4+wi*1.6)*L1*L2/2

=((1.29+0.25+0)*1.4+4.25*1.6)*7.5

*7.5/2

=251.89 kN

Page: 14

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007

Loading due to self weight

W2=(ws+wg)*1.4*L1*L2

=(0.21+0.2)*1.4*7.5*7.5

=32.288 kN

251.89 kN

251.89 kN

Under balanced load conditions the

curvature at the centre of the beam

is zero. The assumption is that

as

32.288 kN

cantilever.

Distance to load W1 from weld

Vertical force in weld

as=62.5 mm

Pa=W1*(1+1.5*as/(B/2))

=251.89*(1+1.5*62.5/(258.8/2))

=434.38 kN

Load per metre

Ra=Pa/L1=434.38/7.5=57.917 kN/m

Max. long. force in plate

Pl=Ap*pyp/10=69*355/10=2449.5 kN

Assuming an elastic stress distribution for the transfer of

longitudinal shear between UC and plate

Longitudinal shear per weld

Rl=2*Pl/L1=2*2449.5/7.5=653.2 kN/m

Assumed fillet weld size

s'=8 mm

Horizontal force in plate

Ph=W1*as/((s'+Tp)/2)

=251.89*62.5/((8+15)/2)

=1369 kN

Horizontal force per metre

Rh=Ph/L1=1369/7.5=182.53 kN/m

Resultant force in weld

R=(Ra^2+Rl^2+Rh^2)^0.5

=(57.917^2+653.2^2+182.53^2)^0.5

=680.69 N/mm

Weld leg length

s=8 mm

Design strength of weld per mm

Pw=0.7*s*pw=0.7*8*220=1232 N/mm

Since R Pw ( 680.69 N/mm 1232 N/mm ), the 8 mm FW is suitable.

End plate details

Grade of steel

Diameter of bolts

Bolt grade 8.8

Shear strength (Table 30)

Bearing strength (Table 31)

Total number of bolts to be used

Diameter of hole

Distance to first row of bolts

Edge distance

Pitch of bolts

Bolt cross-centres

Width of end plate

Edge distance at cross centres

tp=10 mm

pgrade=355

db=20 mm

ps=375 N/mm2

pbb=560 N/mm2

bn=6

Dh=db+2=20+2=22 mm

a1=80 mm

a2=15 mm

a3=70 mm

g=140 mm

Bep=250 mm

ed=(Bep-g)/2=(250-140)/2

=55 mm

Assuming length of plate must extend beyond bottom flange of beam

End plate length

Dp=a2+D'=15+270=285 mm

Page: 15

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007

Bolt group strength in shear

Fvs=W33/(2*bn)=536.06/(2*6)

=44.672 kN

Shear strength of bolt

ps=375 N/mm2 from Table 30

Shear area of bolt

As=TABLE 1.1 for db=20

=245 mm2

Shear capacity of bolt

Ps=ps*As/10^3=375*245/10^3

=91.875 kN

Since Fvs Ps ( 44.672 kN 91.875 kN ), maximum load per bolt

within shear capacity.

Bolt group strength in bearing

(1) Bearing capacity of the bolt

Bearing strength of bolts

pbb=1000 N/mm2 from Table 31

Assuming the end plate thickness to be less than the thickness

of supporting column.

Thinner material thickness is 10 mm.

Bearing capacity of bolt

Pbb=db*tp*pbb/10^3=20*10*1000/10^3

=200 kN

(2) Bearing capacity of the end plate

Bearing strength

pbs=TABLE 32 for pgrade=355

=550 N/mm2

Bearing capacity

Pbs=db*tp*pbs/10^3=20*10*550/10^3

=110 kN

Bearing capacity

Pb=Pbs=110 kN

Since Fvs Pb ( 44.672 kN 110 kN ), maximum load per bolt

within the bearing capacity of the end plate.

End plate shear strength

Design strength

pye=355 N/mm2

Shear area

Avnet=0.9*tp*(Dp-Dh*bn/2)

=0.9*10*(285-22*6/2)

=1971 mm2

Effective net area coefficient

Ke=1.1

Limiting shear area

Avlim=0.85*0.9*tp*Dp/Ke

=0.85*0.9*10*285/1.1

=1982 mm2

As Avnet < Avlim then the bolt holes must be allowed for in the

shear area

Shear area

Av=Avnet=1971 mm2

Shear capacity

Pvp=0.6*pye*Av/10^3=0.6*355*1971/10^3

=419.82 kN

Shear force

Fvp=W33/4=536.06/4=134.02 kN

Since Fvp Pvp ( 134.02 kN 419.82 kN ), end plate is within

shear capacity.

Page: 16

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007

Check on bolt forces due to out of balance loads

W21=3.9375 kN

Eccentric loading

W22=41.963 kN

Axial loading

W23=16.538 kN

3.9375 kN

41.963 kN

16.538 kN

Torsional moment of connection

Tor=(W22-W21)/2*ecc/10^3

=(41.963-3.9375)/2*191.9/10^3

=3.6485 kNm

Polar inertia of bolt group

Ip=4*a3^2+6*(g/2)^2

=4*70^2+6*(140/2)^2

=49000 mm4

Distance to extreme bolt

r'=((g/2)^2+a3^2)^0.5

=((140/2)^2+70^2)^0.5

=98.995 mm

Component force due to torsion

Ft=Tor*10^3*r'/Ip

=3.6485*10^3*98.995/49000

=7.3711 kN

Vertical component of force

Fvc=(W21+W22+W23)/(2*bn)

=(3.9375+41.963+16.538)/(2*6)

=5.2031 kN

Term

cos0=g/(2*r')=140/(2*98.995)

=0.70711

Resultant force in bolt

Fr=(Ft^2+Fvc^2+2*Ft*Fvc*cos0)^0.5

=(7.3711^2+5.2031^2+2*7.3711

*5.2031*0.70711)^0.5

=11.647 kN

Since Fr Ps ( 11.647 kN 91.875 kN ), shear capacity OK.

Since Fr Pb ( 11.647 kN 110 kN ), bearing capacity OK.

Guidelines for the provision of service voids

Maximum number of 5 holes per span

Circular service voids only

Minimum centres of holes, 600 mm

One hole per cross-section of deck

Holes to be symmetrically arranged about the centre line of

the UC web

Maximum hole diameter 0.6D ( 160 mm )

The cylindrical sleeve used to form service duct to be cold

formed steel minimum thickness 1.2 mm

Aggregate size should be considered, because the concrete has

to be vigorously vibrated to ensure that the concrete passes

beneath the cylindrical sleeve.

Page: 17

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 BS

Office: 1007

CONNECTION SUMMARY

tp=10

Bep=250 mm

<>

a1

a2=15

80 mm

Dp=

o

285 mm

a3

70 mm

a3

70 mm

a6

65 mm

g=140 mm

Number of bolts 6

Bolt diameter

20 mm

55 mm

55 mm

Bolt grade

8.8

Plate grade

S 355

UNIVERSAL COLUMN

Design strength

345 N/mm2

BOTTOM PLATE

460 mm x 15 mm

Grade S 355

Design strength

355 N/mm2

Design shear force

268 kN

DESIGN

Shear capacity

706.6 kN

SUMMARY

Design moment

502.6 kNm

Moment capacity

625.8 kNm

Buckling check

0.2103 1

Imposed load deflection 20.88 mm

Deflection to span ratio 1: 359

Total deflection

31.55 mm

Deflection to span ratio 1: 237

NOTE: Use lightweight aggregate concrete (LWC) and provide top

reinforcement to tie the floor on each side of the beam together

in order to meet robustness requirements.

No419

Page: 1

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007

Location: Ex1 from 'Slim Floor Construction Using Deep Decking'

b

Bp

Tp

beam. Calculations are in accordance

with EC3 Part 1-1 & SCI P385 entitled

'Design of Steel Beams in Torsion'.

A plate is welded to the bottom flange

of the UC section extending beyond the

bottom flange by 100 mm either side to

support the metal decking.

Design assumptions:

during the construction stage

In the construction stage the beam is assumed to be

torsional fixed and warping free at the supports

For the variable loading condition the beam is assumed

laterally restrained (i.e. LTB cannot occur)

The steel deck is propped by a central line of props.

Bay details

Beam span

Beam cross-centres

L1=7.5 m

L2=7.5 m

Beam properties

Dimensions (mm): h=266.7 b=258.8 tf=20.5 tw=12.8 r=12.7

Properties (cm): Iyy=17500 Izz=5930 Ituc=172 A=136

Strength of steel - Table 3.1 (amended by N.A.)

Yield strength

fy=345 N/mm2

Ultimate strength

fu=470 N/mm2

Young's modulus

E=210000 N/mm2

Shear modulus

G=81 kN/mm2

Plate properties

Tp

Bp

Thickness of plate

Width of plate

Tp=15 mm

Bp=460 mm

Page: 2

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007

Area of plate

Ap=Tp*Bp/100=15*460/100=69 cm2

Concrete details

Concrete grade

fcu=TABLE 1.3 for fck=25

=30 N/mm2

For buildings of normal usage the modular ratio is assumed to be 2/3

of the value due to short term loading and 1/3 of the value due to

long term loading.

Modular ratio (assuming LWAC)

Alphae=15

Permanent actions - unfactored

Plate self weight

Self weight of beam + plate

Concrete density (final stage)

Deck spans onto supporting beam.

wuc=serM*9.81/1000=107*9.81/1000

=1.0497 kN/m

wpl=wuc*Ap/A=1.0497*69/136

=0.53255 kN/m

ws=(wuc+wpl)/L2 kN/m2

=0.21 kN/m2

D'c=19 kN/m3

Dc=18 kN/m3

<Ct>

- - mesh

_____________

_____________

/

\

/

\

__/

\_____________/

\__

<wop>

Slab depth

Depth of profiling

Centres of profiles

Width at inside of profile

Width at outside of profile

Dry weight of slab + troughs

Wet weight of slab + troughs

Dry weight surrounding beam

Wet weight surrounding beam

Dry weight of concrete

Wet weight of concrete

Deck and end closures

Construction load

Dp

Ds

<wip>

Ds=300 mm

Dp=285 mm

Ct=600 mm

wip=548 mm

wop=424 mm

wd=(Ds-Dp/(2*Ct)*(wip+wop))*Dc/1000

=(300-285/(2*600)*(548+424))*18/1000

=1.2447 kN/m2

ww=(Ds-Dp/(2*Ct)*(wip+wop))*D'c/1000

=(300-285/(2*600)*(548+424))*19/1000

=1.3139 kN/m2

wsd=Bp*Dp*Dc/(L1*L2*10^6)

=460*285*18/(7.5*7.5*10^6)

=0.041952 kN/m2

wsw=Bp*Dp*D'c/(L1*L2*10^6)

=460*285*19/(7.5*7.5*10^6)

=0.044283 kN/m2

wud=1.29 kN/m2

wuw=1.36 kN/m2

wg=0.2 kN/m2

wc=0.5 kN/m2

Page: 3

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007

Floor & minor services

wf=0.25 kN/m2

Ceiling

wci=0 kN/m2

Variable actions - unfactored

Occupancy

Partitions

Total variable loading

Variable load reduction

Revised variable load

wo=3.5 kN/m2

wp=1 kN/m2

wi'=wo+wp=3.5+1=4.5 kN/m2

wr=L1*L2*wi'/1000=7.5*7.5*4.5/1000

=0.25312 kN/m2

wi=wi'-wr=4.5-0.25=4.25 kN/m2

Permanent actions

Variable actions

gamG=1.35

gamQ=1.5

Loading combinations

The load case combinations outlined below follow the design criteria in

in the SCI publication 'Slim Floor Construction Using Deep Decking'.

Case 1 - Construction stage with only one span constructed and subject

to construction load. This load combination is not applicable

to this type of construction.

Case 2(a) - Construction stage with two spans constructed, one subject

to construction load and deck props in position.

Eccentric loading (deck only)

Eccentric loading

Axial loading

W21=wg*gamG*L2/4*L1

=0.2*1.35*7.5/4*7.5

=3.7969 kN

W22=((wuw+wg)*gamG+wc*gamQ)*L1*L2/4

=((1.36+0.2)*1.35+0.5*1.5)*7.5

*7.5/4

=40.163 kN

W23=ws*gamG*L2*L1=0.21*1.35*7.5*7.5

=15.947 kN

W21=3.7969 kN

W22=40.163 kN

W23=15.947 kN

Total applied load

W2a=W21+W22+W23=3.7969+40.163+15.947

=59.906 kN

Case 2(b) - Construction stage (plastic resistance). Two spans

constructed, both subject to construction load. Deck

props in position.

Page: 4

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007

W22=40.163 kN

W22=40.163 kN

W23=15.947 kN

Total axial load

W2b=W23+2*W22=15.947+2*40.163

=96.272 kN

Case 3(a) - In-service stage and only one span subject to variable

load. This check is not required.

Case 3(b) - In-service stage (ultimate combined bending check)

Axial loading

W33=(wi*gamQ+(wud+ws+wf+wg+wci)*gamG)*L2*L1

=(4.25*1.5+(1.29+0.21+0.25+0.2+0)*1.35)

*7.5*7.5

=506.67 kN

W33=506.67 kN

Check: Maximum loading for moment resistance.

Section classification

e=(235/fy)^0.5=(235/345)^0.5

=0.82532

Outstand

c=b/2=258.8/2=129.4 mm

Ratio

c'tf=c/tf=129.4/20.5=6.3122

Compact limiting value of ratio

c'Tlim=10*e=10*0.82532=8.2532

c/tf ratio within limiting value of 10e.

Compact limiting value of ratio

C'tlim=83*e=83*0.82532=68.502

Depth between fillets

C=h-2*(tf+r)=266.7-2*(20.5+12.7)

=200.3 mm

Ratio

C'tw=C/tw=200.3/12.8=15.648

C/tw ratio within limiting value of 83e.

Therefore section classification is at least compact.

Section properties - (beam + plate)

Design strength of plate

fyp=355 N/mm2

Torsional constant of plate

Itp=Tp^3*Bp/30000=15^3*460/30000

=51.75 cm4

Area of plate & bottom flange

Ab=Bp*Tp+b*tf=460*15+258.8*20.5

=12205 mm2

Neutral axis is in plate.

Page: 5

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007

Top of plate to centre of area

zc=Tp-Ab/(2*Bp)=15-12205/(2*460)

=1.7333 mm

Distance between flange centroids hs=h-tf/2+zc=266.7-20.5/2+1.7333

=258.18 mm

Total area

At=A+Ap=136+69=205 cm2

Taking area moments about bottom surface of plate,

Distance to centroid

zbar=(A*(h/2+Tp)+Ap*Tp/2)/At

=(136*(266.7/2+15)+69*15/2)/205

=100.94 mm

Second moment of Area about neutral axis:

Iy=Iyy+A*((h/2-zbar+Tp)/10)^2+Ap*((zbar-Tp/2)/10)^2

=17500+136*((266.7/2-100.94+15)/10)^2+69*((100.94-15/2)

/10)^2

=26581 cm4

Second moment of area

Iz=Izz+Tp/10*(Bp/10)^3/12

=5930+15/10*(460/10)^3/12

=18097 cm4

Radius of gyration about z-z

iz=(Iz/At)^0.5=(18097/205)^0.5

=9.3956 cm

Equal area axis above the bottom flange

When the design strengths of the UKC and the plate are not the same

the SCI Slim Floor publication adopts the approach that the different

design strengths should be used to determine the plastic modulus Wply.

Modified plate area

Ap=Ap*fyp/fy=69*355/345=71 cm2

Modified total area

At=A+Ap=136+71=207 cm2

Depth between beam flanges

hw=h-2*tf=266.7-2*20.5=225.7 mm

The Equal-Area axis lies in the flange of the beam then,

Distance from top of plate

yea=(At/2-Ap)*100/b

=(207/2-71)*100/258.8

=12.558 mm

Distance to centre of areas

z1=tf-yea=20.5-12.558=7.942 mm

z2=hw/2+z1=225.7/2+7.942

=120.79 mm

z3=hw+z1+tf/2=225.7+7.942+20.5/2

=243.89 mm

Ignoring the fillets, the plastic modulus of the combined section is

Wply=(Ap*(yea+Tp/2)*100+b*yea^2/2+b*z1^2/2+tw*hw*z2+b*tf*z3)/10^3

=(71*(12.558+15/2)*100+258.8*12.558^2/2+258.8*7.942^2/2+12.8*225.7

*120.79+258.8*20.5*243.89)/10^3

=1813.9 cm3

Buckling resistance

buckling resistance moment, MbRd, will be considered rather than the

moment resistance as a guide to selection.

Moment resistance

MyRd=Wply*fy/(gamM0*10^3)

=1813.9*345/(1*10^3)

=625.79 kNm

Page: 6

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007

Coefficient C1

K=1.0

Length between restraints

LT=L1=7.5 m

Coefficient C1

C1=1.0 (conservative)

Lateral torsional buckling

As the section is symmetric only about one axis the SCI P362 will be

adopted to determine the non-dimensional slenderness LT.

Slenderness about z-z axis

lamz=LT*10^2/iz=7.5*10^2/9.3956

=79.824

Lambda 1

lam1=PI*(E/fy)^0.5

=3.1416*(210000/345)^0.5

=77.509

Lambda z

lambar=lamz/lam1=79.824/77.509

=1.0299

compute

X=h/tf=266.7/20.5=13.01

Slenderness parameter

V=1/(1+0.05*(lamz/X)^2)^0.25

=1/(1+0.05*(79.824/13.01)^2)^0.25

=0.76747

Beta w

betaw=1.0

Section property

U=0.9 (conservative)

Non-dimensional slenderness LT:

lamLT=1/(C1)^0.5*U*V*lambar*(betaw)^0.5

=1/(1)^0.5*0.9*0.76747*1.0299*(1)^0.5

=0.71136

Limiting slenderness value

lamLT0=0.4

According to the NA to BS EN 1993-1-1, for not doubly symmetrical

sections buckling curve d should be used.

Imperfection value

aLT=0.76 (curve d)

compute

comp1=aLT*(lamLT-lamLT0)

=0.76*(0.71136-0.4)

=0.23664

compute

comp2=0.75*lamLT^2=0.75*0.71136^2

=0.37953

Factor

phiLT=0.5*(1+comp1+comp2)

=0.5*(1+0.23664+0.37953)

=0.80808

Modification factor

chiLT=1/(phiLT+(phiLT^2-0.75*lamLT^2)^0.5)

=1/(0.80808+(0.80808^2-0.75

*0.71136^2)^0.5)

=0.7513

Factor

kc=1/(C1)^0.5=1/(1)^0.5=1

Moment distribution factor

f=1-0.5*(1-kc)*(1-2*(lamLT-0.8)^2)

=1-0.5*(1-1)*(1-2*(0.71136-0.8)^2)

=1

Modified chiLT factor

ChiLT=chiLT/f=0.7513/1=0.7513

Design buckling resistance moment MbRd=ChiLT*Wply*fy/(gamM1*10^3)

=0.7513*1813.9*345/(1*10^3)

=470.16 kNm

Biaxial stress effects in the plate - Case 2(b)

reduce the moment resistance for overall bending of the section.

Maximum transverse moment, M, in the plate is obtained from:

Page: 7

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007

M

Mp

(c^2-sigma^2)

2.c.fyp

Mp=plate moment resistance

c=(4fyp^2-3sigma^2)^0.5

Design strength

fyp=355 N/mm2

Bending moment

MyEd2b=W2b*L1/8=96.272*7.5/8

=90.255 kNm

Longitudinal bending stress

sigma=MyEd2b*10^3/Wply

=90.255*10^3/1813.9

=49.758 N/mm2

Stress

c=(4*fyp^2-3*sigma^2)^0.5

=(4*355^2-3*49.758^2)^0.5

=704.75 N/mm2

Ratio of moments

M'Mp=(c^2-sigma^2)/(2*c*fyp)

=(704.75^2-49.758^2)/(2*704.75

*355)

=0.98766

The ratio of plate transverse moment/moment resistance of plate must

not exceed 0.98766 otherwise the longitudinal bending resistance

of the beam is reduced.

Assuming clearance of 25 mm between beam flange and floor slab

Distance to load W22

as=(Bp-B'-2*25)/4+25

=(460-260-2*25)/4+25

=62.5 mm

Plate transverse moment (total)

M'=W22*as/10^3=40.163*62.5/10^3

=2.5102 kNm

Unit length moment

M=M'/L1=2.5102/7.5=0.33469 kNm per m.

Plate section modulus (total)

Wplyp'=Tp^2*L1/4=15^2*7.5/4

=421.88 cm3

Unit length section modulus

Wplyp=Wplyp'/L1=421.88/7.5

=56.25 cm3 per m

Plate moment resistance

Mp=Wplyp*fyp/10^3=56.25*355/10^3

=19.969 kNm per m

Ratio of moment

Mr=M/Mp=0.33469/19.969=0.016761

Since Mr M'Mp ( 0.016761 0.98766 ), biaxial bending has no

influence on the overall bending of the section.

Case 2a - Construction loading (one side loaded)

MyEd2

MbRd

Cmz.MzEd2

MzRd

kw.kzw.ka.MwEd2

MwRd

Bending moment

Eccentricity of load

Torsional moment

Cmz=0.95

MyEd2=W2a*L1/8=59.906*7.5/8

=56.162 kNm

ecc=b/2+as=258.8/2+62.5=191.9 mm

Td=(W22-W21)*ecc/10^3

=(40.163-3.7969)*191.9/10^3

=6.9786 kNm

Page: 8

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007

Torsional constant of section

It=Ituc+Itp=172+51.75=223.75 cm4

Flange only

Icf=tf*b^3/120000=20.5*258.8^3/120000

=2961.2 cm4

Flange and plate

Itf=Icf+Tp*Bp^3/120000

=2961.2+15*460^3/120000

=15128 cm4

Warping constant

Iw=(hs/10)^2*Icf*Itf/Iz

=(258.18/10)^2*2961.2*15128/18097

=1.6501E6 cm6

Centroid to top flange centroid

ht=h+Tp-tf/2-zbar

=266.7+15-20.5/2-100.94

=170.51 mm

Centroid to bot. fl. centroid

hb=hs-ht=258.18-170.51=87.675 mm

Distance centroid to shear ctr.

zo=(hb*Itf-ht*Icf)/(Icf+Itf)

=(87.675*15128-170.51*2961.2)

/(2961.2+15128)

=45.411 mm

Torsional bending constant

a=(E/1000*Iw/(G*It))^0.5*10

=(210000/1000*1.6501E6/(81

*223.75))^0.5*10

=1382.7 mm

Length of beam

L=7500 mm

Distance along member

z=L/2=7500/2=3750 mm

Hyperbolic sine of z/a

t1=SNH(z/a)=SNH(3750/1382.7)

=7.4967

Hyperbolic tangent of L/2a

t2=TNH(L/(2*a))=TNH(7500/(2*1382.7))

=0.99122

Hyperbolic cosine of z/a

t3=CSH(z/a)=CSH(3750/1382.7)

=7.5631

term

t4=L^2/(2*a^2)*(z/L-(z^2/L^2))

=7500^2/(2*1382.7^2)*(3750/7500

-(3750^2/7500^2))

=3.6776

Angle of twist

phi=Td*a/(G*It*10)*a/L*(t4+t3-t2*t1-1)

=6.9786*1382.7/(81*223.75*10)

*1382.7/7500*(3.6776+7.5631

-0.99122*7.4967-1)

=0.02758 rad

Minor axis moment

MzEd2=MyEd2*phi=56.162*0.02758

=1.549 kNm

Bending resistance of top flange MzRd=(tf*b^2/4)*fy/10^6

=(20.5*258.8^2/4)*345/10^6

=118.42 kNm

Second derivative of phi

phi''=Td/(G*It*10*a)*a/L*(-1+t3-t2*t1)

=6.9786/(81*223.75*10*1382.7)

*1382.7/7500*(-1+7.5631-0.99122

*7.4967)

=-4.4552E-9 rad/mm2

Consider phi'' as positive

phi''=4.4552E-9 rad/mm2

Warping moment at mid-span

MwEd2=E*Iw*phi''/(h-tf)

=210000*1.6501E6*4.4552E-9

/(266.7-20.5)

=6.2705 kNm

Critical moment

Mcr=Wply*fy/(lamLT^2*1000)

=1813.9*345/(0.71136^2*1000)

=1236.7 kNm

Page: 9

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007

Warping resistance of one flange MwRd=MzRd/2=118.42/2=59.212 kNm

Factor

kw=0.7-0.2*MwEd2/MwRd

=0.7-0.2*6.2705/59.212

=0.67882

kzw=1-MzEd2/MzRd=1-1.549/118.42

=0.98692

ka=1/(1-MyEd2/Mcr)

=1/(1-56.162/1236.7)

=1.0476

Unity factor

UF2=MyEd2/MbRd+Cmz*MzEd2/MzRd+kw*kzw*ka*MwEd2/MwRd

=56.162/470.16+0.95*1.549/118.42+0.67882*0.98692

*1.0476*6.2705/59.212

=0.2062

Since UF2 1, the section is adequate.

Horizontal deflection at top flange of beam

=19.125 kN

Torsional moment

Td=W1*ecc/10^3=19.125*191.9/10^3

=3.6701 kNm

Angle of twist

phi=Td*a/(G*It*10)*a/L*(t4+t3-t2*t1-1)

=3.6701*1382.7/(81*223.75*10)

*1382.7/7500*(3.6776+7.5631

-0.99122*7.4967-1)

=0.014505 rad

Distance: shear centre/top flange zs=h+Tp-zbar+zo

=266.7+15-100.94+45.411

=226.17 mm

Horizontal movement

hy=zs*phi=226.17*0.014505

=3.2805 mm

The maximum horizontal movement of the top flange ( 3.2805 mm ) occurs

at midspan. A limit of 20 mm to movement of the top flange would

be within normal tolerances. The deck connected to either side of the

beam to the flange plate plus the closure flashing will provide an

additional stiffness (not included in the above).

Design Case 3(b) - In-service stage (variable loading)

Since the beam is fully restrained in the in-service stage, the moment

resistance, MyRd, will be considered.

Moment resistance

MyRd=fy*Wply/10^3=345*1813.9/10^3

=625.79 kNm

Loading due to flooring

Wi1=((wud+wf+wci)*gamG+wi*gamQ)*L1*L2/2

=((1.29+0.25+0)*1.35+4.25*1.5)*7.5

*7.5/2

=237.77 kN

Loading due to self weight

Wi2=(ws+wg)*gamG*L1*L2

=(0.21+0.2)*1.35*7.5*7.5

=31.134 kN

Loading due to flooring

Wi3=Wi1=237.77 kN

Page: 10

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007

W3

W1

W2a

237.77 kN

237.77 kN

31.134 kN

Bending moment (y-y axis)

W33=506.67 kN

MyEd=W33*L1/8=506.67*7.5/8

=475 kNm

Since MyEd MyRd ( 475 kNm 625.79 kNm ), moment resistance OK.

Shear plastic resistance - Clause 6.2.6

Shear Area

Avz=A*100-2*b*tf+(tw+2*r)*tf

=136*100-2*258.8*20.5+(12.8+2

*12.7)*20.5

=3772.3 mm2

Shear plastic resistance

VplRd=Avz*fy/SQR(3)/(gamM0*1000)

=3772.3*345/SQR(3)/(1*1000)

=751.39 kN

Shear force Case 3(b)

VzEd=W33/2=506.67/2=253.34 kN

As VzEd < VplRd, section is suitable. Case 3(a) check for reduced

shear resistance in the presence of torsion is nor required.

Elastic section properties - serviceability limit state

Concrete area

Acs=hw*Bp/(100*Alphae)

=225.7*460/(100*15)

=69.215 cm2

Concrete second moment of area

Icys=Bp*hw^3/(120000*Alphae)

=460*225.7^3/(120000*15)

=2938.2 cm4

Elastic N.A. below mid-height

zcs=Ap*(h+Tp)/(2*(At+Acs))/10

=69*(266.7+15)/(2*(207+69.215))/10

=3.5185 cm

Composite second moment of area:

Iys=Iyy+A*zcs^2+Icys+Acs*zcs^2+Ap*((h+Tp)/20-zcs)^2

=17500+136*3.5185^2+2938.2+69.215*3.5185^2+69*((266.7

+15)/20-3.5185)^2

=30683 cm4

(b) Cracked section properties used for elastic stresses. The elastic

neutral axis height 'ze' is assumed to be below the centroid of the

UKC section.

Term

k1=Bp/(2*Alphae)=460/(2*15)

=15.333 mm

Term

k2=At*10^2+Bp/Alphae*hw/2

=207*10^2+460/15*225.7/2

=24161 mm

Term

k3=Bp/(2*Alphae)*(hw/2)^2-Ap*100*(h+Tp)/2

=460/(2*15)*(225.7/2)^2-69*100*(266.7+15)/2

=-776593 mm

Page: 11

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007

Elastic N.A. below mid-height

ze=(-k2+(k2^2-4*k1*k3)^0.5)/(20*k1)

=(-24161+(24161^2-4*15.333*

-776593)^0.5)/(20*15.333)

=3.1513 cm

Concrete area in steel units

Asc=Bp/(10*Alphae)*(hw/20+ze)

=460/(10*15)*(225.7/20+3.1513)

=44.271 cm2

Second moment of area of UKC

k4=Iyy+A*ze^2=17500+136*3.1513^2

=18851 cm4

Second moment of area of plate

k5=Ap*((h+Tp)/20-ze)^2

=69*((266.7+15)/20-3.1513)^2

=8248.7 cm4

Second moment of area of concrete k6=Bp/(120*Alphae)*(hw/20+ze)^3

=460/(120*15)*(225.7/20+3.1513)^3

=768.86 cm4

Second moment of area of concrete k7=Asc*((hw/20+ze)/2)^2

=44.271*((225.7/20+3.1513)/2)^2

=2306.6 cm4

Combined second moment of area

Iyc=k4+k5+k6+k7

=18851+8248.7+768.86+2306.6

=30175 cm4

Elastic modulus of concrete

Welc=Iyc*Alphae/(hw/20+ze)

=30175*15/(225.7/20+3.1513)

=31353 cm3

Elastic modulus steel (top)

Welst=Iyc/(h/20+ze)

=30175/(266.7/20+3.1513)

=1830.3 cm3

Elastic modulus steel (bottom)

Welsb=Iyc/((h/2+Tp)/10-ze)

=30175/((266.7/2+15)/10-3.1513)

=2582.6 cm3

Construction stage - (steel beam + plate only)

Self weight

Ws=ws*L1*L2=0.21*7.5*7.5

=11.813 kN

Decking weight

Wg=wg*L1*L2/2=0.2*7.5*7.5/2

=5.625 kN

Concrete weight

Wu=wuw*L1*L2/2=1.36*7.5*7.5/2

=38.25 kN

Total load

Wsb=Ws+Wg+Wu=11.813+5.625+38.25

=55.688 kN

Maximum moment

Mys=Wsb*L1/8=55.688*7.5/8

=52.207 kNm

Second moment of area

Iy=26581 cm4

Compressive stress

fc=Mys*10^3*(h+Tp-zbar)/10/Iy

=52.207*10^3*(266.7+15-100.94)/10

/26581

=35.502 N/mm2

Tensile stress

ft=Mys*10^3*zbar/10/Iy

=52.207*10^3*100.94/10/26581

=19.826 N/mm2

Page: 12

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007

Composite stage - cracked section

Loading

Wcc=(wi+wf+wci)*L1*L2

=(4.25+0.25+0)*7.5*7.5

=253.13 kN

Moment

Mycc=Wcc*L1/8=253.13*7.5/8

=237.3 kNm

Permanent loading (prop removed) Wdcc=(wud+wg)*L1*L2/2

=(1.29+0.2)*7.5*7.5/2

=41.906 kN

Moment

Mydc=Wdcc*L1/8=41.906*7.5/8

=39.287 kNm

Total moment

Myc=Mycc+Mydc=237.3+39.287

=276.59 kNm

Maximum concrete stress

fcc=Myc*10^3/Welc=276.59*10^3/31353

=8.8218 N/mm2

2

As fcc fcu/2 ( 8.8218 N/mm 15 N/mm2 ), the serviceability

stresses for concrete are acceptable.

