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,

- 5
( 220301)

2011

2011/2012 ..

: .. ;
.. ;
..

.
5 20.01.2011.

: .., ..-..,


............................................................................................................... 4
1. ................................. 6
2. WiMax LTE TD/FDD................................... 8
2.1. ...................................................................................... 8
2.2. .......................................................................... 9
2.3. ................................................................ 9
2.4. ......................................................................... 11
2.5. ............................ 11
2.6. ......................................... 12
2.7. ......... 13
2.8. .................................................. 14
2.9. MIMO............................................................................................... 15
2.10. ............................................................................. 18
2.11. ......................................................................................... 22
3. LTE HSPA+........................................................... 24
3.1. ................................................................................................... 24
3.2. ................................................................................................. 27
3.3. VoIP................................................... 29
......................................................................................................... 31
...................................................................... 43
............................................................................................ 44

, ,
, ,

- .

, ,

.
, ,
OFDM-MIMO IP,
4- , ITU, IMTadvanced (. 1).
GERAN
Evolution

GSM/EDGE
TD-SCDMA

TDMA

W-CDMA /
HSPA

4G
IMTAdvanced

TD-SCDMA
evolution

HSPA+

LTE R8/R9
FDD/TDD

CDMA

EVDO
Rev A/B

CDMA 1X

WiMAX 16d

UMB

WiMAX 16e

.1

WiMAX
16m

LTE
R10

LTE,
3GPP. ,
WiMax - -,
IMT-2000, :
LTE IEEE 802.16m.
,

,
LTE, WiMax HSPA+,
.

1.
()
,
,
() .
,
, .
(. 2) :

(WPAN Wireless Personal Area


Networks) ( - Bluetooth);

(WLAN Wireless Local Area Networks)


( Wi-Fi);

(WMAN Wireless Metropolitan


Area Networks) ( WiMAX).
:
-;
-.
:
() ,
;
,
.

(. 3).

. 2.

. 3.

2. WiMax LTE TD/FDD


2.1.
WiMax LTE
MIMO-OFDM.
TD-LTE 8
, 2 (2,3 2,6 )
WiMax. , 10 3GPP
3,5 , WiMax. ,

, TD-LTE
.
. 1 TD-LTE 3GPP
,

33
1900 - 1920 TDD 2.1
UMTS TDD
TDD /
34
2010 - 2025 TDD 2.1
UMTS TDD
35
1850 - 1910
36
1930 - 1990
FDD37
1910 - 1930
PCS
WiMAX 2.5 .
FDD- .
38
2570 - 2620 IMT

Extension

FDD
39
1880 - 1920
TDD
40
2300 2400
/ WiMAX 2.3

41
3400-3600
Rel 10.
FDD 20 (3410-3500 / 3510-3600)

2.2.
LTE WiMax
OFDMA
(OFDM).
LTE OFDM,
. , , , .
SC-FDMA
. SC-FDMA -,
,
.
2.3.

MIMO

WiMax

, OFDM;
PUSC (Partial Usage of
Subcarriers). (.
.4), : 1 = 24
+ 4 - ( - 14,2 %);
1 = 16 + 8 -
( - 33,3 %).
1

. 4. WiMax
LTE 12
1 , . . 5. 1 = 12 x 14
9

OFDM = 168 . ,
, 180 , ,
-
. MIMO 2x2
16 168 (
9,5 %). 168
. 36
( 21,4%). , - LTE 1,5
, WiMax.
(10)
-

RB
180

15

OFDM

(RB) -

, LTE
12 x 14 OFDM =
=180 x 1

t
. 5. LTE

10

2.4.

WiMax

frequency diversity scheduling, ,


, .

.
LTE -
: - frequency
selective scheduling. UE (User Equipment)
CQI
(Channel Quality Indicator), . .6.
,

CQI, , ,

/.

.
12
8

10

8
5

CQI

CQI

4
1

UE 1
UE 2

UE 3

UE 3
9
8

UE 2

7
6
5

UE 1

4
3
2
1

RB

RB

. 6. - LTE
2.5.
HARQ
(Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest), . . 7.
LTE ( WiMax, ,
, LTE )
10 , 30 WiMax.
11

,
: Chase combining - WiMax
Incremental redundancy - LTE. Chase combining
- ,
Incremental redundancy
,
-.
.

WiMax:

Chase
combining

H-ARQ NACK
H-ARQ Re-Tx
H-ARQ ACK

ACK

UE

LTE:

H-ARQ NACK

Incremental
redundancy

H-ARQ Re-Tx
H-ARQ ACK

UE

. 7. HARQ
2.6.


