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Morley 1 Beth Morley Dr.

Frances English 212: Visual Approaches to Composition 12 February 2014 Records of the Holocaust According to Maps, Knowledge, and Power, by J.B. Harley, Maps are a way of conceiving, articulating, and structuring the human world which is biased towards, rooted by, and exerts influence upon particular sets of social relations (278). Harley illustrates that maps are more than just a piece of paper, but rather a language of power and knowledge. One example is the use of maps in the military. As explained by Harley, war maps can be used to deceive an enemy, to prevent an enemy from finding out certain strategies (289). Additionally, war maps have a deeper meaning and appreciation. For instance, during World War II, the numerous amounts of concentration camps dominated different countries under Hitlers command. The power of the many black dots shown on such maps indicates not only concentration camps, but hidden messages of sorrow and torture. A deeper look at the concentration camps of Germany and Europe as a whole will provide a better understanding of how ethos, pathos, and logos have an impact on the reinvented map. In Nazi Germany between 1933 and 1945, concentration camps were an important feature to the governmental control (Concentration Camps). The first concentration camp in Germany was established in 1933, when Hitler became known as the ultimate dictator (Concentration Camps). The term concentration camp refers to a site in which people are imprisoned or restricted, usually under severe conditions (Concentration Camps). By the end

Morley 2 of the war, 22 main concentration camps were established and around 1,200 associate camps (Holocaust). Additionally, an abundance of concentration camps and death camps became established in the other countries of Europe. As shown on the maps, concentration camps had a major impact not only on Germany, but the whole European society. Although each map contains the common ground of displaying concentration camps, there are a few distinct variances. From looking at each of the maps one can establish the main differences. For example, one of the maps shown is of the whole continent of Europe. In contrast, the other map zooms in on the country of Germany within Europe. However, each map contains its own hidden unique messages. The map of Germany alone expresses a major amount of concentration camps, which from first glance can have a major impact on elderly individuals born in that time era. Today, some individuals tend to believe such events ceased to occur in our world history. From looking at the map of Germany, skeptics are forced to believe in the tragedy. The map of Germany represents the underlining truth of what actually happened so many years ago. In contrast, the broader map covering all of Europe reveals the hidden message of a continuum of power. Hitlers command essentially outreached to other European countries. The mass distribution of power, as seen on the map of Europe, provides todays citizens with a sense of dictatorship (Holocaust). The different components of each map also contribute to the viewers emotions, the creators credibility, and the logic behind the images. According to Reynolds, Our ideas about maps need to change in order to reflect how technology is revolutionizing map-making as well as map-reading (79). Reynolds illustrates the idea of changing the way we look at maps. A map is not just a manuscript to be understood, but a document to be trusted (Reynolds 79). The credibility of the mapmaker, or ethos, plays

Morley 3 into the trust factor of the intended viewers. Because the maps are so broad in knowledge of the location of each concentration camp, the mapmaker can be trusted with such an iconic event in history. Both maps are also a part of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, which indicates major credibility (Holocaust). The information the mapmaker provides for viewers on each individual map, shows the time and effort put into displaying an important tragedy. The mapmaker broadens the perspective of some viewers by first creating a map of all European concentration camps and then creating a map that enlarges the display of German concentration camps. Along with the creators credibility is the audience or intended viewers perspective and the emotional connection made. At first glance many viewers may not feel the emotion in two maps displaying an abundance of black dots. Taking a closer look reveals the actual meaning behind the simple black points, the many concentration and death camps among Europe and Germanys total control. Behind each black mark are millions of innocent people suffering within restricted spaces. The feeling of compassion and remorse for such terrible circumstances in history, deals with the idea of pathos, or the intended audiences emotion and connection. As stated by Harley, Maps are a form of knowledge and a form of power (279). The two images of the maps demonstrate the idea of pathos by enhancing our knowledge. Normal individuals went through unexplainable pain and suffering. To continue, the Germans arrested those who resisted their domination and those they judged to be racially inferior or politically undesirable (Concentration Camps). Both maps discover hidden emotions and heartfelt connections with those that lost their lives. In addition to the rhetorical use of audience emotion, another key feature is the understanding of logic behind each map.

Morley 4 Logos, or the understanding of logic behind each text, data, or message, is made apparent in both maps. The maps of Europe and Germany, displaying the many concentration camps are very clearly understood. There is logic within each and every detail present among the maps. For example, both the European map and the German map provide a scale of how many miles are covered from location to location. The scale establishes our understanding and logic of how close each camp was to one another. Additionally, because the maps shown are only presented in a confined space, the mapmaker made sure the viewers were aware that not all concentration camps could be displayed (Concentration Camps). This is a very logical statement to why some of the camps are missing from the picture. Overall, each map provides the viewers with a better understanding of the accentuating logic. Maps are more than just a piece of paper displaying images. Maps are a form of power and knowledge (Harley 279). By taking a closer look at the two maps displayed, one may find the use of ethos, pathos, and logos along the surface. The German and European territories show a wide range of concentration camps. Behind all of the black dots indicating the concentration camps, are those that have suffered. Looking at a map from a different perspective can take on a whole new meaning and a deeper appreciation. By feeling compassion for the innocent victims, the creator is playing into the audiences emotions. Additionally, the maps show credibility and trust for the creator, also known as ethos. Individuals know the information addressed is in fact valuable and logical, playing into the rhetorical perspective of logos. Each map contains hidden messages waiting to be discovered about the Holocaust and the tragedy that took place. Maps are a new language and a reflection of our past history that contains the power and knowledge of the underlining truth.

Morley 5 Works Cited "Concentration Camps, 19331939." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Council, 10 June 2013. Web. 27 Jan. 2014. <http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/article.php?ModuleId=10005263>. Harley, J.B. "Maps, Knowledge, and Power." The Iconography of Landscape (1988): 277-303. Web. 29 Jan. 2014. "Holocaust Concentration Camps." Holocaust: A Call to Conscience. N.p., 2009. Web. 29 Jan. 2014. <http://www.projetaladin.org/holocaust/en/history-of-the-holocaust-shoah/thekilling-machine/concentration-camps.html>. Reynolds, Nedra. "Maps of the Everyday: Habitual Pathways and Contested Places." Inhabiting Places and Encountering Difference. N.p.: n.p., 2004. 78-109. Print.

Map Links: http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_nm.php?ModuleId=10005214&MediaId=354 http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/en/media_nm.php?ModuleId=10005214&MediaId=336