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unity Cultur e mm Co

. . . a thematic approach to teaching the arts


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Art/Culture CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION TO ACTIVITIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Intro-1 Learning Cycle Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Intro-2 Sample Learning Cycle Lesson Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intro-3 Giraffes Cant Dance (But You Surely Can) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intro-4

KINDERGARTEN LESSONSFocus:My Self . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Myself-5 Objective: Students will explore ways people are alike and ways they are unique. Students will be able to express what makes them like and different from others. Additionally, they will express appreciation for differences and similarities among people. Music: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Myself-6 Students will improvise melodies, variations, and accompaniments using the song with mime Hey, hey, look at me! Enrichment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Myself-9 Dance: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Myself-13 Students will explore ways to move that are similar to classmates and ways that are unique The students will participate in dance activities that include creating unique body shapes and moving from one unique shape to another, using the song Hey, hey, look at me! Extensions for Other Grades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Myself-14 Drama: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Myself-15 Students will explore ways in which people are alike and ways they are unique and develop body awareness and spatial perception through . . . movement and pantomime based on the book We are All Alike and All Different Do You Love Your Neighbor Game . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Myself-16 Action and Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Myself-17 FreezeFreeze . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Myself-17 Secondary Adaptations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Myself-18 Visual Arts: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Myself-19 Using the subject matter of self-portraits, the students will take an introspective look at their personality attributes, stressing the diversity and uniqueness found among students Expressive Self-portraits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Myself-19 Realistic Self-portraits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Myself-20 History of Portraiture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Myself-22 AestheticsRealism and Expressivism. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Myself-23 Criticism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Myself-24 Enrichment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Myself-24 Literacy:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Myself-25 With help from teacher, parents, or upper-grade student volunteers, students will attach labels to their self-portraits Additional Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Myself-25 iii

FIRST GRADE LESSONSLesson Focus:My Family. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Family-27 Objective: Students will identify ways in which their own family provides love, food, shelter, clothing, companionship, and protection for them. Music: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family-29 Students will sing alone and with others, with movement: Three Bears Jive. Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family-36 Dance: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family-37 The students will participate in dance activities that include creating group dances which reflect family interactions, expectations, and culture and which are shown through the ideas in the song Williams Doll. Drama: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family-39 Students will show ways in which families provide the basic needs of love, food, shelter, clothing, companionship, and protection for their members through improvising plays based on personal experience. Additional Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family-41 Visual Arts: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family-42 Students will discuss ways their families provide for their needs and will create family collages. Art HistoryCubism, Dadaism & Photo Collage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Family-46 Art Criticism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family-46 AestheticsHedonist Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family-47 Variation for Advanced Students. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family-44 Variations and Extensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family-45 Literacy:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family-47 Related Books Additional Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Family-48

SECOND GRADE LESSONSFocus:My Neighborhood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neigh-51 Objective: Students will identify their own talents and explore ways in which they can use their talents to contribute to their classroom or community. Music: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Neigh-53 Students will sing the African birthday ceremony song Kuzaliwah Furrahalone and with others and will perform on instruments. Additional Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neigh-54 Dance: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neigh-55 Students will explore the movement potential of games and then find ways to vary those movements. Drama: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neigh-56 Students will demonstrate that everyone has unique contributions they bring to a group through the use of movement and pantomime based . . . on the various talents/contributions of people in a community. Visual Arts:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neigh-60 Students will identify their own talents and explore ways in which they can use their talents to contribute to their classroom or community by creating a mural as a class and which explores or comments on their community. Art HistorySocial Realism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neigh-62 AestheticsInstrumentalist Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neigh-63 Literacy: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Neigh-66 Additional Applications: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Neigh-66 iv

THIRD GRADE LESSONSLesson Focus:My Community. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Culture-67 Objective: Students will be able to identify the different cultures in their local community and identify a contribution that each culture makes or has made. Music: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Culture-68 Students will learn and sing songs from other countries: Chucu, Uno dos tres, and Al Citrn. They will understand music in relation to history and culture. Drama: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Culture-72 Students will learn about a different culture and will assume a role and interact in a classroom dramatization of a myth or tale. Dance: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Culture-89 Students will learn dances from other cultures. . . . Dance Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Culture-90 . . . Basic Dance Steps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Culture-91 . . . Seven Jumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Culture-93 . . . Greensleeves. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Culture-97 . . . La Raspa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Culture-101 Additional Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Culture-105 Visual Arts: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Culture-106 Students will examine significant artworks from various cultures, research a particular culture, list the major art forms of that culture, . . determine the arts purpose(s), and create an artwork in the style of the researched culture. Students will make connections among cultures, identifying differences and similarities. Extensions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Culture-112 Literacy: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Culture-113 Roxaboxen, Alice McLerran FOURTH GRADE LESSONSLesson Focus:My State . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State-115 Objective: Students will identify places they love in Utah and will develop an appreciation for the variety of places in Utah. Music: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State-116 Students will learn the song Rocky Mountain, will improvise variations, and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . accompaniments; and will understand music in relation to history and culture. Drama: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State-118 Students will understand how the geographical features of places within Utah vary and contribute to their distinctiveness by participating in a Paiute Indian legend story dramatization regarding the origin of the petrified forest at Capitol Reef National Monument. Petrified Forest Paiute Legend . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State-121 Visual Arts: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State-123 The students will discuss and explore the use of subject matter in Utah artworks. Students will evaluate specific artworks according to two aesthetic theories and will draw a still-life of objects they associate with Utah. Literacy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State-129 Additional Applications: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State-130 Dance: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State-131 The students will improvise movement that demonstrates varying qualities of motion suggested by Utah land forms. They will then create a sequence by selecting, ordering and demonstrating varying qualities of motion inspired by those land forms. v

FIFTH GRADE LESSONSLesson Focus:My Country. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Country-133 Objective: Students will understand what freedom means. Students will understand that being an American involves both rights and responsibilities. Music: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Country-134 The students will learn to sing Pat Works on the Railway, will sing it alone, and with others and will make up new verses. Students will also . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . understand the music in relation to history and culture. Drama: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Country-159 The students will plan and participate in a Readers Theatre based on Civil War history. Who Came Down That Road/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Country-161 Dance: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Country-165 The students will expand their dance vocabulary with movement experiences in time and rhythm and perform and understand dances from different time periods and cultures in the United States. Visual Arts: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Country-167 Students will understand that unique American art forms have been promoted as a result of the unfettered freedom artists enjoy in America. SIXTH GRADE WEBQUESTLesson Focus: The World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . World-177 ARTIST BIOGRAPHIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Artists-187 Lee Udall Bennion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Fredric Edwin Church . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Maynard Dixon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 James T. Harwood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Brower Hatcher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Joseph, Haiti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 William S. Kendall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Jacqui Biggs Larsen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Nok, Nigeria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Dennis V. Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Gary E. Smith . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 Mahonri Young . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

APPENDIX A List of Suggested Images for K6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Springville Museum of Art Poster and Postcard sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Utah Museum of Fine Art Elementary Poster set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dance Top-down Body Parts Warm-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Star Spangled Banner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

APPENDIX B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Append-225 Theatre Games, Exercises, and Order Forms Image on facing page: Robert Marshall, Iridescence SMA vi

Append-213 Append-215 Append-217 Append-219 Append-221

Introduction to the Lessons

The poem, the song, the picture Are only water drawn from the well of the people And it must be given back to them in a cup of beauty So they may drink, and in drinking, understand themselves Lorca

This Evening for Educators packet is a product of a partnership among Brigham Young University, The Statewide Art Partnership through the Springville Museum of Art, and Taylor Elementary School, Payson, Utah. The partnership is sponsored by a grant from Texaco and the Getty Foundation: The Arts in Teacher Training and Education (ATTE). Those of us who have worked on the ATTE committee are committed to helping students experience the beauty and meaning in the artsdance, drama, music, and the visual artsand by so doing, develop a richer life. This packet is designed using a learning cycle format (sometimes called a spiral lessonsee the explanation and example on the next pages). The packet contains sets of lessons, built on social studies themes so the visual arts, music, dance, and theater activities all work as applications of the social studies objectives as well as fulfilling state core objectives in their respective arts areas. The themes are: Myself, My Family, Communities, Cultures, My State, My Country, The World.

Although the lesson material is organized according to elementary social studies themes, those themes have universal meaning. In addition, many of the lesson activities contain adaptations for secondary level students, and many of the others can easily be adapted to any level. We have provided as many of the resources as possible right in the packet, and where it wasnt possible, we have provided information on how to obtain those resources.

Included in the introductory section are an explanation of the Learning Cycle format, an example of a learning cycle set of lessons, and an invitation by an elementary teacher to all those of you who arent giraffes, and therefore, can dance.

We hope this packet is useful to you teachers not just in supplying ideas for balanced arts curriculum but also in providing ways to work these activities into your already busy teaching schedule. We are always appreciative of feedback that will help us refine the packets; and we hope you will take the time to let us know what you used in your classrooms, what worked well, what was difficult, and what other areas you would like us to cover in future packets or workshops. Intro-1

Learning Cycle Format

The Learning Cycle offers a sequence of learning activities which most effectively and efficiently leads to the learning of new concepts, generalizations, and/or promotes the development of higher level thinking skills. The basic sequence of phases, or steps, of the Learning Cycle format are as follows:

I. Explorationstudents can experience a new concept or process. This involves students interacting with materials or experiences where they (the students) learn through their own actions, raise questions, interact, etc. During this phases the teacher encourages the students, asks questions, observes, and/or sets up the learning opportunity for the students to experience something new. This step also provides for a way for all the students to bring their own background knowledge and experiences to bear on a common experience.

II. Expressionstudents have an opportunity to express in some mode their understanding of the experience during the exploration phase. This serves as a transition to the Labeling Phase. Any materials used in this phase are used to help in the students' expression. Students take a very active role in this phase as they create an expression that represents what they did in the exploration, what they understood and/or how they felt about the exploration experience. The teacher in this phase suggests modes of expression, provides examples if needed, and guides or encourages the students individually or as a group. Expressions often are in the form of a written product, discussion, or a drawing or artistic endeavor. III. Labelingteachers help students to label the concept or process and to add meaning to the students' explorations and expressions. During this stage, the students are basically physically passivepossibly participating with the teacher in discussions and thinking. The teacher is most active, demonstrating the concept, asking questions, providing additional examples. Occasionally the teacher uses textbooks, videos, or other mediums to assist in labeling for the students. IV. Applicationstudents have a chance to apply the concept or process defined in the Labeling phase to new or different situations than those used in the lesson. Materials may be provided by the teacher or discovered by the students under the teacher's direction to assist them in any application. Students are again very actively involved in either individual assignments, group assignments, or as a class. The teacher now is a resource to the student, encouraging, observing, questioning.


Sample Learning Cycle Lesson Plan

Objectives: After this lesson the students will be able to: 1. Demonstrate an understanding of slavery and its place in U.S. history. 2. Take a thoughtful position regarding slavery's implications for a democratic society. 3. Interact positively with peers regarding a values-laden issue.

Exploration: Write "slavery" on the board and ask students what they think this term means. Have students discuss in groups of 3-4 what they think this term means. Come up with a working definition for slavery. Express: Have a spokesperson from each group share the groups working definitions with the class. Record all definitions.

Label: Read aloud Nettie's Trip South, by Ann Turner. During the reading, explain the context in which the book was written and that it presents a particular viewpoint on slavery in the U.S. Make the points: 1) Slavery was a prime economic and socio-political cause of the Civil War; and 2) it contradicts values/principles central to the U.S. Constitution. After reading, allow students to react to the book, then return their attention to the working definitions of slavery each group previously generated. Using the book as a prompt, help the students generate a class definition of "slavery in the United States" on the chalkboard. Application: Students return to their groups and consider the question: "Imagine the South had won the Civil War and slavery continued in the Confederate states. How would this class and our community be different/similar if slavery continued today?

Expression: Have student groups share their responses with the class. Have them return to their seats to write an entry in their social studies journals summarizing what they learned about slavery today. Evaluation: Lesson effectiveness will be determined by: 1. The class definition of slavery and responses to the book (obj. 1) 2. Student journal entries (obj. 2) 3. Observable indicators of positive student interactions during all phases (obj. 3)

http://memory.loc.gov/service/pnp/cph/3b20000/3b23000/ 3b23500/3b23576r.jpg public domain Intro-3

INTRODUCTION TO DANCE ACTIVITIES Giraffes Can't Dance (But You Surely Can!)
For most elementary teachers, the very thought of walking their students down to the gym and leading a dance lesson is about as appealing as driving to their dentist and getting a root canal (and for those few of you who enjoy that experiencei.e. Bill Murray in The Little Shop of Horrors perhaps it's as appealing as sitting through 3 hours of an Amway presentation). I felt that way at one time in my teaching careerbut now I actually took forward to those wonderful times I share with my students when we creatively move together. The students (especially the boys!) get very put out if we miss our time in the gym. Dance is powerful. Students get a chance to express themselves in ways humans have been doing for thousands of years. For those willing to give it a go, you need to lead your students through a few lessons of basic management rules or agreements. The beginning lessons from First Steps in Teaching Creative Dance to Children by Mary Joyce (1993) are excellent starting points. Your students need to learn the following: to respond to a quiet signal to move through the gym without bumping or touching each other to move their bodies and not their mouths to know the boundaries and stay in them to focus their energy on the objective you're working on As they advance to working in small groups, they'll also need excellent listening skills problem-solving skills

As you read the dance lesson plans in this packet, it should come to your attention that students move. Every lesson is usually about 90 percent moving! Your students get an excellent aerobic workout. If you can't get the Mary Joyce book, please don't let that stop you. You can take the lessons in here and go for it. Another good source for help and/or information is Doris Trujillo, the dance specialist in the state office. She can be reached at 763-8614. I am also willing to help out any way I can for I truly wish all students to get the opportunity to move their bodies creatively. I can be reached at 798-4055. There is a marvelous book titled, Giraffes Can't Dance by Giles AndredeIn this book, Gerald (a giraffe, of course) learns to dance by finding his own special music. It's a great read-aloud picture book for K-5. It is my hope you all find your own special music and help your students find theirs. Chris Roberts, Rees Elementary, Spanish Fork, Utah


MYSELF Kindergarten
Objective: Students will explore ways people are alike and ways they are unique. Students will be able to express what makes them like and different from others. Additionally, they will express appreciation for differences and similarities among people. Social Studies Standard: People, Places, and Enviroments Lesson

Utah State Core Std. #6000-0202: Discuss ways that people are alike and ways they are unique, and that each individual has self-worth.

Materials Book: We Are All Alike . . .We Are All Different. Cheltenham Elementary School Kindergartners, (1991). New York: Scholastic. Sticky notes

Exploration: Read the childrens book and discuss while reading. Have students raise their hands to indicate how they are the same and how they are different according to the text of the book. Expression: In columns on a chart, list characteristics such as hair color, eye color, skin color, pant types, height (short, medium, tall), etc. Make sure that the characteristics represent similarities and differences of students in your classroom. (See sample) Brown Hair Blonde Hair Black Hair Red Hair

Yuri Podlyaski, Masha with Yellow Socks Blue Jeans Long Sleeves Tennis Shoes

Give students sticky notes to put in the columns that pertain to them. Put one sticky note in a line one after the other, not over lapping, making a graph. Compare and contrast the different categories. Talk about the similarities and differences among the members of the class. Myself-5

Label: We are all unique. In our class we have found out that there are many of us who have some things about us that are the same. (List things that are the same.) We have also realized that there are some things that are different about us. (List things that are different.) Every person in this class is a member of our classroom community. Each person does something that helps us in some way. In the world there are also people who are like us and people who are different. Even though they may be different than we are, they help us and we appreciate them.

ApplicationsMusic, Dance, Theater, Visual Arts, and Literacy

Summary of music ideas Sounds may go up or down, be loud or soft, fast or slow, smooth or jerky Different sound sources produce different sounds (violins, trumpets, etc. and people) Each person has a unique voice Listening is the key to accurate singing The voice can sing in many ways Music may have a steady beat The long and short sounds in a song create rhythm Music is a way to express feelings Social Studies Theme of Focus (Self) Met Through Music I have a voice like others and different from others I can sing! I can listen! I am a musician! I can sing about myself and others Music helps me express who I am

Utah State Music Core Targets: Sing and play Sing many songs in natural voice Play singing games and rhythm games Feel the steady beat Follow directions when singing and be courteous Start and stop together Explore and create Explore sounds that can be made with voices Experiment and make up sound effects Experiment with changes in high/low, fast/slow, loud/soft, and sound/silence Listen Listen and hear song in own head Use good listening habits Show through body movement when pitch, sounds and long/short (duration change) Myself-6

Connect Tell what familiar songs and singing games mean personally Explain how, why, when or where songs are done Celebrate, express feelings, and help others come together through music Tell how music can be a part of life Materials: Songs: Hickety Tickety Bumblebee, Doggie Doggie, Hey, Hey, Look at Me, Mary Wore a Red Dress Recordings: Flight of the Bumblebee Carnival of the Animals by Saint Sans Books: We Are All Alike, We Are All Different Each Peach, Pear, Plum Mary Wore a Red Dress Music vocabulary to develop: Singing, music, fast/slow, high/low, loud/soft, composer, beat, rhythm

Lesson Procedure: 1. Discuss with the children the fact that our voices can make many kinds of sounds. Voices can whisper, shout, talk, imitate animals, and sing. Our ears help us use our voices. Invite the children to imitate the sounds you make. Suggestions for sounds include: Slide voice up and down pretending to be on a roller coaster or elevator Whisper Imitate animal sounds Slide into a pitch and hold it

Wayne Thiebaud

Always expect children to copy exactly by using their ears. (The song is on the next page.)

2. Invite children to sit in a circle. Discuss the fact that they are all children and that they all have a voice, but that each voice is different and each has their own special name. Begin singing, Hickety Tickety Bumblebee with the actions that emphasize the beat. After each child says his/her name, invite the class to repeat the name just as the child said it. Compliment the children when they have listened and repeated exactly. If they dont repeat the name exactly, invite them to listen and then try again.

At the end of the activity, comment on the wonderful names and voices each child has and how each is different. Because each voice is different, we can identify each child by his/her voice, even when we cant see them. Myself-7

Hickety-Tickety Bumblebee

Sit in a circle. All keep a swinging beat on their lap.

Sing the song and at the end of each verse, a child says his or her name over two beats. All others repeat it in two more beats. Repeat the song, proceeding around the circle until all the students have had a turn. Challenge all the class to keep the beat going continuously throughout the song.

Mary Wore Her Red Dress


Suggest playing a game (Doggie, Doggie) to prove the point that each child has a unique voice.

3. Sing and play, Doggie, Doggie, Wheres Your Bone? The children sit in a semicircle with one child sitting in a chair facing away from the group. Place a toy bone or beanbag under the chair. One child is chosen to go, steal the bone. All of the children then sit with their hands behind their backs and say, Doggie, doggie, wheres your bone? Someone stole it from your home! The child who has the bone sings, I have your bone. The Doggie then turns around and tries to guess who has the bone. When the children guess who has the bone, remind them that they could tell who had the bone by listening to the persons voice. We have ears that give us information, and each of us has a voice that is unique. Also, we can sing!

4. Invite individual children to record his/ her voice by singing, I have your bone. Record 5 or 6 children each day until all have recorded. Then play back the children singing and see if the class can guess who each one is. Enjoy the fun.

5. Tell the children that you have a recording of some orchestra music. Invite them to use their ears and listen to this music that may suggest to them some feelings or ways to move. Play the music and allow the children to respond physically. Summarize the fact that our ears help us listen to music, that music expresses ideas, and that we are all musicians, because we cal listen and we can sing. (Spend plenty of time reviewing the previous experiences from the above lesson throughout the year.)

Enrichment 1. Discuss with the children the idea that they have many singing voices. Invite them to imitate you as you demonstrate the following: Talk-sing voice Low sing voice Ring sing voice Help them understand that we want to learn to sing with each of those qualities and to listen so we can tell the difference.

2. Sing, Hey, Hey, Look at Me, (on previous page) verse one. Encourage children to imitate your voice just as you did it. When you have explored all the singing voices, proceed to other verses: Hey, hey, look at me, I am skipping [smiling, bending, singing, etc.]. Help children imitate as precisely as possible. Invite individual children to lead the action. 3. Sing, Hey, Hey, Look at Me, and express different moods. For example, Hey, hey, look at me, make yourself sound mad like me. Use the singing voice that would be most appropriate for each mood explored.

4. Musicians use sounds to express ideas. Listen to the following music. What ideas do you think the composer might have wanted to express? Play excerpts from music such as the following Flight of the Bumblebee, Elephants, Donkeys, etc., from Carnival of the Animals Myself-9

Discuss what the composer used to express ideas. Discussion should include reference to the following: high or low sounds, fast or slow sounds, loud or soft sounds, smooth or jerky sounds, sounds of different instruments (colors), repeated sections, etc.

5. Focus on childrens clothing by singing, Mary Wore a Red Dress, substituting a childs name for Mary. You might sing about his/her brown shoes, striped shirt, green pants, etc. Continue singing about other children in the room. After children have heard the song many times, invite one child to sing about another child. Encourage children to sing in their ring-sing voice. (The song is on page 4.) Assessment 1. Child sings by himself and with group in a natural voice free from strain and seems to enjoy singing. 2. Child moves to a steady beat. 3. Child begins and ends at teachers direction and with the rest of the class. 4. Child shows through movement, awareness of differences in fast/slow, loud/soft, and long and short sounds when responding to recorded or sung music. 5. Child is attentive to the sounds in recorded music and voices of other children.

Extension to Other Curriculum

Literacy 1. When singing, Hickety Tickety Bumblebee, encourage children to follow with their eyes around the circle as each childs name is spoken. Invite them to gesture to the next person on the word you to help them keep track. This tracking process is important to reading skill development. 2. Sing, Hickety Tickety Bumblebee Game Two (stressed syllable rhythm game). When clapping or tapping a childs name, be certain to feel the difference between the stressed and unstressed syllables. 3. When singing, Hey, Hey, Look at Me, consider taking pictures of each child making a frozen shape. Place the pictures in a book that children can read. Write the appropriate words under each picture. Hey, Hey, Look at Ben, make yourself look just like Ben.