Steel compressive stress

fsc=Myc*10^3/Welst=276.59*10^3/1830.3

=151.12 N/mm2

Steel tensile stress

fst=Myc*10^3/Welsb=276.59*10^3/2582.6

=107.1 N/mm2

Combine steel stresses for composite and construction stages.

Compression (combined)

fcc=fc+fsc=35.502+151.12=186.62 N/mm2

Tension

ftc=ft+fst=19.826+107.1=126.92 N/mm2

2

As fcc fy ( 186.62 N/mm 345 N/mm2 ), serviceability stresses OK.

As ftc fyp ( 126.92 N/mm2 355 N/mm2 ), serviceability stresses OK.

Transverse plate bending - elastic condition

Longitudinal stress

sigmat=ftc=126.92 N/mm2

Deck + concrete loads

Wdc=(wud+wg)*L1*L2/2

=(1.29+0.2)*7.5*7.5/2

=41.906 kN

Variable + service loads

Wic=(wi+wf+wci)*L1*L2/2

=(4.25+0.25+0)*7.5*7.5/2

=126.56 kN

Flange plate line load

Wpl=Wdc+Wic=41.906+126.56

=168.47 kN

Plate bending moment

Mpl=Wpl*as/10^3=168.47*62.5/10^3

=10.529 kNm

Plate elastic modulus

Zpl=L1*Tp^2/6=7.5*15^2/6

=281.25 cm3

Transverse bending stress

sigtt=Mpl*10^3/Zpl=10.529*10^3/281.25

=37.438 N/mm2

Combined stress must be less than or equal to fyp as follows:

combined stress

sigmac=(sigtt^2+sigmat^2+sigtt*sigmat)^0.5

=(37.438^2+126.92^2+37.438*126.92)^0.5

=149.21 N/mm2

As sigmac fyp ( 149.21 N/mm2 355 N/mm2 ), serviceability stresses

for steel and concrete are OK.

Page: 13

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007

Deflections

Loading

Wsb=55.688 kN

Deflection due to self weights

dc=5*Wsb*L^3/(384*E*Iy*10)

=5*55.688*7500^3/(384*210000*26581

*10)

=5.4801 mm

Additional deflection due to prop removal

Loading

Wsp=Wg+Wu=5.625+38.25=43.875 kN

Concrete hardened around the steel section use:

Second moment of area

Iys=30683 cm4

Additional deflection

dca=5*Wsp*L^3/(384*E*Iys*10)

=5*43.875*7500^3/(384*210000

*30683*10)

=3.7405 mm

Imposed loading

Wi=wi*L1*L2=4.25*7.5*7.5

=239.06 kN

Deflection due to imposed load

di=dca*Wi/Wsp=3.7405*239.06/43.875

=20.381 mm

Deflection to span ratio

1: 367

Minor services and flooring

Wm=(wf+wci)*L1*L2=(0.25+0)*7.5*7.5

=14.063 kN

Deflection due to minor loads

dd=dca*Wm/Wsp=3.7405*14.063/43.875

=1.1989 kN

Total deflection

dt=dc+dca+di+dd

=5.4801+3.7405+20.381+1.1989

=30.8 mm

Deflection to span ratio

1: 243

Note: Where construction stage deflections of the steel deck are

considered to be high, account should be taken of the increased

concrete weight due to ponding (see manufacturers' literature for

for further information).

Natural frequency

Permanent loading

wd=(wud+wf+ws+wg+wci)

=(1.29+0.25+0.21+0.2+0)

=1.95 kN/m2

Variable load

wo=3.5 kN/m2

Variable load reduction

wr=L1*L2*wo/1000=7.5*7.5*3.5/1000

=0.19688 kN/m2

Revised variable load

wri=wo-wr=3.5-0.2=3.3 kN/m2

Total load

W=(wd+0.1*wri)*L1*L2

=(1.95+0.1*3.3)*7.5*7.5

=128.25 kN

Deflection due to permanent loads dp=5*W*L^3/(384*E*Iys*10)

=5*128.25*7500^3/(384*210000*30683

*10)

=10.934 mm

Natural frequency

Hf=18/SQR(dp)=18/SQR(10.934)

=5.4436 Hz

As Hf 4 the floor structure is satisfactory for natural frequency.

Page: 14

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007

Welding of steel plate to underside of UKC section

betw=0.9 (EC3 Part 1-8)

Partial factor (welds)

gamM2=1.25

Design strength of fillet weld

fvwd=fu/(SQR(3)*betw*gamM2)

=470/(SQR(3)*0.9*1.25)

=241.2 N/mm2

For the weld design all of the vertical shear is assumed to act

through the flange plate except for the own weight of steelwork

and concrete infill.

Loading due to flooring

W1=((wud+wf+wci)*gamG+wi*gamQ)*L1*L2/2

=((1.29+0.25+0)*1.35+4.25*1.5)*7.5

*7.5/2

=237.77 kN

Loading due to self weight

W2a=(ws+wg)*gamG*L1*L2

=(0.21+0.2)*1.35*7.5*7.5

=31.134 kN

W1

W1

Under balanced load conditions the

curvature at the centre of the beam

is zero. The assumption is that

as

cantilever.

W2a

Distance to load W1 from weld

Vertical force in weld

as=62.5 mm

Pa=W1*(1+1.5*as/(b/2))

=237.77*(1+1.5*62.5/(258.8/2))

=410.03 kN

Load per metre

Ra=Pa/L1=410.03/7.5=54.671 kN/m

Max. long. force in plate

Pl=Ap*fyp/10=69*355/10=2449.5 kN

Assuming an elastic stress distribution for the transfer of

longitudinal shear between UKC and plate.

Longitudinal shear per weld

Rl=2*Pl/L1=2*2449.5/7.5=653.2 kN/m

Assumed fillet weld size

s'=8 mm

Horizontal force in plate

Ph=W1*as/((s'+Tp)/2)

=237.77*62.5/((8+15)/2)

=1292.2 kN

Horizontal force per metre

Rh=Ph/L1=1292.2/7.5=172.3 kN/m

Resultant force in weld

FwEd=(Ra^2+Rl^2+Rh^2)^0.5/1000

=(54.671^2+653.2^2+172.3^2)^0.5

/1000

=0.67775 kN/mm

Weld size (leg length)

s=8 mm

Design weld resistance

FwRd=0.7*s*fvwd/1000=0.7*8*241.2/1000

=1.3507 kN/mm

Since FwEd FwRd ( 0.67775 kN/mm 1.3507 kN/mm ) the 8 mm fillet weld

is satisfactory.

Page: 15

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007

End plate details

tep=10 mm

Grade of end plate

pgrade=355

Diameter of bolts

db=20 mm

Bolt grade

bgrade=8.8

Factor

av=0.6

Tensile area of bolt

As=245 mm2

Total number of bolts to be used bn=4

Diameter of hole

do=db+2=20+2=22 mm

Distance from top edge of plate

e4=10 mm

Distance to first row of bolts

e1=100 mm

Pitch of bolts vertically

p1=80 mm

Bolt cross-centres

p3=140 mm

Width of end plate

bep=250 mm

Distance from top edge of plate

to the top edge of beam flange

e4=10 mm

Distance to first row of bolts

from the top edge of plate

e1=100 mm

Pitch of bolts

p1=80 mm

Assuming length of plate must extend beyond bottom flange of beam

End plate length

hep=2*e4+h'=2*10+270=290 mm

Bolt cross-centres

p3=140 mm

Width of end plate

bep=250 mm

Edge distance at cross centres

e2=(bep-p3)/2=(250-140)/2

=55 mm

Bolt group

FvEds=W33/(2*bn)=506.67/(2*4)

=63.334 kN

Shear resistance of bolt

FvRd=av*fub*As/(gamM2*10^3)

=0.6*800*245/(1.25*10^3)

=94.08 kN

Since FvEds FvRd ( 63.334 kN 94.08 kN ) maximum load per

bolt within shear resistance.

Bearing on the end plate

Ultimate strength (end plate)

Factor

fyep=355 N/mm2

fuep=470 N/mm2

k1=2.8*e2/do-1.7=2.8*55/22-1.7

=5.3

Limiting factor

k1=2.5

Ratios for factor ab

ab1=e1/(3*do)=100/(3*22)

=1.5152

ab2=p1/(3*do)-1/4=80/(3*22)-1/4

=0.96212

ab3=fub/fuep=800/470=1.7021

Factor

ab=0.96212

Bearing resistance

FbRd=k1*ab*fuep*db*tep/(1.25*10^3)

=2.5*0.96212*470*20*10/(1.25*10^3)

=180.88 kN

As FbRd > 0.8 FvRd ( 180.88 > 75.264 ), then the resistance

of the bolt group is

FRd=0.8*bn*FvRd=0.8*4*94.08

=301.06 kN

As FRd VzEd ( 301.06 kN 253.34 kN ), end plate bearing OK.

Page: 16

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007

End plate in shear

VRdg=2*hep*tep*fyep/(1.27*SQR(3)*1000)

=2*290*10*355/(1.27*SQR(3)*1000)

=936.03 kN

Net shear area

Avnet=tep*(hep-bn/2*do)

=10*(290-4/2*22)

=2460 mm2

Net section resistance

VRdn=2*Avnet*fuep/(SQR(3)*1.1*1000)

=2*2460*470/(SQR(3)*1.1*1000)

=1213.7 kN

Areas for block tearing

Ant=tep*(e2-do/2)=10*(55-22/2)

=440 mm2

Anv=tep*(hep-e1-(bn/2-0.5)*do)

=10*(290-100-(4/2-0.5)*22)

=1570 mm2

Block shear resistance

VRdb=2*(Ant*fuep/1.1+Anv*fyep/SQR(3))/1000

=2*(440*470/1.1+1570*355/SQR(3))/1000

=1019.6 kN

Minimum shear resistance

VRdm=936.03 kN

Shear force

FvEdp=W33/4=506.67/4=126.67 kN

As VRdm FvEdp ( 936.03 kN 126.67 kN ), end plate shear OK.

Additional requirements - End plate in-plane bending

Check on bolt forces due to out of balance loads

W21=3.7969 kN

Eccentric loading

W22=40.163 kN

Axial loading

W23=15.947 kN

W21=3.7969 kN

W22=40.163 kN

W23=15.947 kN

Torsional moment of connection

Polar inertia of bolt group

Distance to extreme bolt

Component force due to torsion

Tor=(W22-W21)/2*ecc/10^3

=(40.163-3.7969)/2*191.9/10^3

=3.4893 kNm

Ip=4*((p1/2)^2+(p3/2)^2)

=4*((80/2)^2+(140/2)^2)

=26000 mm4

r'=((p3/2)^2+(p1/2)^2)^0.5

=((140/2)^2+(80/2)^2)^0.5

=80.623 mm

Ft=Tor*10^3*r'/Ip

=3.4893*10^3*80.623/26000

=10.82 kN

Page: 17

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007

Vertical component of force

Fvc=(W21+W22+W23)/(2*bn)

=(3.7969+40.163+15.947)/(2*4)

=7.4883 kN

Term

cos0=p3/(2*r')=140/(2*80.623)

=0.86824

Resultant force in bolt

FvEd=(Ft^2+Fvc^2+2*Ft*Fvc*cos0)^0.5

=(10.82^2+7.4883^2+2*10.82

*7.4883*0.86824)^0.5

=17.715 kN

Since FvEd FvRd ( 17.715 kN 94.08 kN ), shear resistance OK.

Since FvEd FbRd ( 17.715 kN 180.88 kN ), bearing resistance OK.

Weld strength between beam and end plate

Load on weld

FwEdw=W33/(4*(hep-2*e4))

=506.67/(4*(290-2*10))

=0.46914 kN/mm

Weld size (leg length)

sw=10 mm

Throat thickness of weld

a=sw/2^0.5=10/2^0.5=7.0711 mm

Minimum weld size

am=0.48*tw=0.48*12.8=6.144 mm

Weld throat size ( 7.0711 mm ) > basic requirement ( 6.144 mm ),

weld suitable.

Design weld resistance

FwRdw=0.7*sw*fvwd/1000

=0.7*10*241.2/1000

=1.6884 kN/mm

Since FwEdw FwRdw ( 0.46914 kN/mm 1.6884 kN/mm ), the 10 mm fillet

weld is satisfactory.

Guidelines for the provision of service voids

Maximum number of 5 holes per span

Circular service voids only

Minimum centres of holes, 600 mm

One hole per cross-section of deck

Holes to be symmetrically arranged about the centre line of

the UKC web

Maximum hole diameter 0.6h ( 160 mm )

The cylindrical sleeve used to form service duct to be cold

formed steel minimum thickness 1.2 mm

Aggregate size should be considered, because the concrete has

to be vigorously vibrated to ensure that the concrete passes

beneath the cylindrical sleeve.

Page: 18

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Slim floor design using deep decking

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC419 EC

Office: 1007

CONNECTION SUMMARY

e1

p1

e3

tep=10

Number of bolts

Bolt diameter

Bolt grade

Plate grade

UNIVERSAL COLUMN

e4=10

e4=10

4

20 mm

8.8

S 355

bep=250 mm

100 mm

hep=

o

290 mm

80 mm

110 mm

p3=140 mm

e2=55 mm

e2=55 mm

Design strength

345 N/mm2

BOTTOM PLATE

460 mm x 15 mm

Grade S 355

Design strength of plate 355 N/mm2

Design shear force

253.3 kN

DESIGN

Shear plastic resistance 751.4 kN

SUMMARY

Design moment

475 kNm

Moment resistance

625.8 kNm

Buckling resistance

470.2 kNm

Variable load deflection 20.38 mm

Deflection to span ratio 1: 367

Total deflection

30.8 mm

Deflection to span ratio 1: 243

Interaction factors

0.2062 1

NOTE: Use lightweight aggregate concrete (LWAC) and provide top

reinforcement to tie the floor on each side of the beam together

in order to meet robustness requirements.

No419

Page: 1

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC423 BS

Office: 1007

Location: Ex1 - Three rows of tension bolts

Bolted flush end plate connection - beam to column

Beams are connected to both column flanges. The web panel shear can

be discounted in the determination of the compressive force as the

connection is assumed to have balanced moments.

bp

ex

p2

p3

pes

tp

x

tension

compression

ped

ex

p2

p3

pes

ep

ep

g

Factored moment

Factored shear force

Axial force (+ve compression)

Ma=332 kNm

V=128 kN

N=90 kN

Grade details

Bolt grade

Grade of supported beam

Grade of end plate

Grade of supporting column

The electrode is grade 35 and the

Design strength of fillet weld

Modulus of elasticity

bgrade=8.8

grade=275

pgrade=275

sgrade=275

steel grade is S 275.

pw=220 N/mm2

E=205 kN/mm2

Lc

Dimensions (mm): Dc=266.7 Bc=258.8 tc=12.8 Tc=20.5 rc=12.7

The material thickness is 20.5 mm and the steel grade is S 275.

Design strength

pyc=265 N/mm2

Supported beam details

Dimensions (mm): Db=533.1 Bb=209.3 tb=10.1 Tb=15.6 rb=12.7

The material thickness is 15.6 mm and the steel grade is S 275.

Design strength

pyb=275 N/mm2

Page: 2

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC423 BS

Office: 1007

Bolt details

Diameter of bolts

bd=24 mm

Tensile area of one bolt

At=TABLE 1.1 for bd=24

=353 mm2

Tensile strength (grade 8.8)

pt=560 N/mm2

Tensile capacity

Pt=pt*At/10^3=560*353/10^3

=197.68 kN

End plate details

Thickness of plate

tp=25 mm

The material thickness is 25 mm and the steel grade is S 275.

Design strength

pyp=265 N/mm2

Total number of bolts

bn=8

Number of shear bolts

ns=2

Number of tension bolts

nt=bn-ns=8-2=6

Distance to first row of bolts

ex=75 mm

Distance to beam flange

x=15 mm

Pitch of tension bolts

p2=90 mm

Distance tension to shear bolts

p3=230 mm

Edge distance for shear bolts

pes=100 mm

Length of end plate

Lc=ex+((bn-4)/2)*p2+p3+pes

=75+((8-4)/2)*90+230+100

=585 mm

Edge distance to bottom of flange ped=Lc-(Db+x)=585-(533.1+15)

=36.9 mm

Bolt cross-centres

g=100 mm

Width of end plate

bp=200 mm

Edge distance at cross centres

ep=(bp-g)/2=(200-100)/2=50 mm

The centre of rotation of the bolt group is taken as the centre of

the compression flange.

Distance to bolt row 1

h1=Lc-ex-ped-Tb/2=585-75-36.9-15.6/2

=465.3 mm

Distance to bolt row 2

h2=h1-p2=465.3-90=375.3 mm

Distance to bolt row 3

h3=h2-p2=375.3-90=285.3 mm

Assumed web fillet weld size

sww=8 mm

Assumed flange fillet weld size

swf=12 mm

SUMMARY OF BOLT POTENTIAL RESISTANCES

Pr1=375.14 kN

Row 2

Pr2=303.2 kN

Row 3

Pr3=286.25 kN

RESISTANCE OF THE COLUMN WEB & BEAM FLANGE IN THE COMPRESSION ZONE

The compressive resistance Pc is the minimum of the following

three values:

Column web crushing

b1=Tb+1.6*sww+2*tp=15.6+1.6*8+2*25

=78.4 mm

Thickness

k=rc+Tc=12.7+20.5=33.2 mm

Distance to end of member be is at least equal to the length of

Page: 3

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC423 BS

Office: 1007

the end plate

be=Lc=585 mm

Support factor

n=2*(2+0.6*be/k)=2*(2+0.6*585/33.2)

=25.145

Support factor limited

n=5

Bearing capacity of web

Pbw=(b1+n*k)*tc*pyc/10^3

=(78.4+5*33.2)*12.8*265/10^3

=829 kN

Column web buckling

of the column

ae=Lc=585 mm

Depth of web

d=Dc-2*(Tc+rc)=266.7-2*(20.5+12.7)

=200.3 mm

Parameter

e=(275/pyc)^0.5=(275/265)^0.5

=1.0187

Buckling resistance

Px=25*e*tc/((b1+n*k)*d)^0.5*Pbw

=25*1.0187*12.8/((78.4+5*33.2)

*200.3)^0.5*829

=1221.4 kN

Beam flange crushing

Pbf=1.4*pyb*Tb*bp/10^3

=1.4*275*15.6*200/10^3

=1201.2 kN

Pc=829 kN

hN=(Db-Tb)/2=(533.1-15.6)/2

=258.75 mm

Modified moment

M=Ma-N*hN/10^3=332-90*258.75/10^3

=308.71 kNm

Resistance of the column web panel in shear

Shear area

Avc=tc*Dc=12.8*266.7=3413.8 mm2

Shear resistance

Pv=0.6*pyc*Avc/10^3

=0.6*265*3413.8/10^3

=542.79 kN

The web panel shear can be discounted in the determination of the

compressive force, Fc, as this is not a one sided connection.

Shear force

Fv=0 kN

Calculation of the moment capacity

horizontal forces which the moment capacity can be calculated.

The compressive force, Fc, is the minimum of:

(1) Bolt forces + axial load

(2) Compression zone resistance

(3) Web panel shear

PRT=Pri+N=1054.6 kN

Pc=829 kN

Pv=542.79 kN

Page: 4

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC423 BS

Office: 1007

The web panel shear can be discounted in the determination of the

compressive force Fc, as this is not a one sided connection.

Compressive force Fc is the minimum of ( Pri+N, Pc ).

Force Pc controls

Compressive force

Fc=829 kN

Design of compression stiffeners

The column web must resist the sum of the potential bolt resistances

(Pri+N), as the resistance of the column in the compression zone is

less than the bolt resistances full depth compression stiffeners will

be considered ( 829 kN < 1054.6 kN ).

Stiffener bearing

thick, TWO stiffeners are to be used and allowing for a corner snipe

of 15 mm at the root of the column:

Design strength

pys=275 N/mm2

Net force

Fc'=PRT-Pbw=1054.6-829=225.59 kN

Minimum area of stiffener

Asmin=Fc'*10^3/pys=225.59*10^3/275

=820.31 mm2

Stiffener 15 mm thick (ts) by 120 mm wide (bsg).

Area in contact with flange

Asn=2*(bsg-cut)*ts=2*(120-15)*15

=3150 mm2

The material thickness is 15 mm and the steel grade is S 275.

Design strength

pys=275 N/mm2

term

e=(275/pys)^0.5=(275/275)^0.5

=1

Allowable stiffener outstand

out=13*ts*e=13*15*1=195 mm

The actual stiffener outstand is less than the allowable outstand

i.e. ( 120 mm < 195 mm ), hence OK.

Stiffener buckling

=15*(2*120+12.8)^3/12+(30*12.8-15)

*12.8^3/12

=20.259E6 mm4

Effective area

AE=(2*bsg+tc)*ts+(30*tc-ts)*tc

=(2*120+12.8)*15+(30*12.8-15)*12.8

=8515.2 mm2

Radius of gyration

ry=(Iy/AE)^0.5=(20.259E6/8515.2)^0.5

=48.777 mm

Effective length

LE=0.7*(Dc-2*Tc)=0.7*(266.7-2*20.5)

=157.99 mm

Slenderness

Lambda=LE/ry=157.99/48.777

=3.239

Limiting slenderness

lamb0=0.2*(PI^2*E*1000/pys)^0.5

=0.2*(3.1416^2*205*1000/275)^0.5

=17.155

The slenderness is less than the limiting slenderness.

Compressive strength

pc=pys=275 N/mm2

Buckling resistance

Pcb=pc*AE/10^3=275*8515.2/10^3

=2341.7 kN

As Fc' Pcb ( 225.59 kN 2341.7 kN ), the stiffener is suitable.

Page: 5

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC423 BS

Office: 1007

Stiffener/column web crushing

Asn=3150 mm2

Lower design strength

pyl=265 N/mm2

Crushing resistance stiffener

Pcs=Asn*pyl/10^3=3150*265/10^3

=834.75 kN

Crushing resistance column

Pbw =829 kN

Total crushing resistance

Pccr=Pbw+Pcs=829+834.75=1663.8 kN

Critical stiffener resistance

Pws=1663.8 kN

As Pws > Pri, the stiffener is OK for stiffener/column web crushing.

Connection of stiffeners to column web

Lsn=Dc-2*Tc-2*cut=266.7-2*20.5-2*15

=195.7 mm

Applying Clause 6.8.2 of BS5950-1, assuming a weld size similar

to the web weld fillet size of the beam.

Effective length of weld

Lw=4*(Lsn-2*sww)=4*(195.7-2*8)

=718.8 mm

Assuming the load on the welds to be equal to the crushing

resistance of stiffener.

Load on welds

fws=Pcs*10^3/Lw=834.75*10^3/718.8

=1161.3 N/mm

For electrode grade 35

Design strength

pw=TABLE 37 for sgrade=275, Es=35

=220 N/mm2

Weld size

ss=8 mm

Capacity of weld

pws=0.7*ss*pw=0.7*8*220=1232 N/mm

ADOPT 2/120 mm x 15 mm plate stiffeners Grade S 275 adjacent to

the haunch compression flange connected by 4/8 mm fillet welds.

Beam flange crushing controls in the calculation of Pc.

Compression zone resistance

Pc=Pbf=1201.2 kN

As the beam flange crushing is the critical value in the calculation

of Pc, consider a 'T' shaped compression zone with the stress limited

to 1.2pyp.

Revised crushing area

Ac=Pc*10^3/(1.2*pyp)

=1201.2*10^3/(1.2*265)

=3777.4 mm2

Height of 'T' shape

hb=(Ac-bp*Tb)/tb

=(3777.4-200*15.6)/10.1

=65.085 mm

Eccentricity term

ecc=(bp*Tb^2/2+hb*tb*(hb/2+Tb))/Ac

=(200*15.6^2/2+65.085*10.1*(65.085/2+15.6))

/3777.4

=14.821 mm

Revised lever arm distances:

Distance to bolt row 1

h1=h1-ecc+Tb/2=465.3-14.821+15.6/2

=458.28 mm

Distance to bolt row 2

h2=h2-ecc+Tb/2=375.3-14.821+15.6/2

=368.28 mm

Distance to bolt row 3

h3=h3-ecc+Tb/2=285.3-14.821+15.6/2

=278.28 mm

Force Pri+N controls

Compressive force

Fc=1054.6 kN

Page: 6

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC423 BS

Office: 1007

Moment capacity

Mc=(Pr1*h1+Pr2*h2+Pr3*h3)/10^3

=(375.14*458.28+303.2*368.28

+286.25*278.28)/10^3

=363.24 kNm

Applied moment moment capacity ( 308.71 kNm 363.24 kNm ), hence OK.

DESIGN FOR VERTICAL SHEAR FORCE

Bolts in the shear zone

Shear Area

As=353 mm2

Shear strength

ps=375 N/mm2

Bearing strength of end plate

pbp=460 N/mm2

Bearing strength of column

pbc=460 N/mm2

The shear capacity of a single bolt in the shear zone is the least

of the following values:

Shear capacity of bolt

Pss1=ps*As/10^3=375*353/10^3

=132.38 kN

Bearing capacity of plate

Pss2=bd*tp*pbp/10^3=24*25*460/10^3

=276 kN

Bearing capacity of column

Pss3=bd*Tc*pbc/10^3=24*20.5*460/10^3

=226.32 kN

Shear capacity (shear zone)

Pss=132.38 kN

The shear capacity of a single bolt in the tension zone is the least

of the following values:

Shear capacity of bolt

Pts1=0.4*ps*As/10^3=0.4*375*353/10^3

=52.95 kN

Bearing capacity of plate

Pts2=Pss2=276 kN

Bearing capacity of column

Pts3=Pss3=226.32 kN

Shear capacity (tension zone)

Pts=52.95 kN

Vertical shear capacity

Pvb=ns*Pss+nt*Pts=2*132.38+6*52.95

=582.45 kN

Shear force

V=128 kN

Shear capacity exceeds vertical shear force, hence bolts OK.

WELD DESIGN

Tension flange welds

Tension capacity of the flange

Tf=bp*Tb*pyb/10^3=200*15.6*275/10^3

=858 kN

Tension force in top 2 bolt rows Tfc=Pr1+Pr2=375.14+303.2

=678.34 kN

Tension force in beam flange

Tfb=678.34 kN

Weld force per mm

Fw=Tfb/(2*bp-tb)=678.34/(2*200-10.1)

=1.7398 kN/mm

For electrode grade 35

Design strength

pw=TABLE 37 for gradm=275, Es=35

=220 N/mm2

Weld size required

swfr=Fw*10^3/(0.7*pw)

=1.7398*10^3/(0.7*220)

=11.297 mm

Selected fillet weld size

swt=12 mm

Page: 7

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC423 BS

Office: 1007

Web welds

zone with the sum of the throat thicknesses the web thickness, tb.

Selected fillet weld size

sfw=8 mm

Length of web weld

Lwt=(ex-x-Tb-rb)+(trow-1)*p2+1.73*g/2

=(75-15-15.6-12.7)+(3-1)*90+1.73*100/2

=298.2 mm

Shear zone - assuming a fillet weld of 8 mm continued for the full

depth, the capacity of the beam web weld for vertical shear is:

Length of weld for shear

Lws=Db-2*(Tb+rb)-Lwt

=533.1-2*(15.6+12.7)-298.2

=178.3 mm

Capacity of weld for shear

Psw=2*0.7*sfw*pw*Lws/10^3

=2*0.7*8*220*178.3/10^3

=439.33 kN

Vertical shear

V=128 kN

Web weld size 8 mm is considered suitable.

Compression welds

An 8 mm fillet weld will be used for the compression flange.

Connection is suitable.

CONNECTION SUMMARY

75

90

90

230

100

25

Number of bolts

Bolt diameter

Bolt grade

Welds

36.9

75

90

90

230

100

200

24 mm

50

100

50

8.8

Tension flange fillet weld

12 mm

Web fillet weld

8 mm

Compression flange fillet weld

8 mm

Supporting column section

254 x 254 x 107 UC

Beam / Rafter section

533 x 210 x 92 UB

585

Page: 8

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC423 BS

Office: 1007

Column stiffener details

Compression stiffeners

connected by 4/8 mm fillet welds.

No423

Page: 1

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC423 EC

Office: 1007

Location: Ex1 - Three rows of tension bolts

Bolted flush end plate connection - beam to column

Beams are connected to both column flanges. The web panel shear can

be discounted in the determination of the compressive force as the

connection is assumed to have balanced moments.

Calculations are in accordance with EC3 Parts 1-1, 1-5, 1-8 and follow

the procedure given in the SCI publication entitled 'Joints in Steel

Construction Moment Connections'. The connection is attached to the

supporting column flange.

bp

e1

p1

p1'

e1'

tp

VEd

x1

tension

NEd

MyEd

x2

compression

e1

p1

p1'

e1'

e2

e2

p3

Factored moment

Factored shear force

Axial force (+ve compression)

MyEd=332 kNm

VEd=128 kN

NEd=90 kN

Grade details

Bolt grade

Grade of supported beam

Grade of end plate

Grade of supporting column

Modulus of elasticity

bgrade=8.8

grade=275

pgrade=275

sgrade=275

E=210 kN/mm2

Dimensions (mm): hc=266.7 bc=258.8 twc=12.8 tfc=20.5 rc=12.7

Properties (cm): Ac=136 Welc=1312.3

Design strength of column

fyc=265 N/mm2

Supported beam details

Dimensions (mm): hb=533.1 bb=209.3 twb=10.1 tfb=15.6 rb=12.7

Properties (cm): Ab=117

Design strength of beam

fyb=275 N/mm2

hp

Page: 2

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC423 EC

Office: 1007

Bolt details

Diameter of bolts

db=24 mm

Tensile area of bolt

At=353 mm2

Coefficient

k2=0.9

Tensile resistance (EC3 Part 1-8) FtRd=k2*fub*At/(gamM2*10^3)

=0.9*800*353/(1.25*10^3)

=203.33 kN

End plate details

Thickness of plate

Design strength

Number of bolts in end plate

Number of shear bolts

Number of tension bolts

Distance to beam flange

Distance to first row of bolts

Pitch of tension bolts

Distance tension to shear bolts

Edge distance for shear bolts

Length of end plate

tp=25 mm

fyp=265 N/mm2

bn=8

ns=2

nt=bn-ns=8-2=6

x1=15 mm

e1=75 mm

p1=90 mm

p1'=230 mm

e1'=100 mm

hp=e1+((bn-4)/2)*p1+p1'+e1'

=75+((8-4)/2)*90+230+100

=585 mm

Edge distance to bottom of flange x2=hp-(hb+x1)=585-(533.1+15)

=36.9 mm

Cross-centres of bolts

p3=100 mm

Width of end plate

bp=200 mm

Edge distance at cross centres

e2=(bp-p3)/2=(200-100)/2

=50 mm

The centre of rotation of the bolt group is taken as the centre of the

compression flange.

Distance to bolt row 1

h1=hp-e1-x2-tfb/2=585-75-36.9-15.6/2

=465.3 mm

Distance to bolt row 2

h2=h1-p1=465.3-90=375.3 mm

Distance to bolt row 3

h3=h2-p1=375.3-90=285.3 mm

Assumed web fillet weld size

sww=8 mm

Assumed flange fillet weld size

swf=12 mm

SUMMARY OF BOLT POTENTIAL RESISTANCES

Pr1=381.42 kN

Row 2

Pr2=309.47 kN

Row 3

Pr3=292.53 kN

Column web in transverse compression - Clause 6.2.6.2 EC3 Part 1-8

Avc=Ac*100-2*bc*tfc+(twc+2*rc)*tfc

=136*100-2*258.8*20.5+(12.8+2

*12.7)*20.5

=3772.3 mm2

A 6 mm FW will be assumed for the evaluation of the effective width.