MCS
(Modulation and Coding Scheme).
QPSK/16QAM/64QAM

.
LTE 29 MCS, ,

.
12

/ 1-2 . , 1. WiMax
MCS ,
2-3 .
2.7.



.
,

/,
. WiMax.
LTE
FPC (Fractional Power Control).
/
: UE ,
/ . ,
UE /,
MCS, ,
. , , UE

, 1.
, LTE

OI (Overload Indicator), ,
.
OI
.
13

OI:
- ,
UE,
, . . 8.

OI

X2: OI

. 8
2.8.
WiMax 3
.
3 , . . 9.
3.
LTE
1, .. .
,
- , ,
. . 9, ,
.
( ).

( ). ,
.
UE, ,
UE (
).
14

WiMax:
3

LTE:
1

15

15
F1

F3

F2


10

11

5 M

MHz

. 9 WiMax LTE
2.9. MIMO
MIMO
,


,

,
.
LTE, MIMO
CL-MIMO (Close Loop MIMO).
,
PMI (Precoding Matrix
15

Indicator) . MIMO WiMa


.
,

MIMO.

WiMa

, LTE . ,
,

MIMO.
,

MIMO:

MIMO ,
/
.
SIC (Successive Interference
Cancellation). , WiMax,
.

H Rx

WiMax: MIMO ,

RI

MIMO
HH

PMI

CQI

H = UV H

LTE: MIMO , ,

. 10. MIMO WiMax LTE



.
16

. 2 Wimax 16e LTE Rel.8

LTE
WiMax

OFDMA
SC-FDMA:
OFDMA
DL,
-,
DL

SC-FDMA
,
UL
UL

Incremental
Chase

HARQ
redundancy
combining
Incremental redundancy

10
30
LTE

(1-2 )
(2-3)


,


1
3

MIMO
CL-MIMO,

, MIMO c
,
,
MIMO

SIC

17

2.10.

, .11:
, .
. 3.

. 11
. 3


TDD, DL/UL


BTS

MIMO
MIMO
BTS
UE

LTE

WiMax

3GPP Release 8
TDD
2.3
1:1
15
1
3
15
2x2

25
1.5

IEEE 802.16e
TDD
2.3
3:2
15
3
3
5
2x2

25
1.5

18


, MAPL (Maximum
Allowable Path Loss). LTE, WiMax, -
UE BS ~ 20
,
MAPL .
UE
. . 4.
.4. (UR)

LTE
WiMax


,



/

144 / 144 /

3 5
HARQ: 1,5 LTE; 2

PUSC
WiMax
540

1313

QPSK 0.61

QPSK 0.5

2.3

4.0

2.5

2.5

-111.9
18.0

-106.3
18.0

0.5

0.5

95%

95%

8.0

8.0
19

MCS


-
-


/


UE

8.7

8.7

3.6

3.6

17
3.0
23.0

17
3.0
23.0

:
DU 20 ; UR 17 ; SU 14 ; RU 8

MAPL
127.4
121.8



(UR)
COST231-HATA
0.56
0.39
MAPL TD-LTE 5,6
WiMax, TD-LTE .
7.6
. ATOLL A9955.
. 12.

. 12

20

LTE,
.
22 7.5 7.6 . ., . . 13.

. 13 LTE
22 WiMax
: 77%,
. . 14.

. 14 WiMax
21

TD-LTE

7.49

98.5 %

WiMax

5.85

77 %

2.11.

:
1. -
/
/ .
2. -
/
, .
3.

/ .
,

, NGMN 1:
500 , 10 ,
20 ,
19 3- , 6
, . . 15.

22

. 15
.5

LTE/ 3GPP Rel.8


WiMAX/ IEEE 802.16e
15 , .
15 , .
. 1, . 3,

15 ,
5 ,

TDD 1:1,
TDD 3:2,
MIMO 2x2
MIMO 2x2

11.8 /
5 /

( 60 /)
( 13.5 /)

4.8 /
1.5 /

( 20 /)
( 5 /)

LTE ,
WiMAX.

23

3. LTE HSPA+
HSPA+ LTE
. HSPA,+ UMTS/HSPA,
(CDMA), LTE
(OFDMA).

:

(MIMO) .., .
. 6.