4. Create a chart of, Doggie, Doggie. Write each phrase on a word strip and place the phrases out of order on a chart. Include a picture of a dog. Invite children to put the word strips in order, or to sing the song out of order just to be silly. Doggie, doggie

Wheres your bone? Someone took it

From your home.


5. Sing, Mary Wore a Red Dress, verse 2, holding up the color you are singing about. Enjoy the guessing game. Discuss the particular color and check to see how many other children are wearing the same color. Continue with other colors.

6. Sing the book, Mary Wore Her Red Dress to the children, then place it in their book corner for future reading. Read Who Said Red as a companion book. 7. Consider making a Mary Wore Her Red Dress book of the children in the class. Take a photograph, or allow each child to draw a picture of themselves and then place the picture in the book with the appropriate name and color words to fit the song. Place the book in the book center for the children to sing and/or read. 8. Have a color of the day. Let children draw or cut out pictures of objects that match the color. Place the pictures in a book and make up words to fit, using the Mary Wore a Red Dress melody. For example, Bobby made a yellow flower, yellow flower, yellow flower, Bobby made a yellow flower for our book. Jenny found a yellow car, yellow car, yellow car, Jenny found a yellow car, for our book, etc. 9. Vocabulary development. Use the music words throughout the year to help children master the vocabulary. (See Vocabulary above.)

Dance 1. Play, Hey, Hey, Look at Me, verse two or three. Focus on the use of body parts to make shapes, or work on developing locomotor skills, while singing. (Hey, hey, look at me, you can skip, just like me.) Also, describe the shapes in dance terms. 2. Sing, Hickety Tickety Bumblebee Game Two, (stressed syllable rhythm game). After children tap or clap a name, explore ways to feel the name with the whole body.

3. Play recordings of any of those suggested in No. 4 under Enrichment. Without moving, think about how you might move to respond to this music, After children have listened, play the same music again and encourage them to move to express what they hear and feel. Perhaps they could just let their fingers move, or their head. Then they can stand and let their feet move through space. Visual Art 1. After singing, Mary Wore Her Red Dress, encourage children to draw pictures of themselves. Help them notice the clothes they are wearing and to color their pictures accurately. Consider placing their pictures in a book as suggested in the Reading section. Myself-11

2. Remind children that we all have feelings. Discuss feelings they may have then explore any or all of the following paintings from the Art/Culture Culture/Art packet. The Artists Wife and Daughters Male head Snow Queen Forgotten Man Boy and Cat Discuss what feelings the artist might have been trying to express in each case. Help children explore why the painting seems to express what it does. Artists often use paint of clay to express feelings. They use color, shape, and line to help them express ideas and feelings. Musicians use sound to express feeling. Listen again to the suggested recordings. Help children notice that musicians use fast of slow sounds, high or low sounds, different instruments, smooth or jerky sounds, etc. to help them express ideas or feelings.

Additional Applications 1. Whenever the class sings a song, help the children remember to use their ring-sing voice. Also, help them move to the beat or rhythm of the song. 2. Encourage every child to sing alone at least two times each month. 3. Look for opportunities to use the voice expressively. Chant rhymes, add sound effects to stories or picture books, pretend to talk like animals, etc. 4. When watching videos, draw attention to the music. Ask children why they think certain music was used for the particular video. Describe the expressive qualities of the music. (Loud/soft, fast/ slow, smooth/jerky, high/low, which instruments, etc.)

Lee Bennion, Snow Queen Springville Museum of Art


Objective: The students will participate in dance activities that include creating unique body shapes and moving from one unique shape to another. Utah State Dance Core Standards: MOVING 1400-0101 & 0102 Warm the body at the beginning of a dance lesson and introduce the lesson concept of unique shapes. INVESTIGATING 1400-0202 Expand dance understanding with movement experiences in space. Create curved, straight, bent and twisted shapes with the body. Identify and do basic locomoter steps while traveling through space in straight and curved paths. CREATING 1400-0301 Create simple sequences with unique shapes and locomoter steps. CONNECTING (CONTEXTUALIZING) 1400-0401 & 0403 Demonstrate simple patterns and singing games in dance. Develop a movement pattern to go with another art form. Equipment and Materials Drum and beater CD Player and CDs Pictures of simple shapes and objects with unique shapes

MOVING Complete a thorough body warm-up using a staying-in-place follow-the-leader mirroring activity. There should be no speaking, just moving slowly from one shape to another. The warm-up leader should include moving on various levels, high, medium and low, and a variety of bent, straight, twisted, and curved shapes with the body. Add moving through space locomotor activities by skipping, galloping, or jumping through the general space for eight counts then stopping in a shape and holding for eight counts. Accompany with a drum using a skip rhythm or singing a familiar song like Hey, Hey, . . . Look at Me [Make your shape look just like me] (See accompanying music lesson.) At the conclusion of the warm-up, briefly discuss how everyone tried to move alike in the warm-up, but that we actually can move in very unique and different ways. The lesson goal today is to find ways that each person can make different, unique shapes.

INVESTIGATING Show the pictures of the various shapes and objects. Have students make shapes with their bodies suggested by the pictures or objects. Dont copy the shape. Find your own way to make a shape that is round or twisted, etc.

Have the students explore and create their own unique shapes by directing them to go skipping and/ or galloping through the room and stopping in new shapes each time the teacher says, Stop and Shape! Students should further explore the concept by traveling in straight pathways and curved pathways. When children stop to make shapes, the teacher should use side-coaching (giving verbal ideas and encouragement) to help students create their unique shapes. Myself-13

Have the children skip and/or gallop (dance) freely around the room for 8, 12, or 16 beats then say: Stop and make your very own, very tall stretched shape, like a straight pointed pin. Skip and . . . Make an upside down bridge shape; remember to do it in your own way. Skip and . . . Make a very low, small shape, as tiny as you can get. Skip and . . . Try spinning into a curved shape, like a round ball. Skip and . . . Now do a balanced on one leg shape, like an ice skater. Skip and . . . Try a very crooked bending shape, like a broken toy. Skip and . . . Create an over and under shape with a friend, each of you should look very different. CREATING Now your job is to move from one shape to the next. Each time I give the signal on the drum, put your body into a unique shape. Remember each shape should be very different from the one you made before it and it should be all your own; it should not look like any one elses shape. Beat the drum and side coach as the children improvise. They may need some help with words like, tall pin, small ball, bridge, crooked, or broken toy, etc. Finally direct the children to create, remember, and dance their very own pattern of Dancing Shape Dancing Shape.

Extensions for subsequent lessons, connections to other arts and for other grades: PERCEIVING AND CREATING In partners, help create and trace around another persons two-dimensional shape on a piece of colored butcher paper. (One person creates 1/2 the shape, then the other creates the other half.) Cut the shapes out and with the help of teachers mount the shapes in interesting collage groupings on the walls of the dance room. Make decisions about how turning a figure in a certain direction or facing a certain way creates a desired effect in the collage.

CONNECTING Viewing (audiencing) and discussing the shape collages as visual art in the room. Review the concepts explored by asking students what they remembered or even liked best about the shape/ space lesson. Assess their comprehension and plan to repeat lesson again, guiding the students to explore, create, and perform new space and shape movement sequences. Ask questions to guide discussion such as what they liked best or what they think they could do better if they repeated these explorations. (This may go over time; flexibility for accomplishing all these tasks may be required.) Dance Lesson Plans, copyright pending Marilyn Berrett 2001 Myself-14

Summary of Drama skills: listening to a story, movement, voice, tasks for characters to do, expressing personal preferences Student Learning objective: Students will explore ways in which people are alike and ways they are unique (Core #6000-0202), learn drama skill of movement and voice, create tasks for characters to do, and connect drama experiences with personal preferences. Drama Targets met: 1. Analyzing Drama Listen to a story read aloud and talk about what happened in the story Identify and ask about anything in the story not understood 2. Practicing Drama Practice relaxing, concentrating, imagining Explore moving through space to a variety of musical rhythms 3. Making Drama Create sounds and movements for characters in a scene Create tasks for characters to perform Create a short scene in which students stay in character using appropriate movement, sounds, and actions the whole time Evaluate work and plan improvement 4. Contextualizing Drama Show one favorite moment in a story Talk about the differences between hearing a story read live and hearing a story from a recording Materials Needed: Book: We are All Alike and All Different Pictures of children doing various activities (roller-skating, riding bikes, playing in a sandbox) Pictures or actual food items (pickles, broccoli, muffins, olives).

Process: 1. Warm-up: Teacher uses a drum and has children make different body shapes to the beat of the drum. 2. Warm-up: Teacher has students move through space to a variety of musical rhythms. 3. The teacher shows pictures of children doing activities and instructs the students to stand up, raise their right hands in a cheer, and say yahoo if they like doing the activity shown in the picture. How many of you like to ride bikes? (Those students who like to ride bikes stand, cheer, and say yahoo. Myself-15

http://farmersdaughterct.wordpress. com/2008/04/20/earth-day-parade/

4. The teacher shows pictures or actual food items. He/she tells them that this time if they like this food they are to still stand up as before, but gives them a different motion and word to say, such as the following: a) clap hands and say You bet. b) snap fingers and say Thats me. c) rub belly and say Yes, maam. 5. The teacher then asks various questions which illustrate students likenesses and differences. They are again to stand and respond with the motion and word the teacher gives them. a) How many of you live in Utah? b) How many of you have a brother? c) How many of you have a sister? d) How many of you are the only child in your home at this time? e) How many of you like pizza? f) How many of you like broccoli? g) How many of you go to school at.....? h) How many of you have two arms and two legs?

6. The teacher then asks the students how they were all alike. (live in Utah, go to same school, have two arms and two legs, etc.). He/she then asks how they are different. 7. The teacher tells students he/she is going to read a story to them which talks about how we are alike and different.

8. Read story and have the students do actions and/or words to illustrate likenesses and differences found in the story. (Example: we all have familiesbe sensitive to your students and be sure to acknowledge or to avoid potentially painful problems) During the reading of the story, identify and ask about anything the students clearly dont understand. 9. Teacher tells students they are going to play a game which shows how they are alike in some ways and different in others. Game--Do You Love Your Neighbor? Students sit in a circle. One person is chosen to go to the middle. Teacher helps a student in the middle to go to one of the students seated in the circle.

The student in the middle says to the student, Do you love your neighbor? The student in the circle can say one of two things. (1) If the student says Yes, the two students on either side of the student in the circle change places. The student in the middle tries to sit in either of the chairs before the other students sit in the new chairs. (2) The student in the circle may say No, but I do love all people who have brown hair (or blue eyes, or brown shoes, or any unique characteristic). Those with the named characteristic move to a different chair while the person in the middle tries to sit in one of the chairs before it is taken. Myself-16

10. The teacher tells the students that the movements we can make with our bodies can be just the same or can be unique. They will then do the following two activities.

Action and Sound Students stand in a circle facing each other. One person does a unique vocal sound and continuous action with the body--moving hands, head, fingers, feet--in a unique way. The rest of the students copy the movement until the person who began the action points to another person in the circle, who does another action. Movement continues until all have had a turn to do an action and sound.

Face/Sound Students sit or stand in a circle. The person who is first makes a face and a sound to the person on his or her right. That person must mimic as closely as possible the sound and face. Then he turns to the right and makes a new sound and face which is mimicked by the person to her right. The action goes around the circle until everyone has had a turn. Freeze-Freeze 1. Instruct students to find your own space in the room. 2. Tell them you are going to call out Walk, walk, walk, walk and then Freeze, freeze, freeze, freeze. They are to move when you say walk. When you call out freeze, they are to assume a shape. When you say freeze again, they are to assume a different shape. The same is true for the next two freezes. (This game is as applicable to high school students as it is to kindergarten students). 11. Inquiry discussion follows: What were some of the ways we found we were all alike? What were some of the ways we found we were different? Is it okay to like things that are different from what somebody else likes? Why? 12. 13. Teacher: Animals also have similarities and differences, dont they? Lets pretend we are different animals. Ill call out the animals name, and you pretend youre that animal. When I beat the drum, thats your signal to stop. Ill call out another animals name and you pretend youre that animal. (Do many different animals. If you feel comfortable, do the animals along with the children. Theyll be more likely to be involved if you are too!) Discuss what is similar and different about each of the animals.

14. Have the students create tasks for the various animals to perform. (Elephants parading in a circus, lions jumping through fiery hoops, cats trying to catch fish in a ponds, etc.) The students should create sounds and movements for the animals. 15. 16.

Mahonri Young, Tommy (Cat) BYU MOA

Have the students create short scenes in which they interact with each other. These scenes will be very simple with kindergarteners. (Example: 5 pigs are trying to eat from a trough that only has space for 3). Older students can create more complex interactions. Have students draw pictures of the animals and explain what the animals are trying to do. Myself-17

Assessment: Teacher will observe to see if all students are actively involved in the activities. Use a checklist to keep track of students involvement. Students will be able to create a task for an animal to do and express orally one way in which they are like someone and one way in which they are different.

Optional activity to fill Contextualizing Drama Target: Show a video of someone telling a story and ask children to tell you the differences between hearing a story read aloud by you, the teacher, and watching a video. Adaptations to Secondary level:

1. Begin with a series of statements and have students do actions and sounds more suited to their age. 2. Eliminate the book We Are All Alike and All Different 3. The freeze-freeze game, action and sound, and Do You Love Your Neighbor need no adaptation. 4. Begin the discussion with reference to the Columbine shootings. Focus on how we react to differences and similarities and how we need to react to them to create a peaceful society. Additional Applications: 1. Science: Categorize animals by shape, size, covering, home animal images from commons.wikimedia.org


Lesson: The Real Me - Each student is unique and diverse Label: I am a unique person Core Standard: #6000-0202 Discuss ways that people are alike and ways they are unique and that each individual has self-worth. Objective: Using the subject matter of self-portraits, the students will take an introspective look at their personality attributes, stressing the diversity and uniqueness found among students. Introduction and motivation:

Place a mirror on each students desk and have the students examine themselves in the mirror. Ask them what they see. List the attributes they describe as they look in the mirrors. Some students will see actual features and dimensions of their faces. Others may see feelings or emotions (e.g., sadness or excitement). Stress that their perceptions will vary. Emphasize the label (see above) and have them define unique and diverse Tell the students each is unique and diverse, and that even though they may have similar features (e.g., nose, ears, eyes, mouth), they all appear different and unique. Explain to the students that one way to help them discover their own unique and diverse characteristics is through creating a self-portrait. Lesson content/skill focus: PRODUCTION: Expressive Self-Portrait

For younger students, have them stand and pose in a unique shape. Encourage a variety of shapes. Emphasize the unique and diverse shapes. Have individual students lie on a large piece of butcher paper and have other students trace those shapes. Then have the student add unique features to their drawing to symbolize their uniqueness. Some features might include hair color, items of clothing or drawings of objects such as sports equipment, or items that represent the students interests or hobbies. Actual objects or images may be included such as barrettes or photos of sports figures. Display the works so the students can view the many unique and diverse ways they expressed themselves in their body portraits. Myself-19

Have older students complete The Real Me handout (appendix) by underlining three traits that they think apply to their current personality. Then have them circle three additional personality attributes that they would like to acquire. Discuss the numerous combinations of students personality attributes, stressing the diversity and uniqueness of each student.

Assign the students to create an expressive self-portrait which illustrates at least two of the personality traits they have chosen. Discuss the variety of expressive capabilities through choice of media. Also emphasize the aspects of exaggeration and distortion in creating expressive qualities. This portrait could be a pencil drawing, but allow the students to choose from a variety of drawing media. Also allow the students to include images or objects in a collage-like manner, if they so desire. Emphasize that the main objective of this self-portrait is to express at least two personality attributes from their list. PRODUCTION: Realistic Self-Portrait

Introduce the general concepts that deal with the basic proportions of the head (see background information following). Have the students sketch the basic proportions of the head and features. They can sketch the proportions onto a blank sheet of drawing paper, or they may want to refer to a photograph of a person with a full front view. If using a photograph, they can draw the proportions on the photograph or on a piece of tracing paper or acetate placed over the photograph. After the students have learned the basic proportions of the head and face, they are now ready to create their own self-portrait. Using a mirror or photograph of the student as a reference, the students will create self-portrait drawings in pencil. The drawings should be about 8 to 10 inches so they will be approximately life-sized. After drawing the basic shape of the head, the students should make light guidelines at the correct locations for the eyes, nose, mouth and ears. Stress the use of correct proportions and measuring to achieve accuracy and the use of notable features to achieve a likeness. Explain that the emphasis of this assignment is on creating a realistic selfportrait. Background Information on Realistic Self-Portraits

Portraits are notoriously difficult, and self-portraits are especially intimidating because the artist is often trying to achieve a likeness. An advantage of self-portraiture is that when students use themselves as a subject, they can get plenty of practice on a constant model that can be reexamined whenever they choose. Careful observations and checking are important when drawing a portrait. Observe all the details of the head and understand its basic construction. Pay special attention to the relationship between the different parts of the head. Place all the features correctly, using basic principles of proportion and simple measuring devices such as calipers or pieces of yarn. At the same time, show the characteristics that give the face its own individual quality by becoming aware of the notable features of the face.


PROPORTION OF THE HEAD AND FACE Although we all appear different, the features of our faceseyes, ears, nose, and so onare in the same proportional relationship, and the skull determines these proportions and forms the underlying structure of the head.

The general shape of the front of the head is a modified oval. It is not a perfect oval some people may have narrow chins, square jaws, or wider cheek bones. The shape of the head does not include the hair on top of the head or beards. The face is approximately symmetrical. The proportions of the face can be seen more readily if you draw a central vertical axis guideline down the middle of the head and divide that line into four equal sections. If five horizontal guidelines are drawn from those points, the head will be divided into four equal parts (see example 1).

The top fourth of the head usually contains the hair and forehead. The hair may extend above the top horizontal line if the hair protrudes above the head, and it may extend below the second horizontal line if the person wears bangs. The eyes are usually found on the central horizontal line as they are at the center of the face. The width of the eye is usually equal to 1/5th of the width of the face, with an eyes width on both sides of the face and an eyes width between the eyes (see example 2). The bottom of the nose is found just above the fourth horizontal line, and the mouth is usually between one-third and halfway between the fourth and fifth horizontal line. FACIAL FEATURES

example 1.

Eyes: the shape of the eye opening varies, with the top of the opening usually arched just to the inside of center and the bottom line somewhat straighter and turned up a little at the outer end. The upper eyelid covers about one fourth of the colored portion of the eye (iris). The bottom of the iris meets the lower lid. The upper lid overlaps the bottom lid at the outer corner and the lids meet at the tear duct at the inner corner. The iris is proportionately larger than the white part of the eye.

example 2.

Nose: the width of the bottom part of the nose is usually equal to the width between the eyes.

Mouth: the width of the mouth is usually equal to the distance between the center of the eyes. The top lip is proportionately one third and the bottom is two thirds. Myself-21

Ears: usually start at same location as the top of the eye and end just below the bottom of the nose.

There are exceptions to all these measurements and younger children have different proportions, with the forehead being larger and the facial features positioned in the lower portion of the face. Assessment: Have students complete The Real Me statement (appendix) as a summative evaluation for both production assignments (e.g., realistic and expressive portraits). HISTORY: Brief History of Portraiture and Self-Portraits

While giving the following information regarding the history of portraiture, show a variety of portraits and self-portraits, stressing both realistic and expressive renderings. Include images from non-Western cultures and show earlier and later portraits of artists that have a strong history of self-portraiture (i.e., Rembrandt, Albercht Durer, William Johnson, Kath Kollwitz, Karl SchmidtRottluff). Often young childrens first recognizable drawings are of the human figure. Figure drawing and portraiture are important forms of expression for most people and cultures. However, some cultures, like the Native American culture, did not originally create portraits, although other artists have done portraits of their people. Most of the early figure work found in history were created to represent people in general and did not portray an individualized person. In Western civilizations, portraits that represented a particular person became prominent during the Renaissance. Background Information on the History of Portraiture

The portrait is an essential aspect of figure drawing because it concentrates on the face and features of the person. Portraits can also include the entire body in the image. Portraits usually require an accurate portrayal of both the appearance and the character of the sitter. Most are paintings or drawings; but some cultures, such as those of many countries in Africa, create elaborate, personalized wooden masks or sculptures as portraits. Self-portraits are created by artists and usually attempt to achieve a likeness or representation of the artist. These are called realistic or representational images, and they often imitate the artist to a great degree.

Other artists try to express their emotions or strong characteristics through a more expressive type of rendering. Some of these expressive portraits include exaggerated color or proportions, often leading to distortion. These works go beyond the mere accurate rendition of the sitter and begin to express other concepts such as moods, emotions, messages, or feelings.

Rembrandt van Rijn, Self Portrait with a Cap, openmouthed. 1630 public domain
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rembrandt_aux_yeux_ hagards.jpg


AESTHETICS: Realistic and Expressive Approaches to Art Explain that there are various approaches to art and that some artists intend for their art work to look realistic and others intend for theirs to be more expressive. Neither of these approaches is better than the other; they are just varying views of how the artists perceive what they think art should be. Stress that there are varying views on what art should be. Introduce the realistic and expressive views or approaches to art by summarizing from the following information: 1. Realistic: Also called the Mimetic or Imitationalist theories. This view holds that art should imitate or mimic nature, and that it should accurately represent nature and life. Therefore, quality is proportionate to the art works faithfulness to the model. The artist should aim for the essence or real character of things. The objects and events are represented as to be understood by the beholder; therefore interpretations of the art work are objective or factual rather than subjective or personal. Originally it was thought nature had to idealized, but later developments show a more accurate or true representation.