Effective width (Eq.6.10)

beff=tfb+2*SQR(2)*0.7*6+5*(tfc+rc)

=15.6+2*SQR(2)*0.7*6+5*(20.5+12.7)

=193.48 mm

Page: 3

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC423 EC

Office: 1007

Omega (Table 6.3)

omega=1/(1+1.3*(beff*twc/Avc)^2)^0.5

=1/(1+1.3*(193.48*12.8

/3772.3)^2)^0.5

=0.80056

Design axial load on column

NEdc=500 kN

Longitudinal stress in the flange:

sfl=(NEdc+VEd)*10^3/(Ac*100)+VEd*10^3*(hc/2)/(Welc*10^3)

=(500+128)*10^3/(136*100)+128*10^3*(266.7/2)/(1312.3

*10^3)

=59.183 N/mm2

As sfl 0.7*fyc ( 59.183 N/mm2 185.5 N/mm2 ), the reduction factor

from Clause 6.2.6.2(2) is

kwc=1.0

Dimension

dwc=hc-2*(tfc+rc)=266.7-2*(20.5+12.7)

=200.3 mm

Plate slenderness lamp=0.932*(beff*dwc*fyc/(E*10^3*twc^2))^0.5

=0.932*(193.48*200.3*265/(210*10^3*12.8^2))^0.5

=0.50919

Plate buckling reduction factor

ro=1.0

Design resistance (Eq.6.9) FcRdcw=omega*kwc*ro*beff*twc*fyc/(gamM0*10^3)

=0.80056*1*1*193.48*12.8*265/(1*10^3)

=525.4 kN

Beam flange resistance

FcRdbf=tfb*bp*fyb/(0.8*10^3)

=15.6*200*275/(0.8*10^3)

=1072.5 kN

FcRd=525.4 kN

hN=(hb-tfb)/2=(533.1-15.6)/2

=258.75 mm

Modified moment

MyEd=MyEd-NEd*hN/10^3

=332-90*258.75/10^3

=308.71 kNm

Resistance of the column web panel in shear

Avc=Ac*100-2*bc*tfc+(twc+2*rc)*tfc

=136*100-2*258.8*20.5+(12.8+2

*12.7)*20.5

=3772.3 mm2

Shear resistance

VwpRd=0.9*Avc*(fyc/SQR(3))/(gamM0*1000)

=0.9*3772.3*(265/SQR(3))/(1*1000)

=519.44 kN

The web panel shear can be discounted in the determination of the

compressive force, as this is not a one sided connection.

Shear force

VwpEd=0 kN

Calculation of the moment resistance

forces which the moment resistance can be calculated. The compressive

force FcEd, is the minimum of the following:

Page: 4

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC423 EC

Office: 1007

(1) Bolt forces + axial force

PRT=Pri+NEd=1073.4 kN

(2) Compression zone resistance

FcRd=525.4 kN

(3) Web panel shear

VwpRd=519.44 kN

The web panel shear can be discounted in the determination of the

compressive force FcEd, as this is not a one sided connection.

Compressive force FcEd is the minimum of (Pri+NEd, FcRd).

Compressive force

FcEd=525.4 kN

Design of compression stiffeners

The column web must resist the sum of the potential bolt resistances

(Pri+NEd), as the resistance of the column in the compression zone is

less than the bolt resistances full depth compression stiffeners will

be considered ( 525.4 kN < 1073.4 kN ).

Stiffener bearing

thick, TWO stiffeners are to be used and allowing for a corner snipe

of 15 mm at the root of the column:

Design strength

fys=275 N/mm2

Net force

FcEd'=PRT-FcRdcw=1073.4-525.4

=548.02 kN

Minimum area of stiffener

Asmin=FcEd'*10^3/fys=548.02*10^3/275

=1992.8 mm2

Stiffener is 15 mm thick (ts) by 120 mm wide (bsg).

Area in contact with flange

Asn=2*(bsg-cut)*ts=2*(120-15)*15

=3150 mm2

Revised design strength

fys=275 N/mm2

term

e=(275/fys)^0.5=(275/275)^0.5

=1

Revised minimum stiffener area

Asmin=FcEd'*10^3/fys=548.02*10^3/275

=1992.8 mm2

Allowable stiffener outstand

out=13*ts*e=13*15*1=195 mm

The actual stiffener outstand is less than the allowable outstand

i.e. ( 120 mm < 195 mm ), hence OK.

Stiffener buckling resistance - EC3 Part 1-1

Iz=ts*(2*bsg+twc)^3/12+(30*e*twc-ts/2)*twc^3/12

=15*(2*120+12.8)^3/12+(30*1*12.8-15/2)*12.8^3/12

=20.261E6 mm4

Effective area

AE=(2*bsg+twc)*ts+(30*e*twc-ts/2)*twc

=(2*120+12.8)*15+(30*1*12.8-15/2)

*12.8

=8611.2 mm2

Radius of gyration

iz=(Iz/AE)^0.5=(20.261E6/8611.2)^0.5

=48.506 mm

Depth of the column web

hw=hc-2*tfc=266.7-2*20.5

=225.7 mm

The buckling resistance will be checked assuming buckling curve c as

per SCI publication P362 (Section 6.5.6(3)).

Imperfection factor (Table 6.1)

alpha=0.49 (curve c)

Both flanges restrained against rotation in the plane of the stiffener.

Page: 5

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC423 EC

Office: 1007

Effective buckling length

Lcr=0.7*hw=0.7*225.7=157.99 mm

Lambda of stiffener (Eq. 6.50)

lams=Lcr/(iz*93.9*e)

=157.99/(48.506*93.9*1)

=0.034687

Factor

phi=0.5*(1+alpha*(lams-0.2)+lams^2)

=0.5*(1+0.49*(0.034687-0.2)

+0.034687^2)

=0.4601

Reduction factor

chi=1/(phi+SQR(phi^2-lams^2))

=1/(0.4601+SQR(0.4601^2

-0.034687^2))

=1.0883

Reduction factor

chi=1

As the stiffeners are compression members fabricated from plate by

welding, the design strength will be reduced by 20 N/mm2. This will

account for the stiffener being attached to a welded section.

Reduced design strength

fyr=fyc-20=265-20=245 N/mm2

Design buckling resistance

NbRd=chi*AE*fyr/(gamM1*1000)

=1*8611.2*245/(1*1000)

=2109.7 kN

Since FcEd' NbRd ( 548.02 kN 2109.7 kN ), the stiffener is suitable.

Stiffener/column web crushing

Lower design strength

Crushing resistance of stiffener

Asn=3150 mm2

fyl=265 N/mm2

FcRds=Asn*fyl/10^3=3150*265/10^3

=834.75 kN

Crushing resistance of column

FcRdcw =525.4 kN

Total crushing resistance

FcRdcr=FcRdcw+FcRds=525.4+834.75

=1360.1 kN

Critical stiffener resistance

FcRdws=1360.1 kN

As FcRdws Pri+NEd ( 1360.1 kN 1073.4 kN ), the stiffener/column

web crushing is considered to be OK.

Lsn=hc-2*tfc-2*cut=266.7-2*20.5-2*15

=195.7 mm

Assume a weld size similar to the web weld fillet size of the beam.

Effective length of weld

Lw=4*(Lsn-2*sww)=4*(195.7-2*8)

=718.8 mm

Load on the welds is equal to the crushing resistance of stiffener.

Load on welds

FwEds=FcRds/Lw=834.75/718.8

=1.1613 kN/mm

Factor (for Grade S275 steel)

betaw=0.85

Material ultimate strength

fu=410 N/mm2

Weld design strength

fvwd1=fu/SQR(3)/(betaw*gamM2)

=410/SQR(3)/(0.85*1.25)

=222.79 N/mm2

Weld size (leg length)

ss=8 mm

Resistance of weld

FwRds=0.7*ss*fvwd1/1000

=0.7*8*222.79/1000

=1.2476 kN/mm

Adopt 2/120 mm x 15 mm plate stiffeners Grade S 275 adjacent to

the haunch compression flange connected by 4/8 mm fillet welds.

Page: 6

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC423 EC

Office: 1007

Beam flange crushing controls in the calculation of FcRd.

Compression zone resistance

FcRd=FcRdbf=1072.5 kN

As the beam flange crushing is the critical value in the calculation of

FcRd, then a 'T' shaped compression zone is considered with the stress

limited to 1.2fyp.

Revised crushing area

Ac=FcRd*10^3/(1.2*fyp)

=1072.5*10^3/(1.2*265)

=3372.6 mm2

Height of 'T' shape

hb'=(Ac-bp*tfb)/twb

=(3372.6-200*15.6)/10.1

=25.014 mm

Eccentricity term

ecc=(bp*tfb^2/2+hb'*twb*(hb'/2+tfb))

/Ac

=(200*15.6^2/2+25.014*10.1

*(25.014/2+15.6))/3372.6

=9.3212 mm

Revised lever arm distances:

Distance to bolt row 1

h1=h1-ecc+tfb/2=465.3-9.3212+15.6/2

=463.78 mm

Distance to bolt row 2

h2=h2-ecc+tfb/2=375.3-9.3212+15.6/2

=373.78 mm

Distance to bolt row 3

h3=h3-ecc+tfb/2=285.3-9.3212+15.6/2

=283.78 mm

Compressive force

FcEd=1072.5 kN

Force distribution

forces in the bolts plus the axial load must be equal to FcEd,

i.e. (Pri+NEd)=FcEd. The values of the potential forces in the

bolts must be reduced to achieve this equilibrium.

Total load (bolt forces + NEd)

PRT=1073.4 kN

Total load reduction

Fr=PRT-FcEd=1073.4-1072.5

=0.91773 kN

Considering the lowest row of bolts and working up.

Revised load row 3

Pr3=Pr3-Fr=292.53-0.91773

=291.61 kN

Moment resistance

McRd=(Pr1*h1+Pr2*h2+Pr3*h3)/10^3

=(381.42*463.78+309.47*373.78

+291.61*283.78)/10^3

=375.32 kNm

As MyEd McRd ( 308.71 kNm 375.32 kNm ), the applied moment is

satisfactory.

DESIGN FOR VERTICAL SHEAR FORCE

Shear area

Ab=117 cm2

Av=Ab*100-2*bb*tfb+(twb+2*rb)*tfb

=117*100-2*209.3*15.6+(10.1+2

*12.7)*15.6

=5723.6 mm2

Shear resistance

VRd=Av*fyb/(3^0.5*1000)

=5723.6*275/(3^0.5*1000)

=908.75 kN

As VRd VEd ( 908.75 kN 128 kN ), beam web is OK for shear.

Page: 7

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC423 EC

Office: 1007

Bolt group

Factor

Tensile area of bolt

Shear resistance of bolt

Factor

Factor

Factor

Limit factor to 2.5

Ratios for factor ab

Factor

Bearing resistance

av=0.6

As=353 mm2

FvRdb=av*fub*As/(gamM2*10^3)

=0.6*800*353/(1.25*10^3)

=135.55 kN

k1a=2.8*e2/do-1.7=2.8*50/26-1.7

=3.6846

k1b=1.4*p3/do-1.7=1.4*100/26-1.7

=3.6846

k1=3.6846

k1=2.5

ab1=1.0

ab2=p1/(3*do)-1/4=90/(3*26)-1/4

=0.90385

ab3=fub/fup=800/410=1.9512

ab4=e1'/(3*do)=100/(3*26)

=1.2821

ab=0.90385

FbRd=k1*ab*fup*db*tp/(1.25*10^3)

=2.5*0.90385*410*24*25/(1.25*10^3)

=444.69 kN

Resistance of the bolt group

FRd=0.8*ns*FvRdb=0.8*2*135.55

=216.88 kN

As FRd VEd ( 216.88 kN 128 kN ), end plate OK in bearing.

Supporting column shear resistance

Dimension

p=e1-x1=75-15=60 mm

Overhang distance

p5=(hp-hb)=(585-533.1)=51.9 mm

Dimension

et1=5*db=5*24=120 mm

et2=p+p5=60+51.9=111.9 mm

End distance

et=111.9 mm

Dimension

eb1=5*db=5*24=120 mm

eb2=p3/2=100/2=50 mm

End distance

eb=50 mm

Shear area

Avs=tfc*(et+(bn/2-1)*p1+eb)

=20.5*(111.9+(8/2-1)*90+50)

=8853.9 mm2

Shear resistance

VRdc1=Avs*fyc/(3^0.5*1000)

=8853.9*265/(3^0.5*1000)

=1354.6 kN

Net shear area

Avn=Avs-bn/2*do*twc

=8853.9-8/2*26*12.8

=7522.8 mm

Shear resistance

VRdc2=Avn*fuc/(3^0.5*1.1*1000)

=7522.8*410/(3^0.5*1.1*1000)

=1618.9 kN

Minimum shear resistance

VRdc=1354.6 kN

As VRdc VEd/2 ( 1354.6 kN 64 kN ), section OK in shear.

Page: 8

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC423 EC

Office: 1007

Supporting column bearing resistance

Factor

k1=1.4*p3/do-1.7=1.4*100/26-1.7

=3.6846

Limit factor to 2.5

k1=2.5

Ratios for factor ad

ad1=p1/(3*do)-1/4=90/(3*26)-1/4

=0.90385

ad2=fub/fuc=800/410=1.9512

Factor

ad=0.90385

Bearing resistance

FbRdc=k1*ad*fuc*db*tfc/(1.25*10^3)

=2.5*0.90385*410*24*20.5/(1.25

*10^3)

=364.65 kN

As FbRdc VEd/ns ( 364.65 kN 64 kN ), section OK in bearing.

Beam tension flange welds

Material ultimate strength

Weld design strength

betaw=0.85

fu=410 N/mm2

fvwd=fu/SQR(3)/(betaw*gamM2)

=410/SQR(3)/(0.85*1.25)

=222.79 N/mm2

The force in the tension flange welds is the lesser of:

Tension resistance of the flange Tf=bp*tfb*fyb/10^3=200*15.6*275/10^3

=858 kN

Tension force in top 2 bolt rows Tfc=Pr1+Pr2=381.42+309.47

=690.89 kN

Tension force in beam flange

Tfb=690.89 kN

Weld force per mm

FwEdf=Tfb/(2*bp-twb)

=690.89/(2*200-10.1)

=1.772 kN/mm

Weld size required

swfr=FwEdf*10^3/(0.7*fvwd)

=1.772*10^3/(0.7*222.79)

=11.362 mm

Selected fillet weld size

swt=12 mm

Beam web welds

zone with the sum of the throat thicknesses the web thickness, twb.

Selected fillet weld size

sfw=8 mm

Length of web weld

Lwt=(e1-x1-tfb-rb)+(trow-1)*p1+1.73*p3/2

=(75-15-15.6-12.7)+(3-1)*90+1.73*100/2

=298.2 mm

Shear zone - assume an 8 mm FW continued for the full depth.

Length of weld for shear

Lws=hb-2*(tfb+rb)-Lwt

=533.1-2*(15.6+12.7)-298.2

=178.3 mm

Resistance of weld for shear

FwRds=2*0.7*sfw*fvwd*Lws/10^3

=2*0.7*8*222.79*178.3/10^3

=444.9 kN

Vertical shear

VEd=128 kN

An 8 mm weld size is therefore considered suitable.

Page: 9

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Flush bolted end plate connection beam to column

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC423 EC

Office: 1007

Compression welds

Assuming a bearing fit between the flange and end plate, the use of

an 8 mm fillet weld will suffice for the beam compression flange.

CONNECTION SUMMARY - all dimensions in diagram are in mm

e1

p1

p1

p1'

e1'

25

15

36.9

Number of bolts

Bolt diameter

Bolt grade

Welds

75

90

90

230

100

200

50

100

50

8

24 mm

8.8

Tension flange fillet weld

Web fillet weld

Compression flange fillet weld

Supporting column section

254 x 254 x 107 UKC

Beam / Rafter section

533 x 210 x 92 UKB

585

12 mm

8 mm

8 mm

Compression stiffeners

connected by 4/8 mm fillet welds.

The connection under consideration is two sided.

No423

Page: 1

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

SS I Beam with UDL - restrained at ends only

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC434 BS

Office: 1007

Location: Example 3, 'Steelwork Design Guide'

w = wd + wi

vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv

<b1<

>b1<

< L >

Calculations are in

accordance with

BS5950-1:2000 Clause

4.3.5.1. Beam has no

intermediate lateral

restraints.

4.2.5.3 and is based on the classification obtained from Table 11.

Beam span

L=9 m

Section properties

Dimensions (mm): D=677.9 B=253 t=11.7 T=16.2 r=15.2

Properties (cm): Ix=118000 Iy=4380 Sx=3990 Sy=542 J=116

A=159 ry=5.2485 rx=27.242

Strength of steel - Clause 3.1.1

Design strength

py=265 N/mm2

Young's Modulus

E=205 kN/mm2

Loading (unfactored)

Imposed UDL

Factored loads

Distributed load

Factored shear force

At end B

At end A

Max shear is same at both ends

wd=10 kN/m

wi=15 kN/m

w'=wd*1.4+wi*1.6=10*1.4+15*1.6

=38 kN/m

Fvb=w'*L/2=38*9/2=171 kN

Fva=w'*L-Fvb=38*9-171=171 kN

Fve=Fva=171 kN

Page: 2

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

SS I Beam with UDL - restrained at ends only

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC434 BS

Office: 1007

Unfactored end shears

At end B dead

Fudb=wd*L/2=10*9/2=45 kN

At end B imposed

Fuib=wi*L/2=15*9/2=67.5 kN

At end A dead

Fuda=wd*L-Fudb=10*9-45=45 kN

At end A imposed

Fuia=wi*L-Fuib=15*9-67.5

=67.5 kN

Factored moment

Corresponding shear force

M=w'*L^2/8=38*9^2/8=384.75 kNm

F=0 kN

Parameter (Table 11 Note b)

e=(275/py)^0.5=(275/265)^0.5

=1.0187

Outstand

b=B/2=253/2=126.5 mm

Ratio

b'T=b/T=126.5/16.2=7.8086

As b/T <= 9e ( 9.1682 ), outstand element of compression

flange is classified as Class 1 plastic.

Classify web of section:

Depth between fillet radii

d=D-2*(T+r)=677.9-2*(16.2+15.2)

=615.1 mm

Ratio

d't=d/t=615.1/11.7=52.573

Neutral axis is assumed to be at mid-depth of section.

As d/t <= 80e ( 81.495 ), web is classified as Class 1 plastic.

Shear buckling

Buckling resistance

buckling resistance moment Mb is first considered rather than the

moment capacity Mc as a guide to selection.

As beam is restrained at ends only LT=L=9 m

Resistance to lateral-torsional buckling - Section 4.3

for the minor axis of the member is taken as follows:

Length between restraints

LT=9 m

Compression flange laterally restrained.

Nominal torsional restraint about longitudinal axis.

Compression flange fully restrained against rotation on plan.

Normal loading conditions therefore

Effective length (Table 13)

Le=0.75*LT=0.75*9=6.75 m

Page: 3

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

SS I Beam with UDL - restrained at ends only

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC434 BS

Office: 1007

Lateral torsional resistance moment - Clause 4.3.6

Slenderness of section

lambda=Le*100/ry=6.75*100/5.2485

=128.61

Buckling parameter

u=(4*Sx^2*(1-Iy/Ix)/(A^2*((D-T)

/10)^2))^0.25

=(4*3990^2*(1-4380/118000)/(159^2

*((677.9-16.2)/10)^2))^0.25

=0.86271

Torsional index

x=0.566*((D-T)/10)*(A/J)^0.5

=0.566*((677.9-16.2)/10)*(159

/116)^0.5

=43.848

Ratio

ratio=lambda/x=128.61/43.848

=2.933

Slenderness factor

v=1/((1+0.05*ratio^2)^0.25)

=1/((1+0.05*2.933^2)^0.25)

=0.91444

Ratio w

betaw=1.0

Equivalent slenderness

lamLT=u*v*lambda*(betaw)^0.5

=0.86271*0.91444*128.61*(1)^0.5

=101.46

Limiting slenderness

lamlo=0.4*((PI^2*E*10^3)/py)^0.5

=0.4*((3.1416^2*205*10^3)

/265)^0.5

=34.951

Perry coefficient

etaLT=0.007*(lamLT-lamlo)

=0.007*(101.46-34.951)

=0.46555

Elastic strength

pe=PI^2*E*10^3/(lamLT^2)

=3.1416^2*205*10^3/(101.46^2)

=196.55 N/mm2

Factor

phiLT=(py+(etaLT+1)*pe)/2

=(265+(0.46555+1)*196.55)/2

=276.53 N/mm2

Factor

pey=pe*py=196.55*265=52087

Bending strength

pb=(pey)/(phiLT+((phiLT^2-pey)^0.5))

=(52087)/(276.53+((276.53^2

-52087)^0.5))

=120.38 N/mm2

Buckling resistance moment

Mb=Sx*pb/10^3=3990*120.38/10^3

=480.33 kNm

Equivalent uniform moment factor mLT=0.925

Since M Mb/mLT ( 384.75 kNm 519.27 kNm ), section OK for

lateral torsional buckling resistance.

Check section for combined moment and shear

Shear area

Av=t*D=11.7*677.9=7931.4 mm2

Shear capacity

Pv=0.6*py*Av/10^3=0.6*265*7931.4/10^3

=1261.1 kN

Design shear force

Fv=F=0 kN

Elastic modulus

Z=Ix/(D/20)=118000/(677.9/20)

=3481.3 cm3

Since Fv < 0.6 Pv

Page: 4

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

SS I Beam with UDL - restrained at ends only

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC434 BS

Office: 1007

Moment capacity for compact sec

Mc=py*Sx/10^3=265*3990/10^3

=1057.3 kNm

Since M Mc ( 384.75 kNm 1057.3 kNm ), applied moment within

moment capacity.

Maximum shear and coexistent moment

Shear capacity

Pv=1261.1 kN

Design shear force

Fv=Fve=171 kN

Coexistent moment

M'=0 kNm

Since Fv Pv ( 171 kN 1261.1 kN ), shear force within

shear capacity.

Check for deflection

UDL for deflection calculation

wu=wi=15 kN/m

Central UDL defln

DEL=5*wu*L^4/(384*E*Ix)*10^5

=5*15*9^4/(384*205*118000)*10^5

=5.2974 mm

From Table 8

Limiting deflection ( brittle )

DELlim=L*1000/360=9*1000/360

=25 mm

Since DEL DELlim ( 5.2974 mm 25 mm ) OK for deflection.

Fire resistance

Design of Steel Structures' published by SCI.

Section factor - Clause 8.2

In the calculation of the heated perimeter of the steel section

the upper surface may be ignored because it is protected by the floor

Exposed surface area

Am=3*B+2*D-2*t=3*253+2*677.9-2*11.7

=2091.4 mm

Section factor

Am'V=INT(Am/A/0.5)*5

=INT(2091.4/159/0.5)*5

=130 /m

Fire resistance without applied protection

and insulation are not normally considered. The criterion for load

carrying capacity for simple beams, is that the end of the fire

resistance period the design temperature does not exceed the limiting

temperature given in Code Table 8. For a beam the temperature of the

bottom flange is considered to represent the limiting temperature.

In practice an unprotected beam will rarely have more than 30 minutes

fire resistance, so 30 minutes will be considered.

For a flange thickness of 16.2 mm,

The design temperature

temp=TABLE 10 for T=16.2, column=30

=732.4 deg.C.

Page: 5

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

SS I Beam with UDL - restrained at ends only

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC434 BS

Office: 1007

The load ratio, R, at the fire limit state is as follows:

Moment at the fire limit state

R =

Moment capacity at 20C

Loads at fire limit state

The load factor for non-permanent

loads in other areas

Permanent load

Non-permanent load

Factored loads

Distributed load

Factored shear force

At end B

At end A

Moment at fire limit state

gfp=1.0

gfnp=0.8

wp=16 kN/m

wnp=wd+wi-wp=10+15-16=9 kN/m

w'=gfp*wp+gfnp*wnp=1*16+0.8*9

=23.2 kN/m

Fvb=w'*L/2=23.2*9/2=104.4 kN

Fva=w'*L-Fvb=23.2*9-104.4

=104.4 kN

Mf=w'*L^2/8=23.2*9^2/8=234.9 kNm

For beams not restrained laterally by the floor, the load ratio is

taken as the greater of:

Moment capacity

Mc=1057.3 kNm

Load ratio

R1=Mf/Mc=234.9/1057.3=0.22216

Buckling resistance moment

Mb=480.33 kNm

Load ratio

R2=mLT*Mf/Mb=0.925*234.9/480.33

=0.45236

Load ratio

R=R2=0.45236

For members not supporting a concrete slab,

For protected members not complying with (b) of Clause 6.3

use section 4.2 of Table 8.

Limiting temperature

templ=TABLE 8 for section=4, R=0.45236

=566.44 deg.C.

The limiting temperature for unprotected members is 566.44 deg.C.

from Table 8 of the code. This is less than the design temperature

732.4 deg.C. so the unprotected beam will have less than 30 minutes

fire resistance.

The design temperature for 15 min temp15=TABLE 10 for T=16.2, column=15

=493.2 deg.C.

The beam does however provide 15 minutes resistance.

Page: 6

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

SS I Beam with UDL - restrained at ends only

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC434 BS

Office: 1007

SECTION

DESIGN

SUMMARY

Unfactored

end shears

FIRE RESISTANCE

SUMMARY

Shear force

171 kN

Shear capacity

1261.1 kN

Applied moment

384.75 kNm

Moment capacity

1057.3 kNm

Buckling resistance

480.33 kNm

Moment factor mLT

0.925

Resistance (Mb/mLT)

519.27 kNm

Deflection

5.2974 mm

Limiting deflection

25 mm

DL shear at A

45 kN

LL shear at A

67.5 kN

DL shear at B

45 kN

LL shear at B

67.5 kN

Heated perimeter

2091.4 mm2

Area of section

159 cm2

Section factor

130

Load Ratio (R)

0.45236

Section does not have an inherent

fire resistance of 30 minutes.

Fire protection should be provided.

No434

Page: 1

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

SS I Beam with UDL - restrained at ends only

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC434 EC

Office: 1007

Location: Example using EC3

Calculations are in accordance with BS EN 1993-1-1:2005 Eurocode 3:

Design of steel structures and the non-contradictory, complimentary

information sheets provided by Access Steel.

The beam under consideration is assumed to be a hot rolled section.

w = wd + wi

vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv

AB

>b1<

>b1<

restrained at ends

where suffices:

d denotes permanent

i denotes variable

< L >

Beam span

L=5.7 m

Loading (unfactored)

Variable UDL

wd=9.6 kN/m

wi=6.25 kN/m

Factored loads

Distributed load

Factored shear force

At end B

At end A

Max shear is same at both ends

Factored moment

Corresponding shear force

Maximum moment

Maximum shear force

w'=wd*gamG+wi*gamQ=9.6*1.25+6.25*1.5

=21.375 kN/m

Vb=w'*L/2=21.375*5.7/2=60.919 kN

Va=w'*L-Vb=21.375*5.7-60.919

=60.919 kN

Ve=Va=60.919 kN

M=w'*L^2/8=21.375*5.7^2/8

=86.809 kNm

V=0 kN

MyEd=M=86.809 kNm

VzEd=Vb=60.919 kN

Dimensions (mm): h=449.8 b=152.4 tw=7.6 tf=10.9 r=10.2

Properties (cm): Iy=21400 Iz=645 Wply=1100 Wplz=133 It=21.4

A=66.6 iy=17.925 iz=3.112

Page: 2

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

SS I Beam with UDL - restrained at ends only

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC434 EC

Office: 1007

Strength of steel - Table 3.1 (amended by N.A.)

Yield strength

fy=275 N/mm2

Ultimate strength

fu=410 N/mm2

Young's modulus

E=210000 N/mm2

Section classification

Parameter (Table 5.2)

e=(235/fy)^0.5=(235/275)^0.5

=0.92442

Outstand

c=(b-tw-2*r)/2=(152.4-7.6-2*10.2)/2

=62.2 mm

Ratio

c't=c/tf=62.2/10.9=5.7064

As c/tf 9e ( 5.7064 8.3197 ), outstand element of compression

flange is classified as Class 1 plastic.

Classify web element of section:

Depth between fillets

C=h-2*(tf+r)=449.8-2*(10.9+10.2)

=407.6 mm

Ratio

C't=C/tw=407.6/7.6=53.632

As C/tw 72e ( 53.632 66.558 ), web element in bending

is classified as Class 1 plastic.

Moment resistance - Clause 6.2.5

Moment resistance

McRd=Wply*fy/10^3=1100*275/10^3

=302.5 kNm

Unity factor

unity=MyEd/McRd=86.809/302.5

=0.28697

Section chosen is considered suitable.

Shear plastic resistance - Clause 6.2.6

Shear area

Avz=A*100-2*b*tf+(tw+2*r)*tf

=66.6*100-2*152.4*10.9+(7.6+2

*10.2)*10.9

=3642.9 mm2

Shear plastic resistance

VplRd=Avz*fy/SQR(3)/1000

=3642.9*275/SQR(3)/1000

=578.38 kN

Unity factor

Unity=VzEd/VplRd=60.919/578.38

=0.10533

Section chosen is considered suitable.

Note: No M-V interaction has to be considered as since the maximum

moment occurs near the mid-span and the maximum shear force

is obtained at the supports.

Shear buckling - Clause 6.2.6(6)

hw=h-2*tf=449.8-2*10.9=428 mm

Buckling ratio

hw't=hw/tw=428/7.6=56.316

As hw/tw 72e ( 66.558 ), no check for shear buckling is required.

Page: 3

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

SS I Beam with UDL - restrained at ends only

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC434 EC

Office: 1007

Lateral torsional buckling

Shear modulus

G=80770 N/mm2

Warping constant

Iw=Iz/4*((h-tf)/10)^2

=645/4*((449.8-10.9)/10)^2

=310621 cm6

Terms for critical moment Mcr:

Euler term

Et=PI^2*E*Iz/(L^2*100)

=3.1416^2*210000*645/(5.7^2*100)

=411461 N

Load to shear centre distance

zg=h/2=449.8/2=224.9 mm

Shear modulus term

Gt=L^2*G*It/(PI^2*E*Iz)*10^6

=5.7^2*80770*21.4/(3.1416^2*210000

*645)*10^6

=42008 mm2

Square root term

Sr=(Iw*100/Iz+Gt)^0.5

=(310621*100/645+42008)^0.5

=300.28 mm

Coefficient C1

C1=1.132

Critical moment

Mcr=C1*Et*Sr/10^6

=1.132*411461*300.28/10^6

=139.86 kNm

Non-dimensional slenderness

lamLT=(Wply*fy/(Mcr*10^3))^0.5

=(1100*275/(139.86*10^3))^0.5

=1.4707

Limiting slenderness value

lamLT0=0.4

Ratio

h'b=h/b=449.8/152.4=2.9514

As h/b > 2, imperfection value

aLT=0.49

Factor

phiLT=0.5*(1+aLT*(lamLT-lamLT0)+0.75*lamLT^2)

=0.5*(1+0.49*(1.4707-0.4)+0.75*1.4707^2)

=1.5734

Modification factor

chiLT=1/(phiLT+(phiLT^2-0.75*lamLT^2)^0.5)

=1/(1.5734+(1.5734^2-0.75*1.4707^2)^0.5)

=0.40045

Factor

kc=1/(C1)^0.5=1/(1.132)^0.5

=0.93989

Moment distribution factor

f=1-0.5*(1-kc)*(1-2*(lamLT-0.8)^2)

=1-0.5*(1-0.93989)*(1-2*(1.4707

-0.8)^2)

=0.99698

Modified chiLT factor

ChiLT=chiLT/f=0.40045/0.99698

=0.40166

Design buckling resistance moment MbRd=ChiLT*Wply*fy/10^3

=0.40166*1100*275/10^3

=121.5 kNm

Unity factor

unitb=MyEd/MbRd=86.809/121.5

=0.71446

Section chosen is considered suitable.