3GPP Release



HSPA
Release 5/6

HSPA+
Release 7

LTE
Release 8

CDMA

CDMA

OFDMA

CDMA

CDMA

SC-FDMA

QPSK/ 16QAM

QPSK/
16QAM/
64QAM

1,4 20

QPSK/
16QAM/
64QAM

QPSK

QPSK/ 16QAM

QPSK/ 16QAM

2x2

2x2 - 4x4

3.1.

LTE

(OFDMA Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple


Access).

,
: OFDM
- .
24

,
, OFDM , ,
, .
OFDM
: 1,4 , 3 , 5 , 10 , 15
, 20 - 15 .
OFDMA
- .

, (CQI
Channel Quality Indicator).
CQI,

,
.
/
, LTE
MIMO 44:

MIMO,

2,

,
. , LTE

(MCS Modulation and Coding Scheme).


QPSK/16QAM/64QAM

29 MCS ,

25

. -
, 1.

HSPA+,
. Release 7 HSDPA
64QAM MIMO 22,
: MIMO 16QAM, 64QAM
SISO (Single-Input-Single-Output). 64QAM
MIMO 22 HSPA+, Release 8.
,
CDMA, HSPA+
HSDPA
64QAM MIMO.
.

- . 7.
. 7.

,
-
,
,
,
/
//
/
HSDPA Release
5
14 400
3 600
0,72
5
HSPA+ Release
5
20 480
3 710
0,742
7
HSPA+ Release
5
28 000
4 200
0,84
7
LTE Release 8
5
18 300
5 400
1,08
LTE Release 8
10
36 700
11 000
1,1
LTE Release 8
20
75 400
22 000
1,1
26

1x2
64QAM
1x2
16QAM
2x2
1x2
1x2
1x2

LTE Release 8
LTE Release 8
LTE Release 8
LTE Release 8
LTE Release 8
LTE Release 8

5
10
20
5
10
20

36 700
73 400
150 800
36 700
73 400
150 800

6 000
12 000
24 000
6 385
12 800
25 800

1,2
1,2
1,2
1,277
1,28
1,29

2x2
2x2
2x2
4x2
4x2
4x2

3.2.
, ,

.
, OFDM
.

. LTE

OFDM SC-FDMA (Single Carrier Frequency Division
Multiple Access),
180 ( 12
OFDM). SC-FDMA -

.
SC-FDMA, OFDMA ,
.
, LTE HSPA
.
HSPA
,
.

SC-FDMA

27


- .

- (SRS
Sounding Reference Signal).
LTE
MIMO (MUMIMO Multi User MIMO). MU-MIMO
-
, .

(SDMA Space Division Multiple Access).


, HSPA+

Release 6, HSUPA, ,
16QAM.

-.


,
. - -
.

HSUPA, HSPA+ LTE.

28

. 8.


, /
,
/
HSUPA
5
5 760
1 200
Release 6
HSUPA
5
7 680
1 260
Release 6
HSPA+
5
10 000
1 300
Release 7
HSPA+
5
11 200
1 340
Release 7
LTE Release 8
5
8 500
2 970
LTE Release 8
10
20 600
6 020
LTE Release 8
20
40 600
12 300
LTE Release 8
5
8 500
4 160
LTE Release 8
10
20 600
8 430
LTE Release 8
20
40 600
17 200

,
//
0,24
0,252
0,26
0,268
0,594
0,602
0,615
0,832
0,843
0,86

1x2, TTI=10

1x2, TTI=2

1x2, TTI=2
, QPSK
1x2, TTI=2
, 16QAM
1x2
1x2
1x2
1x4
1x4
1x4

3.3. VoIP

,
. LTE HSPA+
IP (VoIP).
, VoIP
, :
, .. ,
VoIP

(, ..).

,
,
5,9 12,2 /.
29

LTE

(HARQ Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest).
/

HARQ

VoIP LTE HSPA+

RoHC

(Robust

Header

Compression)

VoIP.

, . . 9. ,
UMTS
55 .
. 9. VoIP
12,2 /

HSPA+ Release 7
5
86
64QAM 1x2, TTI 2
LTE Release 8
5
162
1x2
LTE Release 8
10
324
1x2
LTE Release 8
20
648
1x2

30

4. LTE
4.1. ,
LTE .
, ,

.
, LTE
1, ..
. , OFDM
( ),
- 180 1 . ,
,
,
.
, . .16.

.16.

31

. 16, 1
, 2 ,
, 2,
1. , 2
, ,
1, 2.
1

2 .

1, ,
,
.
,
LTE :
- , ,
,
, .
,
.
-

,

. ,
. ,
.
,
.
1

LTE
, .