J. T. Harwood, Mothers Little Helper (1909) 2. Expressive: Also called Emotionalist theory. This view holds that art should communicate ideas, feelings, moods or emotions, and that these should be communicated forcefully and with conviction. Quality is based on the degree of arousal of the viewers emotions. The artist should aim for the depth to which the work expresses the emotions of its creator. It holds that art can be ugly because its based on a truth or reality. The technical or formal elements are subordinate to the expression of ideas, moods, and feelings; therefore interpretations of the art work are subjective or personal rather than objective or factual. This art form can use symbols. More contemporary approaches (i.e., NeoExpressionism) stress crudity of rendering and subject matters that deal with the negative aspects of life (e.g., vulgarities, violence, cynicism and brutality). Myself-23

Lee U. Bennion, Snow Queen

Place a grid on the chalkboard with Realistic written at one end and Expressive written on the other end. Have the students arrange a wide variety of portraits along the grid. Emphasize that there are various degrees of realistic and expressive qualities and some art works might fit right in the middle or may not even be on the grid. CRITICISM: Criteria is Needed to Critique Art

Explain that one of the major aspects of criticism is to determine the quality of an art work according to a specific set of criteria. See if the students can list the criteria they were given for producing their two self-portraits (i.e., the first drawing was to be a an expressive work and the second image was to be realistic). Explain to the students that they are going to self-evaluate (or critique) their selfportraits through the supposed viewpoint of another artist. Have the students decide which of their two self-portraits they would like critiqued. Then have the students choose one of the artist examples that you used in discussing self-portraiture to critique their art work. Have the students complete Artists Critique (appendix). Lesson Evaluation: Learner Report Have students complete the Learner Report (appendix). This evaluation strategy can be used as either formative (during the course of instruction) or summative (at the end of all instruction). It could also be used to evaluate the individual components of history, aesthetic, criticism, or production; or it could be a collective assessment of all of the components of the lesson. Enrichment: Have the students consider the following concepts: The face is just a mirror to the soul. Are outer appearances a true account of our inner selves? Are portraits a true picture of a person? Is a photograph more revealing than a portrait? Why or why not? If a full-view portrait was being done of you, what objects, clothing, and setting would you choose to represent the real you? Should you be the best judge of what is really you, or can someone else know you better than you know yourself? Can any artist illustrate a persons personality or character through an art work? How or how not? A face is not well done unless it expresses a state of mind, Leonardo da Vinci.

These concepts could be addressed through class discussion or through the individual student responding to them in a journal format. Myself-24

LITERACY: With help from teacher, parents, or upper-grade student volunteers, have students attach labels to their self-portrait. Post portraits and labels on the bulletin boards or walls. ADDITIONAL APPLICATIONS

After reading We Are All Alike; We Are All Different, the class may write their own book using their own words and drawing their own illustrations.

During math, students can graph such things as eye color, hair color, height, likes, dislikes, etc. (See Expression, above) Students may participate in a talent show, displaying the many things theyre interested in. During VIP week, the students may make a poster or book about themselves that shows what makes them special. As a follow-up activity, the other students may draw pages to add to the childs book.



Families First Grade

Objective: Students will identify ways in which their own family provides love, food, shelter, clothing, companionship, and protection for them. Social Studies Standard: People, Places, and Environments Utah State Social Studies Core Standard #6010-0202: Show ways in which families provide the basic needs of love, food, shelter, clothing, companionship, and protection for their members. Book: Homeplace Exploration: The teacher asks the class fthe following questions: Who gave you the clothes you are wearing? Who fixed or bought you dinner last night? Whom do you live with? When you are sick, who takes care of you? Use other questions that will prompt students toward recognition of family as their providers. Expression: With the class, generate a list of things the students families provide for them. Guide student responses to both abstract and concrete ideas.

Label: Look at the list generated by the students. Families come in a variety of compositions (mom, dad, kids; mom, kids; grandparent and grandchild, etc.). Whatever the family composition, families provide the basic need of love, food, shelter, clothing, companionship, and protection for their family members.

William Sargent Kendall The Artists Wife and Daughters Springville Museum of Art Family-27


Applications: Music, Dance, Drama, Art, and Literacy MUSIC

Summary of music ideas Sounds may go up or down, be loud or soft, fast or slow, smooth or jerky Different sound sources produce different sounds (violins, trumpets, etc. and people) Each person has a unique voice Listening is the key to accurate singing The voice can sing in many ways Music may have a steady beat The long and short sounds in a song create rhythm Music is a way to express feelings Social Studies Objective (Family) Met through Music My Family can make music My parents sang to me when I was a baby Singing and listening to music can make me feel good My family can listen to music My family helps me to learn music and I can help them Sometimes family members show their love by singing or dancing to music Instruments are categorized into families Utah State Music Core Targets: Sing and play Sing many songs in natural voice and on pitch Play singing games and rhythm games Feel the steady beat Feel the pattern of songs Follow directions when singing and be courteous Start and stop together Explore and create Explore sounds that can be made with voices Experiment and made up sound effects Experiment with changes in high/low, fast/ slow, loud/soft, and sound/silence Make up simple melodies to sing about families Listen Listen and hear song in own head Use good listening habits Show through body movement when pitch,

Mary Cassatt, The Bath (1891-92) public domain http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cassatt_ Mary_The_Bath_1891-92.jpg


sounds and long/short (duration change) Identify a variety of instruments and voices by sound Discuss what is happening in the music after listening to various selections Include in the discussion patterns that are the same or different Connect Share songs, instruments, and music enjoyed by each childs family Explain how, why, or when music is used by family Celebrate, express feelings, and help others come together through music Tell how music can help us get along with others

Materials: Songs: The Three Bears Jive, See Saw, Hush-a-bye Recordings: Lullaby by Brahms, Hall of the Mountain King, selections from the Nutcracker Suite, Favorites from the childrens homes Books: Homeplace, by Anne Shelby; Childhood Days of Famous Composers (series) Music vocabulary to develop: violin, flute, composer, Brahms, Grieg, Tchaikovsky Procedure:

1. Discuss with the children the fact that our voices can make many kinds of sounds. Voices can whisper, shout, talk, imitate animals, and sing. Our ears help us use our voices. Invite the children to imitate sounds you make. Suggestions for sounds include: slide voice up and down, pretending to be on a roller coaster or elevator whisper imitate animal sounds slide into a pitch and hold it Always expect children to copy exactly by using their ears.

Discuss with the children that they have many singing voices. Invite them to imitate you as you demonstrate the following: Talk-sing voice Low-sing voice Ring-sing voice Help them understand that we want them to learn to use each voice, and to listen so we can tell the difference. Sing songs they learned in kindergarten, using their different singing voices.

2. Tell the story of the three bears. Discuss the fact that the three bears are a family. Talk about Goldilocks. Explore questions such as the following: Was she a member of the family? When she ran away from the bears, where do you think she went? Did her family comfort her? Did they tell her not to go out alone anymore? What else did they say to her? Tell the children you know a song about the story that you would like to share. The song-story will use the voice in many ways. Chant and sing the song-story for the class. Invite them to copy the motions with you. Repeat the song-story many times on many different days, until the children are comfortable chanting and singing it too. Allow individual children to sing the different character parts. Enjoy the play. Family-30

The Three Bears Jive


Verse 2 Verse 3

Someones been sitting in my chair, said the poppa bear (said the poppa bear). Someones been sitting in my chair, said the momma bear (said the momma bear). Hey Momma Three Bear, said the little wee bear, Someone has broken my chair. Yeah! Someones been sleeping in my bed, said the poppa bear (said the poppa bear). Someones been sleeping in my bed, said the momma bear (said the momma bear). Hey Momma Three Bear, said the little wee bear, Someone has broken my chair. Yeah!

Illustration From Childhood's Favorites and Fairy Stories, Public Domain commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Three_Bears_-_Project_Gutenberg_etext_19993.jpg


3. Help the children think about their own families. If they wrote a song about their families, what would it say? Make up the song as you go, or use the melody from The Three Bears Jive. For example, Once upon a time in Payson Town, there lived the Jones. A momma and a daddy and two brothers and a sister and a baby. They lived in a house and Daddy went to work, Momma fixed the lunches and the kids went to school. I have to got to work, said the Daddy. I have to go to school, said the kids. Bye, bye, bye, bye said the Momma. Bye, bye, bye, bye said the Daddy. Bye, bye, bye, bye said the brothers, Bye, bye, bye, bye said the sister. Ba, ba, ba, ba said the baby. Yeah! Once upon a time the Petersons went on a trip to Lake Powell. The Momma and the Daddy drove the boat. The brothers and the sisters went swimming. They ate lunch together and then it was time to go home. We have to go home, said the Daddy. We have to go home, said the Momma. Cant we stay longer, said the brothers. Cant we stay longer, said the sisters. No, no, no, no, said the Momma. No, no, no, no, said the Daddy. Get in the car. Get in the car, said the parents. ZZZZZZZZ, said the brothers. ZZZZZZZZ, said the sisters. What a happy family, said the Daddy. What a happy family, said the Momma. ZZZZZZZZ, said the children. Shhhhh!

4. Invite a family to come and share music with the class. Talk with the family about the importance of music in their home. Ask the class if others have families who make music together. Discuss ways to make music together--sing, play instruments, listen to music, compose. Ask the children to think of different members in their family. Do any of them do any of these things? Suggest that the children become detectives and watch at home to see if any of the family makes or listens to music. The children might ask family members why they make music or listen to music. Have the children prepare to report back to the class. 5. Discuss the fact that when we were babies, our family members might have sung lullabies to us. Why did they do this? (To comfort us, to help us go to sleep, to make us feel safe, etc.). Sing Hush-a-bye to the children. If you have dolls or stuffed animals, let each child hold one and rock to the beat as you sing. Sing several times, encouraging the children to rock to the beat. Keep interest by holding the baby in different ways--on your shoulder, on your lap, patting the babys back, etc. each time the song is sung. Discuss the importance of feeling the beat when you sing to babies, because the beat supports the heart beat which is very comforting to babies. Sing the song on other days so the children will learn it well. Try other ways of feeling the beat Family-33

such as swaying, twisting, tapping, etc. while singing. Suggest that if children have babies at home, they try singing this song to the baby.

Mahonri Young, Nebraska Farm Horses (II/II) BYU MOA



Hush-a-bye 6. Tell the children that many composers have written lullabies for instruments to play. Listen to Brahms Lullaby. Invite the children to feel the beat as they listen and then to discuss the feelings the music may have caused in them. Play the music several times throughout the year, noticing the beat, as well as different instruments they hear playing. 7. Sing See Saw while playing the game. The actions emphasize the beat. When children know the song well, suggest they teach it to their family. Send a note home letting family members know that the child has a song game to teach the family. Encourage the familys cooperation so the child has a successful experience. If the family has a tape recorder or video camera, they might enjoy making a recording of the family singing and playing See Saw. 8. Sing many songs the children know and invite them to tap the beat as they sing. Children will also enjoy keeping the beat on a drum or on rhythm sticks. Give them many opportunities to keep the beat while singing or listening to music throughout the year.

Assessment: 1. Child sings alone and with others in a natural voice, matching pitch. 2. Child can show the difference between beat and rhythm through moving or playing instruments. 3. Child creates a melody or song story about family. 4. Child demonstrates creative ways to use voice. 5. Child can hear song in own head. 6. Child can describe when a melody or rhythm is different or the same. 7. Child can recognize the names of different listening selections. 8. Child can recognize instruments from their sound. 9. Child demonstrates interest in music as something to share with family. Enrichment: 1. Ask children to name some orchestra instruments they know. List the names of the instruments on the board. Show the children pictures of the instruments or invite parents or older students to demonstrate different instruments. Play recorded orchestra pieces so children can hear different instruments. 2. Tell the children that each set of the instruments belongs to a family. Discuss the string family as including a violin, viola, cello, and string bass. Discuss why they might be considered a family and relate them to momma, daddy, brother, and sister. Discuss which has the lowest voice, the highest, etc. If you have time, explore other instrument families: woodwinds (flute, clarinet, oboe, bassoon, saxophone), brass (trumpet, French Kent Goodliffe, Sitting on a Thonet Bentwood (1979) Springville Museum of Art Family-35

horn, trombone, tuba), and percussion (drums, xylophone, triangle, wood blocks, etc.) 3. As you discuss the instruments, play excerpts from A Young Persons Guide to the Orchestra by Benjamin Britten. Discuss the fact that they ears are what tell us which instrument is playing, not our eyes.

4. Tell the children that famous composers were once children in a family. Briefly tell stories about composers of your choice, then play a short selection of one of their compositions. (See book) Help the children realize that someday they may grow up to be a composer.

5. Learn a song a month for the children to share with their family. They should know the song and its game (if there is one) well before showing it to their family. Write a note to the family each month, reminding them to provide time for the child to teach the song to the family. Choose from the following or use songs of your own choice. Daddy Loves the Bear - family, sld ti ti ti ti ta Penny Song - ti-dm, sld Aiken Drum - ti and ta - food group instruments Bonjour, Mes Amis (Hello, my friends) - friends, ti ta Bounce High - msl, ta ti Cuckoo - sm, ta ti Extensions to other Curriculum Areas

Down By the Bay - repetitive phrases Head and Shoulders - jazz, body parts Here Comes Valarie I Know an Old Lady - animals, repetition Johnny Caught a Flea - slmd, ta ti Pumpkin - smd, ta ti Snail - slm, ta ti

LITERACY 1. Left to right, reading rhythm 2. Make pictures of Aiken Drum, Bounce High, I Know an Old Lady, Johnny Caught a Flea, Pumpkin, Snail -add words. 3. Language from the songs and music vocabulary. 4. French language DANCE 1. See Saw - body part movement 2. Here Comes Valarie - creative movement 3. Head and Shoulders - body parts, creative movement 4. Moving to recorded selections 5. Dance with baby to Brahms Lullaby 6. Sing and dance to Williams Doll DRAMA 1. Dramatic play with Three Bears 2. Dramatic play with Aiken Drum 3. Dramatic play with Johnny Caught a Flea 4. Dramatic play with Bonjour, Mes Amis Math 1. Two-to-one relationship of sound 2. Seeking patterns in sound


DANCE: Families
Objective: The students will participate in dance activities that include creating group dances which reflect family interactions, expectations, and culture and which are shown through the ideas in the song Williams Doll. Utah State Dance Core Standards: MOVING1410-0101 & 0102 Warm the body and introduce the concept of the lesson INVESTIGATING1410-0201 Explore movement suggested by a story, varying timing and making energy changes. Expand understanding of space through use of s prop. CREATING 1410-0302 Improvise and practice a short pattern of movement with clear beginning and ending shapes. CONNECTING1410-0401 & 0403 Create small group dances which reflect cultural and family ideas. Create movement phrases from poetry (or the words of a song). Materials Drum and beater CD Player CD Free to Be, Williams Doll (track 13) A doll or stuffed animal for each student Book: All the Places to Love by Patricia Maclachlan and Michael Wimmer

Introduction/Motivation: Complete a thorough body warm-up. Discuss the lesson goal: creating dance ideas that show ways families provide for and teach each other.

Lesson content/skill focus: Listening to the story in the song, Williams Doll, and having children explore and create movement patterns that reflect ideas from each segment of the song. Ideas such as playing with a doll, teasing others, being teased, rocking a baby, scolding, or playing simple games together should be investigated and made into dance through exaggeration and abstraction. INVESTIGATING 1. Talk about how families take care of each other. Explain there once was a boy named William who wanted to practice taking care of a baby by having his own doll.

Have the students listen to and identify the movement potential suggested in the first segment of the song, Williams Doll. The students should explore all the ways to dance with Alexander Makovski, Boy with a Doll (1922) a prop (a doll or stuffed animal). They may swing public domain http://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Alexander_ it from side to side, spin around with it, or put it down and skip around or jump over it. They makovski_boy_with_doll.jpg Family-37

may find ways to toss it in the air and catch it or balance it on a foot or back etc. (noting that it is a toy, we would not do these things with a real baby). Discuss the needs of a real baby. Explore moving with the prop in gentle or quiet wayslike with a real baby.

2. Listen to, identify, and explore the movement ideas in the next segment of the song which is a repeating chorus and teasing chant that begins, A doll a doll William wants a doll! Dont be a sissy said his best friend Fred. . . etc. Direct the students to create movement and shape sequences that relate to the various characters, ideas, and words in the chorus by emphasizing exaggerated shapes and using contrasting energy, not just pantomime. 3. Listen to, identify, and explore the movement potential in the next segments characters and story such as: William, his friends, cousin, older brother, father, and grandmother, or playing games, etc.

4. Keep repeating the listen, identify, and explore process segment by segment until the whole song has been completed. Always emphasize dance exploration by suggesting movement be tried on different levels, at unexpected timings, and with varying energies to make them more dance like than pantomime. CREATING Finally, direct the students to dance the ideas they have explored as the entire song plays. Sidecoach them to help them remember each segments ideas and go beyond pantomiming. Keep them exploring and diverging on the movement ideas suggested in the song that they have previously identified and tried.

CONNECTING If time allows, or in subsequent lessons, divide the group in half and let the children watch each other dance the ideas in the song. The children could also choreograph (set the dance rather than freely improvise to the song) and dance the story in the song. They should revisit or discuss and draw pictures about the concepts of family roles and caring for each other suggested in the song. Read the books Homeplace, All the Places to Love, or My Mama had a Dancing Heart and relate those stories to the themes of family and caring found in Williams Doll. Dance is B.E.S.T. lesson plans, copyright pending Marilyn Berrett 2001


DRAMA: Pantomime
Student Learning Objective: Students will show ways in which families provide the basic needs of love, food, shelter, clothing, companionship, and protection for their members (Core Standard: # 6010-0102) through pantomiming (Drama Core: Constructing Drama). Drama Targets Met: Analyzing Drama Listen to and observe a storyteller and discuss what things happened in the story List the actions in the order they happened in a story and discuss which ones were most important and why Identify and ask about anything in the story not understood Practicing Drama Practice relaxing, concentrating, imagining Practice moving body parts one at a time Practice moving single body parts to communicate whole characters Imitate characters illustrated in storybooks or seen in live or recorded performances Speak loudly enough when performing for all to hear Making Drama Pantomime what a specific character did in a story and then plan and pantomime different actions the character might have chosen Create actions for characters Create a new adventure with dialogue for characters from a well-known story Evaluate work and plan improvements Contextualizing Drama Show one favorite moment from storytelling Compare and contrast the performance of a live storyteller with the performance of a video-recoded storyteller Materials Needed: Just Grandpa and Me by Mercer Meyer Homeplace by Anne Shelby

Warm-Up Activities: 1. Action and Sound (from Similarities and DifferenceKindergartensection) In addition, students imitate teacher as he/she does robot, underwater, and popcorn movements. 2. Face/Sound (from Similarities and DifferencesKindergartensection) 3. Freeze/Freeze (from Kindergarten section) 4. Practice moving single body parts to communicate whole characters (e.g. use the hand to become a character). 5. Other activities found in the appendix under Theatre Games.

Process 1. Teacher will lead students in a number of warm-up activities, (Found in Similarities and DifferencesKindergartensection and in the appendix.) 2. Teacher gives a brief history or simple definition of pantomime and then instructs students that they are going to pantomime actions which happen in their homes. Family-39

2. (Continued) In their own spaces students will pantomime the following: -stirring soup -holding a baby -hammering a nail -typing on a computer -ironing -pretending to be a doctor -pretending to be a dentist -raking leaves -pulling carrots from a garden -pushing a supermarket cart -reading a book -swinging on a swing -baking bread -putting on a band-aid -putting clothes in a washing machine

BRIEF HISTORY AND DEFINITION OF PANTOMIME Pantomime is acting without words. It comes from the Greek words meaning all mimic. No one knows exactly when pantomime began, but it was very popular during the early Roman Empire. Commedia dell arte was a style of Italian comedy popular in the 1700s. Plays combined music, dancing, acrobatic acts, and elaborate scenery and stage effects with pantomime. One of the most famous of all pantomimes was the French pantomimic Marcel Marceau.

(See appendix for other Pantomime Possibilitieshalf in half, sequence, add-on, sensory and emotion, and narrative pantomimes)

2. (Continued) Draw students back into a circle Jacqui Larsen, Cottage Industry detail and tell them that you are going to whisper an Springville Museum of Art action in someones ear and that individual will do the action in the circle. The other students will guess what it is the student is doing. (Can also do ADD-ON, a theatre game where one person is in from of the group and starts an action. As soon as the other children, know that it is the studying is doing, he/she may add on to the action). 3. Have students close their eyes and visualize the following: -their rooms at home -their brothers and sisters -their mothers and fathers -some of the things they see their mothers doing -some of the things they see their fathers doing

4. Through inquiry methods, discuss what fathers and mothers do to provide love, food, shelter, clothing, companionship, and protection for family members. Family-40

5. Tell the students you are going to tell them a story about a Grandpa who took his grandson on an adventure to buy a new suit and that they are going to act out the actions of the story. Have them each find their own space in the room.

6. Read the story Just Grandpa and Me and have them do the actions. My mom said I need a new suit. (Have the children put on a suit and see that it is too small.) So we went to the city to buy one, just Grandpa and me. (Have students walk in place.) I bought the train tickets, but I let Grandpa pay. (Hold tickets in hand.) I taught Grandpa how to sing Ninety-nine bottles of pop on the wall. (Sing Ninety-nine bottles of pop on the wall.) Continue to do actions to the story until completed. 7. Discuss the story. Identify the action of the story in the order it occurred. Discuss how Grandpa took care of his grandsons needs. 8. Have the students create a new adventure for Grandpa and his grandson. Instead of going to buy a new suit, they could go to a park or to the zoo. 9. Bring the students back to a big circle. Tell them they are going to act out another story. Sometimes, all of them will do the actions and sometimes, just one or two will be in the middle doing the actions. 10. Read Homeplace by Anne Shelby. At times, have one child in the middle doing the actions (building a fence, chopping logs, planting wheat fields) and at other times, have all of the children do the actions. When parts in the story refer to a child growing, have each child move from chair to floor and pretend to grow tall. 11. Discuss the action of the story sequence. 12. Have children draw a picture of their own families and what their families do to take care of them. (love, food, shelter, clothing, companionship, protection)

Evaluation: Assess whether each child was involved in the pantomiming of activities and if the child is able to draw a picture showing how families provide for our basic needs. Additional Applications: Math: Pantomime various real-life situations where math concepts are used. Math: Act out a simple story problem. Math: Create patterns. Math: Explore shapes using the body. Reading: Use the body to communicate word meanings. Social Science: Pantomime actions and consequences. Social Science: Pantomime safe and unsafe safety procedures in a home. (Touching and not touching a hot stove, running and not running in the street, etc.) Science: Pantomime the physical properties of ice, liquid, and water. Science: Pantomime the effects of wind on people. Science: Pantomime the types of wind. Science: Pantomime the adaptations of people/animals to changes in the weather. Vocabulary and Resources: See appendix. Family-41

VISUAL ARTS: Using themes in art

Objective: The students will create a collage using the theme of families. Utah State Art Core Standard: #10100301 Explore possible content in artworks #10100302 Choose symbols, ideas, subject matter, and meanings for their own art Materials: Artworks that show aspects of families such as, Snow Queen, Lee Udall Bennion [ SMA Elementary Poster set*] Boy and Cat, J. T. Harwood [ SMA Elementary Poster set] New Bloom, Trevor Southey [ SMA Elementary Poster set] The Artists Wife and Daughters, William S. Kendall [April 14, 1993 PORTRAITS IN PAINTING, SMA pkt. or website] Banjo Lesson, Henry Tanner [suggested masterworks, 1st grade] Collage or multimedia artworks such as Jacqui Larsen, Cottage Industry [ SMA Middle School Poster set] Romare Bearden, Early Carolina Morning and School Bell Time [at www.grandpasart.com/ romarebearden.html] Kurt Schwitters at artcyclopedia.com/artists/ Faith Ringgold at artincontext.org/artist/ ringgold/collect.htm * poster & packet artworks at www.smofa.org

Introduction/Motivation: Show students artworks that portray some aspect of a family and discuss how these artworks show something James T. Harwood, Boy and Cat about a familygrandparents, teaching skills, etc. Springville Museum of Art Tie this discussion into what has already occurred in class. Explain to the students that artists often use themes to organize their artworks. Have students identify the various themes that might be found in images of families (e.g. recreation or play, vacation, work).