Deflection

Central UDL deflection

wu=wi=6.25 kN/m

DEL=5*wu*L^4/(384*E*Iy)*10^8

=5*6.25*5.7^4/(384*210000*21400)

*10^8

=1.9115 mm

1: 2982

Page: 4

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

SS I Beam with UDL - restrained at ends only

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC434 EC

Office: 1007

SECTION

DESIGN

SUMMARY

Maximum moment

Moment resistance

Unity factor bending

Maximum shear force

Shear plastic resistance

Unity factor shear

Deflection to span ratio

Buckling resistance BM

Unity factor buckling

S 275

86.809 kNm

302.5 kNm

0.28697 1

60.919 kN

578.38 kN

0.10533 1

1: 2982

121.5 kNm

0.71446 1

No434

Page: 1

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Design of 'I' beam curved on plan

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC447 BS

Office: 1007

Location: Design Example 6 Curved Steel publication

y

x x

>t<

T

y

B

Calculations in accordance

with BS5950-1:2000 and SCI

publication entitled "Design

of Curved Steel".

Moment connections are assumed

in the vertical plane and pin

connections on plan.

Loads and moments are factored.

Section properties

Dimensions (mm): D=850.9 B=293.8 t=16.1 T=26.8 r=17.8

Properties (cm): Ix=340000 Iy=11400 Sx=9160 Sy=1210 J=514

A=289 ry=6.2806 rx=34.3

Strength of steel - Clause 3.1.1

Design strength

py=265 N/mm2

Young's Modulus

E=205 kN/mm2

Details of curved section and results from analysis

R=5 m

Max vertical moment (xx axis)

Mx=253 kNm (at end connection)

Accompanying shear force

Fv=77.6 kN

Maximum radial load

Fa=25.6 kN

The maximum moments are assumed to act at the same point.

Max.horiz.moment in compr.flange Mycf=90.4 kNm

In order to account for the axial force induced in the beam from the

vertical loading, the bending moment needs to be increased using the

conservative approach that follows.

Increases vertical moment

Mx=Mx+(Fa*(D-T)/1000)

=253+(25.6*(850.9-26.8)/1000)

=274.1 kNm

Classification - Clause 3.5.2

Parameter (Table 11 Note b)

e=(275/py)^0.5=(275/265)^0.5

=1.0187

Outstand

b=B/2=293.8/2=146.9 mm

Ratio

b'T=b/T=146.9/26.8=5.4813

As b/T <= 9e ( 9.1682 ), outstand element of compression

flange is classified as Class 1 plastic.

Page: 2

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Design of 'I' beam curved on plan

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC447 BS

Office: 1007

Classify web of section:

Depth between fillet radii

d=D-2*(T+r)=850.9-2*(26.8+17.8)

=761.7 mm

Ratio

d't=d/t=761.7/16.1=47.311

Neutral axis is assumed to be at mid-depth of section.

As d/t <= 80e ( 81.495 ), web is classified as Class 1 plastic.

Shear buckling

Shear buckling

Shear capacity - Clause 4.2.3

Shear area

Shear capacity

Av=t*D=16.1*850.9=13699 mm2

Pv=0.6*py*Av/10^3=0.6*265*13699/10^3

=2178.2 kN

Design shear force

Fv=77.6 kN

Since Fv Pv ( 77.6 kN 2178.2 kN ) applied shear force

within the shear capacity.

Moment capacity - Clause 4.2.5

the elastic capacity in accordance with Section 8.8.1

Elastic modulus

Zx=Ix/(D/20)=340000/(850.9/20)

=7991.5 cm3

Moment capacity

Mcx=py*Zx/10^3=265*7991.5/10^3

=2117.8 kNm

Since Mx Mcx ( 274.1 kNm 2117.8 kNm ) applied moment within

the moment capacity.

Compression flange cross-sectional capacity - Clause 4.8.3.2

The minor axis bending capacity is taken as the minor axis bending

capacity of a single flange, because the flange resists the

horizontal bending moments. For simplicity the elastic modulus of

the flange, Zycf, is taken as half the minor axis elastic modulus

of the whole section.

Elastic modulus of the flange

Fc

Ag.py

Mx

Mcx

Mycf

py.Zycf

Unity factor

Zycf=Iy/(B/10)=11400/(293.8/10)

=388.02 cm3

1

uf=Mx/Mcx+Mycf*10^3/(py*Zycf)

=274.1/2117.8+90.4*10^3/(265*388.02)

=1.0086

The unity relationship is satisfied.

NOTE: This is considered acceptable because the check ignores the

beneficial torsional resistance.

Page: 3

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Design of 'I' beam curved on plan

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC447 BS

Office: 1007

Buckling checks

as half the developed length of curve (SCI publication "Design of

Curved Steel' Section 6.4.2).

L

_

A

///

\

B

\\\

/

\

/

\

/ R

\

/

+

Distance between end supports

Depth of curved beam on plan

Angle subtended by curved beam

Length of of curved beam

Effective length to be adopted

subtended by curved

beam in degrees.

A =

B =

///

the

right end support

= fixed support in

vertical plane.

R=5 m

L=10 m

d=5 m

theta=180

a=15708 mm

Le=Le*1000=7.854*1000=7854 mm

The factor 'mx' is over the effective length of the curved member

The member is loaded between restraints and the equation given in the

notes to Table 26 is used to determine mx.

Moments on member segment

Quarter point

mx2=-34.5 kNm

Mid-span

mx3=65 kNm

Three quarter point

mx4=-34.5 kNm

Maximum Moment on segment

Mx=274.1 kNm

Maximum moment on central half

M24=65 kNm

Equivalent uniform moment factor mx=0.2+(0.1*mx2+0.6*mx3+0.1*mx4)/Mx

=0.2+(0.1*-34.5+0.6*65+0.1*-34.5)

/274.1

=0.31711

Limiting value of m

mxlim=0.8*M24/Mx=0.8*65/274.1

=0.18971

Minor axis flexural buckling - Table 26

The factor 'my' is over the developed length of the curved member

between restraints to the y-y axis

The member is loaded between restraints and the equation given in the

notes to Table 26 is used to determine my.

Moments on member segment

Quarter point

my2=86.8 kNm

Mid-span

my3=43.7 kNm

Page: 4

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Design of 'I' beam curved on plan

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC447 BS

Office: 1007

Three quarter point

my4=-33.4 kNm

Maximum Moment on segment

Mycf=90.4 kNm

Maximum moment on central half

M24y=86.8 kNm

Equivalent uniform moment factor my=0.2+(0.1*my2+0.6*my3+0.1*my4)/Mycf

=0.2+(0.1*86.8+0.6*43.7+0.1*-33.4)

/90.4

=0.54912

Limiting value of m

mylim=0.8*M24y/Mycf=0.8*86.8/90.4

=0.76814

Revised moment factor

my=mylim=0.76814

Fc

Pc

mx.Mx

Mcx

my.Mycf

py.Zycf

Unity factor

Uf=mx*Mx/Mcx+my*Mycf*10^3/(py*Zycf)

=0.31711*274.1/2117.8+0.76814*90.4

*10^3/(265*388.02)

=0.71636

The interaction formula is satisfied.

Resistance to lateral-torsional buckling - Clause 4.3.6

Slenderness of section

lambda=Le/(ry*10)=7854/(6.2806*10)

=125.05

Buckling parameter

u=(4*Sx^2*(1-Iy/Ix)/(A^2*((D-T)

/10)^2))^0.25

=(4*9160^2*(1-11400/340000)/(289^2

*((850.9-26.8)/10)^2))^0.25

=0.8696

Torsional index

x=0.566*((D-T)/10)*(A/J)^0.5

=0.566*((850.9-26.8)/10)*(289

/514)^0.5

=34.975

Ratio

ratio=lambda/x=125.05/34.975

=3.5754

Slenderness factor

v=1/((1+0.05*ratio^2)^0.25)

=1/((1+0.05*3.5754^2)^0.25)

=0.88378

Ratio w

betaw=1.0

Equivalent slenderness

lamLT=u*v*lambda*(betaw)^0.5

=0.8696*0.88378*125.05*(1)^0.5

=96.106

Limiting slenderness

lamlo=0.4*((PI^2*E*10^3)/py)^0.5

=0.4*((3.1416^2*205*10^3)

/265)^0.5

=34.951

Perry coefficient

etaLT=0.007*(lamLT-lamlo)

=0.007*(96.106-34.951)

=0.42809

Elastic strength

pe=PI^2*E*10^3/(lamLT^2)

=3.1416^2*205*10^3/(96.106^2)

=219.05 N/mm2

Factor

phiLT=(py+(etaLT+1)*pe)/2

=(265+(0.42809+1)*219.05)/2

=288.91 N/mm2

Page: 5

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Design of 'I' beam curved on plan

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC447 BS

Office: 1007

Factor

pey=pe*py=219.05*265=58049

Bending strength

pb=(pey)/(phiLT+((phiLT^2-pey)^0.5))

=(58049)/(288.91+((288.91^2

-58049)^0.5))

=129.47 N/mm2

Buckling resistance moment

Mb=Zx*pb/10^3=7991.5*129.47/10^3

=1034.7 kNm

Clause 4.3.6.6 and Table 18

The member is loaded between restraints and the equation given in the

notes to Table 18 is used to determine mLT.

Moments on member segment

Maximum moment

MLT=274.1 kNm

Quarter point

m2=127 kNm

Mid-span

m3=34.5 kNm

Three quarter point

m4=39 kNm

Equivalent uniform moment factor mLT=0.2+(0.15*m2+0.5*m3+0.15*m4)/MLT

=0.2+(0.15*127+0.5*34.5+0.15*39)

/274.1

=0.35378

Minimum moment factor

mLT=0.44

Fc

Pcy

mLT.MLT

Mb

my.Mycf

py.Zycf

Unity factor

unity=mLT*MLT/Mb+my*Mycf*10^3/(py*Zycf)

=0.44*274.1/1034.7+0.76814*90.4

*10^3/(265*388.02)

=0.79188

The second interaction formula is satisfied.

UNIVERSAL BEAM SECTION

DESIGN

SUMMARY

Section is satisfactory for axial,

bending, shear, and local capacity,

and overall buckling checks.

Factored shear force

77.6 kN

Shear capacity

2178.2 kN

Vertical moment

274.1 kNm

Moment capacity

2117.8 kNm

Horizontal moment

90.4 kNm

Local capacity check

1.0086 < 1

Buckling resistance

1034.7 kNm

Overall buckling check

0.71636 < 1

0.79188 < 1

No447

Page: 1

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Design of 'I' beam curved on plan

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC447 EC

Office: 1007

Location: Curved I-beam on plan

z

y y

tw

tf

z

calculations are in accordance

with BS EN 1993-1-1:2005.

Moment connections are assumed

in the vertical plane and pin

connections on plan. All loads

and moments are factored.

b

Steel section properties

Dimensions (mm): h=850.9 b=293.8 tw=16.1 tf=26.8 r=17.8

Properties (cm): Iy=340000 Iz=11400 Wply=9160 Wplz=1210 It=514

A=289 iy=34.3 iz=6.2806

Details of curved section and results from analysis

R=5 m

Design moment about yy axis

MyEd=253 kNm (at end connection)

Accompanying design shear force

VzEd=77.6 kN

Maximum radial load

Fa=25.6 kN

The maximum design moments are assumed to act at the same point.

Design horiz.BM in compr.flange

MzEd=90.4 kNm

In order to account for the axial force induced in the beam from the

vertical loading, the bending moment needs to be increased using the

conservative approach that follows.

Increased design vertical moment MyEd=MyEd+(Fa*(h-tf)/1000)

=253+(25.6*(850.9-26.8)/1000)

=274.1 kNm

There is no externally applied axial load on the curved beam.

Design axial load

NEd=0 kN

Strength of steel - Table 3.1 (amended by N.A.)

Yield strength

fy=265 N/mm2

Ultimate strength

fu=410 N/mm2

Young's modulus

E=210000 N/mm2

Shear modulus

G=81000 N/mm2

Partial factors for resistance

Resistance partial factor

gamM0=1.0

gamM1=1.0

Page: 2

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Design of 'I' beam curved on plan

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC447 EC

Office: 1007

Section classification

Parameter (Table 5.2)

e=(235/fy)^0.5=(235/265)^0.5

=0.9417

Outstand

c=(b-tw-2*r)/2=(293.8-16.1-2*17.8)/2

=121.05 mm

Ratio

c't=c/tf=121.05/26.8=4.5168

As c/tf 9e ( 4.5168 8.4753 ), outstand element of compression

flange is classified as Class 1 plastic.

Classify web element of section:

Depth between fillets

C=h-2*(tf+r)=850.9-2*(26.8+17.8)

=761.7 mm

Ratio

C't=C/tw=761.7/16.1=47.311

As C/tw 72e ( 47.311 67.802 ), web element in bending

is classified as Class 1 plastic.

Shear buckling 6.2.6(6)

hw=h-2*tf=850.9-2*26.8=797.3 mm

Buckling ratio

hw't=hw/tw=797.3/16.1=49.522

Since hw/tw 72e ( 67.802 ) no check for shear buckling is required.

Shear plastic resistance - Clause 6.2.6

Shear Area

Avz=A*100-2*b*tf+(tw+2*r)*tf

=289*100-2*293.8*26.8+(16.1+2

*17.8)*26.8

=14538 mm2

Shear plastic resistance

VplRd=Avz*fy/SQR(3)/(gamM0*1000)

=14538*265/SQR(3)/(1*1000)

=2224.3 kN

Design shear force

VzEd=77.6 kN

Since VzEd VplRd ( 77.6 kN 2224.3 kN ) design shear force

within the shear plastic resistance.

Moment resistance - Clause 6.2.5

the elastic resistance.

Elastic modulus about yy axis

Wely=Iy/(h/20)=340000/(850.9/20)

=7991.5 cm3

Moment resistance

McRdy=fy*Wely/(gamM0*10^3)

=265*7991.5/(1*10^3)

=2117.8 kNm

Since MyEd McRdy ( 274.1 kNm 2117.8 kNm ) design moment within

the moment resistance.

Compression flange cross-sectional resistance

The minor axis bending capacity is taken as the minor axis bending

capacity of a single flange, because the flange resists the

horizontal bending moments. For simplicity the elastic modulus of

the flange, Welzcf, is taken as half the minor axis elastic modulus

of the whole section.

Page: 3

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Design of 'I' beam curved on plan

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC447 EC

Office: 1007

Elastic modulus of the flange

Welzcf=Iz/(b/10)=11400/(293.8/10)

=388.02 cm3

NEd

Ag.fy

MyEd

McRdy

MzEd

fy.Welzcf

Unity factor

uf=MyEd/McRdy+MzEd*10^3/(fy*Welzcf)

=274.1/2117.8+90.4*10^3/(265*388.02)

=1.0086

The unity relationship is satisfied.

NOTE: This is considered acceptable because the check ignores the

beneficial torsional resistance.

Check bi-axial bending - Clause 6.2.9.1(6)

The moment resistance of the section, MyRd and MzRd will be limited to

the elastic resistance.

Design axial resistance

NRd=A*fy/10=289*265/10=7658.5 kN

Design moment of resistance

MyRd=Wely*fy/(gamM0*10^3)

=7991.5*265/(1*10^3)

=2117.8 kNm

Depth between flanges

hw=h-2*tf=850.9-2*26.8=797.3 mm

Web capacity

NRw=hw*tw*fy/1000=797.3*16.1*265/1000

=3401.7 kN

As NEd < 0.25NRd and 0.5NRw

No allowance need be made on the elastic resistance moment.

Resistance moment

MyNRd=MyRd=2117.8 kNm

Design moment of resistance

MzRd=Welzcf*fy/(gamM0*10^3)

=388.02*265/(1*10^3)

=102.83 kNm

No allowance need be made on the elastic resistance moment.

Moment resistance

MzNRd=MzRd=102.83 kNm

Value of power

alp=2

Axial ratio

n=NEd/NRd=0

Value of power

bet=5*n=5*0=0

Value of powers limited

bet=1

MyEd

+

MyNRd

Unity expression

MzEd

MzNRd

unity=(MyEd/MyNRd)^alp+(MzEd

/MzNRd)^bet

=(274.1/2117.8)^2+(90.4/102.83)^1

=0.89591

Section is suitable for the combination of bending and axial force.

Page: 4

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Design of 'I' beam curved on plan

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC447 EC

Office: 1007

Lateral torsional buckling

as half the developed length of curve (SCI publication "Design of

Curved Steel' Section 6.4.2).

L

_

A

///

\

B

\\\

/

\

/

\

/ R

\

/

+

Distance between end supports

Depth of curved beam on plan

Angle subtended by curved beam

Length of of curved beam

Effective length for LTB adopted

Effective length parameter

Warping constant

Terms for Critical moment Mcr:

Euler term

subtended by curved

beam in degrees.

A =

B =

///

the

right end support

= fixed support in

vertical plane.

R=5 m

L=10 m

d=5 m

theta=180

a=15.708 m

LT=7.854 m

K=1

Iw=Iz/4*((h-tf)/10)^2

=11400/4*((850.9-26.8)/10)^2

=19.356E6 cm6

Et=PI^2*E*Iz/(K*LT^2*100)

=3.1416^2*210000*11400/(1*7.854^2

*100)

=3.8304E6 N

Shear modulus term

Gt=K*LT^2*G*It/(PI^2*E*Iz)*10^6

=1*7.854^2*81000*514/(3.1416^2

*210000*11400)*10^6

=108694 mm2

Square root term

Sr=(K^2*Iw*100/Iz+Gt)^0.5

=(1^2*19.356E6*100/11400+108694)^0.5

=527.71 mm

Correction factor

kc=0.9

Coefficient

C1=1/kc^2=1/0.9^2=1.2346

Critical moment

Mcr=C1*Et*Sr/10^6

=1.2346*3.8304E6*527.71/10^6

=2495.5 kNm

Limit the non-dimensional slenderness to the elastic resistance.

Non-dimensional slenderness

lamLT=(Wely*fy/(Mcr*10^3))^0.5

=(7991.5*265/(2495.5*10^3))^0.5

=0.92122

Limiting slenderness value

lamLT0=0.4

As MyEd/Mcr < 0.16 ( 0.10984 < 0.16)

The segment of the beam is not subject to lateral torsional buckling

Modification factor

ChiLT=1.0

The moment resistance will be limited to the elastic resistance.

Design buckling resistance moment MybRd=ChiLT*Wely*fy/(gamM1*10^3)

=1*7991.5*265/(1*10^3)

=2117.8 kNm

As MyEd MybRd ( 274.1 kNm 2117.8 kNm ) section chosen is OK.

Page: 5

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Design of 'I' beam curved on plan

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC447 EC

Office: 1007

UNIVERSAL BEAM

DESIGN

SUMMARY

Section is satisfactory for axial,

bending, shear, and local capacity,

and overall buckling checks.

Factored shear force

77.6 kN

Design shear resistance

2224.3 kN

Design vert.bending moment 274.1 kNm

Design moment resistance

2117.8 kNm

Buckling resistance moment 2117.8 kNm

Horizontal design moment

90.4 kNm

Interaction factors

0.89591 1

0.26277 1

0.38273 1

No447

Page: 1

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

I column in simple construction

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC452 BS

Office: 1007

Location: Column 1-2

Mx

F

A

A

x

D

SECTION

A-A

Frame dimensions

Number of storeys

Storey height (bottom storey)

Storey height (elsewhere)

Column centres (average)

Frame centres

Loading

Beam 1

Beam 2

Beam 3

Beam 4

Total dead load at roof level

Imposed load on roof

Beam 1

Beam 2

Beam 3

Total imposed load at roof level

Dead load on floors

Beam 1

Beam 2

Beam 3

Total dead load at floor level

Imposed load on floors

Beam 1

Beam 2

Beam 3

Total imposed load at each floor

Assume self weight for the lowest

variations in column heights this

Assumed self wt. of column/storey

BS5950-1:2000 and 'Steelwork Design

Guide to BS5950' published by SCI.

All beams supported by the column

are assumed to be fully loaded.

Based on Clause 4.7.7 it is not

necessary to consider the effect

of pattern loading.

storey=2

Ht=3 m

ht=6 m

crs=6 m

frs=5 m

dr1=20 kN

dr2=24 kN

dr3=20 kN

dr4=0 kN

deadr=64 kN

ir1=20 kN

ir2=80 kN

ir3=20 kN

impr=120 kN

df1=30 kN

df2=30 kN

df3=30 kN

deadf=90 kN

if1=100 kN

if2=200 kN

if3=100 kN

impf=400 kN

storey of the column. For

value will be proportioned.

sw=7 kN

Page: 2

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

I column in simple construction

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC452 BS

Office: 1007

COLUMN LOADINGS

Clause 5.2

Storey

Loading

Total Load

Reduction in

Reduced

Dead

Imposed

Imposed load

Imposed load

2

64 kN

78 kN

0

120 kN

120 kN

120 kN

1

90 kN

175 kN

10 %

400 kN

520 kN

52 kN

468 kN

STOREY 1

Section properties

Dimensions (mm): D=209.6 B=205.8 t=9.4 T=14.2 r=10.2

Properties (cm): Ix=6130 Iy=2070 Sx=656 Sy=305 J=47.2

A=76.4 ry=5.2052 rx=8.9574 Zx=584.92 Zy=201.17

Strength of steel - Clause 3.1.1

Design strength

py=275 N/mm2

Young's Modulus

E=205 kN/mm2

Factored axial compressive loads

F=1.4*Wd+1.6*Wi=1.4*175+1.6*468

=993.8 kN

from the face of the column

ecc=100 mm

Factored beam loading

Beam 1

dl1=1.4*df1+1.6*if1=1.4*30+1.6*100

=202 kN

Beam 2

dl2=1.4*df2+1.6*if2=1.4*30+1.6*200

=362 kN

Beam 3

dl3=1.4*df3+1.6*if3=1.4*30+1.6*100

=202 kN

Factored Bending Moments

ex=(D/2+100)/1000=(209.6/2+100)/1000

=0.2048 m

Applied moment

Mxx=(dl2-dl4)*ex=(362-0)*0.2048

=74.138 kNm

Moment is divided in ratio to

Page: 3

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

I column in simple construction

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC452 BS

Office: 1007

column lengths

Mtd=Mt*ht/(ht+Ht)=74.138*6/(6+3)

=49.425 kNm

No moment about y-y axis

Myy=0

Length of column

L=Ht*1000=3*1000=3000 mm

Classification - Clause 3.5.2

Parameter (Table 11 Note b)

e=(275/py)^0.5=(275/275)^0.5

=1

Outstand

b=B/2=205.8/2=102.9 mm

Ratio

b'T=b/T=102.9/14.2=7.2465

As b/T 9e ( 9 ), outstand element of compression

flange is classified as Class 1 plastic.

Classify web of section:

Depth between fillets

d=D-2*(T+r)=209.6-2*(14.2+10.2)

=160.8 mm

Ratio

d't=d/t=160.8/9.4=17.106

Ratio

r1=F*10^3/(d*t*py)

=993.8*10^3/(160.8*9.4*275)

=2.3909

Value limited

r1=1

Web is subject to compression throughout.

Limiting value for Class 1

d'tl1=80*e/(1+r1)=80*1/(1+1)

=40

As d/t d'tl1, web is classified as Class 1 plastic

Slenderness - Clause 4.7.3

Effective length

Slenderness (minor axis)

ef=0.85

Le=ef*L=0.85*3000=2550 mm

lambda=Le/(ry*10)=2550/(5.2052*10)

=48.989

Limiting slenderness

lamb0=0.2*(PI^2*E*1000/py)^0.5

=0.2*(3.1416^2*205*1000/275)^0.5

=17.155

Robertson constant for H section a=5.5 for table 24(c)

Perry factor

eta=0.001*a*(lambda-lamb0)

=0.001*5.5*(48.989-17.155)

=0.17509

Euler strength

pe=PI^2*E*1000/lambda^2

=3.1416^2*205*1000/48.989^2

=843.04 N/mm2

Factor

phi=(py+(eta+1)*pe)/2

=(275+(0.17509+1)*843.04)/2

=632.83 N/mm2

Compressive strength

pc=pe*py/(phi+(phi^2-pe*py)^0.5)

=843.04*275/(632.83+(632.83^2

-843.04*275)^0.5)

=222.18 N/mm2

Compression resistance

Pc=A*pc/10=76.4*222.18/10

=1697.4 kN

Since F Pc ( 993.8 kN 1697.4 kN ), design axial compressive

load does not exceed compression resistance, section OK.

Page: 4

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

I column in simple construction

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC452 BS

Office: 1007

Resistance to lateral-torsional buckling - Clauses 4.3.6 & 4.7.7

Equivalent slenderness

lamLT=0.5*L/(ry*10)

=0.5*3000/(5.2052*10)

=28.817

Limiting slenderness

lamlo=0.4*((PI^2*E*10^3)/py)^0.5

=0.4*((3.1416^2*205*10^3)

/275)^0.5

=34.31

The equivalent slenderness is less than the limiting slenderness.

Bending strength

pb=py=275 N/mm2

Buckling resistance moment

Mbs=Sx*pb/10^3=656*275/10^3

=180.4 kNm

Overall buckling check - Clause 4.7.7

Pc

Mx

Mbs

My

py.Zy

Unity factor

uf=F/Pc+Mx/Mbs+My*10^3/(py*Zy)

=993.8/1697.4+49.425/180.4+0*10^3

/(275*201.17)

=0.85944

The unity relationship is satisfied.

SECTION

DESIGN

SUMMARY

Design strength

275 N/mm2

Compressive strength 222.18 N/mm2

Buckling strength

275 N/mm2

Buckling check

0.85944 < 1

Section is satisfactory for bending,

axial load, and overall buckling.

Assuming all the dead load is permanent and all the imposed load is

non-permanent.

Load factors:

Load factor for permanent loads

gfp=1.0

The load factor for non-permanent

loads in other areas

gfnp=0.8

Axial compressive load

Ff=gfp*Wd+gfnp*Wi=1*175+0.8*468

=549.4 kN

Beam 1

dl1=gfp*df1+gfnp*if1=1*30+0.8*100

=110 kN

Beam 2

dl2=gfp*df2+gfnp*if2=1*30+0.8*200

=190 kN

Beam 3

dl3=gfp*df3+gfnp*if3=1*30+0.8*100

=110 kN

Factored Bending Moments

ex=(D/2+100)/1000=(209.6/2+100)/1000

=0.2048 m

Page: 5

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

I column in simple construction

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC452 BS

Office: 1007

Applied moment

Mxx=(dl2-dl4)*ex=(190-0)*0.2048

=38.912 kNm

Moment is divided in ratio to

column lengths

Mtd=Mt*ht/(ht+Ht)=38.912*6/(6+3)

=25.941 kNm

No moment about y-y axis

Myy=0

Section factor - Clause 8.2

In the calculation of the heated perimeter of the steel section

all four sides of the column are exposed

Exposed surface area

Am=4*B+2*D-2*t=4*205.8+2*209.6-2*9.4

=1223.6 mm

Section factor

Am'V=INT(Am/A/0.5)*5

=INT(1223.6/76.4/0.5)*5

=160 /m

Fire resistance without applied protection

The criterion for load

carrying capacity, is that the end of the fire resistance period

the design temperature does not exceed the limiting temperature

temperature given in BS 5950-8:2003 Table 8. For a column the

limiting temperature is dependant on the thickness of the flanges.

For a flange thickness of 14.2 mm.

The value given in Table 9 assumes heating from all four sides.

The design temperature (30 min.) temp=TABLE 9 for T=14.2, column=30

=737.4 deg.C.

The load ratio, R, at the fire limit state is to be calculated from:

Ff

Mfx

Mfy

R = + +

Ag.pc

Mb

py.Zy

Load ratio

R=Ff*1000/(A*100*pc)+Mfx/Mbs+Mfy*10^6/(py*Zy*10^3)

=549.4*1000/(76.4*100*222.18)+25.941/180.4+0*10^6/(275

*201.17*10^3)

=0.46746

Limiting temperature

templ=TABLE 8.1 for section=1, R=0.46746

=591.39 deg.C.

The limiting temperature for unprotected members is 591.39 deg.C.

from Table 8 of the code. This is less than the design temperature

737.4 deg.C. so the unprotected column will have less than 30 minutes

fire resistance.

The design temperature for 15 min temp15=TABLE 9 for T=14.2, column=15

=519.8 deg.C.

The column does however provide 15 minutes resistance.

Page: 6

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

I column in simple construction

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC452 BS

Office: 1007

FIRE RESISTANCE

SUMMARY

Heated perimeter

1223.6 mm2

Area of section

76.4 cm2

Section factor

160 /m

Load Ratio (R)

0.46746

Section does not have an inherent

fire resistance of 30 minutes.

Fire protection should be provided.

No452

Page: 1

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

I column in simple construction

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC452 EC

Office: 1007

Location: Access steel example

MyEd

NEd

BS EN 1993-1-1:2005.

Column is continuous and forms part

of a structure of simple construction

The column is nominally pinned at base

Beams are connected to the column by

"simple" connections.

All loads and moments are factored.

Factored BM about y-y axis

Factored BM about z-z axis

Length between restraints

NEd=589 kN

MyEd=11.11 kNm

MzEd=0.35 kNm

L=5000 mm (both axes)

Dimensions (mm): h=203.2 b=203.6 tw=7.2 tf=11 r=10.2

Properties (cm): Iy=4570 Iz=1550 Wply=497 Wplz=231 It=22.2

A=58.7 iy=8.8235 iz=5.1386

Strength of steel - Table 3.1 (amended by N.A.)

Yield strength

fy=275 N/mm2

Ultimate strength

fu=410 N/mm2

Young's modulus

E=210000 N/mm2

Section classification

Parameter (Table 5)

e=(235/fy)^0.5=(235/275)^0.5

=0.92442

Outstand

c=(b-tw-2*r)/2=(203.6-7.2-2*10.2)/2

=88 mm

Ratio

c't=c/tf=88/11=8

As c/tf 9e ( 8.3197 ), outstand element of compression

flange is classified as Class 1 plastic.

Classify web element of section:

Depth between fillets

C=h-2*(tf+r)=203.2-2*(11+10.2)

=160.8 mm

Ratio

C't=C/tw=160.8/7.2=22.333

Factor

a=0.5*(1+NEd*10^3/(fy*C*tw))

=0.5*(1+589*10^3/(275*160.8*7.2))

=1.425

Limit value

a=1.0

As C/tw 396e/(13a-1) ( 30.506 ), web element

is classified as Class 1 plastic.

Page: 2

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

I column in simple construction

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC452 EC

Office: 1007

Effective length

Effective length about z-z axis

Elastic critical force

Non-dimensional slenderness

Slenderness about z-z axis

Reduction factor

Imperfection factor

Factor

For buckling about z-z axis

Imperfection factor

Factor

Reduction factor

Design buckling resistance

Unity factor

Section chosen is suitable.