32

LTE
(FSS - Frequency Selective
Scheduling) (ICIC - Inter Cell Interference
Control).
4.2.


( ) :

();
.
W :
B1 = W log 2 (1 +

Pu Lu
),
N0

W - ; Pu - ; Lu ; N 0 .

:
B2 = W log 2 (1 +

Pu Lu
),
N 0 + Pi Li
i

i - ; Pi - i -
; Li - i -
.
:

33

1+
B = B1 B2 = W log 2

h =
q=

Pu Lu
N0

Pu Lu
N0

i Pi Li
N0
1+
+
Pu Lu
Pu Lu

= W log 2

1+ h
1
1 + +
h

- - (SNR Signal-to-Noise Ratio),

Pu Lu
- - (SIR Signal-to-Interference Ratio).
Pi Li
i

. 17
( B , %) SIR
SNR.

.17. SIR
,
, .. q 0 .
q = 0 h = 8
, 70 % (. .17).

34

4.3.
(. . 16)
.


,
.
LTE
, , .

.
: -,
(HARQ Hybrid Automatic Repeat reQuest); , - 1 ,

.

2 (
).

(RNTP
Relative Narrowband Tx Power). RNTP - ,
,
( ).
RNTP ,

(10 ) ( ). ,
RNTP ,

35

:
- (OI Overload Indicator)

.
: , .
- (High Interference Indicator)
,
,
. HII - ,
.
OI HII
20 ( ).
4.4.
ICIC ,

.
: (VFR Virtual
Frequency Reuse), (FFR Fractional Frequency
Reuse) (SFFR Soft Fractional Frequency Reuse).

36

. 18.

. 19.


, , 3 ,
. 18: F1, F2 F3.

.

3.


, ,

.


37

,
.
.
,
,
, - F0 .19 ).
F1, F2 F3.

1, 3.
1 3.
. 19 ) :
,
( ).

F0, ,
. ,
F1, F0, F2 F3,
F2 F3,
.
,
: (Inverted Reuse), .
. 20, (Trash Heap)
, . 21.

7 . ,
, ..

. , ,
,
38

F2, .. ,
.
F1.

.
,
,
, .21.

.

PINT

. 20.

. 21.

39

4.5.
ICIC
, , ..


SINR ( -+). ,

(. 21),

.
, FSS
. FSS
(VoIP).
, ,
.
ICIC.
Bell Labs
.

.
7, . 21, FSS

40%. , ,
FSS, ICIC .

, . 20, FSS
18% 35%.
, FSS, ICIC
.
40

4.6.
LTE
:
- .
.
-
1 .
.

LTE


(SON Self Organizing Network). SON
:

-,

, , , -, ,


. , ,

.

,
, .

41


,
,
LTE, Wi-Fi, WiMAX, Bluetooth.
, .
WMAN
LTE
:
- . ,
LTE WiMax,
HSPA+.
- .
, WiMax.
- LTE FDD
TDD
FDD
, TD-LTE.
LTE
3GPP

.

42


1.

2.

3.

,
WiMax.

4.

,
LTE.

5.

6.

7.

LTE WiMax.
8.

HSPA+ LTE.

9.

LTE
.

10.

()
LTE WiMax.

11.

12.

13.

14.

MIMO LTE
WiMax?

15.

43


1.

. TD-LTE WiMax//

2010.

http://www.mforum.ru/news/article/093817.htm
2.

. LTE// .
2010. - 2. - . 30-33.

3.

, . LTE:
// . - 2010. - N 2. - . 34-37.

4.

., ., . WiMAX.
4G. .: , 209. 465 .

5.

..,

..,

..,

...

.:

, 2005, 592 .
6.

.., .., ..
LTE: . .: -, 2010. 284 .

7.

... . .:
, 2006, 288 .

8.

Stefania Sesia, Issam Toufik, Matthew Baker. LTE The UMTS Long Term
Evolution. From Theory to Practice. - John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2009 611 .

9.

Jeffrey G.A. Fundamentals of WiMax: Understanding Broadband Wireless


Networking. Pearson Education, Inc., 2007. - 449 .

10.

Harri Holma and Antti Toskala. WCDMA for UMTS HSPA Evolution and
LTE. - John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2007 574 .

11.

.. . .: , 2008 - 136 .

12.

..
. .: , 2009, 272 .

44

13.

.., ..
OFDM, . // , 10, , 2005.

14.

..,

..,

..

MIMO HSDPA
. // , 10, , 2006, c. 12-16.
15.

.., .., .., ..



. / . .. - .: . 2008, 344 .

45