Then have students identify some ways their families are important to them and what themes they could use if they created an artwork on families. Next, show students examples of collage art and have the students comment on the kinds of items the artists have included in their artworks. Then ask students what these items/shapes/colors might mean to the artists or why the artist chose to make collages instead of paintings. Provide a definition of collage for the students. Encourage students to see how the artists have planned their compositions so they use the elements and principles of art. You may want to choose one element or principle clearly demonstrated by one or more of the artworks and focus on that element or principle. Family-42

Production: Collage displaying the theme of families

Have the students determine a theme they will use in their collage that deals with aspects of their family. Provide students with magazines, old books, or other two-dimensional objects and allow them to select items that relate in some way to their family. Encourage students to include symbols-items that stand for something--for example, a soccer ball might indicate a family or family members interest in playing soccer, or camping gear could be used to indicate an interest in the outdoors, lace might stand for a sister or mother. The students will then make collage family portraits.

Remind students that artists dont just slap the items in their collages down any old way. Give them a sheet of paper and have them plan their collage. They need to try at least four arrangements. (If students only try one idea it is both their best and worst idea. If you havent already, get them in the habit of exploring several possibilities before choosing the best one.) Once students have chosen their best arrangement, give them a sturdy piece of paper and have them glue down the items for their collage. Use thinned white glue, glue sticks, or YES! Paste, available at craft stores. Regular white glue will cause the paper to buckle unattractively. When the students are finished with their collages, give them a chance to tell the class or other members of small groups about their family portraits. The students may title their piece or create a didactic label. Variations for advanced students:

Older students can do the same activity, but the resulting artworks should be more sophisticated. You can choose to focus on a particular principle of art such as emphasis and point of interest. Also, students should determine the intent or theme of their work. Encourage the students to brainstorm by having them talk about the ways their families influence them. After continued brainstorming, have the students start the Artists Intent Handout. Before the students begin their production, have them complete the first two questions on the handout. When the students are approximately half way through the production, have them complete question number three. When they are finished with their artwork, have them complete the remainder of the handout and write a statement of intent on a 3 x 5 card. The handout and the card are to be turned in with the students completed artwork and can be used as an evaluation tool.

Before the students begin their artwork, review other collage processes by showing them the work of Chuck Close and having them look at the ways he makes portraits out of individual, tiny colored shapes and designs. Show the class some pictures made by using pieces cut from other pictures (posters are available at many sources). Then assign students to make a collage self-portrait that expresses who they are through the use of color, symbols, or items that relate to their families and to what kind of people the students feel they are. The students may find it helpful to have a photograph to look at, just as Chuck Close does.

After demonstrating techniques for collage, assign students to make their own collage, concentrating on one of the principles of art or as a culminating activity for a unit on the principles of art. To change the emphasis, just use additional artworks during the discussion that demonstrate the principle(s) chosen. Then the assignment can be directed to the specific principle(s). Family-43

Materials for Collage: a wide variety of materials such as newspapers, magazines, old maps, music, photocopies of photographs, photocopies of animals, trees, plants, insects, etc. A good source for drawings and photographs to copy are old encyclopedias, family photos, old newspapers or magazines. The papers work best if they are fairly neutral, so you may want to limit magazine pages to black and white. In addition, the papers are more likely to be interesting if they are old and show wear or use. However, some students may decide new items fit their ideas or feelings better. Paint, varnish or stains may be brushed on after the papers are attached to the backing acrylic painting medium to glue papers on (can be bought from art supply storesI used the 40% off coupon that Roberts Crafts always has available inexpensive brushes for applying medium (3 for $1 at the dollar store) sturdy paper for the backing of the collage scissors cheap paper for planning collage If you have not made collages yourself, make a couple so you are familiar with the techniques. Making a couple samples will help you understand the complexity of design possible and the unique characteristics of collage as well as giving you examples to show the class.

Give each student a piece of cheap paper and let the students choose several items from the variety of media available. Students should plan out their collage by placing the individual pieces on the cheap paper, arranging and rearranging them until they have a composition they like. The items can be trimmed to whatever size or shape suits the design. Remind the students to create a sense of rhythm in their artwork. If you are having the students focus on other principles as well, put a list on the board and have students run through the list before attaching any pieces to the good paper. (Even if some activities have a specific focus, students should try to use everything they know about the elements and principles of design that apply to any given activity.)

When students have checked their designs, they can begin gluing. They should start with the undermost layers, and brush an even coating of medium across the backing, place the chosen item on the backing, smooth it carefully, and then brush a coating of medium over the item. (Students can make notes, and they can take the items off the planning paper one by one and place them face down on their desks, so they will be in reverse order.) After the items have been glued to the backing, place waxed paper and a heavy book or stack of magazines over the collages and allow them to dry overnight. Weighting the collages prevents severe buckling. Have students critique their own artworks. Then display the artworks and have the class discuss the many ways the artworks show rhythm. Students should create an exhibit of the collages somewhere the whole school can see the works. Include a poster telling viewers about collage. The poster can explain what collage is and can incorporate comments from the students about their experience making collages. Variation: Have students make collages of famous people, using items that relate to that person in their collages. Family-44

Photography Variation: Have students create multiple exposure portraits or photo collages.

Drawing Variation: Have students create portraits that incorporate more than one view of the person portrayed. Students should choose multiple views and an overall arrangement that expresses something about the person being portrayed.

Extension: For advanced students or for students who have created collages previously, have students create a multi-media artwork. You may choose to supply the making or have students gather their own. The students can be asked to bring interesting items, some of which they plan on sharing, to increase the variety of materials available, For examples, see Joseph Cornell at www.biblio.org/ wm/paint/auth/cornell/ If possible, provide access to a few tools such as a drill, a band or jig saw, pliers, hammers, etc. These tools can increase the complexity and quality of student work. If you are not comfortable with these tools, you may have a parent or another teacher who can come help. Any object that is not too heavy can be attached to the work. Some possible additions to those suggested for collage are the following: fabrics of all kinds and textures string, yarn, rope, thread, wire small plastic animals, cars, or other toys thin sheets of wood nuts, bolts, nails Wheels, handles, machinery, or appliance parts dishes or other kitchen items dolls, doll clothes, army men, robot-type toys boxes, containers, packaging, cardboard tubes dried plants, plastic or silk plants and flowers small stones, branches, natural objects frames, art objects anything else you or the students can think of

Students should be given plenty of time to experiment with the items they choose and with the organization of the work. Encourage students to explore a wide range of possibilities and to be creative in attachment of materials. Multi-media works are often intricate and complex in meaning as well as in physical design. However, multi-media works can be abstract in nature. Display the finished works where other students can see the artworks. Include artists statements with the artworks. For advanced students, you may want to provide more history of collage, using the information found under the Art History section of the lesson.

Assessment: The Artists Intent Handout allows for a formative and summative self-evaluation in which the students describe their intent (pre-planning), document any modifications (formative assessing), and finalize with an assessment of success in relationship to adhering to the original intent (evaluation). The 3 x 5 card defining the students intent is to be included with the artwork for the criticism activity.

Note: The Critical Criteria Handout discussed under the Criticism section is an evaluation strategy that promotes the practice of using criticism as part of the production process. This strategy can be used at the completion of the production activity, but might be more beneficial if done just before the Family-45

artwork is completed, thus allowing the artists/students to adjust their artworks according to the comments generated by the critique. ART HISTORY: Cubism, Dadaism, and photo collage Background Information on Collage The cubists, to depict the essence of an object, painted it from several views. Then Picasso started adding other elements besides paint to his canvases, creating collages. The idea of collage was taken up by the Dadaists, who wanted to shock the art world. In addition to Picasso, Marcel Duchamp and Georges Braque created numerous collages, as did Kurt Schwitters. Schwitters was a member of the Dadaist movement. The artists of this movement were disillusioned by World War I and as a result, promoted ironic and cynical anti-art. Although these artists expressed themselves in a number of different styles, their work all dealt with absurd and illogical subject matter, sharing a common emphasis on the importance of chance. Kurt Schwitters was born in Germany in 1887. He emigrated to Norway in 1937 and later fled to England in 1940 to avoid the Nazis, who considered him a degenerate artist and had put him on their death list. He died in England in 1948, at the age of 61. Schwitters is best known as the developer of a style of collage known as Merz [pronounced Mertz], which used old bus tickets, string, candy wrappers, newspapers, and other refuse to create images. The name came about by chance, as befitted a Dadaist form of art, when Schwitters cut the word kommerz from a newspaper, but then used only the last four letters in his collage. The artist referred to his collages as Merzilden [merz pictures] and his sculptural versions as Merzbau [merz building] (Journey, Activities).

The American artist Romare Bearden produced many collages and also turned collages into lithographs, that although prints, retain much of the feeling of the original collages. You can find many examples of his work on the web. One easy source is Artcyclopedia.com/artists/ bearden_romare.html and click on the links provided.

Kurt Schwitters, Das Undbild, 1919 Public Domain USA en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:DasUndbild.jpg

CRITICISM: Judgment or Informed and Personal Preferences

Discuss that art works are evaluated according to a specific set of criteria or rules. Have the students complete Critical Criteria Handout. The students should critique fellow students art works according to the statements of the artists intent included with the art works. The student artist and the student critic might be from the same class, but usually a student critique is more effective if the critic doesnt know the student whose work they are critiquing (i.e., from another class or grade Family-46

level). Younger students can participate in this criticism activity by voting thumbs up or thumbs down when the teacher presents the concepts on which to judge it on Informed Preference

When a judgment is made as to the degree the artwork portrays the qualities of a specific concept such as realism or the ability to display the artists intent then this judgment is based on specific criteria or information and is called informed preference. This type of judgment is subjective in that it is based according to specific reasons and is not affected by personal feelings or preferences. It is important that the student or critic determine the criteria that is being used to judge the work prior to the judgment and it is possible that more than one criteria can be determined Personal Preference Another important aspect of this criticism activity is the concept of personal preference. After something is evaluated according to specific criteria, the students are able to decide, regardless of the outcome of the evaluation, whether they personally like or dislike it. This is an important concept because students need to be aware that even if something is not successful according to one aspect or criteria, it might still be valued personally. This approach allows the students to distinguish between informed preference and personal preference. This criticism activity can be used for a variety of critiques (i.e., self-evaluation, evaluation of images from art history, evaluation of contemporary images or media, and/or evaluation of another art form like dance, literature, music, or drama). Emphasize that students should become educated to be critical observers, with knowledge and skills to thoughtfully and constructively evaluate objects and activities around them. AESTHETICS: Hedonist Theory

Introduce the hedonist theory from the following background information regarding this theory:

Hedonist: Also called pleasure theory. This view is based on the premise that pleasure is good and pain is bad. Quality is based on the degree of individual pleasure that is achieved, and it has nothing to do with the number of people who enjoy the art work; rather it is the amount of enjoyment it gives to those people who are discriminating enough to enjoy it. This view holds that one persons feelings cannot be the same as anothers and that feelings are radically individualistic. The beholders are so absorbed in the object that they forget themselves as the experience is merged into one pleasant whole. The artwork is liked or disliked for itself. Explain that because the hedonist theory deals with Family-47

personal interpretation of beauty and what is pleasurable, it can and will change from time to time and from individual to individual. Further explain that there may be some concepts or images that most people think of as beautiful (i.e., a sunset, the ocean, flowers, a mother and child), but usually concepts of beauty are varied and divergent. Discuss that as their experiences change, so will their aesthetic perceptions. Have the students find their favorite (Hedonist) artwork and describe why it gives them so much pleasure. Provide resources for the students to preview a variety of images. Emphasize that generally everyone has different (or divergent) views of what they personally like or dislike in art works. Relate this to the aspect of personal preference as demonstrated in the Criticism section Enrichment:

Have the students consider the following concepts:

Which is more accurate, the artists intent or the viewers interpretation? Why? Should art works exhibited in a museum require an explanatory label? Why or why not? Must a work of art always have some intention behind it? Why or why not? Art is a lie that makes us realize the truth, Picasso. How can an artist portray the many facets of a family into one image? How has the role of family changed as it is portrayed in art? In society?

These concepts could be addressed through class discussion or through the individual student responding to them in a journal format. LITERACY

Read and discuss any of the following books:

The Relative Came, Cynthia Rylant A Mother for Choco by Keiko Kasza Grandma According to Me, Karen Magnuson Beil Amazing Grace, Mary Hoffman Weird Parents, Audrey Wood Monster Mama, Liz Rosenberg Mrs. Katz and Tush, Patricia Polacco When I am Old With You, Angela Johnson ADDITIONAL APPLICATIONS

Students can depict their own home using various materials such as clay, pretzels, marshmallows, toothpicks, etc. Students can draw and label family pictures, or make or show family albums. Family-48 Have family guest speakers such as grandparents, aunts, uncles, etc. Come to your classroom.

Students can graph their needs vs their wants

Have a discussion or guest speaker dealing with changefamilies, a move to a new house, etc.

Students can make a mural or diorama dealing with how the students family has changed and/ or grown. Students can make maps of their homes or bedrooms. They can make the maps using fabric scraps, wall paper, construction paper, etc.




My Community
Objective: Students will identify their own talents and explore ways in which they can use their talents to contribute to their classroom or community. Social Studies Standard: People, Places, and Environments Utah State Social Studies Core Standard. #6020-0203: Identify talents of self and others and discuss how they can be developed. Book: Madlenka

Exploration: Assign each student one of the following labels: kind, good listener, good reader, musical, good writer, artistic, dramatic, (other talents that you may think of) There needs to be at least 2-3 students with each label. Preface this activity by telling the students these are talents someone in their class may have. Have students get in a big circle (you may need to be outside or in a gym for this), and put their hands on the shoulders of the person in front of them. Tell the class: "When all the members of the class use their talents, we can do BIG things. On the count of three, everyone sit (carefully) on the lap of the person in back of them." Observe how everyone can sit when all are there and working together. Stand up.

Diane Pierce, The Brat Pack 1993 Springville Museum of Art

"What happens if the kids in our group who are kind are not there?" Pull out the kind kids. Don't reduce the circumference of the circle. "Try and sit again." Observe how it works. Reduce the size of the circle and see how it works. Take out students from other talent areas. Reduce the size of the circle. Eventually, the circle is so small that there is no variety of talent. What does this do to our class? What would our class be like if there were no kind students? No one who was organized, or musical, etc.? When we all use our talents we can do big things instead of just little things.

Expression: Talk about how the circle is complete and all of us depend on each other to be part of the circle. Teacher says the following:" I gave you labels for talents for our activity we just did. What talents do you have that you can you contribute?" Label: Everyone has unique contributions that they bring to a group whether it be their extended community, neighborhood, their classroom, or their family. Our shared talents make our lives and communities better. Neigh-51


ApplicationsMusic, Dance, Theater, Visual Arts and Literacy

Social Studies Theme (community) met through Music I can sing songs about people who serve us Musicians contribute to our community Composers contribute to our community I could be a performing musician or composer when I grow up or conductor, or... Materials: Songs: Muffin Man Recordings: Space Book on Sounds

Procedure: 1. Invite children to sit in a circle. Begin singing the Muffin Man, using childrens names. After singing about each child, discuss the fact that each is important to the class because each one adds something different. Thats what makes our class work. Discuss the fact that it takes many people to have a successful community. 2.

George Ottinger, Detail from Self-Portrait as Fire Chief Springville Museum of Art

3. Sing the song invite children to keep the beat. Then guide them in tapping the rhythm pattern. Feel the beat and the rhythm pattern in other songs the children know. Help establish the difference between beat and rhythm pattern in other songs the children know. Help establish the difference between beat and rhythm pattern. Part of the class might keep the beat on drums, the other part keep the rhythm on sticks. Enjoy the discovery. 4. Discuss the fact that we have people outside the school who help uspolicemen, firemen, etc. Consider singing about them and making another singing/reading book. Include in the discussion the fact that musicians help us too. Discuss how they help: Make beautiful music to make us feel good, add to weddings, church, etc. Help the children know that they are already musicians because they can sing, they know what a beat is, they know what the rhythm pattern is, and they can play instruments. As they grown, they may want to learn more about music and will need to take lessons and practice. Neigh-53

Consider taking a tour of the school to meet the many people that make the school a success. The secretary, principal, custodian, lunch workers, etc. As you visit with each one, take a picture. Put the pictures in a book that includes words of the song on each page. Then sing about each person. Oh do you know the custodian , who helps keep our school so clean, etc. After singing the book together, place the book in the free reading center.

5. Discuss the fact that all around the world there are people who work together to make the world a better place. Even children from other places help, just as you do. Suggest learning the following birthday song from Africa:

Kuzaliwah Furah

At the end of the experience, compliment the children on being musicians and notice how it took singers, instrument players, and other to make the singing work. When we all work together, life is better. Additional Applications: Literacy 1. Create books as suggested in no.2, under procedure. Make books of school helpers, community helpers, classroom helpers, etc. Include words under each picture so children can read as well as sing each book. 2. Learn to read musical notation. Visual Art a. Draw pictures of people b. Photograph peopleas an artform. c. Look at Haitian Harvest by Joseph. Discuss what the people are doing. Lead the discussion to the idea that everyone is working to get the job done. What might they be singing? Sometimes people sing when they work together to help them work even better together. Singing is really community building because we all work together. Discuss Youthful Games by Gary Smith. Discuss how it takes everyone working together to play games, just like it takes everyone working together to perform music. 4. Discuss the feelings the artist might have been trying to express when he painted Forgotten Man. Play several music selections and ask which music might be most expressive of the picture.

5. Invite children to make up songs that could go with any of the artworks in the packet. Add to this lesson, bringing in members in community who are musicians. Discuss what they contribute. Help students to consider that some of them might want to be musicians when they grow up. Neigh-54

Consider performing some music as a community. You will need singers, instrument players, a conductor, evaluators, and an audience. End with a discussion of the experience.

Look at art pieces that relate Create a song together Sing all together, emphasize the community built when we sing. Play instruments while singing, and reading music Make a community helpers book to go with songs (there are many good examples on the website

DANCE: My Neighborhood

WARMUP Have students think of all the games they play at recess and in their neighborhood. Let a few share. Now have them think of the actions or movements that go with those games. Play some lively music and have them begin doing those movements. Tell them to try several; don't stay with one. Now have them make those movements much larger than they really are. Let them do these for a minute or two and then try each of the following ideas with their movements: Make them faster. Make them slower, much slower. Make them smaller, think of The Littles! Make them with twisted bodies. Make them with vibrations and then swinging or swaying energy. Make them explosive and then sustained. Remind the students to change levels as they are doing this. End with some good stretching.

INVESTIGATING Have the students view the poster, Youthful Games, from the Springville Museum of Art set. Discuss the print with the students using the suggestions on the back. Now (or you may choose to do this earlier in the classroom to save gym time for moving) read the book, Roxaboxen. Discuss how those kids used their imagination and created their own world to play in. Have the students begin moving in ways inspired by the print and book. You may want to have the whole group brainstorm to help those who are struggling with ideas. Pick some different kinds of music selections, and let the music help inspire the movements also. Explore these ideas for about 5 minutes. CREATING Have the students get into groups of 3, 4, or 5. Get a vote from the group which musical selection they enjoyed the most from the previous activity. Tell the students you will play about 1 to 2 minutes of it for their dance. They are to create a dance that has a beginning (not necessarily all being on "stage at that beginningsome may join in after 8 or 16 counts), a middle, and a clear ending. They are to use ideas inspired by the book and print. Allow them to talk first and begin trying out ideas. Allow about 5 minutes to play the music. Then have them talk and plan again for about 5 minutes, and then play the music again. Continue this cycle and circulate among groups giving feedback. Neigh-55

CONTEXTUALIZING Allow each group to show their dance and have other groups practicing good audience behavior and giving feedback at the end of each dance. At the end of all the groups, discuss how play has changed since the time of Roxaboxen. Discuss how they think children in other countries play.

DRAMA: analyzing drama, movement, pantomime, vocal skills, characterization, story

dramatization, ensemble Student Learning Objective: Students will demonstrate that everyone has unique contributions that they bring to a group (core Standard # 6020-0203) through the use of movement, pantomime, vocal skills, characterization, and story dramatization.(Drama Standards: Learning Drama Skills).