Lcry=1.0*L=1.0*5000=5000 mm

Lcrz=1.0*L=1.0*5000=5000 mm

Ncry=PI^2*E*Iy*10^7/(Lcry*10^3)^2

=3.1416^2*210000*4570*10^7/(5000

*10^3)^2

=3788.7 kN

Ncrz=PI^2*E*Iz*10^7/(Lcrz*10^3)^2

=3.1416^2*210000*1550*10^7/(5000

*10^3)^2

=1285 kN

lamy=SQR(A*10^2*fy/(Ncry*10^3))

=SQR(58.7*10^2*275/(3788.7*10^3))

=0.65274

lamz=SQR(A*10^2*fy/(Ncrz*10^3))

=SQR(58.7*10^2*275/(1285*10^3))

=1.1208

alpha=0.34

phiy=0.5*(1+alpha*(lamy-0.2)+lamy^2)

=0.5*(1+0.34*(0.65274-0.2)

+0.65274^2)

=0.79

chiy=1/(phiy+SQR(phiy^2-lamy^2))

=1/(0.79+SQR(0.79^2-0.65274^2))

=0.80971

alpha=0.49

phiz=0.5*(1+alpha*(lamz-0.2)+lamz^2)

=0.5*(1+0.49*(1.1208-0.2)

+1.1208^2)

=1.3537

chiz=1/(phiz+SQR(phiz^2-lamz^2))

=1/(1.3537+SQR(1.3537^2-1.1208^2))

=0.4733

chi=0.4733

NbRd=chi*A*fy/10=0.4733*58.7*275/10

=764.02 kN

unity=NEd/NbRd=589/764.02

=0.77092

Page: 3

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

I column in simple construction

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC452 EC

Office: 1007

Coefficient C1

Far end BM

psiM=0 kNm

Ratio of moments

psi=0

Length between restraints

LT=L/1000=5000/1000=5 m

Coefficient C1

C1=TABLE 3.1 for psi=0

=1.77

Lateral torsional buckling

Shear modulus

Warping constant

Terms for Critical moment Mcr:

Euler term

G=80770 N/mm2

Iw=Iz/4*((h-tf)/10)^2

=1550/4*((203.2-11)/10)^2

=143146 cm6

Et=PI^2*E*Iz/((LT)^2*100)

=3.1416^2*210000*1550/((5)^2*100)

=1.285E6 N

Load to shear centre distance

zg=h/2=203.2/2=101.6 mm

Shear modulus term

Gt=LT^2*G*It/(PI^2*E*Iz)*10^6

=5^2*80770*22.2/(3.1416^2*210000

*1550)*10^6

=13954 mm2

Square root term

Sr=(Iw*100/Iz+Gt)^0.5

=(143146*100/1550+13954)^0.5

=152.28 mm

Critical moment

Mcr=C1*Et*Sr/10^6

=1.77*1.285E6*152.28/10^6

=346.36 kNm

Non-dimensional slenderness

lamLT=(Wply*fy/(Mcr*10^3))^0.5

=(497*275/(346.36*10^3))^0.5

=0.62818

Limiting slenderness value

lamLT0=0.4

Ratio

h'b=h/b=203.2/203.6=0.99804

As h/b 2, imperfection value

aLT=0.34 (curve b)

Factor

phiLT=0.5*(1+aLT*(lamLT-lamLT0)+0.75*lamLT^2)

=0.5*(1+0.34*(0.62818-0.4)+0.75*0.62818^2)

=0.68677

Modification factor

chiLT=1/(phiLT+(phiLT^2-0.75*lamLT^2)^0.5)

=1/(0.68677+(0.68677^2-0.75

*0.62818^2)^0.5)

=0.90422

Factor

kc=1/(1.33-0.33*psi)=1/(1.33-0.33*0)

=0.75188

Moment distribution factor

f=1-0.5*(1-kc)*(1-2*(lamLT-0.8)^2)

=1-0.5*(1-0.75188)*(1-2*(0.62818

-0.8)^2)

=0.88327

Modified chiLT factor

ChiLT=chiLT/f=0.90422/0.88327

=1.0237

Limiting value

ChiLT=1

Design buckling resistance moment MybRd=ChiLT*Wply*fy/10^3

=1*497*275/10^3

=136.68 kNm

Page: 4

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

I column in simple construction

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC452 EC

Office: 1007

Minor axis

MzRd=Wplz*fy/10^3=231*275/10^3

=63.525 kNm

Interaction equation

NEd

MyEd

MzEd

+ + 1.5 1.0

NbRd

MybRd

MzRd

Unity factor

Unity=NEd/NbRd+MyEd/MybRd+1.5*MzEd/MzRd

=589/764.02+11.11/136.68+1.5*0.35/63.525

=0.86048

Section chosen is suitable.

SECTION

DESIGN

SUMMARY

Design axial load

Buckling resistance

Design BM y-y axis

LTB resistance

Design BM z-z axis

Moment resistance (z-z)

Unity factor

S 275

589 kN

764.02 kN

11.11 kNm

136.68 kNm

0.35 kNm

63.525 kNm

0.86048

No452

Page: 1

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Channel subject to eccentric loading

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC463 BS

Office: 1007

Location: Example 9, 'Beams subject to bending and torsion'.

Simply supported steel channel unrestrained along its length

Bending and Torsion' published by The Steel Construction Institute.

The beam is considered as "torsion fixed, warping free".

Uniformly distributed load

w/metre

vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv

AB

_ _

_ _

///

ooo

L

Beam span

L=4 m

Section properties

Dimensions (mm): D=304.8 B=101.6 t=10.2 T=14.8 r=15.2

Properties (cm): Ix=8208 Iy=499 Sx=638 Sy=128 J=35.9

A=58.9 Cy=2.6675 H=84200

Strength of steel - Clause 3.1.1

Design strength

Young's Modulus

Poisson's ratio

Shear modulus

Loading

Dead load

Imposed load

Total load (unfactored)

Factored distributed load

py=275 N/mm2

E=205 kN/mm2

neu=0.3

G=E/(2*(1+neu))=205/(2*(1+0.3))

=78.846 kN/mm2

wd=2 kN/m

wi=0 kN/m

wt=wd+wi=2+0=2 kN/m

w=1.4*wd+1.6*wi=1.4*2+1.6*0

=2.8 kN/m

h=D-T=304.8-14.8=290 mm

Distance between centre of web

and shear centre

eo=((B-t/2)^2*T)/(2*(B-t/2)*T+(h*t)/3)

=((101.6-10.2/2)^2*14.8)/(2*(101.6-10.2

/2)*14.8+(290*10.2)/3)

=35.869 mm

Page: 2

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Channel subject to eccentric loading

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC463 BS

Office: 1007

load

decc

eo

v

Distance between

shear centre and

section +

+ shear

centre of web

centroid

centre

eo =35.869 mm

load to the back of the channel

Eccentricity

decc=-50 mm

ecc=decc-t/2+eo=-50-10.2/2+35.869

=-19.231 mm

Eccentricity value must be positive,

Eccentricity

ecc=-ecc=19.231 mm

Shear force

Shear force

Factored moment

Corresponding shear force

Fv=(sw+w)*L/2=(0.7+2.8)*4/2

=7 kN

M=(w+sw)*L^2/8=(2.8+0.7)*4^2/8

=7 kNm

F=0 kN

Section classification

rotation capacity, it is sufficient to ensure that the section is

compact.

Parameter (Table 11 Note b)

e=(275/py)^0.5=(275/275)^0.5

=1

Outstand

b=B=101.6 mm

Ratio

b'T=b/T=101.6/14.8=6.8649

Compact limiting value of ratio

b'Tlim=10*e=10*1=10

b/T ratio within limiting value of 10e.

Depth between fillets

d=D-2*(T+r)=304.8-2*(14.8+15.2)

=244.8 mm

Ratio

d't=d/t=244.8/10.2=24

Compact limiting value of ratio

d'tlim=100*e=100*1=100

d/t ratio within limiting value of 100e.

Therefore section is at least compact.

Page: 3

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Channel subject to eccentric loading

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC463 BS

Office: 1007

Shear buckling

Web shear

Shear area

Shear capacity

Av=D*t=304.8*10.2=3109 mm2

Pv=0.6*py*Av/10^3=0.6*275*3109/10^3

=512.98 kN

Design shear force

Fv=7 kN

Since Fv Pv ( 7 kN 512.98 kN ) shear force within

shear capacity.

Buckling resistance

The end conditions are assumed to be simply supported for bending

and free for warping.

Effective length - Clause 4.3.5.1

Nominal torsional restraint about longitudinal axis.

Both flanges free to rotate on plan.

Normal loading conditions therefore

Effective length (Table 13)

Le=1.0*L*1000=1.0*4*1000

=4000 mm

Resistance to lateral-torsional buckling - Clause 4.3.6

=2.9107 cm

Slenderness of section

lambda=Le/(ry*10)=4000/(2.9107*10)

=137.43

Factor

gamma=1-Iy/Ix=1-499/8208

=0.93921

Torsional index

x=1.132*(A*H/(Iy*J))^0.5

=1.132*(58.9*84200/(499*35.9))^0.5

=18.835

Buckling parameter

u=(Iy*Sx^2*gamma/(A^2*H))^0.25

=(499*638^2*0.93921/(58.9^2

*84200))^0.25

=0.89896

Ratio

ratio=lambda/x=137.43/18.835

=7.2963

Slenderness factor

v=1/((1+0.05*ratio^2)^0.25)

=1/((1+0.05*7.2963^2)^0.25)

=0.7229

Ratio w

betaw=1.0

Equivalent slenderness

lamLT=u*v*lambda*(betaw)^0.5

=0.89896*0.7229*137.43*(1)^0.5

=89.306

Limiting slenderness

lamlo=0.4*((PI^2*E*10^3)/py)^0.5

=0.4*((3.1416^2*205*10^3)

/275)^0.5

=34.31

Page: 4

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Channel subject to eccentric loading

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC463 BS

Office: 1007

Perry coefficient

etaLT=0.007*(lamLT-lamlo)

=0.007*(89.306-34.31)

=0.38498

Elastic strength

pe=PI^2*E*10^3/(lamLT^2)

=3.1416^2*205*10^3/(89.306^2)

=253.68 N/mm2

Factor

phiLT=(py+(etaLT+1)*pe)/2

=(275+(0.38498+1)*253.68)/2

=313.17 N/mm2

Factor

pey=pe*py=253.68*275=69762

Bending strength

pb=(pey)/(phiLT+((phiLT^2-pey)^0.5))

=(69762)/(313.17+((313.17^2

-69762)^0.5))

=144.9 N/mm2

Buckling resistance moment

Mb=Sx*pb/10^3=638*144.9/10^3

=92.449 kNm

For a uniformly distributed load

Equivalent uniform moment factor mLT=0.925

Since M Mb/mLT ( 7 kNm 99.945 kNm ) section O.K. for

lateral torsional buckling resistance.

Check section for combined bending and torsion

Torsional bending constant

a=((E*H)/(G*J))^0.5*10

=((205*84200)/(78.846*35.9))^0.5*10

=780.9 mm

Torsional moment

Tq=-w*L*ecc/10^3=-2.8*4*19.231/10^3

=-0.21539 kNm

Length of beam

L'=L*1000=4*1000=4000 mm

Distance along member

z=L'/2=4000/2=2000 mm

Hyperbolic sine of z/a

t1=SNH(z/a)=SNH(2000/780.9)

=6.4367

Hyperbolic tangent of L/2a

t2=TNH(L'/(2*a))=TNH(4000/(2*780.9))

=0.98815

Hyperbolic cosine of z/a

t3=CSH(z/a)=CSH(2000/780.9)

=6.5139

term

t4=L'^2/(2*a^2)*(z/L'-(z^2/L'^2))

=4000^2/(2*780.9^2)*(2000/4000

-(2000^2/4000^2))

=3.2797

Angle of twist

phi=Tq*a/(G*J*10)*a/L'*(t4+t3-t2*t1-1)

=-0.21539*780.9/(78.846*35.9*10)

*780.9/4000*(3.2797+6.5139-0.98815

*6.4367-1)

=-0.0028228 rad

Torsional moment (y-y axis)

Myt=-M*phi=-7*-0.0028228

=0.019759 kNm

Torsional bending stress (y-y)

fbyt=Myt*(B-Cy*10)/Iy*10^2

=0.019759*(101.6-2.6675*10)/499

*10^2

=0.29669 N/mm2

Second derivative of phi

phi''=Tq/(G*J*10*a)*a/L'*(-1+t3-t2*t1)

=-0.21539/(78.846*35.9*10

*780.9)*780.9/4000*(-1+6.5139

-0.98815*6.4367)

=1.6103E-9

Page: 5

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Channel subject to eccentric loading

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC463 BS

Office: 1007

Normalised warping function

Wno=(B-t/2-eo)*h/200

=(101.6-10.2/2-35.869)*290/200

=87.916 cm2

Torsional stress in flange

fw=E*10^3*Wno*10^2*phi''

=205*10^3*87.916*10^2*1.6103E-9

=2.9022 N/mm2

(i) Buckling Check

Equation 2.21

M

Mb/mLT

( fbyt + fw )

0.5 M

1 +

py

Mb/mLT

1.0

Equation 2.21

uf=mLT*M/Mb+((fbyt+fw)/py)*(1+0.5*mLT*M/Mb)

=0.925*7/92.449+((0.29669+2.9022)/275)*(1

+0.5*0.925*7/92.449)

=0.082079

Since uf 1, Section is adequate for buckling.

(ii) Local "Capacity" Check

Equation 2.22

fbx + fbyt + fw py

where:

bending normal stress

combined stress

Since fcb py ( 16.196 N/mm2

fbx=M*(D/2)/Ix*100

=7*(304.8/2)/8208*100

=12.997 N/mm2

fcb=fbx+fbyt+fw=12.997+0.29669+2.9022

=16.196 N/mm2

275 N/mm2 ), section is suitable.

load, phiw, by replacing the value of torque Tq with the working load

value as phi is linearly dependant on Tq. Since Tq has been factored

then multiplying by the appropriate ratio of applied to factored

load(s) will give:

Angle of twist at working load

phiw=ABS(phi)*wt/w

=ABS(-0.0028228)*2/2.8

=0.0020163 rad

in degrees

phiw'=DEG(phiw)=0.11552 deg

On the assumption that a maximum twist of 2 degrees is acceptable

at working load, in this instance the beam is satisfactory.

Page: 6

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Channel subject to eccentric loading

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC463 BS

Office: 1007

Check deflection

w'=wi=0 kN/m

Actual midspan deflection

del=5*w'*L^4/(384*E*Ix)*10^5

=5*0*4^4/(384*205*8208)*10^5

=0 mm

From Table 8

Limiting deflection (brittle)

delp=L*1000/360=4*1000/360

=11.111 mm

Actual deflection does not exceed the permissible deflection, beam

chosen is suitable.

SECTION

PROPERTIES

DESIGN

SUMMARY

Tapered Flange Channel

Applied shear force

7 kN

Shear capacity

512.98 kN

Applied moment

7 kNm

Buckling resistance

92.449 kNm

Buckling check

0.082079 1

Combined bending str. 16.196 N/mm2

Design strength

275 N/mm2

Midspan deflection

0 mm

Limiting deflection

11.111 mm

No463

Page: 1

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Channel subject to eccentric loading

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC463 EC

Office: 1007

Location: Example 4 'Design of steel beams in torsion'

Simply supported steel channel unrestrained along its length

of Steel Beams in Torsion' published by SCI.

The beam is considered as "torsion fixed, warping free".

Uniformly distributed load

w/metre

vvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvvv

AB

_ _

_ _

///

ooo

L

Beam span

L=5 m

Section properties

Dimensions (mm): h=300 b=100 tw=9 tf=16.5 r=15

Properties (cm): Iy=8230 Iz=568 Wply=641 Wplz=148 It=36.8

A=58 Cy=3.0477 Iw=81300

Strength of steel - Table 3.1 (amended by N.A.)

Yield strength

fy=265 N/mm2

Ultimate strength

fu=410 N/mm2

Young's modulus

E=210000 N/mm2

Shear modulus

G=81 kN/mm2

Section classification

Parameter (Table 5.2)

e=(235/fy)^0.5=(235/265)^0.5

=0.9417

Outstand

c=b-tw-r=100-9-15=76 mm

Ratio

c't=c/tf=76/16.5=4.6061

As c/tf 9e ( 4.6061 8.4753 ), outstand element of compression

flange is classified as Class 1 plastic.

Depth between fillets

C=h-2*(tf+r)=300-2*(16.5+15)

=237 mm

Ratio

C't=C/tw=237/9=26.333

As C/tw 33e ( 26.333 31.076 ), web element in compression

is classified as Class 1 plastic.

Page: 2

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Channel subject to eccentric loading

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC463 EC

Office: 1007

Loading

Permanent load

wd=5.18 kN/m

Variable (non-permanent) load

wi=0 kN/m

Total load (unfactored)

wt=wd+wi=5.18+0=5.18 kN/m

Factored distributed load

w=1.35*wd+1.5*wi=1.35*5.18+1.5*0

=6.993 kN/m (NA.A1.2)

Distance between crs. of flanges d=h-tf=300-16.5=283.5 mm

Distance between centre of web

and shear centre

eo=((b-tw/2)^2*tf)/(2*(b-tw/2)*tf+(d*tw)/3)

=((100-9/2)^2*16.5)/(2*(100-9/2)*16.5+(283.5

*9)/3)

=37.602 mm

load

decc

eo

v

section +

+ shear

centroid

centre

Distance between

shear centre and

centre of web

eo =37.602 mm

load to the back of the channel

Eccentricity

decc=-70 mm

ecc=decc-tw/2+eo=-70-9/2+37.602

=-36.898 mm

Eccentricity value must be positive,

Eccentricity

ecc=-ecc=36.898 mm

Shear force

Shear force

Factored moment

Corresponding shear force

Fv=(sw+w)*L/2=(5+6.993)*5/2

=29.983 kN

M=(w+sw)*L^2/8=(6.993+5)*5^2/8

=37.478 kNm

F=0 kN

Page: 3

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Channel subject to eccentric loading

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC463 EC

Office: 1007

Design value of torsion effects

warping torsion.

Torsional bending constant

a=((E/10^3*Iw)/(G*It))^0.5*10

=((210000/10^3*81300)/(81

*36.8))^0.5*10

=756.81 mm

Torsional moment

Td=w*L*ecc/10^3=6.993*5*36.898/10^3

=1.2901 kNm

Length of beam

L'=L*1000=5*1000=5000 mm

Distance along member

z=L'/2=5000/2=2500 mm

Hyperbolic sine of z/a

t1=SNH(z/a)=SNH(2500/756.81)

=13.583

Hyperbolic tangent of L/2a

t2=TNH(L'/(2*a))=TNH(5000/(2*756.81))

=0.9973

Hyperbolic cosine of z/a

t3=CSH(z/a)=CSH(2500/756.81)

=13.62

term

t4=L'^2/(2*a^2)*(z/L'-(z^2/L'^2))

=5000^2/(2*756.81^2)*(2500/5000

-(2500^2/5000^2))

=5.456

Angle of twist

phi=Td*a/(G*It*10)*a/L'*(t4+t3-t2*t1-1)

=1.2901*756.81/(81*36.8*10)*756.81

/5000*(5.456+13.62-0.9973*13.583-1)

=0.022457 rad

Minor axis moment

MzEd=M*phi=37.478*0.022457

=0.84164 kNm

Warping moment

Second derivative of phi

phi''=-Td/(G*It*10*a)*a/L'*(-1+t3-t2*t1)*10^6

=-1.2901/(81*36.8*10*756.81)*756.81/5000*(-1

+13.62-0.9973*13.583)*10^6

=0.0080207 rad/m2

Warping moment at mid-span

MwEd=E*Iw*phi''*10^-6/(h-tf)

=210000*81300*0.0080207*10^-6

/(300-16.5)

=0.48302 kNm

Bending resistance

Bending resistance moment (y-y)

Bending resistance moment (z-z)

MyEd=37.478 kNm

MyRd=Wply*fy/10^3=641*265/10^3

=169.87 kNm

MzRd=Wplz*fy/10^3=148*265/10^3

=39.22 kNm

Shear Area

Avz=A*100-2*b*tf+(tw+r)*tf

=58*100-2*100*16.5+(9+15)*16.5

=2896 mm2

Shear plastic resistance

VplRd=Avz*fy/SQR(3)/1000

=2896*265/SQR(3)/1000

=443.08 kN

Page: 4

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Channel subject to eccentric loading

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC463 EC

Office: 1007

Reduced shear resistance in the presence of torsion

At support

z=0 mm

Hyperbolic tangent of L/2a

t2=0.9973

Term for phi'

p'=a/L'*(L'/(2*a)-t2)

=756.81/5000*(5000/(2*756.81)

-0.9973)

=0.34905

Derivative of phi

phi'=Td/(G*It)*p'*100

=1.2901/(81*36.8)*0.34905*100

=0.015107 rad/m

Stresses due to pure torsion:

in web

ttEd=G*tw*phi'=81*9*0.015107

=11.013 N/mm2

Hyperbolic cosine of z/a

t5'=CSH(0)=1

Third derivative

phi'''=Td/(G*It*a^2)*a/L'*-t2*1E8

=1.2901/(81*36.8*756.81^2)*756.81/5000

*-0.9973*1E8

=-0.011407 rad/m3

Warping statical moment

Sw=(h-tf)*b^2*tf/16

=(300-16.5)*100^2*16.5/16

=2.9236E6 mm4

Shear stress due to warping

twEd=-E*Sw*phi'''*1E-9/tw

=-210000*2.9236E6*-0.011407*1E-9/9

=0.77815 N/mm2

Reduction factor

tr1=(1-ttEd*(3)^0.5/(1.25*fy))^0.5

=(1-11.013*(3)^0.5/(1.25*265))^0.5

=0.97078

Reduction factor

tr2=twEd*3^0.5/fy=0.77815*3^0.5/265

=0.005086

Reduced shear plastic resistance VTRd=(tr1-tr2)*VplRd

=(0.97078-0.005086)*443.08

=427.88 kN

As shear force less than shear plastic resistance, OK.

Lateral torsional buckling

Non-dimensional slenderness

lamLT=L*100/(iz*96)=5*100/(3.1294*96)

=1.6643

Imperfection value (curve d)

aLT=0.76

Limiting slenderness value

lamLT0=0.4

Factor

phiLT=0.5*(1+aLT*(lamLT-lamLT0)+0.75*lamLT^2)

=0.5*(1+0.76*(1.6643-0.4)+0.75*1.6643^2)

=2.0192

Modification factor

chiLT=1/(phiLT+(phiLT^2-0.75*lamLT^2)^0.5)

=1/(2.0192+(2.0192^2-0.75

*1.6643^2)^0.5)

=0.29127

Design Buckling resistance moment MbRd=chiLT*Wply*fy/10^3

=0.29127*641*265/10^3

=49.476 kNm

Unity factor

unitb=MyEd/MbRd=37.478/49.476

=0.7575

Section chosen is suitable for lateral torsional buckling.

Page: 5

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Channel subject to eccentric loading

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC463 EC

Office: 1007

Interaction of LTB with minor axis bending and torsion

MyEd

Cmz.MzEd

kw.kzw.ka.MwEd

+ +

MbRd

MzRd

MwRd

Critical moment

Cmz=0.95

Mcr=Wply*fy/(lamLT^2*1000)

=641*265/(1.6643^2*1000)

=61.323 kNm

Warping resistance of one flange MwRd=(b^2*tf/4)*fy/10^6

=(100^2*16.5/4)*265/10^6

=10.931 kNm

Factor

kw=0.7-0.2*MwEd/MwRd

=0.7-0.2*0.48302/10.931

=0.69116

kzw=1-2*MzEd/MzRd=1-2*0.84164/39.22

=0.95708

ka=1/(1-MyEd/Mcr)=1/(1-37.478/61.323)

=2.5717

Unity expression

ut=MyEd/MbRd+Cmz*MzEd/MzRd+kw*kzw*ka*MwEd/MwRd

=37.478/49.476+0.95*0.84164/39.22+0.69116

*0.95708*2.5717*0.48302/10.931

=0.85306

Section chosen is suitable.

There are no commonly agreed limits for total deflections and the

angle of twist to which the beam can be subjected. Values of both

have been calculated their suitability is for the designer's

judgement.

Determination of angle of twist

by considering the maximum value phi and dividing by the relevant

partial safety factor.

Angle of twist at SLS

phiw=ABS(phi)/gamma

=ABS(0.022457)/1.35

=0.016635

in degrees

phiw'=DEG(phiw)=0.9531 deg

Deflection

Actual midspan deflection

wt=wt+sw/gamma=5.18+5/1.35

=8.8837 kN/m

del=5*wt*L^4/(384*E*Iy)*10^8

=5*8.8837*5^4/(384*210000*8230)

*10^8

=4.1831 mm

Page: 6

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Channel subject to eccentric loading

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC463 EC

Office: 1007

SECTION

300 x 100 Grade S 275

PROPERTIES

Parallel Flange Channel

Shear force

29.983 kN

Shear resistance

427.88 kN

DESIGN

Applied Moment

37.478 kNm

SUMMARY

Buckling resistance

49.476 kNm

LTB interaction

0.85306 1

Midspan deflection

4.1831 mm

Angle of twist

0.9531 deg

No463

Page: 1

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Angle seat connection

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC482 BS

Office: 1007

Connection: Example 8.3.1, 'Manual on Connections'

Seating bracket

the BCSA publication 'Manual on connections'. Standard angle

section is used for the seating bracket.

Stability cleat

not shown

Bolt grade

Grade of angle seat

Grade of supporting member

Grade of supported member

with BS5950-1:2000 Section 6.

V=254 kN

bgrade=8.8

agrade=275

sgrade=275

grade=275

Bracket details

Dimensions (mm): A=150 B=90 T=10 r=12

Bolt group connecting the angle seat to supporting member

Diameter of bolts

db=20 mm

Number of bolts to be used

bn=4

o

o

o

o

/

o

o

e2

pitch

End distance

Clearance hole diameter

pitch=55 mm

e2=55 mm

Dh=db+2=20+2=22 mm

Page: 2

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Angle seat connection

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC482 BS

Office: 1007

Column details

Bs=254.6 ts=8.6 Ts=14.2

Thickness of connected ply

ts'=Ts=14.2 mm

Bolts in shear

Shear area

ps=375 N/mm2

As=TABLE 1.1 for db=20

=245 mm2

Shear capacity per bolt

Ps=ps*As/10^3=375*245/10^3

=91.875 kN

Shear per bolt

Fs=V/bn=254/4=63.5 kN

As Fs Ps ( 63.5 kN 91.875 kN ), then shear load in bolt

is within shear capacity, and M 20 bolt is suitable.

(1) Bearing capacity of the bolt

Bearing strength of bolts

pbb=1000 N/mm2 from Table 31

Controlling thickness of ply

tt=10 mm

Bearing capacity of bolt

Pbb=db*tt*pbb/10^3=20*10*1000/10^3

=200 kN

(2) Bearing capacity of the connected ply

Bearing strngth of connected ply pbs=TABLE 32 for agrade=275

=460 N/mm2

Bearing capacity is lesser of

Pbs1=db*tt*pbs/10^3=20*10*460/10^3

=92 kN

or

Pbs2=0.5*e2*tt*pbs/10^3

=0.5*55*10*460/10^3

=126.5 kN

Bearing capac of connected ply

Pbs=Pbs1=92 kN

Bearing capacity

Pb=Pbs=92 kN

Since Fs Pb ( 63.5 kN 92 kN ), maximum load per bolt

within the bearing capacity.

Supported beam details

Dimensions (mm): Dc=533.1 Bc=209.3 tc=10.1 Tc=15.6 rc=12.7

Bearing strength of the seating bracket

dispersion from the supported beam root is used.

Dispersion length at U/S of beam Tus=Tc+T+r=15.6+10+12=37.6 mm

Dispersion length at seat root

Leb=2*Tus+tc+1.172*rc

=2*37.6+10.1+1.172*12.7

=100.18 mm

Length of seating bracket

ls=120 mm

Dispersion length less than seat length.

Bearing strength

pyw=275 N/mm2

Bearing capacity at root of seat Pcr=Leb*T*pyw/10^3=100.18*10*275/10^3

=275.51 kN

Page: 3

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Angle seat connection

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC482 BS

Office: 1007

As V Pcr ( 254 kN 275.51 kN ), shear force within bearing

capacity at root of seat.

Hence the design of the seating bracket connection is OK.

Bearing of supported beam

End clearance

Bearing length

g=INT(T*2/3)=INT(10*2/3)

=6 mm

b1=INT(2*T+0.8*r)-g

=INT(2*10+0.8*12)-6

=23 mm

b1

b

Stiff bearing

length 'b1'.

r

Thickness

Distance to end of member

Support factor

k=rc+Tc=12.7+15.6=28.3 mm

be=0 mm

n=2+0.6*be/k=2+0.6*0/28.3

=2

For steel grade S 275 and web thickness 10.1 mm

Design strength

pyw=275 N/mm2

Bearing capacity of web

Pbw=(b1+n*k)*tc*pyw/10^3

=(23+2*28.3)*10.1*275/10^3

=221.09 kN

As V > Pbw ( 254 kN > 221.09 kN ), a bearing stiffener is required.

Buckling capacity of web - Clause

Distance to nearer end of member

Depth of web

4.5.3.1

b1=23 mm

ae=be+b1/2=0+23/2=11.5 mm

d=Dc-2*(Tc+rc)=533.1-2*(15.6+12.7)

=476.5 mm

Parameter

e=(275/pyw)^0.5=(275/275)^0.5

=1

Factor

px=(ae+0.7*d)/(1.4*d)

=(11.5+0.7*476.5)/(1.4*476.5)

=0.51724

Buckling resistance

Px=px*25*e*tc/((b1+n*k)*d)^0.5*Pbw

=0.51724*25*1*10.1/((23+2*28.3)

*476.5)^0.5*221.09

=148.26 kN

As V > Px ( 254 kN > 148.26 kN ), a buckling stiffener is required.

Page: 4

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Angle seat connection

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC482 BS

Office: 1007

SEATING BRACKET

SUMMARY

LEG CONNECTED

TO SUPPORTING

MEMBER

SUPPORTED BEAM

END DETAILS

SUPPORTING COLUMN

150 mm x 90 mm x 10 mm Angle

Grade S 275 x 120 mm long

Number of bolts

4

Diameter of bolts

M 20 Grade 8.8

Pitch vertically

55 mm

End distance

55 mm

533 x 210 x 92 UB

End clearance

6 mm

Bearing length 'b1'

23 mm

Applied flange force 254 kN

Local web capacity

221 kN

Web buckling capacity 148 kN

Bearing stiffeners are required.

254 x 254 x 73 UC

No482

Page: 1

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Angle seat connection

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC482 EC

Office: 1007

Connection: Ex1 - From 'Manual on Connections'

Seating bracket

is used for the seating bracket.

Stability cleat

not shown

VEd

with EC3 Parts 1-5 and 1-8.

The stability cleat will provide

torsional resistance against

lateral buckling of the beam

and will resist tie and erection

forces. The seating cleat will

resist the vertical load.

Bolt grade

Grade of angle seat

Grade of supporting member

Grade of supported member

VEd=254 kN

bgrade=8.8

agrade=275

sgrade=275

grade=275

Bracket details

Dimensions (mm): h=150 b=90 t=10 r=12

Bolt group connecting the angle seat to supporting member

Diameter of bolts

db=20 mm

Number of bolts to be used

bn=4

Clearance hole diameter

do=db+2=20+2=22 mm

e2p2e2

SECTION

o

o

o

o

p1

e1

ELEVATION

Pitch of bolts vertically

p=55 mm

p1=55 mm

Four bolt

connection.

Page: 2

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Angle seat connection

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC482 EC

Office: 1007

The following spacings are based on EC3 Part 1-8 (2005):

Minimum p2 spacing

p2=90 mm

Maximum p2 spacing

p2=140 mm

Minimum e1 spacing

e1=1.2*do=1.2*22=26.4 mm

Maximum e1 spacing

e1=4*t+40=4*10+40=80 mm

Minimum e2 spacing

e2=1.2*do=1.2*22=26.4 mm

Maximum e2 spacing

e2=4*t+40=4*10+40=80 mm

Supporting column details

Dimensions (mm): bsc=254.6 twsc=8.6 tfsc=14.2

Thickness of connected ply

ts'=tfsc=14.2 mm

Bolts in shear

Factor

Tensile area of bolt

Bolt ultimate tensile strength

Shear resistance of bolt

FvEd=VEd/bn=254/4=63.5 kN

av=0.6

As=245 mm2

fub=800 N/mm2

FvRd=av*fub*As/(gamM2*10^3)

=0.6*800*245/(1.25*10^3)

=94.08 kN

As FvEd FvRd ( 63.5 kN 94.08 kN ), maximum load per bolt

within shear resistance.