Drama Targets Met: 1. Analyzing Drama: Identify and discuss the beginning, middle, and end in a story. Identify the main conflict in a story. Identify the main action of a story. Identify and discuss the meaning of the story. Identify and ask about anything in the story you did not understand. 2. Practicing Drama Practice relaxing, concentrating, and imagining. Practice movement skills. Practice vocal skills. Explore different vocal and physical attributes for a selected character from a story. Practice working cooperatively in small groups when planning and acting out drama presentations. 3. Making Drama Create a scene where characters try several ways to get what they want. Create dialogue for two or more characters who are trying to resolve a conflict between themselves. Create a new story with a major conflict using familiar storybook characters. Evaluate work and plan improvements, then repeat the above targets. 4. Contextualizing Drama Reflect on and discuss similarities and differences between conflicts main characters face in stories and conflicts people face in daily life. Identify and discuss how characters from diverse cultures and stories that take place in different cultures are similar to and different from characters and stories in ones own culture. Vocabulary: (defined age-appropriately by Char Nelson) 1. pantomime--the use of only the body to communicate an idea. 2. vocal skills: pitch--a voice can go everywhere between high tempo--a voice can go everywhere from fast to slow tone--a voice can tell us how someone is feeling. Neigh-56

breath control--the tool used to make sounds and words diction--the tool used to say words so that they can be understood projection--the tool used to allow the voice to be heard. 3. movement skills--exercises that increase the ability to communicate with the body. 4. characterization--the process of creating a living being. 5. story dramatization--when a narrator tells the parts of the story while students act it out. Materials: Poem "The Worm" by Ralph Bergengren (included in lesson) Exercises found in Families section. cards with "talents" or "contributions" (hammering a nail, baking a cake, etc.) Story"The Peddler and His Caps" (included in lesson)

Process: 1. Do warm-up exercises found in Families section. Action/Sound Face/Sound Walk/Freeze 2. Explain the drama technique of choral reading. This is a group reading of a selection of material. Students may read all-together or break into individual or variable parts. Have students recite "The Worm" by Ralph Bergengren. (Additional selections found in appendix). Divide the lines individually, in pairs, boys and girls, high and low voices, and/or recite all together. 3. Tell them they are going to divide into two groups. Give one group a card with a "talent" or "contribution" that a person makes to a group. Each person in the group pantomimes the action. The other half of the class guesses what the action is. rocking a baby hammering a nail playing baseball baking a cake playing basketball sewing jumping rope mowing a lawn planting a garden washing dishes petting a kitten painting a picture singing dancing 4. Play the game "Do You Love Your Neighbor" (found in Similarities and Differences section). Have the students use talents or contributions to the group when saying the phrase "But I do like everyone who." 5. Discuss the importance of each person's unique contribution to a group.


6. Tell them they are going to do a "story dramatization" showing one man's "physical talent" and and "thinking" talent. Tell them you are going to ask them after the dramatization what they think the man's talents were. (sewing caps and outsmarting the monkeys). 7. Read or tell "The Peddler and His Caps" (on next page), and have the students dramatize the story.

8. Have each student write down on a piece of paper one talent he/she has. Then, have each student pantomime that talent for the class and have class guess what the talent is. 9. Again, reinforce the concepts that everyone has unique contributions to give to a group, that they are all different, and all important.

Assessment: Teacher subjectively assesses students for concentration and imagination, involvement in drama activities, discussion, and ability to write down and pantomime an individual talent.


When the earth is turned in spring The worms are fat as anything.

And birds come flying all around To eat the worms right off the ground. They like worms just as much as I Like bread and milk and apple pie. And once, when I was very young, I put a worm right on my tongue. And so I didn't swallow it.

But oh, it makes my Mother squirm Because she thinks I ate that worm! RALPH BERGENGREN


Once upon a time there was an old man who lived all alone at the edge of a forest. Every day he would sit in his house making caps to sell in the village. He would make red caps, Neigh-58

Old Tale Adapted by Karla Huntsman

green caps, purple caps, and gold caps. He would make big caps, and little caps. He would make caps with feathers and caps with bows. When each cap was finished, he would put it in his big, brown pack. When the pack was full, he would begin his journey to the village. He would walk and walk and walk. On his way, he saw beautiful flowers and sometimes would stop to pick one. When he got to the village, he saw many people at work. He saw bakers baking their bread. He saw carpenters pounding their nails into boards for houses. He saw weavers making new clothes to sell. He saw children playing tag. He saw the Mayor of the City walking among the people . He began singing a song to help him sell his caps. Red caps, green caps, purple caps, gold caps. Big caps, little caps, caps with bows. Come and buy my caps today, NOW Come and buy my caps today.

The bakers stopped baking their bread and came to look at the caps. The carpenters stopped pounding their nails and came to look at the caps. The weavers stopped sewing their clothes and came to look at the caps. The children stopped playing tag and came to look at the caps. The major stopped walking among the people.

The peddler handed caps to everyone. Each person tried on their caps. The mayor tried on his cap. After looking at it for a moment, the Mayor took off his cap and said, "It is much too hot to wear caps right now. Come back later when the weather turns cold." One by one everyone else took off their caps and handed them back to the peddler, saying "It is much too hot to wear caps right now. Come back later when the weather turns cold."

The peddler was very discouraged and began walking down the dusty road. Soon he came to a large group of trees. There was much shade underneath the trees and it looked like the perfect place to take a good, long rest. The peddler put his pack underneath the trees and closed his eyes. Soon, he was fast asleep. Now in this forest there lived a family of monkeys. They were hiding in the branches of the tall trees. When they saw the peddler, they climbed down from the branches and gathered around him. One bold monkey opened the peddler's pack and took out a bright gold hat and put it on his head. It made him so happy that he began dancing and singing in the woods. Hee Hee Ha Ha Hee Hee Ha Ha. The other monkeys saw what a good time he was having, so they each took a cap from the peddler's pack and began dancing and singing in the woods. Hee Hee Neigh-59

ha ha Hee hee ha ha. The peddler yawned and stretched and picked up his pack. It was empty! He looked all around the trees. He looked up and down the road. He looked in the direction of the village. He scratched his head. The monkeys watching from the tops of the trees couldnt help but laugh at the trick they had played on the peddler. Hee hee ha ha Hee hee ha ha. The peddler looked up into the trees and saw the monkeys wearing HIS caps. He was so surprised that he shook his fist at the monkeys and said, You bring me back my caps! The monkeys shook their little monkey fists at the peddler and said, Hee hee ha ha Hee He ha ha." That made the peddler very angry. He stamped his foot and said, "You monkeys, bring me back my caps!" All the monkeys stamped their feet and said, "Hee hee ha ha Hee Hee ha ha." back at the peddler. The peddler didn't know what to do so he sat down on the ground and stroked his chin while thinking of a plan. All the monkeys in the treetops stroked their chins just like the peddler.

All of a sudden, the peddler had an idea. He stood up quickly. The monkeys stood up quickly, too. The peddler took off the cap from his head and said, "Thank you, monkeys! Thank you!" and threw his cap on the ground. The monkeys did just as he did, saying "Hee hee ha ha Hee hee ha ha." Caps fell from the trees and the peddler quickly picked them up and put them into his pack. When he had picked up the last cap from off the ground, he looked up at the monkeys, shook his finger, and said, "You little monkeys"! The monkeys high in the trees only called out "Hee hee ha ha hee hee ha ha" and laughed at the joke they had played on the peddler! But the peddler just smiled as he picked up his pack full of caps and started down the road.

VISUAL ARTS : Processes in art

Objective: Students will identify their own talents and explore ways in which they can use their talents to contribute to their classroom or community by creating a mural as a classa community which explores or comments on their community. Utah State Core Visual Arts Standard. #1020-0101: Explore a variety of art materials while learning new techniques and processes. #1020-0403:Create a work of art that reflects part of family history/traditions or neighborhood history/culture Materials Large sheets of paper Various media Prints, transparencies, or postcards of artworks that relate to your community or that depict communities, such as the following: Youthful Games, Gary Smith [SMA Elementary Poster Set] Dance Around the Maypole, Pieter Brueghel the Younger [UMFA Elementary Poster] Peasant Dance, Pieter Brueghel the Elder [suggested masterworks, 2nd grade] The Gleaners, Jean-Francois Millet [suggested masterworks, 2nd grade] Parade, Jacob Lawrence [suggested masterworks, 2nd grade] Neigh-60

I and My Village, Marc Chagall [suggested masterworks, 2nd grade] Horse Traders, E. J. Bird [SMA High School Poster Set] Riders of the Range , Paul Salisbury [SMA Elementary Poster Set] Twice Told Tales, A. D. Shaw [1993 UTAH HISTORY SMA pkt or website] Richards Camp, James T. Harwood [SMA Elementary Poster Set] Forgotten Man, Maynard Dixon [in this packet]

E. J. Bird, Horse Traders Springville Museum of Art All poster and packet images can be found at smofa.org

Introduction/Motivation: Show the class several of the artworks and discuss how they depict communities or places or events that relate to your community. Tie this discussion in with whatever you have already done and/or discussed for the Social Studies unit on People, Places, and EnvironmentsMy Neighborhood. Then explain that the class is going to create a class mural(s) about your community. You may wish to show the class some examples of murals such as Madonna of 1847 by Minerva Teichert or the Murals in the Utah State Capitol Rotunda by Lee Greene Richards [October 29, 1997 PIONEER IMAGES OF UTAH, SMA pkt. or website] and discuss how the murals are different from other paintings. (Murals put images together in ways that arent necessarily realistic but that portray events in relatively small spaces, they usually use a pretty flat picture plane.)


ART HISTORY: Social Realism

Provide the following background information on Social Realism: Social realism was an international movement that depicted political and social situations. Themes often centered on the struggles of the poor and socially disadvantaged. In many totalitarian states it was used for propaganda, often in mural format. In America, the social realist images did not display the strong political aspects of the Mexican muralists or the forced optimism of Russian artists. Rather, American works portrayed the publics general disregard for societys victims. American Social Realists focused on the slums, urban life, and the endless subjects in everyday scenes. Artists such as Maynard Dixon were moved by the poor working conditions he observed. He expressed his feelings in his painting Forgotten Man, 1934. (Refer to Maynard Dixon Art Activity and Education Packet, BYU, 2000.) Discuss the political or social context of this work (e.g., during the Depression, high level of unemployment, few social services). Other American Social Realists are George Grosz, Ben Shahn, Jacob Lawrence, Jack Levine, Isabel Bishop, George Tooker, and Reginald Marsh. Diego Rivera, although not an American citizen, painted numerous socialist murals in America that were highly controversial in their depictions of American social ills. Provide several examples of social realist works and discuss some of the political or social issues depicted in the images. Online images can be found at http://www.google.com/search?hl=en &q=social+realist+artists&btnG=Google+Search or http://www.artcyclopedia.com/history/socialrealism.html To view Diego Riveras murals online visit http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=diego+rivera& btnG=Google+Search or http://www.diegorivera.com/murals/index.html (Note click on num ber 3 under the murals for New York City murals and number 4 for San Francisco and Detroit)

Maynard Dixon, Free Speech byu.edu


AESTHETICS: Instrumentalist theory

Some artists create art that displays strong social, political or religious views. They believe that art is an instrument to produce effects, and the more vivid and extensive the experience is or the purpose represented then the better the artwork is. They believe that art serves a social, political, moral or economical purpose and quality is based on the greatness of its purpose. The aesthetic theory that helps to define these beliefs is the instrumentalist theory. It promotes that art is an instrument to promote change or awareness. Some milder forms merely tell a story while more aggressive works are meant to move observers to action. Display some of the artworks listed under the Art History section and have the students determine the purpose or cause the work is promoting. Provide background regarding Social Realists found in the Art History section to help identify instrumentalist images. Discuss issues that might be developed into instrumentalist works and explore contemporary art forms which promote or use propaganda such as advertising. PRODUCTION: Working TogetherA Matter of Community Processes in art creation and making a mural

Diego Rivera, Industry, North Wall, Detroit Educational Fair Use of low resolution copy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Rivera_detroit_industry_north.jpg Neigh-63

This production activity is designed to introduce the many processes that are involved in the creation of art. It also emphasizes aspects of collaborative work that are similar to community spirit. Another format that can be used for this lesson is a quilt. Students or groups of students can be assigned to make quilt blocks and then the blocks can be assembled together as a quilt. Objective: Students will work together as a community to create a collage mural that reflects each individual member of the community. Materials: Mural paper, paint, brushes, and other painting supplies Drawing paper, pencils, erasers, crayons or markers, and/or other drawing materials Scissors and glue

Lesson discussionAsk students the following questions: What is a community? In what ways do members of a community work together? What evidence is there in a community of individual differences? How does the community we live in differ from a community, say in Africa? How about New York City? Do you think some communities in Utah are different than ours? What is a mural? What murals have you seen? (teacher may want a visual of a mural to show students) What is a collaborative work of art?

Discuss some kinds of art projects that are produced by collaboration. Note which ones are produced by community efforts. Explain that the class members are going to be organized into a community and work together to create a mural that will represent each of them as an individual as well as a community. One of the things that will need to be on the mural is a drawing of their house or dwelling. Some of the other things that might be included are drawings of cars, bikes, scooters, skateboards, etc., and /or hobbies, and any other kind of personal items or icons that represent them. Each individual in the community has the right to put whatever personal items they want to on the mural. Other things such as parks, stores, schools, etc. should be discussed and decided on as a community. Getting organized: Each community will need to have some of its members carry out the following responsibilities:


Mapmakers or designers: It is their job to do two things: 1. Survey the community to get an idea of approximately how many items will be on the mural and decide how big the mural paper needs to be. 2. Draw a road pattern or some other design that will accommodate the items to be placed on the mural. ( Suggest that the mural paper needs to be large enough to make sure everything fits on it, but not so big that things are spread out and the finished work of art looks sparse.) Painters: The painters job will be to paint the roads or designs and grass, sky, etc. on the mural. (Suggest the painters should be students who are good at mixing paint, such as tints and shades and have sense of how to apply the paint in an interesting way.) Landscapers: The landscapers will decide where to put all of the items on the mural to create an interesting work of art. They may also need to make suggestion to the other members of the community to create additional trees, fences, telephone poles, street lights, etc. to fill in spaces or make the mural a more interesting work of art. (Suggest the landscapers should be students who understand some of the principles of art such as balance, pattern, unity, etc. and who have a good sense of color,)

Project: Divide the students into the desired number of communities. (Each community should have at least 7 students.) Have them work together to fill the job assignments, (no limit on number of students for each job) and no one should be forced to take a job assignment. Have them decide on a name for their community. Remind them that majority rules. Each student will draw, color, and cut out their individual drawings and eventually give them to the landscapers, who will decide where they will be placed on the mural. Have the mapmakers do their job first, while the others are doing their individual drawings, then when they are finished with their job, they can do their individual drawings. Have the landscapers start making their decisions while the painters are painting.

Assessment: Display the murals and have the students discuss how they think the mural turned out, and what they like about it. Let them express how they feel about the process of producing the mural. Address any problems or concerns experienced by the students. Have them evaluate the experience, comparing it with real life. Note: In order for the students to have a real experience, the teacher must stand back and let the students work through the process. At first, students will seek answers from the teacher and will want the teacher to solve their problems, but if the teacher refers the requests back to the community for solution, the students soon get the idea that the project is really theirs.

This project was tried with two fourth-grade classes, two fifth-grade classes, and three sixth- grade classes. Each class was divided into two communities. The division was arbitrary, based on where the students were sitting in the classroom. The students did not get to choose their community members, with the exception of one sixth-grade class which was very insistent that they have boy/ girl communities. It took approximately three to four, forty-minute sessions to complete the murals. Neigh-65

CRITICISM: Interpretation

Explain to the students that in evaluating a piece of art the critic often has to interpret the meaning or feelings that are portrayed in the work. There are many tools the critic uses to help in this interpretation. One is the personal knowledge that the critic might have regarding the artist or the context of the artworks creation. For example the critic might be familiar with the historical background of an artwork or the culture in which the work was created. Other aids are the use of symbols or expressive properties such as vivid colors or line that are evident in the works. Other helps might be written information from the artist regarding the work or historical documentation. Sometimes the title of the work helps in determining the meaning of the work. Often, the critics have personal background or experience that they use in interpreting a work. This background, in addition to knowledge gained regarding the work, helps in interpreting. Following is a list of items that might help with interpretation: Title of the art work Name or background of the artist Background of the art work - where, when, and why it was created Statement of the artists intent Symbols used within the art work Feelings or emotions that might be expressed in the art work Familiarity with traditions or customs illustrated in the art work

Have the students look at some of the images described under the Art History section or they could critique the mural(s) created by the class. Have the students interpret the works according to their background experience and to knowledge they research or are provided by the teacher. Encourage younger students to tell the story behind the work. Help in providing facts regarding the works, but also allow for the students free interpretation of what they think the work is about. Picasso once said that the observers interpretation of his work was more accurate than his own. LITERACY Read appropriate childrens books with the class. Have the children write about what kind of person they want to be when they are grown. ADDITIONAL APPLICATIONS Sing We All Live Together and This Land is Your Land(music in My State lessons)

Harrison Groutage, Integration (1959) SMA

Talk with the children about Martin Luther King Day and share other stories and biographies about people of other cultures and their contributions to our community and to our lives. Neigh-66

CULTURES Third Grade

Objective: Students will be able to identify the different cultures in their local community and identify a contribution that each culture makes or has made. Social Studies Standard: People, Places, and Environments Utah State Social Studies Core Standard #6030-0201: Discuss different cultures in the students community and the contribution made from each culture. Objective: Students will be able to identify the different cultures in their local community and identify a contribution that each culture makes or has made. Exploration: Read aloud to the class: The Big Orange Splot, by Daniel Manus Pinkwater.

Expression: Discuss the book bringing out the focus of how boring it would be if everything was exactly alike. Draw attention to the houses in the book. The houses often take on characteristics of homes or buildings in other cultures. Direct students in your discussion to characteristics of culture such as dance, food, clothing, music, art, etc.

Exploration: Lou Gene Carter, Navajo Girl SMA Identify a person representing each of the cultures in your community (Hispanic, Native American, etc.) to come to your classroom do a short presentation about their culture and to share something that contributes to your community. (Example: historical background to the community, art works, crafts, music, dance, language, foods, etc.) Be mindful that this step may take several class periods.

Expression: After each of the presentations, have the class make a list of contributions that culture has made in their community. Discuss any additional contributions that may have been made by that culture and add to your list. As the list grows, compare and contrast the contributions made. At the conclusion of the presentations, have the students take the list home and have parents identify what things on the list they have participated in themselves or as a family. Bring the list back and make a class list. Discuss. Label: There are many cultures in a community. Each culture makes positive contributions to the community as a whole. Our lives are richer because of the variety of cultures in our community. Culture-67

ApplicationsMusic, Dance, Theater, Visual Arts, and Literacy


Summary of Music Ideas Listening with discrimination Singing and vocal play Playing instruments Music may have a steady beat Music may have long and short sounds

Social Studies Theme (culturespeople, places, environments) met through music: I can sing songs from other cultures in other languages Songs all over the world still have a steady beat and rhythm pattern

Materials: Songs: ChucuArgentina Uno, dos, tresFrance Al CitrnMexico Songs from cultures in your community such as African or African American, European, Japanese, etc. You may be able to get family or community members to help identify and teach appropriate songs. Procedure Introduction/Motivation: Songs Chucu, Uno dos tres, and Al Citrn The teacher should learn to sing each song independently and in middle head register before presenting them and their activities to the class.

If necessary, teachers may find a Spanish speaker in the school in order to learn the words and phrases used in the songs. Lesson content/skill focus: ACTIVITY #1 Chucu(music on next page) This song is about a train in Argentina. Some possible English words to use are included below. Use the song day after day as you help children learn to count in Spanish, perhaps up to ten one day, then to twenty the next, then on up to one hundred by the end of ten days. A construction paper train could be cumulatively made on the wall around the room, with successive number words written on each train car until there are a hundred. Choo choo, choo-choo, choo choo, chee, How much do you bring to me? Little train that runs so fast to bring them from Mendoza. Culture-68


ACTIVITY 2: Uno dos tres (music on following page) This is a call-response song. After you have taught it to the class using the phrase-by-phrase echo technique, you can use several call-response techniques to improve the singing of your class. First, you sing each phrase and your class echoes on each repeat. Then switch roles, with the class leading on each phrase and you repeating. Next, divide the class, and have each half take turns singing the phrases. Work toward the concept of a true, far away echo. The English text is: One, two, three. Three little birds, are singing here, pipahreeahreeah, are singing here. Another day, after reviewing each of the call-response styles above, invite individual children to lead with the class providing the repeated echo. Switch roles. Then, invite duets, i.e. two children to echo each other. As a closure session for this song, do all of the above, then ask each child to illustrate the song in storyboard style, perhaps showing how the birds echoing back and forth. As the class sings the songs, emphasize the following ideas Social Studies Theme (culturespeople, places, environments) met through music: I can sing songs from other cultures in other languages Songs all over the world still have a steady beat and rhythm pattern Music may have long and short sounds

Help students identify the beat by beating time on their knees as they sing the song. They can also learn to clap the rhythm pattern of the songs and to identify how the long and short sounds of the songs create those rhythm patterns. Culture-69

Uno, Dos, Tres

Al Citrn


ACTIVITY 3: Al Citron (music on previous page)

This is a stick passing song. The children must first learn the song perfectly and well enough to sing it independently of the teacher. The words are nonsense, so no translation is really necessary. This is a cooperative game. The object is for the group to work together sensibly and sensitively until all motions are so refined that the game can run continuously without any breaks. 1. Children are seated in a circle on the floor. 2. Each child has a stick [either pencil, rhythm or Lummi stick] in front of him/her. 3. All sing. On the upbeat, they pick up the stick. 4. While singing, each child puts the stick down in front of their neighbor on the right on the first beat of each measure. 5. This continues until the words "triki, triki, tron", when the stick is touched on the floor to the right, then to the left, then passed on to the right on the word "tron." Extensions to other curriculum areas: Visual ArtsHave students use what they have learned about beats and rhythm to identify rhythm in artworks. If possible, start with a modern artwork like those by Mondrian (http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/ paint/auth/mondrian/) and have students point out ways the artist has created a sense of rhythm in his paintings. Another good artwork is Cottage Industry, included on the CD. In art, rhythm is created in many ways: have the students indicate as many as they can. If they need help, ask leading questions such as where they see something that is repeated. Artists use shapes, color, lines, patterns, etc. The proportions of an artwork may also create rhythm. Give the students colored construction paper and scissors, and have them cut simple shapes from the paper. Have students create a design from the shapes that demonstartes visual rhythm. Students should try arranging the shapes in different ways before they make a final choice and glue the shapes to a backing of a contrasting color.

DanceHave the students choose movements that last different amounts of time. Then, using some indicator for the different note values, such as different sizes and colors of paper, have students choose a rhythm pattern. Give the class a chance to dance the rhythm pattern, using the movements they chose. Rearrange the rhythm pattern and dance the new pattern. Divide the class in half and have one half perform for the other half.