For the bearing resistance check the lesser thickness of ply will be

taken as the controlling thickness.

Controlling thickness of ply

tcon=10 mm (angle seat)

Controlling design strength

fyas=275 N/mm2

Controlling ultimate strength

fuas=410 N/mm2

Factor

k1a=2.8*e2/do-1.7=2.8*80/22-1.7

=8.4818

Factor

k1b=1.4*p2/do-1.7=1.4*140/22-1.7

=7.2091

Limiting factor

k1=2.5

Ratios for factor ab

ab1=e1/(3*do)=80/(3*22)=1.2121

ab2=p1/(3*do)-1/4=55/(3*22)-1/4

=0.58333

ab3=fub/fuas=800/410=1.9512

ab4=e1/(3*do)=80/(3*22)=1.2121

Factor

ab=0.58333

Bearing resistance

FbRd=k1*ab*fuas*db*tcon/(1.25*10^3)

=2.5*0.58333*410*20*10/(1.25*10^3)

=95.667 kN

As FbRd > 0.8 FvRd then

Resistance of the bolt group

FRd=0.8*bn*FvRd=0.8*4*94.08

=301.06 kN

As FRd VEd ( 301.06 kN 254 kN ), end plate OK in bearing.

Supported beam details

Dimensions (mm): hsb=533.1 bsb=209.3 twsb=10.1 tfsb=15.6 rsb=12.7

Page: 3

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Angle seat connection

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC482 EC

Office: 1007

Bearing strength of the seating bracket

dispersion from the supported beam root is used.

Dispersion length at U/S of beam Tus=tfsb+t+r=15.6+10+12=37.6 mm

Dispersion length at seat root

Leb=2*Tus+twsb+1.172*rsb

=2*37.6+10.1+1.172*12.7

=100.18 mm

Length of seating bracket

ls=120 mm

Dispersion length less than seat length.

Bearing strength

fyw=275 N/mm2

Bearing resist. at root of seat

FbRds=Leb*t*fyw/10^3

=100.18*10*275/10^3

=275.51 kN

As VEd FbRds ( 254 kN 275.51 kN ), shear force within bearing

resistance at root of seat.

Hence the design of the seating bracket connection is OK.

Web resistance to transverse forces - BS EN 1993-1-5:2006

Depth between the flanges

hw=hsb-2*tfsb=533.1-2*15.6

=501.9 mm

Young's modulus

E=210000 N/mm2

The load is applied through one flange adjacent to an unstiffened end

as per Figure 6.1, load application Type c.

The length of stiff bearing ss on the flange is the length over which

the load is effectively distributed at a slope of 1:1 (Clause 6.3.(1)).

Stiff bearing length

ss=23 mm

Stiff bearing position

C=0 mm

Factor kf

kf=2+6*((ss+C)/hw)=2+6*((23+0)/501.9)

=2.275

Effective length

le=kf*E*tw^2/(2*fy*hw)

=2.275*210000*10.1^2/(2*275*501.9)

=176.54 mm

Limited value

le=ss+C=23+0=23 mm

Factor

m1=b/tw=209.3/10.1=20.723 mm

Consider

m2=0

Length

ly1=ss+2*tf*(1+(m1+m2)^0.5)

=23+2*15.6*(1+(20.723+0)^0.5)

=196.23 mm

Length

ly2=le+tf*(m1/2+(le/tf)^2+m2)^0.5

=23+15.6*(20.723/2+(23/15.6)^2

+0)^0.5

=78.232 mm

Length

ly3=le+tf*(m1+m2)^0.5

=23+15.6*(20.723+0)^0.5

=94.015 mm

Smallest length

ly=78.232 mm

Critical force

Fcr=0.9*kf*E*tw^3/hw

=0.9*2.275*210000*10.1^3/501.9

=882636 N

Non-dimensional slenderness

lamf=(ly*tw*fy/Fcr)^0.5

=(78.232*10.1*275/882636)^0.5

=0.49617

Page: 4

Steel design to BS5950-1:2000 and Eurocode 3

Made by: IFB

Angle seat connection

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC482 EC

Office: 1007

Reduction factor

chiF=1.0

Effective length

Leff=chiF*ly=1*78.232=78.232 mm

Design resistance

FRd=fy*Leff*tw/10^3

=275*78.232*10.1/10^3

=217.29 kN

Design resistance of the web is less than the design transverse force

applied to the web ( 254 kN ). Bearing stiffeners are required.

SEATING BRACKET

SUMMARY

LEG CONNECTED

TO SUPPORTING

MEMBER

SUPPORTED BEAM

END DETAILS

SUPPORTING COLUMN

150 mm x 90 mm x 10 mm Angle

Grade S 275 x 120 mm long

Number of bolts

4

Diameter of bolts

M 20 Grade 8.8

Pitch vertically

55 mm

end distance

55 mm

533 x 210 x 92 UKB

End clearance

6 mm

Bearing length 'ss'

23 mm

Applied flange force 254 kN

Web resistance

217 kN

Bearing stiffeners are required.

254 x 254 x 73 UKC

No482

Page: 1

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Wall panel

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC505 BS

Office: 1007

Masonry wall panel to BS5628 (Table 8)

Calculations in accordance with BS5628-1:2005

Panel reference C

in BS5628 Table 8

XX

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

XX

/ / / / / / / / / / /

L

Masonry details

L=4 m

Height of wall panel

h=3 m

Outer leaf density

den(1)=10 kN/m3

Thickness of outer leaf

t(1)=100 mm

Inner leaf density

den(2)=10 kN/m3

Thickness of inner leaf

t(2)=100 mm

Mortar designation (Table 1)

mortar=3

Outer leaf (1=clay 2=calc silicate 3=conc brick 4=block)

typ(1)=4

Concrete Blocks

compressive strength

po(1)=10.4 N/mm2

Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure and leaf not exceeding

100mm thick - Table 3

fb(a)=TABLE 3.7 for po=10.4, mortar=3

=0.25 N/mm2

Characteristic flexural strength for perp failure and leaf not exceeding

100mm thick - Table 3

fp(a)=TABLE 3.8 for po=10.4, mortar=3

=0.75 N/mm2

Inner leaf (1=clay 2=calc silicate 3=conc brick 4=block)

typ(2)=4

Concrete Blocks

compressive strength

po(2)=10.4 N/mm2

Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure and leaf not exceeding

100mm thick - Table 3

fb(a)=TABLE 3.7 for po=10.4, mortar=3

=0.25 N/mm2

Characteristic flexural strength for perp failure and leaf not exceeding

100mm thick - Table 3

fp(a)=TABLE 3.8 for po=10.4, mortar=3

=0.75 N/mm2

Partial safety factor materials

gammam=3

Design parameters

Effective thickness

Ratio

tef=(2/3)*(t(1)+t(2))=(2/3)*(100+100)

=133.33 mm

h'L=h/L=3/4=0.75

Page: 2

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Wall panel

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC505 BS

Office: 1007

Limiting dimensions

limit=50*tef/1000=50*133.33/1000

=6.6667 m

Panel height within maximum allowable (Clause 32.3).

Panel length within maximum allowable (Clause 32.3).

Area of panel

area=h*L=3*4=12 m2

Panel supported on three edges with two or more continuous edges.

Permitted maximum area

limit=1500*(tef/1000)^2

=1500*(133.33/1000)^2

=26.667 m2

Panel area within allowable (Clause 32.3).

Loading details

WL=0.85 kN/m2

Removal of panel would not affect stability.

Partial safety factor for loads

gammaf=1.2

Outer leaf allowable loads

Bending

self weight at mid height of the panel and any additional dead loads

applied to the top of this leaf.

Self weight vert load /unit area gas=0.9*den(a)*(h/2)/10^3

=0.9*10*(3/2)/10^3

=0.0135 N/mm2

Additional vert DL on panel

w(1)=0 kN/m

Orthogonal strength ratio

mu=(fb(a)+gammam*gas)/fp(a)

=(0.25+3*0.0135)/0.75

=0.38733

Section modulus

Z=1000*t(a)^2/6=1000*100^2/6

=1.6667E6 mm3/m

Design moment of resistance

Md=fp(a)*Z/(gammam*10^6)

=0.75*1.6667E6/(3*10^6)

=0.41667 kNm/m

Bending moment coefficient

alpha=TABLE 8.03 for mu=0.38733, h'L

=0.75

=0.044253

Allowable load on leaf (bending) L(1)=Md/(alpha*gammaf*L^2)

=0.41667/(0.044253*1.2*4^2)

=0.49039 kN/m2

Shear

Charact shear strength at found

Charact shear strength at side

Partial safety factor for shear

ga=2*gas+gaa=2*0.0135+0=0.027 N/mm2

fvf=0.15+0.6*ga=0.15+0.6*0.027

=0.1662 N/mm2

fvs=0.35 N/mm2

gammav=2.5

Page: 3

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Wall panel

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC505 BS

Office: 1007

Des shear strength wall at found gvf=fvf/gammav=0.1662/2.5

=0.06648 N/mm2

Des shear strength wall at sides gvs=fvs/gammav=0.35/2.5=0.14 N/mm2

Allowable load in shear at found Lf(1)=gvf*L*t(a)=0.06648*4*100

=26.592 kN

Allow load in shear side of wall Ls(1)=gvs*h*t(a)=0.14*3*100

=42 kN

Inner leaf allowable loads

Bending

self weight at mid height of the panel and any additional dead loads

applied to the top of this leaf.

Self weight vert load /unit area gas=0.9*den(a)*(h/2)/10^3

=0.9*10*(3/2)/10^3

=0.0135 N/mm2

Additional vert DL on panel

w(2)=0 kN/m

Orthogonal strength ratio

mu=(fb(a)+gammam*gas)/fp(a)

=(0.25+3*0.0135)/0.75

=0.38733

Section modulus

Z=1000*t(a)^2/6=1000*100^2/6

=1.6667E6 mm3/m

Design moment of resistance

Md=fp(a)*Z/(gammam*10^6)

=0.75*1.6667E6/(3*10^6)

=0.41667 kNm/m

Bending moment coefficient

alpha=TABLE 8.03 for mu=0.38733, h'L

=0.75

=0.044253

Allowable load on leaf (bending) L(2)=Md/(alpha*gammaf*L^2)

=0.41667/(0.044253*1.2*4^2)

=0.49039 kN/m2

Shear

Charact shear strength at found

Charact shear strength at side

Partial safety factor for shear

Des shear strength wall at found

Des shear strength wall at sides

Allowable load in shear at found

Allow load in shear side of wall

ga=2*gas+gaa=2*0.0135+0=0.027 N/mm2

fvf=0.15+0.6*ga=0.15+0.6*0.027

=0.1662 N/mm2

fvs=0.35 N/mm2

gammav=2.5

gvf=fvf/gammav=0.1662/2.5

=0.06648 N/mm2

gvs=fvs/gammav=0.35/2.5=0.14 N/mm2

Lf(2)=gvf*L*t(a)=0.06648*4*100

=26.592 kN

Ls(2)=gvs*h*t(a)=0.14*3*100

=42 kN

Page: 4

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Wall panel

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC505 BS

Office: 1007

Bending check

Lmax=L(1)+L(2)=0.49039+0.49039

=0.98078 kN/m2

Wall satisfactory - WL Lmax ( 0.85 kN/m2 0.98078 kN/m2 )

characteristic wind load less than allowable.

Provide wall ties capable of transferring 0.35961 kN/m2 (Char'c Load)

Shear check

Design shear on side wall

sarea=h*L/2=3*4/2=6 m2

Vs=sarea*gammaf*WL=6*1.2*0.85

=6.12 kN

Max area panel supported on found farea=L*h=4*3=12 m2

Design shear on foundation

Vf=farea*gammaf*WL=12*1.2*0.85

=12.24 kN

Allowable load on side of wall

Ls=Ls(1)+Ls(2)=42+42=84 kN

Allow load at foundation of wall Lf=Lf(1)+Lf(2)=26.592+26.592

=53.184 kN

Since Vs Ls ( 6.12 kN 84 kN ) design shear on side of wall

is within allowable.

Since Vf Lf ( 12.24 kN 53.184 kN ) design shear at foundation

of wall is within allowable.

DESIGN SUMMARY

Panel length

Panel height

OUTER LEAF

Thickness

Char flex strength (bed)

Char flex strength (perp)

INNER LEAF

Thickness

Char flex strength (bed)

Char flex strength (perp)

Effective wall thickness

Char wind pressure

Char wind capacity (bend)

Design shear on sides

Shear strength of sides

Design shear on founds

Shear strength of founds

Material safety factor

Load safety factor

4 m

3 m

100 mm

0.25 N/mm2

0.75 N/mm2

100 mm

0.25 N/mm2

0.75 N/mm2

133.33 mm

0.85 kN/m2

0.98078 kN/m2

6.12 kN

84 kN

12.24 kN

53.184 kN

3

1.2

No505

Page: 1

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Wall panel

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC505 EC

Office: 1007

Masonry wall panel to EC6 Part 1-1 (Annex E)

Calculations in accordance with EC6 Part 1-1 Annex E

Panel reference C

in EC6 Annex E

XX

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

XX

/ / / / / / / / / / /

L

Masonry details

L=4 m

Height of wall panel

h=3 m

Outer leaf density

den(1)=10 kN/m3

Thickness of outer leaf

t(1)=100 mm

Inner leaf density

den(2)=10 kN/m3

Thickness of inner leaf

t(2)=100 mm

Mortar designation (Table NA.2)

mortar=3

Outer leaf (1=clay 2=calc silicate 3=conc brick 4=block)

typ(1)=4

Concrete Blocks

Compressive strength of units

po(1)=10.4 N/mm2

Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure and leaf not exceeding

100mm thick - Table NA.6

fxk11=TABLE 6.7 for po=10.4, mortar=3

=0.25 N/mm2

Characteristic flexural strength for perp failure and leaf not exceeding

100mm thick - Table NA.6

fxk21=TABLE 6.8 for po=10.4, mortar=3

=0.75 N/mm2

Inner leaf (1=clay 2=calc silicate 3=conc brick 4=block)

typ(2)=4

Concrete Blocks

Compressive strength of units

po(2)=10.4 N/mm2

Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure and leaf not exceeding

100mm thick - Table NA.6

fxk12=TABLE 6.7 for po=10.4, mortar=3

=0.25 N/mm2

Characteristic flexural strength for perp failure and leaf not exceeding

100mm thick - Table NA.6

fxk22=TABLE 6.8 for po=10.4, mortar=3

=0.75 N/mm2

Removal of wall panel would not affect the overall stability.

Partial safety factor for loads

gamQ=1.5

Partial safety factor (material) gamM=2.4

Design parameters

Ratio

tef=((t1')^3+(t2')^3)^0.3333

=((100)^3+(100)^3)^0.3333

=125.93 mm

h'L=h/L=3/4=0.75

Page: 2

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Wall panel

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC505 EC

Office: 1007

Limiting dimensions to Annex F

The limiting height and length dimensions for walls are given in EC6

Part 1-1 Annex F. This Annex is applicable as each leaf of cavity wall

has a thickness 100 mm.

Panel limiting dimensions are in accordance with EC6 Annex F

Figure F.3.

Loading details

Qkw=0.85 kN/m2

Bending

self weight at mid height of the panel and any additional dead loads

applied to the top of this leaf.

Self weight vert load /unit area gas=0.9*den(a)*(h/2)/10^3

=0.9*10*(3/2)/10^3

=0.0135 N/mm2

Additional vert DL on panel

w(1)=0 kN/m

Orthogonal strength ratio

mu=(fxk11+gamM*gas)/fxk21

=(0.25+2.4*0.0135)/0.75

=0.37653

Section modulus

Z=1000*t(a)^2/6=1000*100^2/6

=1.6667E6 mm3/m

Design moment of resistance

Mrd=fxk21*Z/(gamM*10^6)

=0.75*1.6667E6/(2.4*10^6)

=0.52083 kNm/m

Bending moment coefficient

alpha=TABLE 18.03 for mu

=0.37653, h'L=0.75

=0.044469

Allowable load on leaf (bending) L(1)=Mrd/(alpha*gamQ*L^2)

=0.52083/(0.044469*1.5*4^2)

=0.48801 kN/m2

Shear

Shape factor (outer leaf)

hu(1)=215 mm

delta1=TABLE 1 for h1=215, t1=100

=1.38

Normalised comp strength of units fbn=delta1*po(1)=1.38*10.4

=14.352 N/mm2

Design load/unit area at found

ga=2*gas+gaa=2*0.0135+0=0.027 N/mm2

The characteristic initial shear strength of masonry fvko from

EC6 NA Table NA.5 is

fvko=0.15 N/mm2

Charact shear strength at found

fvf=fvko+0.4*ga=0.15+0.4*0.027

=0.1608 N/mm2

Charact shear strength at side

fvs=fvko=0.15 N/mm2

Partial safety factor for shear

gammav=2.5

Des shear strength wall at found gvf=fvf/gammav=0.1608/2.5

=0.06432 N/mm2

Page: 3

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Wall panel

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC505 EC

Office: 1007

Des shear strength wall at sides gvs=fvs/gammav=0.15/2.5=0.06 N/mm2

Allowable load in shear at found Lf(1)=gvf*L*t(a)=0.06432*4*100

=25.728 kN

Allow load in shear side of wall Ls(1)=gvs*h*t(a)=0.06*3*100

=18 kN

Inner leaf allowable loads

Bending

self weight at mid height of the panel and any additional dead loads

applied to the top of this leaf.

Self weight vert load /unit area gas=0.9*den(a)*(h/2)/10^3

=0.9*10*(3/2)/10^3

=0.0135 N/mm2

Additional vert DL on panel

w(2)=0 kN/m

Orthogonal strength ratio

mu=(fxk12+gamM*gas)/fxk22

=(0.25+2.4*0.0135)/0.75

=0.37653

Section modulus

Z=1000*t(a)^2/6=1000*100^2/6

=1.6667E6 mm3/m

Design moment of resistance

Mrd=fxk22*Z/(gamM*10^6)

=0.75*1.6667E6/(2.4*10^6)

=0.52083 kNm/m

Bending moment coefficient

alpha=TABLE 18.03 for mu

=0.37653, h'L=0.75

=0.044469

Allowable load on leaf (bending) L(2)=Mrd/(alpha*gamQ*L^2)

=0.52083/(0.044469*1.5*4^2)

=0.48801 kN/m2

Shear

Shape factor (inner leaf)

hu(2)=215 mm

delta2=TABLE 1 for h2=215, t2=100

=1.38

Normalised comp strength of units fbn=delta2*po(2)=1.38*10.4

=14.352 N/mm2

Design load/unit area at found

ga=2*gas+gaa=2*0.0135+0=0.027 N/mm2

The characteristic initial shear strength of masonry fvko from

EC6 NA Table NA.5 is

fvko=0.15 N/mm2

Charact shear strength at found

fvf=fvko+0.4*ga=0.15+0.4*0.027

=0.1608 N/mm2

Charact shear strength at side

fvs=fvko=0.15 N/mm2

Partial safety factor for shear

gammav=2.5

Des shear strength wall at found gvf=fvf/gammav=0.1608/2.5

=0.06432 N/mm2

Des shear strength wall at sides gvs=fvs/gammav=0.15/2.5=0.06 N/mm2

Allowable load in shear at found Lf(2)=gvf*L*t(a)=0.06432*4*100

=25.728 kN

Allow load in shear side of wall Ls(2)=gvs*h*t(a)=0.06*3*100

=18 kN

Page: 4

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Wall panel

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC505 EC

Office: 1007

Bending check

Lmax=L(1)+L(2)=0.48801+0.48801

=0.97602 kN/m2

Wall satisfactory - Qkw Lmax ( 0.85 kN/m2 0.97602 kN/m2 )

characteristic wind load less than allowable.

Provide wall ties capable of transferring 0.36199 kN/m2 (Char'c Load)

Shear check

Design shear on side wall

sarea=h*L/2=3*4/2=6 m2

Vs=sarea*gamQ*Qkw=6*1.5*0.85

=7.65 kN

Max area panel supported on found farea=L*h=4*3=12 m2

Design shear on foundation

Vf=farea*gamQ*Qkw=12*1.5*0.85

=15.3 kN

Allowable load on side of wall

Ls=Ls(1)+Ls(2)=18+18=36 kN

Allow load at foundation of wall Lf=Lf(1)+Lf(2)=25.728+25.728

=51.456 kN

Since Vs Ls ( 7.65 kN 36 kN ) design shear on side of wall

is within allowable.

Since Vf Lf ( 15.3 kN 51.456 kN ) design shear at foundation

of wall is within allowable.

DESIGN SUMMARY

Panel length

Panel height

OUTER LEAF

Thickness

Char flex strength (bed)

Char flex strength (perp)

INNER LEAF

Thickness

Char flex strength (bed)

Char flex strength (perp)

Effective wall thickness

Char wind pressure

Char wind capacity (bend)

Design shear on sides

Shear strength of sides

Design shear on founds

Shear strength of founds

Material safety factor

Load safety factor

4 m

3 m

100 mm

0.25 N/mm2

0.75 N/mm2

100 mm

0.25 N/mm2

0.75 N/mm2

125.93 mm

0.85 kN/m2

0.97602 kN/m2

7.65 kN

36 kN

15.3 kN

51.456 kN

2.4

1.5

No505

Page: 1

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Simplified sub-frame analysis to EC6

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC528 EC

Office: 1007

Location: Wall panel 3

BS EN 1996-1-1:2005, Annex C, gives a simplified method for calculating

the out-of-plane eccentricity of loading on masonry walls. The structure

is simplified to a sub-frame for the evaluation of moments at the top

and bottom of the wall.

Partial safety factors

Permanent actions

Variable actions

gamG=1.35

gamQ=1.5

mortar=3

Masonry type (1=clay 2=cal silicate 3=conc brick 4=block) typ(1)=4

Compressive strength of units

po=7.3 N/mm2

Masonry made with general purpose mortar.

Value for constant

alp(1)=0.7

Value for constant

bet(1)=0.3

Compressive strength of mortar

fm=4 N/mm2

Constant K from NA Table NA.4

K(1)=0.75

Wall to be constructed using Group 1 masonry units.

Height of masonry unit

hu=215 mm

Least horiz. dimension of units

lhd=140 mm

Shape factor

delta=TABLE 1 for hu=215, lhd=140

=1.3

Characteristic comp.strength

fk(1)=K(a)*(po*delta)^alp(a)*fm^bet(a)

=0.75*(7.3*1.3)^0.7*4^0.3

=5.4924 N/mm2

Modulus of elasticity (masonry)

Em=fk(a)*1000=5.4924*1000

=5492.4 N/mm2

Modulus of elasticity (floor)

Ef=36000 N/mm2

Moment at the top of wall - (at node point A)

(4)

/

A/ roof

M1 /

/

/

1 & 4 are member numbers

/

M1 = moment at top of wall

/

(1)

A-B = represents the wall

/

under consideration

B

\\\

Masonry Wall 1

Wall thickness

Wall clear height

Modulus of elasticity

2nd moment of area

t1'=140 mm

h1'=2800 mm

E1'=5492.4 N/mm2

I1'=1000*t1'^3/12=1000*140^3/12

=228.67E6 mm4

Page: 2

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Simplified sub-frame analysis to EC6

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC528 EC

Office: 1007

compute

c1=E1'*I1'/h1'*1E-6

=5492.4*228.67E6/2800*1E-6

=448.55 kNm

Roof slab 4

Floor thickness

Length of member 4

Modulus of elasticity

2nd moment of area

compute

compute

Factor from Annex C(3)

Use minimum value

Fixed end moment (member 3)

Char permanent load on member 4

Char variable load on member 4

Design UDL on member 4

Fixed end moment member 4

Design moment at the top of wall

t4'=200 mm

l4'=6500 mm

E4'=36000 N/mm2

I4'=0.85*1000*t4'^3/12

=0.85*1000*200^3/12

=566.67E6 mm4

c4=E4'*I4'/l4'*1E-6

=36000*566.67E6/6500*1E-6

=3138.5 kNm

km=c4/c1=3138.5/448.55=6.997

eta=1-km/4=1-6.997/4=-0.74924

eta=0.5

m3=0 kNm

Gk4'=4.3 kN/m2

Qk4'=1.5 kN/m2

w4=gamG*Gk4'+gamQ*Qk4'

=1.35*4.3+1.5*1.5

=8.055 kN/m

m4=w4*l4'^2*1E-6/12

=8.055*6500^2*1E-6/12

=28.36 kNm

M1=eta*c1/(c1+c4)*(m3-m4)

=0.5*448.55/(448.55+3138.5)*(0

-28.36)

=-1.7732 kNm/m

\\\

A

/

(2) /

/

/

1 ,2 & 4 are member numbers

/

(4)

/

M2 = moment at bot of wall

M2 / floor

A-B = represents the wall

B

under consideration

(1)

\\\

Masonry wall 1

Wall thickness

t1=140 mm

Wall clear height

h1=2800 mm

Modulus of elasticity of wall

E1=5492.4 N/mm2

2nd moment of area of wall

I1=1000*t1^3/12=1000*140^3/12

=228.67E6 mm4

Page: 3

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Simplified sub-frame analysis to EC6

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC528 EC

Office: 1007

compute

c1=E1*I1/h1*1E-6

=5492.4*228.67E6/2800*1E-6

=448.55 kNm

Masonry wall 2

Wall thickness

Wall height

Modulus of elasticity of wall

2nd moment of area of wall

compute

Floor slab member 4

Floor thickness

Length of member 4

Modulus of elasticity

2nd moment of area

compute

compute

Factor Annex C(3)

Use minimum value

Fixed end moment (member 3)

Char permanent load on member 4

Char variable load on member 4

Design UDL on member 4

Fixed end moment member 4

Design moment at the bot of wall

t2=140 mm

h2=2800 mm

E2=5492.4 N/mm2

I2=228.67E6 mm4

c2=448.55 kNm

t4=200 mm

l4=6500 mm

E4=36000 N/mm2

I4=0.85*1000*t4^3/12

=0.85*1000*200^3/12

=566.67E6 mm4

c4=E4*I4/l4*1E-6

=36000*566.67E6/6500*1E-6

=3138.5 kNm

km=c4/(c1+c2)=3138.5/(448.55+448.55)

=3.4985

eta=1-km/4=1-3.4985/4=0.12538

eta=0.5

m3=0 kNm

Gk4=4.3 kN/m2

Qk4=3.5 kN/m2

w4=gamG*Gk4+gamQ*Qk4=1.35*4.3+1.5*3.5

=11.055 kN/m

m4=w4*l4^2*1E-6/12

=11.055*6500^2*1E-6/12

=38.923 kNm

M2=eta*c2/(c1+c2+c4)*(m3-m4)

=0.5*448.55/(448.55+448.55+3138.5)

*(0-38.923)

=-2.1631 kNm/m

Mmd=(M1-M2)/2=(-1.7732--2.1631)/2

=0.19497 kNm/m

dividing the design moment at the top of wall by the design vertical

load at the top of the wall.

Design vert. load @ top of wall

Nid=26.3 kN/m

Eccentricity of roof load

ecc=ABS(M1)*1000/Nid

=ABS(-1.7732)*1000/26.3

=67.422 mm

Page: 4

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Simplified sub-frame analysis to EC6

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC528 EC

Office: 1007

DESIGN SUMMARY

Wall thickness

Eccentricity of floor load

Design moment (top of wall)

Design moment @ mid-height

Design moment (bot of wall)

2800 mm

140 mm

67.422 mm

-1.7732 kNm/m

0.19497 kNm/m

-2.1631 kNm/m

No528

Page: 1

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

External cavity wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC530 BS

Office: 1007

Location: Wall on grid line A/1-2

Load(1) Load(2)

Load(3)

WL

Masonry details

Density of outer leaf

Thickness of inner leaf

Density of inner leaf

Clear height of wall

Effective thick of cavity wall

Support Restraint factor

Effective height of wall

Slenderness ratio

Length of wall panel

Mortar designation to Table 1

Partial Safety Factor Material

BS5628-1:2005, the Code of

practice for use of masonry,

Part 1: Structural use of

unreinforced masonry.

WL = wind load

t(1)=100 mm

den(1)=12.4 kN/m3

t(2)=140 mm

den(2)=12.4 kN/m3

h=2.425 m

tef=2*(t(1)+t(2))/3=2*(100+140)/3

=160 mm

rf=0.75

heff=rf*h=0.75*2.425=1.8188 m

SR=heff*1000/tef=1.8188*1000/160

=11.367

L=4 m

mortar=3

gammam=3.1

Outer Leaf:

Masonry type (1=clay 2=cal silicate 3=conc brick 4=block) typ(1)=1

Compressive Strength of Units

po(1)=21 N/mm2

Water absorption %age of leaf

water=9

Char comp strength - Table 2(a)

fk(a)=TABLE 2.1 for mortar=3, po=21

=5.13 N/mm2

Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure - Table 3

fb(a)=TABLE 3.1 for water=9, mortar=3

=0.4 N/mm2

Inner Leaf:

Masonry type (1=clay 2=cal silicate 3=conc brick 4=block) typ(2)=4

Compressive Strength of Units

po(2)=3.6 N/mm2

Height

hb(2)=215 mm

Least horizontal dimension

lhd(2)=140 mm

ratio height/least horiz. dim

rb=hb(2)/lhd(2)=215/140=1.5357

Page: 2

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

External cavity wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC530 BS

Office: 1007

Characteristic compressive strength

for ratios of 0.6 - Table 2(c)

Fk1=TABLE 2.3 for mortar=3, po=3.6

=1.7 N/mm2

for ratios of 2.0 - Table 2(d)

Fk2=TABLE 2.4 for mortar=3, po=3.6

=3.5 N/mm2

for ratios of 1.5357

fk(2)=Fk1+(Fk2-Fk1)*(rb-0.6)/1.4

=1.7+(3.5-1.7)*(1.5357-0.6)/1.4

=2.9031 N/mm2

Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure (Table 3) and leaf

not exceeding 100mm thick

fb=TABLE 3.7 for po=3.6, mortar=3

=0.25 N/mm2

greater than 250mm thick

fb'=TABLE 3.71 for po=3.6, mortar=3

=0.15 N/mm2

leaf in range 100-250 mm

fb(2)= fb+(fb'-fb)*(t-100)/150

= 0.25+(0.15-0.25)*(140-100)/150

=0.22333 N/mm2

Characteristic loads

Dead load from upper levels

DL(1)=4 kN/m

Dead load from upper levels

Live load from upper levels

Dead load from supported floor

Live load from supported floor

Ecc of floor load on inner leaf

DL(2)=7 kN/m

LL(2)=5.5 kN/m

DL(3)=12 kN/m

LL(3)=5 kN/m

ecc=23.333 mm

WL=0.62 kN/m2

leaf which carries the majority of load.

At top of Wall:

Case 1: Max load from above

1.4DL + 1.6LL

g=1.4*(DL(2)+DL(3))+1.6*(LL(2)+LL(3))

=1.4*(7+12)+1.6*(5.5+5)

=43.4 kN/m

Design bending moment

M=(1.4*DL(3)+1.6*LL(3))*ecc/1000

=(1.4*12+1.6*5)*23.333/1000

=0.57866 kNm

Resultant eccentricity

ex=M/g=0.57866/43.4=0.013333 m

Eccentricity ratio

e=ex*1000/t(2)=0.013333*1000/140

=0.095237

Capacity reduction factor

beta=TABLE 7 for SR=11.367, e=0.095237

=0.87978

Design vert. load resist of wall gd=beta*(t(2)/1000)*(fk(2)*1000)

/gammam

=0.87978*(140/1000)*(2.9031*1000)

/3.1

=115.34 kN/m

Since g gd ( 43.4 kN/m 115.34 kN/m ) design vertical load

Page: 3

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

External cavity wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC530 BS

Office: 1007

within vertical load resistance of wall, therefore OK.