DRAMA: analyzing drama, vocal and body skills, story dramatization

Student Learning Objective: Students will learn about one of the cultures in their community (Utah State Core # 6030-2021) and will interact in a classroom dramatization (Drama Standard: Making Drama) which shows the contribution to literature from the Hispanic Community. Drama Targets Met: 1. Analyzing Drama Identify and discuss the beginning, major conflict, middle, climax, and end in a story. Identify and discuss complications and how they get in the way of what the main character in the story wants most.. Identify and ask about anything in the story you dont understand. Identify and discuss the meaning of the story. 2. Learning Drama Skills Practice relaxing, concentrating, and imagin ing. Practice movement skills. Practice vocal skills. Practice sensory recall for all five senses. Practice creating dialogue and movement based on pictures of character faces. Practice listening and contributing based on what others say when planning and acting out dramatic presentations in small groups. 3. Making Drama Create improvised scenews in which sense memories play an important rolehearing, seeing, touching, tasting, smelling. Create a scene in which a crisis is based on one of the five senses. Create dramatizations with a major conflict and then add complications. Evaluate work and plan improvements. 4. Contextualizing Drama Compare and contrast the use of complications in stories read silently, heard aloud, and experienced through electronic media. Explain preferences. Keep a personal sensory log of interesting smells, tastes, touches, sights, and sounds. Materials Needed: Thistle, Louise. Dramatizing Myths and Tales: Creating Plays for Large Groups. Dale Seymour Publications P.O. Box 10888. Palo Alto, CA 94303. (Order form in appendix) various musical instruments (i.e.drum, xylophone, rattle, triangle, wind chimes, guiro, tambourine, slide whistle, gong, wood block, sand blocks). Other instruments may be substituted, added, or made from found objects. Narrative Mime, The Tale of Rabbit and Coyote (In appendix) Research and discuss how the five senses are important to other cultures. Compare and contrast the findings with your own culture. Connect drama with other curricula. Process: 1. Teacher shows various objects, pictures, foods, or videos from several cultures and asks if anyone has been to a foreign country. Discuss experiences and feelings. 2. Teacher leads inquiry discussion on why it is important to know about other cultures. 3. Teacher shows students various objects and clothing found in the Hispanic culture (shawls, hats, various objects). Culture-72

4. He/she asks if anyone has been to Mexico or knows of anyone who has been there. 5. Teacher discusses/shows specific contributions from the Hispanic culture (artwork, literature, music) 6. Teacher tells the students they are going to preform a Hispanic legend to show the contribution to literature. 7. Teacher leads students through warm-up and vocal exercises (found in appendix). 8. Teacher creates a semi-circle of chairs in the room leaving an open space for acting. (Illustration in appendix). 9. Initial parts of the narrative mime The Tale of Rabbit and Coyote are randomly assigned to students. Students act out the story as narrated. 10. Students identify and discuss the begining, major conflict, middle, climax, and end of the story. 11. Students identify and discuss the complications in the story and how they get in the way of what the main character wants most. 12. Students identify and discuss the meaning of the story. 13. An audition is held. Teacher selects certain passages from the narrative mime for students to say in order to determine who is best for the parts in the play. The teacher may also have them do pantomimes or vocal exercises to determine who is best for the parts. Complete instructions are found in Dramatizing Myths and Tales. 14. After the narrative mime is cast, students practice approximately l hour a day for 2 weeks. Emphasis is placed on students listening and contributing based on what others say when planning and acting out the narrative mime. Optional exercises below may be used during the rehersal period to strengthen drama skills. 15. Students present the play for parents or other classes at the school.

The Complete Text of The Tale of Rabbit and Coyote starts on Appendix-8


Assessment: Students will do an oral and written self-evaluation of their experience in practicing and performing the play.

Optional Activities to fill drama targets: 1. Students practice sensory recall for all five senses. 2. Students create dialogue and movement based on pictures of character faces. 3. Students create improvised scenes in which sense memories play an important role. 4. Students create scenes in which a crisis is based on one of the five senses. 5. Students create dramatizatrions with a major conflict and then add some complications. 6. Students compare and contrast the use of complications in stories read silently, heard aloud, and experienced through electronic media and explain preferences. 7. Students keep a personal log of interesting smells, tastes, touches, sights, and sounds discovered away from school; discuss the feelings these sensations generate and explain preferences. 8. Students discuss how the various senses are different and the same as their own and how that contributes to the various cultures. The following pages are from Louise Thistles book Dramatizing Myths and Tales. (Used with permission from Mrs. Thistle) The pages contain suggestions for how to produce a play based on a myth or tale as well as part of one of Thistles plays: The Creation and the Birth of the Corn God. Also included is a section on writing a Narrative Mime Script. After reading the sample and the suggestions, you may be able to write your own narrative mime script. However, if you prefer, you may order one of Louise Thistles books using the order form in the Appendix. Only 1 copy of the book is needed per classroom. Permission is granted from Mrs. Thistle to copy the play for each classroom student. The book contains complete instructions for auditioning and rehearsing the play .

Narrative Mime is a specific kind of theatre experience which eliminates many of the difficulties encountered when doing a play in a classroom setting. The benefits of narrative mime are the following: It eliminates excessive line memorization. It eliminates backstage "fooling around" because the characters are ALL on stage at all times. It eliminates the star system. Each participant has an important role in the play.

daughterofcorn.blogspot. com/2010/09/mayan-corn-god-loseshis-head_12.html


All scripts in Mrs. Thistle's book are accompanied by self-explanatory activities that can be used as warm-up activities to begin rehearsals. They also include background information on the culture begin portrayed and questions on each story, as well as suggestions for simple costume pieces and rhythm instruments, dance steps, ways to involve the audience, a guide on how to create narrative mime scripts from any story, and other valuable information. Mrs. Thistle has written several other books for dramatizing other types of literature such as poetry and fables. (A complete list of her works is included in the appendix). Additional Applications: 1. Math: Have students act out story problems using the narrative mime format. 2. Reading: Create a narrative mime from a story used in the curriculum. 3. Science: Students create a narrative mime to show plant and animal habitats. 4. Music: Students create their own music to the narrative mime. 5. Dance: Students create a dance to be included in a narrative mime. 6. Visual Art: Students draw their impressions of the characters in the narrative mime.

It eliminates elaborate costumes and scenery. It teaches acting skills It teaches students how to cooperate with a group. It teaches through direct experience.

Arlene Braithwaite, Ode to Sagebrush: A Hidden Picture (2003) used by permission of the artist Culture-75

Chapter One explains how to produce the plays presented in this book, with de~ tailed information on the mechanics of directing these and other plays. It includes casting, stage blocking, acting methods, and techniques for training the sound crew and storytellers.

Using Dramatizing Myths and Tales in the Classroom

Chapter Two provides guidelines for making or obtaining simple, generic costumes that can be used for a variety of different plays, and explains how to create rhythm instruments from objects found around home or school.

Chapter Three suggests a step-by-step rehearsal schedule, from introducing the play through after-performance follow-ups. The activities outlined in this chapter may be used in conjunction with the acting exercises specific to each script. Chapter Four provides guidelines for dramatizing the plays informally in the classroom using two different techniques. These techniques may be used to explore further characterization and creative development, to provide more practice and training in narrative mime, to vary rehearsals prior to an audience presentation, or to provide students with a simple dramatic experience for the classroom only.

Part Two presents scripts for five multicultural myths and tales to act. They are Talk, Talk, Talk (West African); The Creation and the Birth of the Corn God (Mayan); Coyote and the Swallowing Monster (Native North American Indian); The Crane Maiden Japanese); and Jack and the Beanstalk (British). These plays have been field tested and. performed in grades three through twelve with great success. The scripts are set off from the rest of the book by decorative borders, one to define each myth or tale. The scripts may easily be photocopied and distributed to each student participating in a production. Please note that permission is granted for photocopying the scriPts only for your class alone, and that such permission is granted for productions in which an admission fee is not charged. For all other uses, written permission must be obtained from the author. Each play emphasizes the particular customs and rituals of the culture depicted, highlighting its theater-performance rituals and conventions. For example, the West African tale uses drumming and chanting with communal movement, while the Japanese play focuses on the expression of powerful emotions in highly stylized poses. To help students become fully involved and to help them better understand and appreciate the culture depicted, chapters include background information and questions on the story itself, the culture, and the theater-performance conventions of the culture. Research activities and activities to compare and contrast the story and culture with others in the book are also included.

Chapters also include acting and performance activities to do at rehearsals to get students involved in the characters and to teach them how to act, tell stories, and perform sound effects. Each chapter describes how to perform a simple dance of the culture and suggests appropriate music to accompany it. Finally, the chapters describe simple costume pieces, fabrics, and props that can be used.

Your experience with narrative mime theatre should not be limited to the scripts presented in this book. Chapter Ten describes how to begin developing your own narrative mime script based on stories chosen for their relevance to your specific teaching situation. Students in groups can write, direct, and produce their own narrative mimes.
Dramatizing Myths and Tales



The plays in this book can easily be produced in two weeks. Schedule daily rehearsals of about an hour in classrooms of up to thirty-five students. No drama experience is necessary. Each play takes about twenty-five minutes to perform. The plays use a narrative mime and dialogue to act each story. The scripts can be photocopied from this book and distributed to each performer. In this narrative mime theatre, four narrators (storytellers) position themselves on the stage, two on each side, and read from the scripts. The actors, dressed in black, sit in chairs in a semicircle on stage. Their simple costume pieces, props, and fabrics to create scenery are under their chairs or on their laps. When the storytellers read the story, the actors have their props ready and stand to act their parts as the narrator describes the action. For example, when a storyteller reads, "A dog trotted along," the actor wearing dog ears stands up from the chair and trots onto the stage. All actors' lines and actions are derived from strong cues given by the storytellers. A sound crew of six, all dressed in black, sits at a table or piano beside the stage with rhythm instruments or homemade instruments laid out before them to create sound effects. (The piano player need not know how to play the piano.) The table and piano are placed so that the crew can see the actors and the audience can watch the sound effects being made. (See diagram.) AIl of the sound cues are in the script read by the storytellers. Stage Layout Storytellers

The Mechanics of Producing and Directing a Play

The Actors Sound Crew


The Mechanics of Producing and Directing a Play


The Creation and the Birth of the Corn God

A Mayan Creation Myth


FOUR STORYTELLERS (strong, clear, enthusiastic voices and gestures) SUN GOD (strong, regal) MOON GODDESS (strong, regal) SEA (2) MIST (3) MOUNTAIN (2) CEDAR PINE DEER ORANGE BIRD JAGUAR SERPENT MUD PEOPLE (2) WOOD PEOPLE (2) RAIN (3) CAVE (2) CEIBA OR SILK COTTON TREE DOG (2) POT (2) GRINDING STONE CORN PEOPLE (4) MAGIC GRANDMOTHER DAWN (2) GOLDEN LIGHT (2) SUN LAKE (2) PALM TREE ROCK (2) THUNDER GOD (4 or more) CORN GOD (majestic, regal) Adaptations For smaller groups, a pair of students could portray Sea, Mist, Mountain, Cedar and Pine, Deer, Bird, Jaguar, Serpent; another pair can play Rain, Ceiba Tree, Dog, Pot, Grinding Stone. Use only one Dog and one Pot; mime location of cave.

Developing Scripts for Myths and Tales


Sound Crew
SOUND CREW 1 SOUND CREW 2 SOUND CREW 3 SOUND CREW 4 SOUND CREW 5 SOUND CREW 6 taped music, drum, rattle triangle, dinner bell, rattle wind chimes, guiro, tambourine, rattle slide whistle, gong, rattle wood block, sand blocks, rattle Piano or resonator bells (does not need to know how to play the piano)

Other instruments may be substituted, added, or made with found objects. Suggestions for making instruments are in Chapter Two.

Basic Stage Setup

The actors sit on stage in chairs arranged in a semicircle in view of the audience. Costumes and props are stored under the actors' chairs and put on after the opening dance. Arrange blue, filmy cloth or scarves downstage to represent Sea. The Sound Crew sits with instruments on a table to the right of the stage area, in view of the audience. The tables are set so that the Crew can see the stage.





STORYTELLERS: S1, S2, S3, and S4


S3 S4


The Creation and the Birth of the Corn God

AUDIENCE Culture-80

SOUND CREW I plays taped music and actors and storytellers perform the Mayan dance. (See Production Notes for suggested music and dance steps.) After the dance, SOUND CREW 1 fades music and STORYTELLER 1 begins speaking. Characters Storytellers, Moon Goddess, Sun God, Sea, Mist, Mountain, Cedar, Pine, Deer, Bird, Jaguar, Serpent STORYTELLER 1 (brightly, enthusiastically): The creation. STORYTELLER 2: A Mayan myth of how the world began. STORYTELLER 3 (gesturing above stage): First there was only heaven... STORYTELLER 4 (gesturing to SEA): ...and the sea. (SEA actors move downstage, Pick up sea cloth, and gently ripple it. SOUND CREW 2 dings triangle several times as SEA foams and ripples.) (SUN GOD and GODDESS walk regally behind SEA.) (SOUND CREW 2 dings triangle.) (SOUND CREW 2 dings triangle.) (SOUND CREW 2 dings triangle.) (SOUND CREW 2 dings triangle.)

Scene One

STORYTELLER 1: Only the Sun God and the Moon Goddess stood majestically in the rippling water. STORYTELLER 2: The Moon Goddess called for Earth. STORYTELLER 3: The Sun God called for Life. STORYTELLER 4: The sea withdrew. MOON GODDESS (enthusiastically, reaching out hand): Earth. SUN GOD (authoritatively, making sweeping gesture): Life. (SEA moves slowly upstage, rippling; seated actors lift cloth over their heads and drop it STORYTELLER 1 4: Mists swirled.

inconspicuously behind their chairs. SOUND CREW 2 dings triangle several times as SEA withdraws.)

(MIST actors swirl lightly and gracefully, moving bodies up, down, and all over the stage, taking time to create the effect. SOUND CREW 2 jingles bells and SOUND CREW 3 jingles wind chimes lightly. MISTS return to their seats.) STORYTELLER 2: Mountains pushed upward. (MOUNTAINS kneel facing each other and slowly begin to stand up, miming the effort of pushing up from the earth; Mountain props may he used to form a mountain peak. SOUND CREW 2 strikes triangle twice as peak forms.) Culture-81

STORYTELLER 3: Seeds grew into tall, full pines.

(CEDAR and PINE kneel, tucking heads down to become seeds. SOUND CREW 5 strikes wood block slowly five times as CEDAR and PINE stand, growing into trees with outstretched branches.) STORYTELLER 4: The Sun God and Moon Goddess welcomed them. MOON GODDESS (enthusiastically, reaching arm toward them): Welcome. SUN GOD (exuberantly, reaching arm toward them): Welcome! STORYTELLER 1: They created animals. Prancing Deer... (SOUND CREW 6 sweeps fingers along high piano notes or strikes mallet along keys of resonator bells.) (SOUND CREW 6 sweeps fingers along high piano notes or strikes mallet along keys of resonator bells. MOUNTAIN and TREES sit.) MOON GODDESS (echoing STORYTELLER): Prancing Deer. (As each animal is called, it stands and moves forward as described, freezing in a stylized posture. SOUND CREW 2 dings triangle as each animal is called. SOUND CREW 5 strikes wood block for prancing.) STORYTELLER 2: Swooping Orange Bird... SUN GOD: Swooping Orange Bird. STORYTELLER 3: Pawing Jaguar... MOON GODDESS: Pawing Jaguar. SUN GOD: Slithering Serpent. (SOUND CREW 2 dings triangle. SOUND CREW 2 rings bell for swooping.). (SOUND CREW 2 dings triangle. SOUND CREW 1 strikes drum for pawing.) (SOUND CREW 2 dings triangle. SOUND CREW 3 scrapes guiro for slithering.)

STORYTELLER 4: Slithering Serpent...

STORYTELLER 1: They asked the animals to speak. MOON GODDESS (commandingly): Speak. SUN GOD (commandingly): Speak. STORYTELLER 3: Jaguar roared. STORYTELLER 2: Orange Bird whistled.

(SOUND CREW 2 rings bell. ORANGE BIRD flaps wings and whistles.) (SOUND CREW 1 strikes medium drum beats.)

JAGUAR (showing teeth and claws): Roar, roar, roar. STORYTELLER 4: Serpent hissed. Culture-82

SERPENT (thrusting neck forward): Hiss, Hiss, hiss. MOON GODDESS: We want creatures to praise us. SUN GOD: Yes, we want creatures to praise us.

(SOUND CREW 3 scrapes guiro.)

STORYTELLER 1: But the animals could not praise them. STORYTELLER 2: They commanded the animals to go to their homes. MOON GODDESS (pointing authoritatively): Go home. SUN GOD (pointing authoritatively): Go home. STORYTELLER 3: Deer pranced to the forest. STORYTELLER 4: Orange Bird flew to a tree.

(SOUND CREW 5 taps wood block as DEER prances lightly back to seat.) (SOUND CREW 2 rings bell as Orange Bird flies back to seat.) (SOUND CREW 1 strikes drum as JAGUAR paws back to seat.) (SOUND CREW 3 scrapes guiro as SERPENT slithers to seat.)

STORYTELLER 1: Jaguar pawed to the brush.

STORYTELLER 2: Serpent slithered to a cave.

STORYTELLER 3: They paced back and forth. What should they do now?

Scene Two
Characters Storytellers, Moon Goddess, Sun God, Mud People STORYTELLER 4: The Moon Goddess saw a clump of mud. (MUD PEOPLE actors kneel, facing audience and holding up brown cloth so that their bodies are concealed. Cloth should remain stationary. SOUND CREW 6 strikes several low piano notes.)

STORYTELLER 1: She suggested making people from mud. STORYTELLER 2: They picked up some mud.

MOON GODDESS (enthusiastically pointing at mud): Let's make people from mud. STORYTELLER 3: They molded a head and neck. (SOUND CREW 6 strikes low piano notes as mud forms.)

(SOUND CREW 6 strikes two high Piano notes as SUN GOD and MOON GODDESS carefully mold head and neck. MUD PEOPLE move cloth down, showing heads and necks as SUN GOD and MOON GODDESS mold them.) STORYTELLER 4: They molded a waist and arms. Culture-83

(SOUND CREW 6 strikes middle piano notes as SUN GOD and MOON GODDESS mold waist and arms; MUD PEOPLE lower cloth as they appear.) STORYTELLER 1: They molded two legs. (SOUND CREW 6 strikes two low piano notes after SUN GOD and MOON GODDESS mold legs and MUD PEOPLE appear.) STORYTELLER 2: They looked like people, but their heads flopped to the side, and their mouths gaped open. STORYTELLER 3: Their backs slumped. STORYTELLER 4: Their legs wobbled. (SOUND CREW 6 plays big b, floppy piano notes as each of these movements occur.) (SOUND CREW 4 plays slide whistle. MUD PEOPLE slump.) (SOUND CREW 6 strikes low piano notes several times for wobbling legs.) (SOUND CREW 4 plays slide whistle as MUD PEOPLE disintegrate in slow motion.) (MUD PEOPLE sit.)

STORYTELLER 1: They soaked up water and fell apart.

STORYTELLER 2: The Sun God and Moon Goddess shook their heads. Mud People were no good. STORYTELLER 3: They frowned, thinking again.

Scene Three
Characters Storytellers, Sun God, Moon Goddess, Wood People, Rain, Ceiba Tree, Dog, Pot, Grinding Stone STORYTELLER 4: The Sun God saw two tree stumps. (SOUND CREW 5 strikes wood block as each stump forms. WOOD PEOPLE stand, covering themselves with wood cloths. They keep cloths stationary and remain stiff to resemble stumps.) STORYTELLER 1: The Sun God suggested making Wood People. SUN GOD: Let's make Wood People. STORYTELLER 2: They carved a head and neck.

(SOUND CREW 3 scrapes guiro as SUN GOD and MOON GODDESS mime carefully carving head and neck. WOOD PEOPLE lower cloths to reveal heads and necks.) STORYTELLER 3: They carved a waist and arms. STORYTELLER 4: They caNed two legs. (SOUND CREW 3 scrapes guiro. Waist is revealed. Hands stretch out woodenly.) (SOUND CREW 3 scrapes guiro. Legs are revealed and cloths drop to ground.) Culture-84

Developing Scripts for Myths and Tales Culture-85

STORYTELLER 1: The Wood People walked rigidly. STORYTELLER 2: They said, Hola, Hello, rigidly.

(SOUND CREW 5 strikes wood block as WOOD PEOPLE parade rigidly to audience, then to each other, and then back.)

WOOD 1 (raising hand woodenly and freezing): Hola, Hello. WOOD 2 (raising hand woodenly and freezing): Hola, Hello. STORYTELLER 3: They stared ahead woodenly. They understood nothing. STORYTELLER 4: Their cheeks sucked in hollow. (SOUND CREW 5 strikes wood block as WOOD PEOPLE point index finger to head, opening eyes wide to show that they know nothing. ) (SOUND CREW 5 strikes wood block as WOOD PEOPLE suck in cheeks.)

STORYTELLER 1: They were taught to praise the gods, but they shook their heads, shrugged their shoulders, and forgot.

STORYTELLER 2: The Sun God and Moon Goddess made angry gestures. These people were heartless and ungrateful. STORYTELLER 3: They sent jagged; pitch black rain to destroy the Wood People. (SOUND CREW 6 strikes low, rumbling piano notes as the actors gesture angrily.) (SOUND CREW 1 strikes bass drum rapidly. SOUND CREW 1-5 shake rattles. SOUND CREW 3 shakes tambourine as each RAIN actor takes one area of stage and swirls angrily up, down, and all around WOOD PEOPLE. Take time to create the effect. Finally, SOUND CREW 3 slaps tambourine emphatically in center and RAIN freezes in jagged positions. RAIN sits.) STORYTELLER 4: But the rain did not destroy them. The Wood People climbed a ceiba tree. STORYTELLER 1: But the tree shook them off. STORYTELLER 2: They crawled into a cave. (SOUND CREWS strikes wood block as CEIBA TREE forms center; WOOD PEOPLE stoop low, then slowly stand and mime climbing the tree.) (SOUND CREW 1-5 shake rattles vigorously. SOUND CREW 1 strikes drum once emphatically as WOOD PEOPLE fall off CEIBA TREE.) . (SOUND CREW 3 scrapes guiro to show the effort as WOOD PEOPLE crawl in slow motion to CAVE and go in.)