Case 2: Min load from above

0.9DL + 1.6LL

g=0.9*DL(2)+1.4*DL(3)+1.6*(LL(2)

+LL(3))

=0.9*7+1.4*12+1.6*(5.5+5)

=39.9 kN/m

Design bending moment

M=(1.4*DL(3)+1.6*LL(3))*ecc/1000

=(1.4*12+1.6*5)*23.333/1000

=0.57866 kNm

Resultant eccentricity

ex=M/g=0.57866/39.9=0.014503 m

Eccentricity ratio

e=ex*1000/t(2)=0.014503*1000/140

=0.10359

Capacity reduction factor

beta=TABLE 7 for SR=11.367, e=0.10359

=0.86551

Design vert. load resist of wall gd=beta*(t(2)/1000)*(fk(2)*1000)

/gammam

=0.86551*(140/1000)*(2.9031*1000)

/3.1

=113.47 kN/m

Since g gd ( 39.9 kN/m 113.47 kN/m ) design vertical load

within vertical load resistance of wall, therefore OK.

Lateral load capacity

Vertical loads at mid height of panel:

On inner leaf

DLi=DL(2)+DL(3)+den(2)*(h/2)*(t(2)

/1000)

=7+12+12.4*(2.425/2)*(140/1000)

=21.105 kN/m

On outer leaf

DLo=DL(1)+den(1)*(h/2)*(t(1)/1000)

=4+12.4*(2.425/2)*(100/1000)

=5.5035 kN/m

Design compressive stress in wall:

For inner leaf

gdi=0.9*DLi/t(2)=0.9*21.105/140

=0.13567 N/mm2

For outer leaf

gdo=0.9*DLo/t(1)=0.9*5.5035/100

=0.049532 N/mm2

Effective characteristic flexural strength (Clause 32.4.2):

For inner leaf

Fb(2)=fb(2)+gammam*gdi

=0.22333+3.1*0.13567

=0.64392 N/mm2

For outer leaf

Fb(1)=fb(1)+gammam*gdo

=0.4+3.1*0.049532

=0.55355 N/mm2

Section modulus inner leaf

Zi=1000*t(2)^2/6=1000*140^2/6

=3.2667E6 mm3

Moment of resist for inner leaf

Mri=Fb(2)*Zi/(gammam*10^6)

=0.64392*3.2667E6/(3.1*10^6)

=0.67854 kNm/m

Section modulus outer leaf

Zo=1000*t(1)^2/6=1000*100^2/6

=1.6667E6 mm3

Moment of resist for outer leaf

Mro=Fb(1)*Zo/(gammam*10^6)

=0.55355*1.6667E6/(3.1*10^6)

=0.29761 kNm/m

Page: 4

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

External cavity wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC530 BS

Office: 1007

For both leaves

Mr=Mri+Mro=0.67854+0.29761

=0.97615 kNm/m

Design moment (simple supports)

M=1.4*WL*h^2/8=1.4*0.62*2.425^2/8

=0.63805 kNm/m

Moment reduction factor for end fixity =1.0 for simply supported ends

or propped cantilever

=1.5 for fully fixed ends

Moment reduction factor

mrf=1

Elastic design moment

M=M/mrf=0.63805/1=0.63805 kNm/m

Since M Mr ( 0.63805 kNm/m 0.97615 kNm/m ) elastic design

moment within design moment of resistance, therefore OK.

DESIGN SUMMARY

OUTER LEAF

INNER LEAF

Wall height

Thickness

Char. flex strength

Char. comp strength

Thickness

Char flex strength

Char. comp strength

Effective wall thickness

Effective wall height

Slenderness ratio

Max vertical design load

Vertical load resistance

Vertical load (max ecc)

Vertical load resistance

Wind pressure

Elastic design moment

Moment of resistance

2.425 m

100 mm

0.4 N/mm2

5.13 N/mm2

140 mm

0.22333 N/mm2

2.9031 N/mm2

160 mm

1.8188 m

11.367

43.4 kN

115.34 kN

39.9 kN

113.47 kN

0.62 kN/m2

0.63805 kNm

0.97615 kNm

No530

Page: 1

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

External cavity wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC530 EC

Office: 1007

Location: Wall on grid line A/1-2

Load(1) Load(2)

Load(3)

Wk

Masonry details

Density of outer leaf

Thickness of inner leaf

Density of inner leaf

Clear height of wall

between lateral restraints

Effective thick of cavity wall

Support Restraint factor

Effective height of wall

Slenderness ratio

Length of wall panel

Mortar designation (Table NA.2)

Material partial safety factor

with EC6, the structural Eurocode

for design of masonry structures

Part 1-1:2005 General rules for

reinforced & unreinforced masonry

structures.

Wk = wind load or wind suction

t(1)=100 mm

den(1)=12.4 kN/m3

t(2)=140 mm

den(2)=12.4 kN/m3

h=2.425 m

tef=((t1')^3+(t2')^3)^0.3333

=((100)^3+(140)^3)^0.3333

=155.2 mm

rf=0.75

hef=rf*h=0.75*2.425=1.8188 m

SR=hef*1000/tef=1.8188*1000/155.2

=11.719

L=4 m

mortar=3

gamM=3

Outer Leaf:

Masonry type (1=clay 2=cal silicate 3=conc brick 4=block) typ(1)=1

Compressive strength of units

po(1)=21 N/mm2

Water absorption %age of leaf

water=9

Masonry made with general purpose mortar.

Value for constant

alp(1)=0.7

Value for constant

bet(1)=0.3

Compressive strength of mortar

fm=4 N/mm2

Constant K from NA Table NA.4

K(1)=0.5

Wall to be constructed using Group 1 masonry units.

Height of masonry unit

hu(1)=65 mm

Least horiz. dimension of units

lhd(1)=100 mm

Shape factor

delta=TABLE 1 for hu=65, lhd=100

=0.85

Characteristic comp strength

fk(1)=K(a)*(po*delta)^alp(a)*fm^bet(a)

=0.5*(21*0.85)^0.7*4^0.3

=5.6982 N/mm2

Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure - Table NA.6

fxk11=TABLE 6.1 for water=9, mortar=3

=0.4 N/mm2

Page: 2

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

External cavity wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC530 EC

Office: 1007

Inner Leaf:

Masonry type (1=clay 2=cal silicate 3=conc brick 4=block) typ(2)=4

Compressive strength of units

po(2)=3.6 N/mm2

Masonry made with general purpose mortar.

Value for constant

alp(2)=0.7

Value for constant

bet(2)=0.3

Compressive strength of mortar

fm=4 N/mm2

Constant K from NA Table NA.4

K(2)=0.55

Wall to be constructed using Group 1 masonry units.

Height of masonry unit

hu(2)=215 mm

Least horiz. dimension of units

lhd(2)=140 mm

Shape factor

delta=TABLE 1 for hu=215, lhd=140

=1.3

Characteristic comp strength

fk(2)=K(a)*(po*delta)^alp(a)*fm^bet(a)

=0.55*(3.6*1.3)^0.7*4^0.3

=2.4556 N/mm2

Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure (Table NA.6) and leaf

not exceeding 100mm thick

fxk1=TABLE 6.7 for po=3.6, mortar=3

=0.25 N/mm2

greater than 250mm thick

fxk1'=TABLE 6.71 for po=3.6, mortar=3

=0.15 N/mm2

leaf in range 100-250 mm

fxk12=fxk1+(fxk1'-fxk1)*(t-100)/150

=0.25+(0.15-0.25)*(140-100)/150

=0.22333 N/mm2

Characteristic loads

Outer leaf:

Permanent load from upper levels

Inner leaf:

Permanent load from upper levels

Variable load from upper levels

Permanent load from floor

Variable load from floor

Ecc of floor loads on inner leaf

Gk(1)=4 kN/m

Gk(2)=7 kN/m

Qk(2)=5.5 kN/m

Gk(3)=12 kN/m

Qk(3)=5 kN/m

ecc=23.333 mm

Wk=0.62 kN/m2

Load factors

Perm actions (floor)

Variable actions (vertical load)

Variable actions (horiz.wind)

gamG2=1.35

gamG3=1.35

gamQ=1.5

gamQw=0.75

Clause 6.1.2.2 is Nid.

Compute

comp1=gamG2*Gk(2)+gamG3*Gk(3)

=1.35*7+1.35*12

=25.65 kN/m

Compute

comp2=gamQ*(Qk(2)+Qk(3))=1.5*(5.5+5)

=15.75 kN/m

Design vert. load @ top of wall

Nid=comp1+comp2=25.65+15.75

=41.4 kN/m

Design bending moment at the top or the bottom of the wall resulting

Page: 3

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

External cavity wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC530 EC

Office: 1007

from the eccentricity of the floor load at the support, as defined in

EC6 Clause 6.1.2.2

Mid=(gamG3*Gk(3)+gamQ*Qk(3))*ecc/1000

=(1.35*12+1.5*5)*23.333/1000

=0.55299 kNm/m

Wall self weight at mid-height

Gk'=den(2)*(h/2)*(t(2)/1000)

=12.4*(2.425/2)*(140/1000)

=2.1049 kN/m

Design vert. load at mid-height

Nsd=Nid+gamG2*Gk'=41.4+1.35*2.1049

=44.242 kN/m

Note: Two independent variable actions have been considered using the

appropriate combination load factors o for the variable loads.

Design wind moments and eccentricities

Md1=0 kNm/m

Bending moment @ wall mid-height Md2=gamQw*Wk*h^2/8

=0.75*0.62*2.425^2/8

=0.34181 kNm/m

Eccentricity @ top of wall

ehe=0 mm

Eccentricity @ wall mid-height

ehm=(Md2/Nsd)*1000

=(0.34181/44.242)*1000

=7.726 mm

Design load resistance - Clause 6.4.2

leaf which carries the majority of load.

The capacity reduction factor (phi) needed for EC6 expression 6.2 is

the least value of i (phii) and m (phim).

At the top or bottom of wall (i):

The maximum design value of the bending moment at the top or the

bottom of the wall resulting from the eccentricity of the roof/floor

load at the support

Mid=0.55299 kNm/m

Eccentricity at the top or bottom of the wall resulting from

horizontal loads (e.g. wind load) ehe=0 mm

Initial eccentricity

einit=hef*1000/450=1.8188*1000/450

=4.0417

Eccentricity of design vert load ei=Mid*1000/Nid+ehe+einit

=0.55299*1000/41.4+0+4.0417

=17.399 mm

Reduction factor

phii=1-2*ei/t=1-2*17.399/140

=0.75144

At mid-height of the wall (m):

Design vert load (middle of wall) Nmd=44.242 kN/m

The maximum design value of the bending moment at the middle of the

height of the wall resulting from the moments at the top and bottom

of the wall is Mmd.

Design moment at mid-height

Mmd=0.61938 kNm/m

Eccentricity at mid-height of the wall resulting from horizontal

loads (e.g. wind load)

ehm=7.726 mm

Eccentricity of design vert load em=Mmd*1000/Nmd+ehm+einit

=0.61938*1000/44.242+7.726+4.0417

=25.767

Creep effects can be ignored when the slenderness ratio is 27.

Page: 4

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

External cavity wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC530 EC

Office: 1007

Creep eccentricity

ek=0 mm

Eccentricity at mid-height

emk=em+ek=25.767+0=25.767 mm

Expression G.2 from Annex G

A1=1-2*emk/t=1-2*25.767/140

=0.63189

Effective wall thickness

tef=155.2 mm

Expression G.5 from Annex G

u=(hef*1000/tef-2)/(23-37*emk/t)

=(1.8188*1000/155.2-2)/(23-37

*25.767/140)

=0.60029

Base of natural logarithms e=2.718 will be used in expression G.1 for

calculating m reduction factor

phim=A1*2.718^-(u*u/2)

=0.63189*2.718^-(0.60029*0.60029

/2)

=0.52772

Governing reduction factor is

phi=0.52772

Design vertical load resistance

Nrd=phi*t*fk(2)/gamM

=0.52772*140*2.4556/3

=60.473 kN/m

Since Nsd Nrd ( 44.242 kN/m 60.473 kN/m )

The design vertical load is within the vertical load resistance of the

wall, therefore OK.

DESIGN SUMMARY

OUTER LEAF

INNER LEAF

Wall height

2.425 m

Thickness

100 mm

Char. flexural strength

0.4 N/mm2

Char. compressive strength

5.6982 N/mm2

Thickness

140 mm

Char flexural strength

0.22333 N/mm2

Char. compressive strength

2.4556 N/mm2

Effective wall thickness

155.2 mm

Effective wall height

1.8188 m

Slenderness ratio

11.719

Design vertical load

44.242 kN

Design vert load resistance 60.473 kN

Char. horizontal wind load

0.62 kN/m2

Outer leaf - use Group 1 units (i.e. solid)

Inner leaf - use Group 1 units (i.e. solid)

No530

Page: 1

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Shear wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC535 BS

Office: 1007

Location: Wall on grid line A/1-2

DL & LL

WL

accordance with BS5628-1:2005

the "Code of practice for the

use of masonry".

L

Elevation on shear wall

Masonry details

Density of masonry

Thickness of wall

Clear height of wall

between lateral restraints

Support Restraint factor

Effective height of wall

Slenderness ratio

L=0.7 m

dens=12 kN/m3

t=100 mm

h=2.6 m

rf=0.75

heff=rf*h=0.75*2.6=1.95 m

SR=heff*1000/t=1.95*1000/100

=19.5

Mortar designation to Table 1

mortar=3

Masonry type (1=clay 2=cal silicate 3=conc brick 4=block) typ(1)=4

Compressive strength of units

po=10.4 N/mm2

Concrete block dimensions:

Height

hb=215 mm

Least horiz dimension

lhd=100 mm

ratio height/least horiz dim

rb=hb/lhd=215/100=2.15

Char comp strength - Table 2(d)

fk(a)=TABLE 2.4 for mortar=3, po=10.4

=8.2 N/mm2

Reduction factor small area

rfsa=(0.7+1.5*A)=(0.7+1.5*0.07)

=0.805

Revised Compressive Strength

fk(1)=rfsa*fk(a)=0.805*8.2

=6.601

Capacity reduction factor

beta=TABLE 7 for SR=19.5, column=0.05

=0.7175

Reduced Char comp strength

fk(1)=fk(a)*beta=6.601*0.7175

=4.7362 N/mm2

Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure and leaf not exceeding

100mm thick - Table 3

fb(a)=TABLE 3.7 for po=10.4, mortar=3

=0.25 N/mm2

Partial safety factor material

gammam=2.5

Page: 2

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Shear wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC535 BS

Office: 1007

Loads

DL=40 kN

Characteristic imposed load

LL=0 kN

Characteristic wind load

WL=2.05 kN

Load combination 0.9DL+1.4WL ( or 0.015DL )

Vw=dens*h*L*t/10^3

=12*2.6*0.7*100/10^3

=2.184 kN

Section modulus

Z=t*(L*1000)^2/6=100*(0.7*1000)^2/6

=8.1667E6 mm3

Axial stress at mid height

ga1=0.9*(DL+Vw/2)*1000/(1000*L*t)

=0.9*(40+2.184/2)*1000/(1000*0.7

*100)

=0.52833 N/mm2

Horiz load is 1.4 * WL

horiz=1.4*WL=1.4*2.05=2.87 kN

Bending stress

gb1=horiz*0.5*h*10^6/Z

=2.87*0.5*2.6*10^6/8.1667E6

=0.45686 N/mm2

As ga1 > gb1 ( 0.52833 N/mm2 > 0.45686 N/mm2 ) Compression throughout

Load combination 1.2DL+1.2LL+1.2WL ( or 0.015DL )

Axial stress

ga2=1.2*(DL+Vw+LL)*1000/(1000*L*t)

=1.2*(40+2.184+0)*1000/(1000*0.7

*100)

=0.72315 N/mm2

Horiz load is 1.2 * WL

horiz=1.2*WL=1.2*2.05=2.46 kN

Bending stress

gb2=horiz*0.5*h*10^6/Z

=2.46*0.5*2.6*10^6/8.1667E6

=0.39159 N/mm2

Compressive stress

gc=ga2+gb2=0.72315+0.39159

=1.1147 N/mm2

Allowable compressive stress

agc=fk(a)/gammam=4.7362/2.5

=1.8945 N/mm2

Since gc agc ( 1.1147 N/mm2 1.8945 N/mm2 ) compressive stress

within allowable.

Load combination 1.4DL+1.4WL

Axial stress

Horiz load is 1.4 * WL

Bending stress

Compressive stress

Allowable compressive stress

Since gc agc ( 1.3005 N/mm2

within allowable.

( or 0.015DL )

ga3=1.4*(DL+Vw)*1000/(1000*L*t)

=1.4*(40+2.184)*1000/(1000*0.7*100)

=0.84368 N/mm2

horiz=1.4*WL=1.4*2.05=2.87 kN

gb3=horiz*0.5*h*10^6/Z

=2.87*0.5*2.6*10^6/8.1667E6

=0.45686 N/mm2

gc=ga3+gb3=0.84368+0.45686

=1.3005 N/mm2

agc=fk(a)/gammam=4.7362/2.5

=1.8945 N/mm2

1.8945 N/mm2 ) compressive stress

Page: 3

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Shear wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC535 BS

Office: 1007

Shear

gammav=2.5 (Clause 23.4)

Axial stress at foundation

ga4=0.9*(DL+Vw)*1000/(1000*L*t)

=0.9*(40+2.184)*1000/(1000*0.7*100)

=0.54237 N/mm2

Char shear strength at found

fvf=0.15+0.6*ga4=0.15+0.6*0.54237

=0.47542 N/mm2

Design shear strength at found

gvf=fvf/gammav=0.47542/2.5

=0.19017 N/mm2

Allowable shear load at found

Lif=gvf*L*1000*t/1000

=0.19017*0.7*1000*100/1000

=13.312 kN

Horiz load is 1.4 * WL

horiz=1.4*WL=1.4*2.05=2.87 kN

Since horiz Lif ( 2.87 kN 13.312 kN ) design shear load

within allowable.

DESIGN SUMMARY

Wall height

Wall length

Wall thickness

Char comp strength

Char flex strength

Design shear load

Design shear strength

Compression throughout

2.6 m

0.7 m

100 mm

4.7362 N/mm2

0.25 N/mm2

2.87 kN

13.312 kN

Allowable compn

Maximum compn (DL+wind)

Allowable compn (DL+wind)

1.1147

1.8945

1.3005

1.8945

N/mm2

N/mm2

N/mm2

N/mm2

No535

Page: 1

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Shear wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC535 EC

Office: 1007

Location: Wall on grid line A/1-2

Gk & Qk

Wk

accordance with EC6 Part 1-1

General rules for reinforced

and unreinforced masonry

structures.

Wk =Characteristic wind load

L

Elevation on shear wall

Masonry details

Density of masonry

Thickness of wall

Clear height of wall

between lateral restraints

Support Restraint factor

Effective height of wall

Slenderness ratio

L=0.7 m

dens=12 kN/m3

t=100 mm

h=2.6 m

rf=0.75

hef=rf*h=0.75*2.6=1.95 m

SR=hef*1000/t=1.95*1000/100

=19.5

Mortar designation to Table NA.2 mortar=3

Masonry type (1=clay 2=cal silicate 3=conc brick 4=block) typ(1)=4

Compressive strength of units

po=10.4 N/mm2

Masonry made with general purpose mortar.

Value for constant

alp(1)=0.7

Value for constant

bet(1)=0.3

Compressive strength of mortar

fm=4 N/mm2

Constant K from NA Table NA.4

K(1)=0.75

Wall to be constructed using Group 1 masonry units.

Height of masonry unit

hu=215 mm

Least horiz. dimension of units

lhd=100 mm

Shape factor

delta=TABLE 1 for hu=215, lhd=100

=1.38

Characteristic comp.strength

fk(1)=K(a)*(po*delta)^alp(a)*fm^bet(a)

=0.75*(10.4*1.38)^0.7*4^0.3

=7.337 N/mm2

Reduction factor small area

rfsa=(0.7+3*A)=(0.7+3*0.07)

=0.91

Revised char. comp. strength is

fk(1)=rfsa*fk(a)=0.91*7.337

=6.6767

Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure and leaf not exceeding

100mm thick - Table NA.6

fxk1=TABLE 6.7 for po=10.4, mortar=3

=0.25 N/mm2

Partial safety factor (material) gamM=2.3

Page: 2

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Shear wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC535 EC

Office: 1007

Characteristic loads

Gk=40 kN

Characteristic variable load

Qk=0 kN

Characteristic wind load

Wk=2.05 kN

Load combination 0.9Gk+1.5Wk

Section modulus

Axial stress at mid height

Bending stress

As ga1 > gb1 ( 0.52833 N/mm2

throughout.

Gkw=dens*h*L*t/10^3

=12*2.6*0.7*100/10^3

=2.184 kN

Z=t*(L*1000)^2/6=100*(0.7*1000)^2/6

=8.1667E6 mm3

ga1=0.9*(Gk+Gkw/2)*1000/(1000*L*t)

=0.9*(40+2.184/2)*1000/(1000*0.7

*100)

=0.52833 N/mm2

Vd=1.5*Wk=1.5*2.05=3.075 kN

gb1=Vd*0.5*h*10^6/Z

=3.075*0.5*2.6*10^6/8.1667E6

=0.48949 N/mm2

> 0.48949 N/mm2 ), compression

psi0w=0.5

compute

comp1=(1.35*Gk+1.5*Qk+1.5*psi0w*Wk)

=(1.35*40+1.5*0+1.5*0.5*2.05)

=55.538

Axial stress

ga2=comp1*1000/(1000*L*t)

=55.538*1000/(1000*0.7*100)

=0.79339 N/mm2

Design shear force is 1.5oWk

Vd=1.5*psi0w*Wk=1.5*0.5*2.05

=1.5375 kN

Bending stress

gb2=Vd*0.5*h*10^6/Z

=1.5375*0.5*2.6*10^6/8.1667E6

=0.24474 N/mm2

Design compressive stress

gc=ga2+gb2=0.79339+0.24474

=1.0381 N/mm2

Design compressive strength

agc=fk(a)/gamM=6.6767/2.3

=2.9029 N/mm2

2

Since gc agc ( 1.0381 N/mm 2.9029 N/mm2 ) design compressive

stress is within the design compressive strength.

Page: 3

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Shear wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC535 EC

Office: 1007

Load combination 1.35Gk+1.5Wk+1.5oQk

psi0=0.7

compute

comp2=(1.35*Gk+1.5*Wk+1.5*psi0*Wk)

=(1.35*40+1.5*2.05+1.5*0.7*2.05)

=59.228

Axial stress

ga2=comp2*1000/(1000*L*t)

=59.228*1000/(1000*0.7*100)

=0.84611 N/mm2

Design shear force is 1.5Wk

Vd=1.5*Wk=1.5*2.05=3.075 kN

Bending stress

gb2=Vd*0.5*h*10^6/Z

=3.075*0.5*2.6*10^6/8.1667E6

=0.48949 N/mm2

Design compressive stress

gc=ga2+gb2=0.84611+0.48949

=1.3356 N/mm2

Design compressive strength

agc=fk(a)/gamM=6.6767/2.3

=2.9029 N/mm2

2

Since gc agc ( 1.3356 N/mm 2.9029 N/mm2 ) design compressive

stress is within the design compressive strength.

Load combination 1.35Gk+1.5Wk

Axial stress

ga3=1.35*(Gk+Gkw)*1000/(1000*L*t)

=1.35*(40+2.184)*1000/(1000*0.7

*100)

=0.81355 N/mm2

Design shear force is 1.5Wk

Vd=1.5*Wk=1.5*2.05=3.075 kN

Bending stress

gb3=Vd*0.5*h*10^6/Z

=3.075*0.5*2.6*10^6/8.1667E6

=0.48949 N/mm2

Design compressive stress

gc=ga3+gb3=0.81355+0.48949

=1.303 N/mm2

Design compressive strength

agc=fk(a)/gamM=6.6767/2.3

=2.9029 N/mm2

Since gc agc ( 1.303 N/mm2 2.9029 N/mm2 ) design compressive

stress is within the design compressive strength.

Shear

Design load/unit area at found

gamv=2.5

ga4=0.9*(Gk+Gkw)*1000/(1000*L*t)

=0.9*(40+2.184)*1000/(1000*0.7*100)

=0.54237 N/mm2

The characteristic initial shear strength of masonry fvko from

EC6 NA Table NA.5 is

fvko=0.15 N/mm2

Charact shear strength at found

fvf=fvko+0.4*ga4=0.15+0.4*0.54237

=0.36695 N/mm2

Design shear strength at found

gvf=fvf/gamv=0.36695/2.5

=0.14678 N/mm2

Shear resistance at foundation

Vrd=gvf*L*1000*t/1000

=0.14678*0.7*1000*100/1000

=10.274 kN

Design horizontal shear force

Vd=3.075 kN

Since Vd Vrd ( 3.075 kN 10.274 kN ), design shear force

within shear resistance of the wall.

Page: 4

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Shear wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC535 EC

Office: 1007

DESIGN SUMMARY

Wall height

Wall length

Wall thickness

Char compressive strength

Char flexural strength

Design shear force

Design shear resistance

Compression throughout

Design comp stress (Gk+Qk+Wk)

Design compressive strength

Design comp stress (Gk+Wk)

Design compressive strength

2.6 m

0.7 m

100 mm

6.6767 N/mm2

0.25 N/mm2

3.075 kN

10.274 kN

1.3356 N/mm2

2.9029 N/mm2

1.303 N/mm2

2.9029 N/mm2

No535

Page: 1

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Fin wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC536 BS

Office: 1007

Masonry fin wall building

Spacing of fins

Height to eaves (top of fin)

Masonry details

Density of outer leaf

Thickness of inner leaf

Density of inner leaf

Effective thick of cavity wall

Depth of fin

Thickness of fin

Effective flange width

panels between constructed using

cavity construction.

Roof plate provides prop at top

of fin walls, and transmits wind

forces to the flank/end walls.

Lf=4.05 m

h=7 m

t(1)=102.5 mm

den(1)=20 kN/m3

t(2)=102.5 mm

den(2)=20 kN/m3

tef=2*(t(1)+t(2))/3=2*(102.5+102.5)/3

=136.67 mm

D=1115 mm

t=327 mm

B=(6*tef)+t+(6*tef)

=(6*136.67)+327+(6*136.67)

=1967 mm

mortar=3

gammam=2.5

Partial Safety Factor Material

Outer Leaf:

Masonry type (1=clay 2=cal silicate 3=conc brick 4=block) typ(1)=1

Compressive Strength of Units

po(1)=40 N/mm2

Water absorption %age of leaf

water=7

Char comp strength - Table 2(a)

fk(a)=TABLE 2.1 for mortar=3, po=40

=7.4 N/mm2

Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure - Table 3

fb(a)=TABLE 3.1 for water=7, mortar=3

=0.4 N/mm2

Characteristic flexural strength for perp failure - Table 3

fp(a)=TABLE 3.2 for water=7, mortar=3

=1.1 N/mm2

Inner Leaf:

Masonry type (1=clay 2=cal silicate 3=conc brick 4=block) typ(2)=1

chkkrng 4 1 typ(a)

Compressive strength of units

po(2)=20 N/mm2

Water absorption %age of leaf

water=7

chkkrng 100.0 0.0 water

chkkrng 1 0 ans3

Char comp strength - Table 2(a)

fk(a)=TABLE 2.1 for mortar=3, po=20

=5 N/mm2

Page: 2

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Fin wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC536 BS

Office: 1007

Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure - Table 3

fb(a)=TABLE 3.1 for water=7, mortar=3

=0.4 N/mm2

Characteristic flexural strength for perp failure - Table 3

fp(a)=TABLE 3.2 for water=7, mortar=3

=1.1 N/mm2

Wind forces

Max Cpe on windward face (+ve)

Max Cpe on suction face (-ve)

Max Cpe on roof (-ve)

Cpi maximum (+ve internal press)

Cpi minimum (-ve internal press)

Pressure on windward wall

Suction on suction wall

Gross roof uplift

Dead and superimposed loads

Felt & chippings on roof

Own weight of roof beams

Total dead weight

Superimposed load

q=0.4 kN/m2

Cpew=0.7

Cpes=-0.6

Cper=-0.85

Cpimax=0.2

Cpimin=-0.3

WL1=(Cpew-Cpimin)*q=(0.7--0.3)*0.4

=0.4 kN/m2

WL2=-(Cpes-Cpimax)*q=-(-0.6-0.2)*0.4

=0.32 kN/m2

WL3=-(Cper-Cpimax)*q=-(-0.85-0.2)*0.4

=0.42 kN/m2

DL1=0.18 kN/m2

DL2=0.33 kN/m2

DL3=0.2 kN/m2

DL=DL1+DL2+DL3=0.18+0.33+0.2

=0.71 kN/m2

LL=0.75 kN/m2

Design loads

Design wind load = 1.4WL or 0.015DL whichever is the larger.

Design dead load

Design wind loads:

Pressure, from WL1

Suction, from WL2

Uplift, from WL3

Design dead-uplift

Ddl=0.9*DL=0.9*0.71=0.639 kN/m2

Pwk1=1.4*WL1=1.4*0.4=0.56 kN/m2

Swk2=1.4*WL2=1.4*0.32=0.448 kN/m2

Uwk3=1.4*WL3=1.4*0.42=0.588 kN/m2

Ddu=Ddl-Uwk3=0.639-0.588

=0.051 kN/m2

Design uplift is less than -0.01 kN/m2 and may be ignored.

Wind pressure

design load

+Pwk1 kN/m2

Case (1)

Wind suction

design load

+Swk2 kN/m2

Case (2)

Page: 3

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Fin wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC536 BS

Office: 1007

Wall will be designed to span horizontally between the fins as

continuous spans.

The maximum moment is WL1*Lf^2/14 at the edge of the fins, for an

assumed fin width of Lf/10.

Design bending moment

dbm=Pwk1*Lf^2/14=0.56*4.05^2/14

=0.6561 kNm

Section modulus of outer leaf

z1=1*(t(1)/1000)^2/6

=1*(102.5/1000)^2/6

=0.001751 m3

Design M of R of outer leaf

mr1=fp(1)*1000*z1/gammam

=1.1*1000*0.001751/2.5

=0.77046 kNm

Section modulus of inner leaf

z2=1*(t(2)/1000)^2/6

=1*(102.5/1000)^2/6

=0.001751 m3

Design M of R of inner leaf

mr2=fp(2)*1000*z2/gammam

=1.1*1000*0.001751/2.5

=0.77046 kNm

Design moment of resistance

dmr=mr1+mr2=0.77046+0.77046

=1.5409 kNm

Design moment of resistance design BM ( 1.5409 kNm 0.6561 kNm ),

therefore wall thicknesses chosen are OK.