(SOUND CREW 5 strikes wood block as WOOD PEOPLE shake heads, shrug shoulders,and stare blankly forward. )

STORYTELLER 3: But the cave heaved them out. The Creation and the Birth of the Corn God

(SOUND CREW 3 shakes tambourine for the heaving and slaps it once emphatically as WOOD PEOPLE roll over and freeze. ) Culture-86


Writing a Narrative Mime Script

Your choice of myths and tales to act are not limited to the scripts presented in this book. Many folk tales and myths can be adapted into plays that can be performed by students of all ages. In fact, students enjoy being involved in the adaptation process from choosing the tale to writing the scriptand the process is a valuable learning experience for all involved. Use the following techniques to help students adapt any tale into a narrative mime script. Choose simple picture books that have action words or strong verbs in almost every sentence. Even for older students, picture books are a good starting point since they break down a story into manageable bits of information. The essence of a narrative mime script is action. Help students identify action moments in the story chosen. If a sentence has no action, change it or eliminate it. For example, "Once upon a time there were three bears" might be changed to "One morning, Mother Bear got out of bed and stretched and yawned. She called Papa and Baby Bear." Eliminate nonessential words to pare down the script to its most basic action. For example, the dog trotted briskly" is not necessary; the dog trotted" is enough. Use vivid verbs. Spied, peered. scowled. glared. or squinted. are clearer and easier to act than looked." Try to have storytellers' lines give characters cues for what to say: STORYTELLER 1: The Chief commanded them to obey. CHIEF: I command you to obey. Students can also improvise their own dialogue using the storytellers' cues: STORYTELLER 1: The Chief commanded them to obey. CHIEF: You must obey me! Include customs or speech of the culture. Study customs depicted in pictures from the storybook and/or other resources, follow the story's style, and perhaps consult other books describing cultural rituals and customs.

Writing a Narrative Mime Script Culture-87

Decide where to incorporate sound effects to enhance the acting and reinforce established themes. Include roles for animals and inanimate objects.

Use as many characters as necessary; some students can play more than one part and certain parts can be played by two or more students. Use at least one storyteller and not more than four.

It is not necessary for the teacher to be the sole author of the narrative mime script. Students are often the most appropriate authors (since they will be acting the roles), and the process of scriptwriting is a valuable learning experience. The following techniques can be used to organize students in groups in order to write their own narrative mime script to act. Choose a picture book for students to dramatize (or have students choose the book). Read it aloud, showing the class the pictures. Help students list the characters needed to act the story.

Working in Groups

Work with students to divide the story into scenes, breaking down the action of the story into small segments.

Divide the class into groups, one for each scene. Have each group choose a secretary. Students in each group work together to develop storyteller narration and character dialogue for their scene. (Alternatively, each group can work on the play as a whole, and can compare their version of the whole play to that of the other groups.) The secretary records the information in script form. Students then add sound effects and possibly add more object parts to the script, as necessary. Students practice acting the story in their groups, testing for what works and what does not. They might decide on sound effects as they go along. If there are not enough instruments to use with every group, encourage students to improvise using objects around the room. Students share their performances with the class. The class comments, first mentioning what was good about the performance and then suggesting additions that will improve it. Students comment on any script adaptations that are necessary to create smooth transitions from one group's scene to the next, if appropriate. This way, scenes will flow smoothly from one into another and it will not be obvious that more than one group authored the script. If individual groups are developing the whole play, this step is unnecessary.

Students return to their groups and run through their scenes again, incorporating the suggestions. Again students share their performances with the class and any final necessary adaptations are made. The teacher can then proceed to auditioning for roles. Developing Scripts for Myths and Tales Culture-88

DANCE: Dances of Other Cultures

Objective: Students will be able to identify and perform at least two different dances from cultures in their local community. They will investigate and demonstrate understanding of other aspects of the cultures and create their own new dances based on the concepts in one or more of those dances. Utah State Dance Core Standards: MOVING - 1430-0102 Demonstrate basic locomotor steps with increased control in unusual variations of walk, run, hop, jump leap etc. INVESTIGATING - 1430-0201 & 0202 Identify and explore basic movement concepts found folk dances such as clapping and moving in a specific repeated pattern and holding balances on different levels etc. CREATING - 1430-0302 Improvise and practice a short patterns of movement with clear beginning and ending - shapes. Observe and discuss movement solutions of other classmates. Evaluate success In using personal space, following directions, and remembering sequences. CONNECTING - 1420-0403 Study the dance and art of another culture and discuss why these dances were created and why they are still important today. Identify the various cultures represented in the community. Discuss the dances, crafts, music, and art that makes each culture unique. Lesson content/skill focus: One fun way for students to explore other cultures and get a sense of what those cultures are like is to learn native folkdances. These dances are traditionally done by different age levels and have grown out of cultural activities and celebrations. Dont let the dance abbreviations intimidate you, theyre logical and easy to remember and the dances are surprisingly easy to read and do. The dance section contains a list of dance abbreviations and what they mean, instructions for the basic steps, and instructions for three dances: Seven Jumps from Denmark, Greensleeves from England, and La Raspa from Mexico. The supplemental materials add to cultural understanding of the origins and contexts for each dance. Preschool Class preforming La Raspa http://findingbalance.typepad.com/ sf/2009/09/index.html Culture-89


The abbreviations used when writing dances help readers understand how to do the dances. These symbols are used to save time and space in the writing process. After you have learned the symbols or abbreviations, reading them will become second nature. Use them to read the instructions for the dances for third grade, which follow. The following are the most-often used symbols in this text: bckback Mmen fwdforward CWclockwise CCWcounter clockwise LODline of dance

Wwomen Rright Lleft Sslow qquick ptpoint diagdiagonal(ly) Measmeasure centcenter D Cdouble circle B Cbroken circle

ptrspartners ftfoot

RLODreverse line of dance


ct (s)count (s) S Csingle circle

T Cthreesome circle


BASIC DANCE STEPS There are basic steps to every dance form. The following steps are used for many round, folk, social, and western dance forms. If the dancer knows these basics, learning the dances will be easier and more fun. Most dances include some of these steps in various sequence patterns. As is customary in partner dance, all steps start on the left foot for the man and the right foot for the women unless otherwise designated. Basic Steps:

1. Hesitation 2. Walk 3 Slide 4. Two-step

5. Grapevine 6. Chug 7. Paddle


Hesitation: The hesitation step has several variations. It is the movement of the foot without a weight change, usually taking one or two beats of music. This can be done in many ways and each is given a specific name. Listed below are kinds of hesitation steps. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Ball-turn Brush Dig Dot Draw Flick 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Heel Heel-toe Hold Hop Jump Kick 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. Lift Point Ripple Stomp Swing Toe

Walk: Stepping in any direction, changing weight on each count. A walking step may be combined with any other step pattern.

Slide: A step to the side with the left foot, closing the right foot to the left, repeated three times to comprise the left unit of a 4/4 rhythm. The right unit is executed by repeating, starting on right foot. When doing a large slide, there will be a moment when the body will be in the air when changing from one foot to another. Two-step: A step executed by stepping with the left foot forward, closing the right foot to the left foot, stepping forward with the left foot to comprise the left unit. The right unit is executed by repeating, starting on the right foot. (Rhythm qqS)

Grapevine: A step executed by stepping to the side with the left foot, stepping the right foot behind the left foot, stepping to the side with the left foot, and stepping the right foot in front of the left foot. (This is executed in 4 counts of music.) Culture-91

Chug: A step executed by stepping to the side with the left foot with all the weight on the left foot, the right foot closing to the left foot and touching the floor just long enough to push the body sidewards. As the weight is dropped on the left foot the right foot should flick out from its own pushing action. This is repeated three more times to comprise the left unit of a 4/4 rhythm. The right unit is executed by starting on the right foot. Paddle: A step executed the same as the chug step, except the dancers are turning left or right instead of moving to the side. The first unit moves one full turn to the left in 4 counts of 4/4 rhythm. The right unit is executed by turning to the right one full turn.

Maynard Dixon, Round Dance byu.edu



This easy Danish dance is fun and recreational. The dance sequence helps to teach students both R and L directions and to listen to the music. The phrasing of the music is different, which dictates the duration of the steps of the dance. This dance is easy enough for even the youngest grades. Formation: Single circle fac center Rhythm: 4/4 Position: Hands held low in V Music: Seven Jumps Footwork: All start L MEAS CALL INSTRUCTIONS

*Chorus *Chorus Intro Step hop ready hop Step hop: Do 7 step hops to L and on ct 8 jump with feet together and fac center of 1-2 1 hop, 2 hop, 3 hop, 4 hop circle. Repeat to R.

3-4 5 hop, 6 hop, 7 hop, 8 jump *Verse Right foot up: Place hands on hips and raise 5-6 R hop, 2 hop, 3 hop, 4 hop R knee. Do not place foot on flour until 2nd note. 7-8 5 hop, 6 hop, 7 hop, R ft Left foot up: Repeat above, then add L ft. *Verse R ft up now Right knee down: Repeat all above, then kneel on L knee. R ft down and chorus Left knee down: Repeat all above, then kneel on L knee. Right elbow down: Repeat all above then place R elbow on floor. Left elbow down: Repeat all above then place L elbow on floor.

Head down: Do all of above then place head on floor. Finish dance with final chorus.

\\Adena\SHARE\PhysEd\Dance\ Modern\Faculty\Marilyn\DanceDenmark.wpd



Calls for these actions are as the calls given above for R ft: just call the body part used. Rhythm is uncountable due to the difference in duration of beat. Repeat chorus between each part. Continue through until all parts of the body are used, then finish with chorus. *Chorus R ft up, *Chorus R ft up, L ft up, *Chorus R ft up, L ft up, R knee down, L knee down *Chorus R ft up, L ft up, R knee down, L knee down, R elbow down, *Chorus R ft up, L ft up, R knee down, L knee down, R elbow down, L elbow down, *Chorus R ft up, L ft up, R knee down, L knee down, R elbow down, L elbow down, head down, *Chorus

Seven Jumps...cont.



1. Have the children walk into a single circle facing center. They will not need a partner for this dance.

2. Do not have them join hands at this point. With the teacher inside the circle, have them step hop seven times to the left and jump to face center on count eight. Reverse this to the right side. 3. This time, have them do the circle left and right but holding hands. Keep a quick beat going so they do not pull back and forth on each others hands trying to make each other fall.

4. After this chorus has been learned, teach the rest of the dance, having them stand alone facing center. Just go through holding the R leg up, L leg up, R knee down, L knee down, and so forth until all parts of the body have been done in a row. 5. THEN, add this part to the chorus, telling them that they will be doing a chorus between each active body part and keep adding until all is complete as the instructions of the dance indicates. 6. After they know the dance fairly well, put the music on for them and have them listen for the duration of holds in the music realizing that the body parts will hold as long as the music holds. 7. Have them try the dance in smaller groups.

8. The style of the dance should be light-hearted, with a feeling of fun. It is a recreational dance, so everyone one should be working as a group to accomplish the dance.

9. As a creative extension, have the students listen to the music, but decide what shape they want to make on the floor and hold while the music holds. They can go any place on the floor on the step hop, but they must stop in an interesting shape and hold it for the duration of the counts within the music. They should be encouraged to find different shapes that can be held for a period of time. Culture-94

Denmark is considered part of Scandinavia, along with Norway, Sweden, Finland and Iceland. It lies North of Europe. Denmark is the flattest of these countries.

Denmarks dance has many interesting characteristics. Most Danish Folk Dances are lighthearted and are often preformed just for fun. The people have a wonderful sense of humor, and it is portrayed in their dances. In the dance Seven Jumps, part of the fun and humor is watching to see if everyone can hold their position for the duration of the music. If not, everyone laughs. Denmarks early folk dances were similar to the dances of the British Isles, like the Quadrilles and Longway sets. Some dances are even done in threes, called threesomes, in which three people dance together. The threesomes can have three boys, three girls, or a mix of boys and girls. Almost always, Danish dances are preformed for recreational and social reasons. The dances of old are being kept alive in Denmark today by Folk Dance societies, so they do not become lost to the younger generations.

VOCABULARY: Define each word Scandinavia portrayed humor duration similar threesomes societies characteristics

From F C Lunds 31 color lithographic sheets, first issued in 1864 public domain vofl3450.homeunix.net/DanishFolk/ebog/FC-Lund/minibook. html

recreational generations


Find Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland on the map. Color each country with a different color and memorize where the country is located. Learn how to spell the country.




Folk Dance

Greensleeves should be lifted and flowing with an air of grace and ease. Dancers work in teams of four on the second part of the dance. Formation: Position: Footwork: MEAS Intro 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 DC facing LOD (team of two couples no. 1 and no. 2) Full-open (escorting W with inside hands held shoulder height extend in front) All start L CALL walk fwd ready walk 1234 5678 9 10 11 12 13 14 right-hand' star 1234 5 6 left'-hand' star 1234 5 6 arch now 1 2 3 change 1 2 3 change 1 2 3 change 1 2 start over Rhythm: 4/4 Measures: 12 Music: Greensleeves

INSTRUCTIONS Walk: All walk briskly Fwd escorting W 16 steps. Right-hand Star: Couple no. 1 turns in place Bck to fac no. 2, all taking R hand of opposite partner for R-hand star and walking 8 steps CW. Left-hand Star: All turn _ turn R and change to L-hand star for 8 steps CCW. On last step, couple no. 1 turns Fwd facing original position ( LOD). Arch: Couple no. 2 forms arch with inside hands, walks Fwd over no. 1, who moves Bck, all with 4 steps. Repeat with couple no. 1 forming arch for no. 2 and replace each other. Repeat meas 11 & 12. (This figure is often called turning the sleeves inside out.) Repeat entire dance.



1. Have the children walk in two big circles, one inside the other while the music for Greensleeves is playing. Boys can be on the inside and girls on the outside if the students are in boy/girl partnerships.

2. Stop the music and have the children turn to face the person next to them. This person becomes their partner for the dance. 3. This time, they hold inside hands and walk 16 cts going fwd around the circle LOD. 4. At this point, get the children in teams of two couples by numbering the couples off 1 and 2 all around the circle. All of the 1's will turn around to face the 2's and all four children will put their hands up into a star figure. Have them walk fwd for 8 cts. On ct 1, have them change the star to rotate the other way with L hands in a star for 8 cts. Be sure they all stop the way they started the dance with couple 1 in front and all facing LOD. 5. At this point, the children are still in teams of two couples. All of the 1's will walk bck 4 cts, while the 2's will walk fwd arching over the 2's in 4 cts. After the first arch, have couple 1's arch over the 2's while they bck under. Repeat this movement a few times until the students have the pattern learned. End when the arches are done 4 full times.

6. Repeat the dance a few times until the children can make the transitions in the patterns look natural and flowing. Put the music on and let them try to do it the correct tempo.

7. Add the styling of the dance by helping the children to have an upright posture and a feeling of elegance to their movement. It is a cheerful feeling dance, but it must have a controlled element to it since it is English. The boys need to be courteous to the girls in their actions since this is one of the characteristics of the dance.

Marie-Louise-Elisabeth Vige le Brun (17551842), Princess Eudocia Ivanovna Galitzine as Flora Oil on canvas



England is part of a group of countries called the British Isles, which are made up of England, Wales, because that is the way the sun went around the earth. Because they did this, they thought that the Gods would not be angry with them.

The dance Greensleeves came about at the time of the court dances, when the King and his court would dance until very early in the morning doing social dances. Even now, in the spring, the English perform a very famous dance that is called the Maypole dance. In this dance, they wind colorful ribbons around a tall pole or the trunk of a tree. When the dance is finished, the pole is decorated by the braided ribbons around it. The Maypole dance is even done in some places in the United States as an English Folk Dance to celebrate May Day. This dance has its own special music written just for it. Some of the instruments most commonly played in the British Isles are the fiddle, penny whistle, mandolin, and bagpipe. ASSESSMENT

Joep Zander at nl.wikipedia CCSA 1 http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:Pinksterkrone.jpg


Fill in the Blank. 1 . England is part of the ________________ ________________. 2. Two other countries besides England that make up the British Isles are ____________ and _____________________. 3. Some of the old English dances were done going to the left, or clockwise, because that is the way the _______________ went around the earth. 4. A dance that came about in the times of the English Court was __________________. 5. A famous dance done in the Spring time for May Day is called the _______________ dance. 6. ___________________ were wrapped around a tall pole or the trunk of a tree to create colorful patterns. 7. The Maypole Dance is done in England and also done in the country of ________________. 8. Many instruments are used to play the music for the dances of England, two of these instruments are ______________________ and the _____________________. Culture-99

AN ENGLISH ADVENTURE Using your imagination, white a short story using at least eight of the vocabulary words that you find below. Write the story for your classmates, so it is interesting and fun to listen to when you read it. 1. tradition 2. superstitious 3. Maypole 4. ribbon 5. braid 6. clockwise 7. court 8. famous 9. decorate 10. colorful 11. King 12. music 13. dance 14. pole 15. English 16. instruments




LA RASPA (Mexico)


side Measures: 16 Footwork: All start R Music: Las Raspa MEAS CALL INSTRUCTIONS

Intro READY KICK Kick: Starting in R-side position, kick R foot Fwd (Ct 1). Bring R Bck to place and kick 1 kick kick left side L Fwd at same time (Ct 2). Kick R Fwd, Bring L back to place, at same time turning 2 kick kick right side 1/4 turn to L-side position (Ct 3): hold (Ct 4) as clapping hands two times. Repeat step 3 kick kick left side to L side. Repeat, changing sides 6 more times, to end in L-side position. 4 kick kick right side Right Elbow Turn: Hook R elbows with 5 kick kick left side partner. Turn once around in 7 running steps, and clap on Ct 8. M hook L elbows 6 kick kick right side with next W ahead CCW; turn once around in 7 running steps and clap on ct. 8. 7 kick kick left side Alternate R and L turn to 4th W. 8 right elbow TURN 9-10 1 2 3 4, left elbow turn Repeat entire dance.

11-12 1 2 3 4, right elbow turn 13-14 1 2 3 4, left elbow turn 15-16 1 2 3 4, 5 6 start over


The following web site has a copy of the music for the dance: http://www.mariachiconnecticut.com/music/La_Raspa.mp3 Culture-101



1. Have the children stand in a large single circle and face the center. Put the music on and have them clap the rhythm of the kick step, until they can feel the beat.

2. To make the dance easier, do not have the children hold hands while learning the basic kick steps. The do not need a partner at this point, and can put their hand on their hips after they learn the kick. 3. Let the students get used to holding a count at the end of the kick before moving into the swing part.

4. As the children are standing in the single circle, count them off: 1 and 2 and then have all the 1's raise their hands. They will then turn to the number 2 on their right and that child will be their partner for the swing step. 5. Teach the students to do an R elbow swing, reminding them that it takes 8 counts and that their feet should remain on the floor at all times. Have them reverse the elbow swing to the L arm and have them turn 8 counts. Challenge them to always end facing the center after swinging R and L elbows. This position will help them start the dance over again. 6. After they have learned the dance well, students can be placed in a Double Circle facing their partner to do the kicks and the swings.

7. If they can do the dance well in this formation and without changing partners, then the children can attempt to change partners on the elbow swings, as written in the dance brief. 8. The style of the dance should be fun and carefree with quick footwork and partner interaction.

9. The music should be played at a tempo that is best for the children to use. A speed control on the tape or CD player is a must.

Minerva Teichert, Fiesta BYU MOA Culture-102


READING EXERCISE: Dance is an important part of Mexican life. The dance La Raspa reflects the happy spirit of the Mexican people. It is a dance that is recreational in nature and fun to do. Dances such as these are often done in civil or religious celebrations. El Jarabe Tapatio (the Mexican Hat Dance) is considered the national dance of Mexico. This dance comes from the state of Jalisco. The dance is about courtship and tells about a ACharro (young cowboy), who is interested in a beautiful China (young girl), and decides to go visit her and tell her of his affection for her. She does not want to seem too interested and so she acts as if she does not care about him. In the end, he wins her affection by placing his large sombrero (hat) on the floor in front of her, where she dances in the brim of the hat. This action tells the young Charro that the girl does care about him. Then she picks up the sombrero and places it on her head: they dance a dance of triumph. Many dances in Mexico have this flirtatious attitude and are done just for fun. Mexican dances are done in bright, colorful costumes with musicians playing for the dances. ASSESSMENT reflect civil VOCABULARY: Define each word

celebration courtship brim affection triumph attitude colorful flirtatious

free clip art from phillipmartin.info


Fill in the blank. 1. Dance is an important part of _____________________ life.


3. El Jarabe Tapatio means ______________________________ and is the Mexicans _____________________ dance. 4. A Charro is a _______________________. 5. A China is a ________________________. 6. A Sombrero is a ____________.

2. La Raspa reflects the _________________ spirit of the Mexican people.

7. Many dances in Mexico are done for ___________.

CREATIVE EXERCISE: Fun with writing Most people have celebrations. They are a way people can have fun together. Create your own kind of celebration. Write a description of the celebration that answers the following questions: Where will it be? Who will come? When will it happen? Why are you celebrating? How long will the celebration last? How would you feel about it after you had gone to your own celebration? CELEBRATION FUN!

Check your description to make sure you have answered all the questions so that someone else can understand what your celebration would be like. Make any changes you need to. Share your description of the celebration with another member of the class. After reading about someone elses celebration, tell that person what you would like most about his or her celebration. Culture-104

Writing extensions with Roxaboxen. The students think of things they can do in their spare time and write about them. Discuss performances or concerts such as Christmas Around the World performed by the International Folk Dance Ensemble at Brigham Young University. Determine how different cultures celebrate Christmas. Discuss how traditions are found in every country. Students can act out Too many Tamales. Have guests from another culture come in to the class and share about their background. They could also teach something that is related to the arts.


Learn to sing Greensleeves. Have students make silhouettes of each other; they can write characteristics in the heads of the silhouettes.