Fin wall section properties

1967

T=t(1)=102.5

n

102.5

Y2

Z2 = Ina

N A

Y2

1115

Y1

Z1 = Ina

Y1

327

Area of flange

af=B*T=1967*102.5=201618 mm2

Area of outstand

ao=(D-T)*t=(1115-102.5)*327

=331088 mm2

Area of section

A'=af+ao=201618+331088=532705 mm2

A=A'/10^6=532705/10^6=0.53271 m2

Neutral axis depth

n=(af*T/2+ao*(T+(D-T)/2))/A'

=(201618*102.5/2+331088*(102.5

+(1115-102.5)/2))/532705

=397.75 mm

Inertia about neutral axis

Ina=(B*n^3+t*(D-n)^3-(n-T)^3*(B-t))

/3E12

=(1967*397.75^3+327*(1115

-397.75)^3-(397.75-102.5)^3

*(1967-327))/3E12

=0.067408 m4

Neutral axis

Y1=(D-n)/1000=(1115-397.75)/1000

=0.71725 m

Neutral axis

Y2=n/1000=397.75/1000=0.39775 m

Page: 4

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Fin wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC536 BS

Office: 1007

Section modulus

Z1=Ina/Y1=0.067408/0.71725

=0.093981 m3

Section modulus

Z2=Ina/Y2=0.067408/0.39775

=0.16947 m3

Consider propped cantilever action

Case (1) pressure

C1p=Pwk1*Lf

=0.56*4.05

=2.268 kN/m of height

Case (2) suction

C2s=Swk2*Lf

=0.448*4.05

=1.8144 kN/m of height

Assuming MR, is greater than WL1.Lf.h^2/8 and zero deflection at the

roof prop:

Case (1) wall moment

M1w=9*Pwk1*Lf*h^2/128

=9*0.56*4.05*7^2/128

=7.814 kNm

Case (1) base moment

M1b=Pwk1*Lf*h^2/8=0.56*4.05*7^2/8

=13.892 kNm

Case (2) wall moment

M2w=9*Swk2*Lf*h^2/128

=9*0.448*4.05*7^2/128

=6.2512 kNm

Case (2) base moment

M2b=Swk2*Lf*h^2/8=0.448*4.05*7^2/8

=11.113 kNm

<

<

<

2.268 <

kN/m <

of

<

height<

<

<

<

prop

7.814

2.625

13.892

windward wall

<

<

<

1.8144<

kN/m <

of

<

height<

<

<

<

tie

2.625

6.2512

11.113

on wall

=3.256 N/mm2

(a) Consider Case (1) pressure:

Own weight

Design axial load in fin at Mb

Minimum width of stress block

Lever arm

ow=den(1)*A=20*0.53271=10.654 kN/m

daxMb=0.9*ow*h=0.9*10.654*7

=67.121 kN

mwsb1=daxMb*10^3/(B*pubc)

=67.121*10^3/(1967*3.256)

=10.48 mm

la1=n-mwsb1/2=397.75-10.48/2

=392.51 mm

Page: 5

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Fin wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC536 BS

Office: 1007

Stability moment of resistance

MRs1=daxMb*la1/10^3

=67.121*392.51/10^3

=26.345 kNm

Stability moment of resistance is not less than Case 1 base moment.

(b) Consider Case (2) suction:

The stability moment of resistance is provided by the flexural

compressive stress at the end of the projecting fin, thus:

Minimum width of stress block

mwsb2=daxMb*10^3/(t*pubc)

=67.121*10^3/(327*3.256)

=63.041 mm

Lever arm

la2=Y1*10^3-mwsb2/2

=0.71725*10^3-63.041/2

=685.73 mm

Stability moment of resistance

MRs2=daxMb*la2/10^3

=67.121*685.73/10^3

=46.027 kNm

Stability moment of resistance is greater than Case 2 base moment

( 46.027 kNm > 11.113 kNm ), therefore use M2b in the design of the fin

section.

Bending moment diagrams

MRs1 (calculated)

26.345 kNm

As MRs1 M1b ( 26.345 kNm 13.892 kNm ), assumed base moment is OK.

Position of zero shear

zS1=3*h/8

=3*7/8

=2.625 m from top as assumed

Moment at zero shear position

M1w=7.814 kNm as assumed

Case (2) suction:

MRs2 (calculated)

46.027 kNm

As MRs2 M2b ( 46.027 kNm 11.113 kNm ), assumed base moment is OK.

Position of zero shear

zS2=3*h/8

=3*7/8

=2.625 m from top as assumed

Moment at zero shear position

M2w=6.2512 kNm as assumed

<

<

<

2.268 <

kN/m <

of

<

height<

<

<

<

prop

7.814

2.625

13.892

windward wall

<

<

<

1.8144<

kN/m <

of

<

height<

<

<

<

tie

2.625

6.2512

11.113

on wall

Page: 6

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Fin wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC536 BS

Office: 1007

Consider stresses at level of Mw

Own weight at level of M1w

Owm1w=0.9*ow*zS1=0.9*10.654*2.625

=25.17 kN

Flexural stresses at design load:

Flexural compressive stress

fubc1=Owm1w/(A*10^3)+M1w/(Z1*10^3)

=25.17/(0.53271*10^3)+7.814

/(0.093981*10^3)

=0.13039 N/mm2

Flexural tensile stress

fubt1=Owm1w/(A*10^3)-M1w/(Z2*10^3)

=25.17/(0.53271*10^3)-7.814

/(0.16947*10^3)

=0.001143 N/mm2

Case (2) suction:

Own weight at level of M2w

Owm2w=0.9*ow*zS2=0.9*10.654*2.625

=25.17 kN

Flexural stresses at design load:

Flexural compressive stress

fubc2=Owm2w/(A*10^3)+M2w/(Z2*10^3)

=25.17/(0.53271*10^3)+6.2512

/(0.16947*10^3)

=0.084136 N/mm2

Flexural tensile stress

fubt2=Owm2w/(A*10^3)-M2w/(Z1*10^3)

=25.17/(0.53271*10^3)-6.2512

/(0.093981*10^3)

=-0.019265 N/mm2

Design flexural stress at Mw levels

(taking account of materials partial safety factor, gammam)

Design flexural tensile stress

pubt=fb(1)/gammam=0.4/2.5

=0.16 N/mm2

Since -fubt1<=pubt ( -0.001143 N/mm2 0.16 N/mm2 ),

flexural tensile stress for Case 1 is OK.

Since -fubt2<=pubt ( 0.019265 N/mm2 0.16 N/mm2 ),

flexural tensile stress for Case 2 is OK.

(b) Design flexural compressive stress, pubc:

Design flexural compress stress

pubc=1.1..fk(1)/gammam N/mm2

Calculate respective values for Case (1) and Case (2) loadings at

level of Mw.

Case (1) pressure (end of fin in compression at Mw level):

Slenderness ratio

sr=2*zS1/(t/1000)=2*2.625/(327/1000)

=16.055

Stressed areas are axially loaded ecc=0

Use minimum ecc ratio

ecc=0.05

Capacity reduction factor

beta=TABLE 7 for sr=16.055, ecc=0.05

=0.82835

Design flexural compress stress

pubc1=1.1*beta*fk(1)/gammam

=1.1*0.82835*7.4/2.5

=2.6971 N/mm2

Since fubc1<=pubc1 ( 0.13039 N/mm2 2.6971 N/mm2 ),

flexural compressive stress for Case 1 is OK.

Case (2) suction (flange in compression at Mw level):

Page: 7

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Fin wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC536 BS

Office: 1007

Slenderness ratio

sr=2*((B-t)/2)/tef

=2*((1967-327)/2)/136.67

=12

Capacity reduction factor

beta=TABLE 7 for sr=12, ecc=0.05

=0.93

Design flexural compress stress

pubc2=1.1*beta*fk(1)/gammam

=1.1*0.93*7.4/2.5

=3.0281 N/mm2

Since fubc2<=pubc2 ( 0.084136 N/mm2 3.0281 N/mm2 ),

flexural compressive stress for Case 2 is OK.

DESIGN SUMMARY

OUTER LEAF

INNER LEAF

LEAF

FINS (pressure)

(suction)

Wall height

Length between fins

Thickness

Char flex strength (bed)

Char flex strength (perp)

Char comp strength

Thickness

Char flex strength (bed)

Char flex strength (perp)

Char comp strength

Bending moment between fins

Bend strength between fins

Bending stress in tension

Bending stress in comp

Bending stress in tension

Bending stress in comp

Bend strength in tension

Bend strength in comp

7 m

4.05 m

102.5 mm

0.4 N/mm2

1.1 N/mm2

7.4 N/mm2

102.5 mm

0.4 N/mm2

1.1 N/mm2

5 N/mm2

0.6561 kNm

1.5409 kNm

0.001143 N/mm2

0.13039 N/mm2

-0.019265 N/mm2

0.084136 N/mm2

0.16 N/mm2

3.256 N/mm2

No536

Page: 1

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Fin wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC536 EC

Office: 1007

Masonry fin wall building

Spacing of fins

Height to eaves (top of fin)

Masonry details

Density of outer leaf

Thickness of inner leaf

Density of inner leaf

Effective thick of cavity wall

Depth of fin

Thickness of fin

Effective flange width

panels between constructed using

cavity construction.

Roof plate provides prop at top

of fin walls and transmits wind

forces to the flank/end walls.

Lf=4.05 m

h=7 m

t(1)=102.5 mm

den(1)=20 kN/m3

t(2)=102.5 mm

den(2)=20 kN/m3

tef=((t(1))^3+(t(2))^3)^0.3333

=((102.5)^3+(102.5)^3)^0.3333

=129.08 mm

D=1115 mm

t=327 mm

B=(h*1000/10)+t+(h*1000/10)

=(7*1000/10)+327+(7*1000/10)

=1727 mm

mortar=3

gamM=2.3

Partial safety factor (material)

Outer Leaf:

Masonry type (1=clay 2=cal silicate 3=conc brick 4=block) typ(1)=1

Compressive strength of units

po(1)=40 N/mm2

Water absorption %age of leaf

water=7

Masonry made with general purpose mortar.

Value for constant

alp(1)=0.7

Value for constant

bet(1)=0.3

Compressive strength of mortar

fm=4 N/mm2

Constant K from NA Table NA.4

K(1)=0.5

Wall to be constructed using Group 1 masonry units.

As there is a mortar joint parallel to the face of the wall the value

of K to be used with equation 3.1 from Table NA.4 will be multiplied

by 0.8 to comply with EC6 Clause 3.6.1.2(6).

Constant K from NA Table NA.4

K(1)=0.8*K(a)=0.8*0.5=0.4

Height of masonry unit

hu(1)=65 mm

Least horiz. dimension of units

lhd(1)=102.5 mm

Shape factor

delta=TABLE 1 for hu=65, lhd=102.5

=0.845

Characteristic comp strength

fk(1)=K(a)*(po*delta)^alp(a)*fm^bet(a)

=0.4*(40*0.845)^0.7*4^0.3

=7.1272 N/mm2

Page: 2

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Fin wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC536 EC

Office: 1007

Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure - Table NA.6

fxk11=TABLE 6.1 for water=7, mortar=3

=0.4 N/mm2

Characteristic flexural strength for perp failure - Table NA.6

fxk21=TABLE 6.2 for water=7, mortar=3

=1.1 N/mm2

Inner Leaf:

Masonry type (1=clay 2=cal silicate 3=conc brick 4=block) typ(2)=1

chkkrng 4 1 typ(a)

Compressive strength of units

po(2)=20 N/mm2

Water absorption %age of leaf

water=7

chkkrng 100.0 0.0 water

Masonry made with general purpose mortar.

Value for constant

alp(2)=0.7

Value for constant

bet(2)=0.3

Compressive strength of mortar

fm=4 N/mm2

Constant K from NA Table NA.4

K(2)=0.5

Wall to be constructed using Group 1 masonry units.

As there is a mortar joint parallel to the face of the wall the value

of K to be used with equation 3.1 from Table NA.4 will be multiplied

by 0.8 to comply with EC6 Clause 3.6.1.2(6).

Constant K from NA Table NA.4

K(2)=0.8*K(a)=0.8*0.5=0.4

Height of masonry unit

hu(2)=65 mm

Least horiz. dimension of units

lhd(2)=100 mm

Shape factor

delta=TABLE 1 for hu=65, lhd=100

=0.85

Characteristic comp strength

fk(2)=K(a)*(po*delta)^alp(a)*fm^bet(a)

=0.4*(20*0.85)^0.7*4^0.3

=4.4055 N/mm2

Characteristic flexural strength for bed failure - Table NA.6

fxk12=TABLE 6.1 for water=7, mortar=3

=0.4 N/mm2

Characteristic flexural strength for perp failure - Table NA.6

fxk22=TABLE 6.2 for water=7, mortar=3

=1.1 N/mm2

Characteristic wind loads

Max Cpe on windward face (+ve)

Max Cpe on suction face (-ve)

Max Cpe on roof (-ve)

Cpi maximum (+ve internal press)

Cpi minimum (-ve internal press)

Pressure on windward wall

Suction on suction wall

Gross roof uplift

qp=0.4 kN/m2

Cpew=0.7

Cpes=-0.6

Cper=-0.85

Cpimax=0.2

Cpimin=-0.3

Wk1=(Cpew-Cpimin)*qp=(0.7--0.3)*0.4

=0.4 kN/m2

Wk2=-(Cpes-Cpimax)*qp=-(-0.6-0.2)*0.4

=0.32 kN/m2

Wk3=-(Cper-Cpimax)*qp

=-(-0.85-0.2)*0.4

=0.42 kN/m2

Page: 3

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Fin wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC536 EC

Office: 1007

Permanent and variable loads

Gk1=0.18 kN/m2

Felt & chippings on roof

Gk2=0.33 kN/m2

Own weight of roof beams

Gk3=0.2 kN/m2

Total permanent weight

Gk=Gk1+Gk2+Gk3=0.18+0.33+0.2

=0.71 kN/m2

Variable load on roof

Qk=0.75 kN/m2

Design loads

Design wind load = 1.5Wk (where 1.5 is the wind load factor)

Note:

The calculations assume that the variable actions will not be

independent of each other and hence the combination load factor "o"

will not be considered.

Design dead load

Ddl=0.9*Gk=0.9*0.71=0.639 kN/m2

Design wind loads:

Pressure, from Wk1

Pwk1=1.5*Wk1=1.5*0.4=0.6 kN/m2

Suction, from Wk2

Swk2=1.5*Wk2=1.5*0.32=0.48 kN/m2

Uplift, from Wk3

Uwk3=1.5*Wk3=1.5*0.42=0.63 kN/m2

Design dead-uplift

Ddu=Ddl-Uwk3=0.639-0.63=0.009 kN/m2

Design uplift is less than -0.01 kN/m2 and may be ignored.

Wind pressure

design load

+Pwk1 kN/m2

Case (1)

Wind suction

design load

+Swk2 kN/m2

Case (2)

continuous spans.

The maximum moment is Wk1*Lf^2/14 at the edge of the fins, for an

assumed fin width of Lf/10.

Design bending moment

Md=Pwk1*Lf^2/14=0.6*4.05^2/14

=0.70296 kNm

Section modulus of outer leaf

z1=1*(t(1)/1000)^2/6

=1*(102.5/1000)^2/6

=0.001751 m3

Design M of R of outer leaf

mr1=fxk21*1000*z1/gamM

=1.1*1000*0.001751/2.3

=0.83745 kNm

Section modulus of inner leaf

z2=1*(t(2)/1000)^2/6

=1*(102.5/1000)^2/6

=0.001751 m3

Design M of R of inner leaf

mr2=fxk22*1000*z2/gamM

=1.1*1000*0.001751/2.3

=0.83745 kNm

Design moment of resistance

Mrd=mr1+mr2=0.83745+0.83745

=1.6749 kNm

Design moment of resistance design BM ( 1.6749 kNm 0.70296 kNm ),

Page: 4

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Fin wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC536 EC

Office: 1007

therefore wall thicknesses chosen are OK.

Fin wall section properties

1727

T=t(1)=102.5

n

102.5

Y2

Z2 = Ina

N A

Y2

1115

Y1

Z1 = Ina

Y1

327

Area of flange

af=B*T=1727*102.5=177018 mm2

Area of outstand

ao=(D-T)*t=(1115-102.5)*327

=331088 mm2

Area of section

A'=af+ao=177018+331088=508105 mm2

A=A'/10^6=508105/10^6=0.50811 m2

Neutral axis depth

n=(af*T/2+ao*(T+(D-T)/2))/A'

=(177018*102.5/2+331088*(102.5

+(1115-102.5)/2))/508105

=414.52 mm

Inertia about neutral axis

Ina=(B*n^3+t*(D-n)^3-(n-T)^3*(B-t))

/3E12

=(1727*414.52^3+327*(1115

-414.52)^3-(414.52-102.5)^3

*(1727-327))/3E12

=0.06429 m4

Neutral axis

Y1=(D-n)/1000=(1115-414.52)/1000

=0.70048 m

Neutral axis

Y2=n/1000=414.52/1000=0.41452 m

Section modulus

Z1=Ina/Y1=0.06429/0.70048

=0.091781 m3

Section modulus

Z2=Ina/Y2=0.06429/0.41452

=0.15509 m3

Consider propped cantilever action

Case (1) pressure

C1p=Pwk1*Lf

=0.6*4.05

=2.43 kN/m of height

Case (2) suction

C2s=Swk2*Lf

=0.48*4.05

=1.944 kN/m of height

Assuming MR, is greater than Wk1.Lf.h^2/8 and zero deflection at the

roof prop:

Case (1) wall moment

M1w=9*Pwk1*Lf*h^2/128

=9*0.6*4.05*7^2/128

=8.3721 kNm

Case (1) base moment

M1b=Pwk1*Lf*h^2/8=0.6*4.05*7^2/8

=14.884 kNm

Page: 5

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Fin wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC536 EC

Office: 1007

Case (2) wall moment

M2w=9*Swk2*Lf*h^2/128

=9*0.48*4.05*7^2/128

=6.6977 kNm

Case (2) base moment

M2b=Swk2*Lf*h^2/8=0.48*4.05*7^2/8

=11.907 kNm

<

<

<

2.43 <

kN/m <

of

<

height<

<

<

<

prop

8.3721

2.625

14.884

windward wall

<

<

<

1.944 <

kN/m <

of

<

height<

<

<

<

tie

2.625

6.6977

11.907

on wall

=3.4087 N/mm2

(a) Consider Case (1) pressure:

Own weight

Design axial load in fin at Mb

ow=den(1)*A=20*0.50811=10.162 kN/m

daxMb=0.9*ow*h=0.9*10.162*7

=64.021 kN

Minimum width of stress block

mwsb1=daxMb*10^3/(B*pubc)

=64.021*10^3/(1727*3.4087)

=10.875 mm

Lever arm

la1=n-mwsb1/2=414.52-10.875/2

=409.09 mm

Stability moment of resistance

MRs1=daxMb*la1/10^3

=64.021*409.09/10^3

=26.19 kNm

Stability moment of resistance is not less than Case 1 base moment.

(b) Consider Case (2) suction:

The stability moment of resistance is provided by the flexural

compressive stress at the end of the projecting fin, thus:

Minimum width of stress block

mwsb2=daxMb*10^3/(t*pubc)

=64.021*10^3/(327*3.4087)

=57.437 mm

Lever arm

la2=Y1*10^3-mwsb2/2

=0.70048*10^3-57.437/2

=671.76 mm

Stability moment of resistance

MRs2=daxMb*la2/10^3

=64.021*671.76/10^3

=43.007 kNm

Stability moment of resistance is greater than Case 2 base moment

( 43.007 kNm > 11.907 kNm ), therefore use M2b in the design of the

fin section.

Page: 6

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Fin wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC536 EC

Office: 1007

Bending moment diagrams

MRs1 (calculated)

26.19 kNm

As MRs1 M1b ( 26.19 kNm 14.884 kNm ), assumed base moment is OK.

Position of zero shear

zS1=3*h/8

=3*7/8

=2.625 m from top as assumed

Moment at zero shear position

M1w=8.3721 kNm as assumed

Case (2) suction:

MRs2 (calculated)

43.007 kNm

As MRs2 M2b ( 43.007 kNm 11.907 kNm ), assumed base moment is OK.

Position of zero shear

zS2=3*h/8

=3*7/8

=2.625 m from top as assumed

Moment at zero shear position

M2w=6.6977 kNm as assumed

<

<

<

2.43 <

kN/m <

of

<

height<

<

<

<

prop

8.3721

2.625

14.884

windward wall

Own weight at level of M1w

<

<

<

1.944 <

kN/m <

of

<

height<

<

<

<

tie

2.625

6.6977

11.907

on wall

Owm1w=0.9*ow*zS1=0.9*10.162*2.625

=24.008 kN

Flexural compressive stress

fubc1=Owm1w/(A*10^3)+M1w/(Z1*10^3)

=24.008/(0.50811*10^3)+8.3721

/(0.091781*10^3)

=0.13847 N/mm2

Flexural tensile stress

fubt1=Owm1w/(A*10^3)-M1w/(Z2*10^3)

=24.008/(0.50811*10^3)-8.3721

/(0.15509*10^3)

=-0.0067309 N/mm2

Case (2) suction:

Own weight at level of M2w

Owm2w=0.9*ow*zS2=0.9*10.162*2.625

=24.008 kN

Flexural stresses at design load:

Flexural compressive stress

fubc2=Owm2w/(A*10^3)+M2w/(Z2*10^3)

=24.008/(0.50811*10^3)+6.6977

/(0.15509*10^3)

=0.090435 N/mm2

Flexural tensile stress

fubt2=Owm2w/(A*10^3)-M2w/(Z1*10^3)

=24.008/(0.50811*10^3)-6.6977

/(0.091781*10^3)

Page: 7

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Fin wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC536 EC

Office: 1007

=-0.025725 N/mm2

Design flexural strength at Mw levels

(taking account of materials partial safety factor, gamM)

Design flexural tensile strength pubt=fxk11/gamM

=0.4/2.3

=0.17391 N/mm2

Since -fubt1<=pubt ( 0.0067309 N/mm2 0.17391 N/mm2 ) the

flexural tensile stress for Case 1 is OK.

Since -fubt2<=pubt ( 0.025725 N/mm2 0.17391 N/mm2 ) the

flexural tensile stress for Case 2 is OK.

(b) Design flexural compressive strength, pubc:

Design flexural compress strength

pubc=1.1..fk(1)/gamM N/mm2

Calculate respective values for Case (1) and Case (2) loadings at

level of Mw.

Case (1) pressure (end of fin in compression at Mw level):

Slenderness ratio

sr=2*zS1/(t/1000)=2*2.625/(327/1000)

=16.055

The simplified method for evaluating the capacity reduction factor s

in accordance with EC6 Part 3 Clause 4.2.2.3(1) will be utilised here.

Capacity reduction factor s

phis=0.85-0.0011*(sr)^2

=0.85-0.0011*(16.055)^2

=0.56646

Design flexural comp strength

pubc1=1.1*phis*fk(1)/gamM

=1.1*0.56646*7.1272/2.3

=1.9309 N/mm2

Since fubc1<=pubc1 ( 0.13847 N/mm2 1.9309 N/mm2 ) the

flexural compressive stress for Case 1 is OK.

Case (2) suction (flange in compression at Mw level):

Slenderness ratio

sr=2*((B-t)/2)/tef

=2*((1727-327)/2)/129.08

=10.846

The simplified method for evaluating the capacity reduction factor s

in accordance with EC6 Part 3 Clause 4.2.2.3(1) will be utilised here.

Capacity reduction factor s

phis=0.85-0.0011*(sr)^2

=0.85-0.0011*(10.846)^2

=0.7206

Design flexural comp strength

pubc2=1.1*phis*fk(1)/gamM

=1.1*0.7206*7.1272/2.3

=2.4563 N/mm2

Since fubc2<=pubc2 ( 0.090435 N/mm2 2.4563 N/mm2 ) the

flexural compressive stress for Case 2 is OK.

Page: 8

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Fin wall

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC536 EC

Office: 1007

DESIGN SUMMARY

OUTER LEAF

INNER LEAF

LEAF

FINS (pressure)

(suction)

Wall height

7 m

Length between fins

4.05 m

Thickness

102.5 mm

Char flex strength (bed)

0.4 N/mm2

Char flex strength (perp)

1.1 N/mm2

Char comp strength

7.1272 N/mm2

Thickness

102.5 mm

Char flex strength (bed)

0.4 N/mm2

Char flex strength (perp)

1.1 N/mm2

Char comp strength

4.4055 N/mm2

Bending moment between fins 0.70296 kNm

Bend strength between fins

1.6749 kNm

Bending stress in tension

-0.0067309 N/mm2

Bending stress in comp

0.13847 N/mm2

Bending stress in tension

-0.025725 N/mm2

Bending stress in comp

0.090435 N/mm2

Bend strength in tension

0.17391 N/mm2

Bend strength in comp

3.4087 N/mm2

Outer leaf - use Group 1 units (i.e. solid)

Inner leaf - use Group 1 units (i.e. solid)

No536

Page: 1

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Load distribution to shear walls

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC540

Office: 1007

Distribution of wind load to concrete or masonry shear walls

acting as a stiff horizontal diaphragm (the slab must make good

connections with the walls). The figure below shows a structural

plan on a shear wall system with the r'th shear wall resisting

resultant wind force Fx. The method is described in 'Structural

Design of Masonry' by Andrew Orton and is as follows:

a) compute position of shear centre (yc) for walls acting to resist

horizontal force in x-direction. (The origin for the x and y

coordinate axes is taken as the bottom left corner of the plan).

b) compute position of shear centre (xc) for walls acting to resist

horizontal force in y-direction.

c) compute torsional rigidity =(Ixr.ycr^2+Iyr.xcr^2) where

xcr and ycr are the distances from the shear centre to each wall

in the x and y-directions respectively.

d) with the wind force in the x-direction as in the figure, compute

twisting moment = Fx.(ym-yc) = Fx.ey

e) for the wind in the x-direction compute the load in each shear

wall due to the lateral displacement and that due to the twist.

For the r'th shear wall: fxr = Fx.Ixr / (Ix1+Ix2+...)

+ Fx.ey.Ixr.ycr / (Ix1.yc1^2+Ix2.yc2^2+...+Iy1.xc1^2+Iy2.xc2^2+...)

f) repeat steps (d) and (e) for wind in y-direction.

Location: Problem 1 in Orton's paper 'Structural Design of Masonry'

yc

xr

shear wall r

Fx

yr

shear centre

ym

o

X

origin

xc Resultant wind

xm force Fy

Number of walls resisting movement in y-dirn

nx=4

ny=2

Distance of this force from the origin

Resultant wind force in y-direction

Fx=20.82 kN

ym=3.5 m

Fy=0 kN

Page: 2

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Load distribution to shear walls

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC540

Office: 1007

Resistance of walls in x-direction:

Wall 1

Dist.from origin to centroid of wall in y-dir. y(1)=7 m

Current summation of the product (Ixr.yr)

sigIxy=sigIxy+Ix(i)*y(i)

=0+0.8*7

=5.6 m5

Current summation of the term (Ixr)

sigIxr=sigIxr+Ix(i)

=0+0.8

=0.8 m4

Wall 2

Dist.from origin to centroid of wall in y-dir. y(2)=0 m

Current summation of the product (Ixr.yr)

sigIxy=sigIxy+Ix(i)*y(i)

=5.6+0.3375*0

=5.6 m5

Current summation of the term (Ixr)

sigIxr=sigIxr+Ix(i)

=0.8+0.3375

=1.1375 m4

Wall 3

Dist.from origin to centroid of wall in y-dir. y(3)=4 m

Current summation of the product (Ixr.yr)

sigIxy=sigIxy+Ix(i)*y(i)

=5.6+0.0125*4

=5.65 m5

Current summation of the term (Ixr)

sigIxr=sigIxr+Ix(i)

=1.1375+0.0125

=1.15 m4

Wall 4

Dist.from origin to centroid of wall in y-dir. y(4)=4 m

Current summation of the product (Ixr.yr)

sigIxy=sigIxy+Ix(i)*y(i)

=5.65+0.0125*4

=5.7 m5

Current summation of the term (Ixr)

sigIxr=sigIxr+Ix(i)

=1.15+0.0125

=1.1625 m4

Distance from origin to shear centre

yc=sigIxy/sigIxr

=5.7/1.1625

=4.9032 m

Page: 3

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Load distribution to shear walls

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC540

Office: 1007

Resistance of walls in y-direction:

Wall 1

Dist.from origin to centroid of wall in x-dir. x(1)=0 m

Current summation of the product (Iyr.xr)

sigIyx=sigIyx+Iy(i)*x(i)

=0+0.0125*0

=0 m5

Current summation of the term (Iyr)

sigIyr=sigIyr+Iy(i)

=0+0.0125

=0.0125 m4

Wall 2

Dist.from origin to centroid of wall in x-dir. x(2)=4 m

Current summation of the product (Iyr.xr)

sigIyx=sigIyx+Iy(i)*x(i)

=0+0.0125*4

=0.05 m5

Current summation of the term (Iyr)

sigIyr=sigIyr+Iy(i)

=0.0125+0.0125

=0.025 m4

Distance from origin to shear centre

xc=sigIyx/sigIyr

=0.05/0.025

=2 m

Where xcr and ycr are the distances from the shear centre to each wall

in the x and y-directions respectively:

Summation of product Ixr.ycr^2:

Wall

Value of Ix(i)*(y(i)-yc)^2 in m6

3.5172

2

8.114

3

0.010198

4

0.010198

Sum of product

Ixr.ycr^2=11.652 m6

Wall

Value of Iy(i)*(x(i)-xc)^2 in m6

0.05

2

0.05

Sum of product

Torsional rigidity

Iyr.xcr^2=0.1 m6

Itor=sigIyc+sigIxc

=11.652+0.1

=11.752 m6

Page: 4

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Load distribution to shear walls

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC540

Office: 1007

RESULTS

ey=ym-yc=3.5-4.9032

=-1.4032 m

Wall 1 :

Load resistance

fx(1)=Fx*Ix(i)/sigIxr+(Fx*ey+Fy*ex)*Ix(i)*(y(i)-yc)/Itor

=20.82*0.8/1.1625+(20.82*-1.4032+0*0)*0.8*(7-4.9032)/11.752

=10.158 kN

Proportion of total force resisted by this wall px(1)=fx(i)/Fx*100

=10.158/20.82*100

=48.788 %

Since torsional component reduces calculated load resistance of this

wall component, Orton suggests this term be ignored. If this is done,

Load resistance fx(1)=Fx*Ix(i)/sigIxr=20.82*0.8/1.1625

=14.328 kN

Proportion of total force resisted by this wall px(1)=fx(i)/Fx*100

=14.328/20.82*100

=68.817 %

Wall 2 :

Load resistance

fx(2)=Fx*Ix(i)/sigIxr+(Fx*ey+Fy*ex)*Ix(i)*(y(i)-yc)/Itor

=20.82*0.3375/1.1625+(20.82*-1.4032+0*0)*0.3375*(0-4.9032)

/11.752

=10.159 kN

Proportion of total force resisted by this wall px(2)=fx(i)/Fx*100

=10.159/20.82*100

=48.792 %

Wall 3 :

Load resistance

fx(3)=Fx*Ix(i)/sigIxr+(Fx*ey+Fy*ex)*Ix(i)*(y(i)-yc)/Itor

=20.82*0.0125/1.1625+(20.82*-1.4032+0*0)*0.0125*(4-4.9032)

/11.752

=0.25194 kN

Proportion of total force resisted by this wall px(3)=fx(i)/Fx*100

=0.25194/20.82

*100

=1.2101 %

Wall 4 :

Load resistance

fx(4)=Fx*Ix(i)/sigIxr+(Fx*ey+Fy*ex)*Ix(i)*(y(i)-yc)/Itor

=20.82*0.0125/1.1625+(20.82*-1.4032+0*0)*0.0125*(4-4.9032)

/11.752

=0.25194 kN

Proportion of total force resisted by this wall px(4)=fx(i)/Fx*100

=0.25194/20.82

*100

=1.2101 %

Page: 5

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Load distribution to shear walls

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www.fitzroy.com

Ref No: SC540

Office: 1007

Load resistance of individual walls in y-direction

Wall 1 :

Load resistance

fy(1)=Fy*Iy(i)/sigIyr+(Fy*ex+Fx*ey)*Iy(i)*(x(i)-xc)/Itor

=0*0.0125/0.025+(0*0+20.82*-1.4032)*0.0125*(0-2)/11.752

=0.062151 kN

Wall 2 :

Load resistance

fy(2)=Fy*Iy(i)/sigIyr+(Fy*ex+Fx*ey)*Iy(i)*(x(i)-xc)/Itor

=0*0.0125/0.025+(0*0+20.82*-1.4032)*0.0125*(4-2)/11.752

=-0.062151 kN

Note: Negative value indicates force on wall acts in opposite

direction to that of applied wind load.

No540

Page: 1

Masonry design to BS5628, MEXE and Eurocode 6

Made by: IFB

Mechanism analysis of arches

Date: 02/04/14

(C) 2014 Fitzroy Systems Ltd. www

## Гораздо больше, чем просто документы.

Откройте для себя все, что может предложить Scribd, включая книги и аудиокниги от крупных издательств.

Отменить можно в любой момент.