VISUAL ARTS: Purposes of art

Objective: Students will examine significant artworks from various cultures, research a particular culture, be able to list the major art forms of that culture, determine the arts purpose(s), and create an artwork in the style of the researched culture. Students will make connections among cultures, identifying differences and similarities.

Utah State Art Core Standards: #1030-0101 MakingExplore a variety of art materials while learning new processes; #1030-0301 ExpressingExplore purposes of art; 1030 0401 ContextualizingCompare the arts of different cultures to explore their similarities and diversities. Materials: artworks from this packet Haitian Harvest, Joseph Male Head, Nok, African Snow Queen, Portrait of Adah, Lee Udall Bennion View of the Hudson River Valley from Olana, Fredric Edwin Church Forgotten Man, Maynard Dixon Boy and Cat: My Little Son Heber James, James, T. Harwood Seer, Brower Hatcher The Artists Wife and Daughters, William S. Kendall Keeper of the Gate, Dennis V. Smith This is the Place Monument, Mahonri Young

Any of the UMFA HIGH SCHOOL POSTER SERIES: Bowl, American Indian, Mimbres Culture Head of Akhenaten, Egypt Imperial Vase w/ Bats and Clouds, China, Qianlong period Male Head, Africa, Nok Tradition Boy and Cat: My Little Son Heber James, Seated Figure, Jaina, Maya James, T. Harwood Shiva Nataraja, India Springville Museum of Art Walking Buddha, Thailand (although these artworks are not yet on the UMFA web site, they do have many other usable images. Go to utah. edu/umfa, then to collections and lick on the Asian section or the African, Oceanic, etc. section. Each of these sections have several useful images. You can also go to Education and then to the lesson plans for African Art, the slides. Other artworks can be used, such as Easter Island Heads, (on CD) cave paintings or petrogylphs, Stonehenge, Egyptian Art, or folk art from various cultures, (October 1996 UTAH MULTICULTURAL CRAFTS, SMA pkt.), Islamic art, tile work, buildings, high-quality ceramics, Greek sculpture, Soviet Socialist art, (March 18, 1998 SOVIET ART, SMA pkt.).

Introduction/Motivation: Divide the class in small groups and give each group one or more poster, reproduction, or postcard of artworks. These reproductions should be art from some of the cultures listed below. Most of the artworks from this packet will work. Culture-106

Cultures Aboriginal Meso American African Inca American Aztec Ancient Greek Mayan Ancient Roman Olmec Chinese Middle Ages European Art Native American can be divided into countries Southwest Egyptian Northwest Coast Gothic Inuit Islamic Plains Japanese Oceanic Megalithic Prehistoric Latino Renaissance CRITICISM: Description

One of the best ways to become acquainted with an object or artwork is to describe it. This simple activity can be done at all levels and to varying degrees. For example, arrange the students into groups of 4 or 5 students. Display an object from one of the cultures listed earlier in this lesson. Designate a scribe for each group and have the other students in the group tell the scribe what they see. Generally students can describe the various elements of the work (e.g., color, shape, texture, space, value, form, line). They may also describe the objects seen within the work. Have the scribe generate a list as the other team members describe what they see. If the students are viewing an actual object they might also describe the size and/or weight of the object. Have each team report on what they see and generate a larger class list. Younger students might need to make this list verbally and have the teacher generate a written list. Encourage the students to only describe what they seenot what they feel, as that involves interpretation, which is another part of criticism. Description is an important part of criticism because it helps the viewer, or critic, to look at the object closely before they come to any conclusions. Older students can then move on to other concepts such as analysis, interpretation or judgment of the work. ART HISTORY: Purposes of art Male Head, Nok, African UMFA

Explain to the students that while most aesthetic views were developed for Western and European art forms, there are several universal aspects which address worldwide purposes for art. The purpose or reason that art is created is different than the approach to art. For example, an art work can represent a realistic approach or view, but the reason it was created was for religious purposes. Culture-107

Explain to the students that when they decide the purpose of art creation, they are deciding why art is created and what its function or use in society is. Generate a list of the purposes of art creation. The major purposes of art are the following: Religious: every culture has art forms that have a philosophical or moral basis. Some uses are ritual, magic, or adoration. Political: most cultures have art forms which reflect the position of leadership or politics. Some uses are promotion or prestige, propaganda, or patriotism. Social: most cultures have art forms that help in the socialization of their societies. Some are closely related to the political or economic aspects of the society. Some uses are educational, documentation of history, narrative (story telling), advertising (commercial), and entertainment or amusement. Decoration: most cultures use art as decoration for functional objects. Many cultures earliest art works were for decorative purposes. Self-expression: most cultures, especially Western cultures, use art as a means of self-expression. There are some cultures that have recently developed methods of self-expression through art.

WWII Propaganda Poster

Provide images from various cultures and give each students or small group a different artwork and have the students complete a worksheet with the following headings: #1 What I know about the work and its purpose, #2 What I would like to learn about the work, #3 What is new that I have learned about the work, #4 What I still want to know about the work. Have the students complete the information under heading #1 before completing heading #2. Provide background information on the work before completing heading #3 and #4. Discuss their findings and encourage students to complete further research if there are still facts they do not know but would like to know. Younger students can complete this activity verbally and generate the answers as a class. AESTHETICS: Institutionalist theory After determining the purpose of several artworks have students discuss how the purpose of some of these artworks might have changed (i.e., African masks were created for religious purposes, not to be artworks that are hung on the wall or put in museums). Emphasize that often the purpose the work was created is related to the context in which it was created not in which it is displayed. Some objects have been classified as art as their context changes. For example, historians have tried to document the context of objects and many institutes have evolved that aid in the research and preservation of these objects. Often these institutes will remove the objects from their original context and place them in museums and galleries so that more people can view and study them. When museums place artifacts in their exhibits, this act changes the context of the object. Many of the artifacts and functional items from various cultures are put into museums where they become classified as art, rather than artifacts. This concept of creating art by placing it in a museum became Culture-108

known as the Institutionalist theory. Following is background information on the Institutionalist theory:

This view is based on the assumption that a work of art is made by the act of exhibiting it; therefore, placing it on display, rather than the design, makes it art. Quality is based on the status or recognition of the institute that displays or promotes the art work. Art museums, galleries, art publications, and publishers can confer the status of art on an object. This view stresses the role of social practices and institutions.

Provide several objects (i.e., plastic bowl, small toy, dollar bill) and have the students determine if the objects are art. Allow for degrees of artness in that an object might be partially art or not. Also include established artworks in activity such as a painting, sculpture, etc. Discuss how institutes such as museums help define if an object is considered as art or not. Also include established artworks in activity such as a painting, sculpture, etc. Discuss how institutes such as museums help define if an object is considered as art or not. PRODUCTION: Replicating a cultures art form Have students each choose a culture to research. Students should write a short report or fill out a worksheet that gives the name or description of the culture, the place where the culture was or is, the time period, the major art forms, their original purpose, and whether that purpose has changed.

Have the students each make a brief report to the class. Then students should make an artwork in the manner of artworks from the culture they studied. Try to help students find appropriate materials but encourage the students to figure out ways to make the artwork representational of their culture. Assessment: To determine if the students understand the cultural context of their artwork it would be beneficial for them to identify both the original context and the institutional context for their art work. A handout, Design Display (on page 45), is provided to aid in determining these contexts. An extension of the handout would be to create a gallery or display area where the artworks could be viewed with their appropriate documentation or explanations. The aspect of viewing all the students artwork as a collective whole is very beneficial and promotes several of the concepts promoted in this lesson (i.e., institutionalist theory, role of art institutes, and context and purposes in art). Younger students could design a didactic label for their work and/or set up a display. PetroglyphsAfter a student report, have students make clay tiles 4 x 4 out of a light clay body like Rods Bod and a darker clay body. The best way to make the tile is not to roll it out with a rolling pin but to flatten the clay with the heel of the hand, starting in the center of the clay and working toward the edge. After you have hit the clay all over once, turn the clay over and work the other side. Keep turning the clay over, so that it will stretch easily. Make a template to cut the tiles out and while the clay is still damp, use a large brush to paint a contrasting slip onto the tile. Make slip by mixing dry clay with enough water to achieve a milkshake consistency. Or, gradually add water to moist claythis is harder, and you may have to put the slip through a sieve to get lumps out. Culture-109

When the tiles are all painted and dry, have students use a nail or some other sharp tool (not a pencil) and scratch their symbol into the tile, removing the colored slip from the surface and revealing the color of the clay underneath.

When the tile is finished, it can be fired. This will make it stronger and last longer. It may also dull some of the colors. You may want to spray the tile with an acrylic spray to seal the surface and to wet up the colors.

Exhibition: When students are finished with the tiles, let them organize the tile into some semblance of a story. If the symbols arent exactly readable, that is O.K. A little evasive, interesting chaos is not a bad thing. It just probably shouldn't be the only thing the students do. If you are interested in mounting the mural on the wall, first glue all the tiles to a piece of plywood. Use some sort of grout to fill in the spaces between the not-so-symmetrical hand-made tiles. There are several kinds of grout. The easiest to use is probably an acrylic grout, but the tiles must be either glazed or sprayed thoroughly with an acrylic sealer first. There are commercial ceramic sealers that work well. The same exact stuff can be found at the hardware store as polyurethane or polyvarathane spray for much less than youll pay at the craft store. Make sure that you frame the mural. Students should be given the chance to write up their story or to write some explanations about the project.

Related Projects: The same techniques for decoration can be used on any clay project, especially pottery. The clay tiles can also be made out of plaster of Paris and the surface of the plaster painted with a tempera paint and then scratched through to expose the rock art style image. This scratching through technique can also be done on paper in the old technique of crayon covered with paint and then scratched through. To help reproduce some of the visual effect of rock art, try using a light tan or yellow paper with brown crayon over and scratched through to liberate the lighter color underneath. (look for Crayola brand crayons, Multicultural crayons, which contain many different earth tones like the umbers and the siennas). These tile projects can be either individual projects or hung together to create a narrative mural. If the narrative project is intended, have the students work out the story first and then choose a tile symbol that fits into the story.

A variation on the clay tile project is to buy commercial, unglazed tiles and use clay slip to paint the surface or use tempera paint and then scratch through to make the image.

Another project related to Native American rock art and personal symbols is to have students cut stencils and use Multicultural tempera paints to stencil in the symbol or to stencil around the negative of the stencil. This can be done on a large sheet of brown wrapping paper to simulate a rock canyon wall. This can be done individually or as a group project. Sources for petroglyph designs and related material: A Field Guide to Rock Art Symbols of the Greater Southwest, by Alex Patterson. Anasazi:Ancient People of the Rock, by Donald G. Pike and David Muench. Ancient Indians of the Southwest, by Alfred Tamarin and Shirley Glubok Easy Field Guide to Southwestern Petroglyphs, by Elizabeth C. Welsh. Enemy Ancestors, The Anasazi World, by Gary Matlock and Scott Warren. Culture-110

I Am Here, Two Thousand Years of Southwest Indian Arts and Culture, from the Museum of New Mexico Press Images on Stone, The Prehistoric Rock Art of the Colorado Plateau, by Donald E. Weaver, Jr. Indians of the Southwest, The First Americans series, by Karen Liptak. People of the Desert, Edited by Time-Life Books Petroglyphs and Pictographs of Utah, by Kenneth B. Castleton, M.D. Prehistory of Utah and the Great Basin, Anthropological Papers, University of Utah, by Jesse D. Jennings. Pueblos, Prehistoric Indian Cultures of the Southwest, by Maximilian Bruggmann and Sylvio Acatos. *Rock Art of the American Indian, by Campbell Grant. *Rock Art of the Chumash, by Campbell Grant. *Rock Art Symbols of the Southwest, by Rick Harris. *Stories in Stone, Rock Art Pictures by Early Americans, by Caroline Arnold and Richard Hewett. *Sacred Images, A Vision of Native American Rock Art. by Leslie Kelen. *The Rock Art of Utah, by Polly Schaafsma. Childrens Books: Coyote Tales: From the Indian Pueblos, by Evelyn Dahl Reed. Kinaalda, A Navajo Girl Grows Up, by Monty Roessel. The Magic of Spider Woman, by Lois Duncan and Shonto Begay The Goat and the Rug, by Geraldine and Nancy Winslow Parker. Before You Came This Way, by Byrd Baylor and Tom Bahti. When Clay Sings, by Byrd Baylor and Tom Bahti. Audio Tapes: Talking Spirits, Native Music of the Hopi, Zuni and San Juan Pueblos, from Music of the World, Inc. 1992. Songs of My People, Peter Garcia, San Juan Pueblo Gathering of Nations Pow Wow, Various Drumming Groups, Soar Corp.1996. Videos: Mystic Lands, Anasazi: The Ancient Ones. WinStar Home Entertainment. Museums and Resources: BYU Museum of Peoples and Cultures, Provo, Utah. BYU Museum of Art, ask for information on Sacred Images exhibition. University of Utah. Web sites: www. earthmeasue.com

www.chapose.com/ancient www.indra.com/rockart www.neartime.com/kiSoh/default

Southwest Indian RugsAfter a students report, have the students look at Native American rug design and talk about the meaning of some of the shapes. Then give students pieces of paper to plan their rug designs on. Each child should create a design and then refine the design. (Or, Culture-111

have students work in small groups.) When students have finished their design, they should transfer the design to a large sheet of paper (11 x 18). Students can then cut out shapes from colored construction paper and glue it to the plain paper to make the rug design. Display the finished rugs. Sources: http://home.xnet.com/~jbh271/ has history and pages of traditional styles http://navajorugs.spma.org/ many images of traditional rugs http://www.kstrom.net/isk/maps/rugmap.html a map of where various styles of rugs were woven as well as images of rugs All sites have links to other sites Books: Navajo Rugs and Blankets: A Coloring Book. Chuck Mobley, Sam Mike, $3.15 from Amazon.com The Magic Weaver of Rugs: A Tale of the Navajo. Jerrie Oughten, Lisa Desimini, $12.80 new and $4.95 used from Amazon.com [childrens book, ages 4-8] Southwestern Indian Designs. Madeleine OrbanSzontagh ISBN 0-486-26985-X Contains simple black and white designs from rugs, masks, pottery, sand paintings, and baskets as well as drawings of kachina dolls, jewelry, etc. $5.95 Authentic Indian Designs. Ed. Maria Naylor. 2500 illustrations, few blankets, but many other designs. North American Indian Designs for Artists and Craftspeople. Eva Wilson. $6.95 Extension: In addition to making the paper rugs, give students a chance to try weaving on a backstrap loom or a standing loom. Make sure each child has a chance to contribute to the weaving.

For Advanced Students: Use the same activity except have students create posters and make a more comprehensive presentation to the class of the culture they have researched. The posters should show examples of the cultures art forms and other helpful information such as place and time period. After the presentations, include in your discussion the idea of a Hierarchy of Art in which certain kinds of art are considered better or more valuable than others. Ask students, based on their new knowledge, what the justifications and weaknesses are of a hierarchial approach to art criticism and evaluation. ENRICHMENT Have the students consider the following concepts: Can everything and anything that an artist makes be called art? Culture-112

Navajo Wearing Blanket, UMFA

Can objects of a culture be called art if the society it was created in does not classify it as art? What makes an object worthy of being placed in an art museum? Should artists be expected to be able to explain their work? What one art work would you choose to reflect your immediate society? Can artists from another society/culture from yours reflect yours? What art work is incorrect or not accurate in reflecting society? Art is not the reflection of reality, it is the reality of that reflection, Jean-luc Godard. Which is easier to define, the original context or the institutional context? Why? What are your views on explanatory labels in museums? What might be some aspects of the original context of an artwork that you could not include in a label or exhibit? What are your feelings about museums displaying the sacred or religious objects of a culture? LITERACY Read Roxaboxen, by Alice McLerran Writing extensions with Roxaboxen. The students think of things they can do in their spare time and write about them. Have students make a class version of Roxaboxen, substituting their own ideas.

Roxaboxen http://billandkathie.net/index.htm Culture-113

Design Display
Name ______________________ Class ____________

As part of the production assignment, you are to design the display or exhibit area of your artwork. Your design should include the following: 1. ORIGINAL CONTEXT: An explanatory label for your art work. The label should include the title of the art work, the name of the artist, and a statement describing the original context of the art work. The statement of the original context should define the conditions or circumstances you were trying to portray in your art work. It should also include what culture or cultures you are representing, and what aspect or aspects (i.e., belief systems, values, customs, traditions, power or political systems) of society are you portraying. Following are examples of statements: Statement: This art work was designed to show the symbols of power that are evident or implied in contemporary African American culture. Statement: The art work illustrates symbols of celebrations from the ancient cultures of Japan, China, and Korea. 2. INSTITUTIONAL CONTEXT: The design of the exhibit or display area. This should be sketched onto the back of this handout. Following are items to consider as you complete your design: do you want the art work placed on the floor or on a table or pedestal? do you want special wall treatment behind the display area? are there other explanatory signs or posters needed to describe the intent or original context of your art work and if so, where would they be placed? is there a special style of lettering that would emphasize your culture or theme? Following is the label for your production assignment:

Title: Artist: Statement:


Objective: Students will identify places they love in Utah and will develop an appreciation for the variety of places in Utah. Social Studies Standard: People, Places, and Environments + North America Utah State Social Studies Core Standard #6040-03: The students will explain how the geographical features of places within Utah, and other areas of the world, vary and contribute to their distinctiveness. Exploration: Read aloud the book: All the Places You Love, by Patricia MacLaughlin.

Expression: Pass out sheets of paper with the question: "What are some of the places that you love in Utah?" Have students list the places that they love on the paper within a given time limit. After they have listed their own places, share their places with the class. Students may want to add to their lists after having heard their peers ideas.

John Heber Stansfield, Mt. Nebo, Early Spring 1942 Springville Museum of Art

Label: Look at how many different places you have listed of places that you love. List the places according to the geographical feature of places within Utah (see example). (Use the terms you have been learning in your study of the geography of Utah) Have students make their own charts, or make a class chart. Desert Mountains Lakes Rivers Tundra Mesa

Summarize the student material, emphasizing that Our state has many geographical features, and they provide a large variety of things to look at and to do. 115

ApplicationsMusic, Dance, Drama, Visual Arts, and Literacy

MUSIC Social Studies Theme (My State) met through Music I can sing songs about Utah Materials Song: Rocky Mountain

National Standards for Arts Education, Music a) singing alone, and with others; c) improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments; i) understanding music in relation to history and culture

John Heber Stansfield, Canadian Rockies 1926 Springville Museum of Art

Introduction/Motivation: Song Rocky Mountain(on next page) The teacher should completely learn the song ahead of time, and be prepared to model it in the classroom by singing in the middle head register. All three standard verses should be mastered before attempting to teach the song.


Rocky Mountain

Sunny valley, sunny valley, sunny valley low, When youre in that sunny valley, sing it soft and slow. Do, do, do, do, do, remember me, Do, do, do, do, do, remember me.

Stormy ocean, stormy ocean, stormy ocean wide, When youre on that deep blue sea, theres no place you can hide. Do, do, do, do, do, remember me, Do, do, do, do, do, remember me.

ACTIVITY: Teach the song in phrase-by-phrase echo style. Be sure to model high, light, clear, open, free, and flexible head register singing. Have your class learn to sing one verse per day over a three-day period. Once the three original verses are well learned, invite children to make up other verses. One child in this authors class sang Snowy mountain, snowy mountain, snowy mountain high, When youre on that snowy mountain, you can really fly! The class joined in on all of the do do do do phrases. You will find your children will have a lot of rhyming verses to contribute.


Summary of skills: analyzing drama, concentration, imagination, movement and vocal skills, sensory experiences, story dramatization, contextualizing drama

Student Learning Objective: Students will understand how the geographical features within Utah vary and contribute to their distinctiveness (Core: # 6040-03) and be able to verbalize in a journal their personal responses to participating in a Paiute Indian legend story dramatization regarding the origin of the petrified forest at Capitol Reef National Monument. Drama Targets Met: 1. Analyzing Drama Identify and discuss plot elements in a play or novel--exposition, main conflict, rising action, climax, resolution. Analyze how characters, setting, and actions all logically fit within a drama. Identify and explain examples of suspense in novels and plays. Identify and discuss character feelings in a story. Identify and defend own analysis of meaning in a play. Identify and discuss to clarify anything in a play or novel not personally understood. 2. Practicing Drama Practice relaxing, concentrating, and imagining. Practice movement skills. Practice vocal skills. Collect interesting sense experiences and talk about them. 3. Making Drama Construct and perform dramatizations. Use theatre conventions (e.g.symbolize fights through dance or stylized movement, etc.) Evaluate work and plan improvements. 4. Contextualizing Drama Identify and discuss elements and techniques that make a story personally exciting in stories read silently, heard aloud, and experienced through electronic media. Explain personal emotional responses to plays and novels read silently or performed live and in plays and novels presented through electronic media. Discuss the range of feelings characters present in a story and compare and contrast those characters' feelings to the feelings personally experienced when reading a story. Materials: Paiute legend included in packet Costume pieces, if desired 4th grade text The Utah Adventure


Process: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Example: Teacher says "You are a strong powerful being. How would you stand? How would you walk? How would you speak?" Use the same technique with all the characters in the legend.

The teacher will show pictures from The Utah Adventure book and ask the students to explain what they know about Utah. (mountains, Indians, etc.) He/she will then tell them they are going to enact an Indian legend of how the petrified forests found in the Capitol Reef National Monument came to be. Explain that before they enact this legend, they need to warm up their voices and bodies. Take the class through "Action-Sound," "Freeze-Freeze," "Face-Sound," and/or other theatre games and vocal exercises from appendix. Go through the following characters one by one and have the students act "as if" they were these characters. (Rocks, trees, grass, etc. are considered characters). It is best if the teacher does these characters right along with the children, so they don't feel they are being "observed" and "judged". If students do not want to participate, arrange for them to be in another classroom rather than watching other students.

Indians fish rabbits bears lions tigers rocks mountains water trees flowers grass willows brush wind snow sparks of fire Un-Nu-Poitthe Devil Devil's spirits 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Read the story and have children take parts as the story progresses. In the places where there is dialogue, read the dialogue first and then have the characters repeat the dialogue. (It doesn't need to be exact. They can paraphrase). Identify and discuss the plot elements of the legend. Analyze how the characters, setting, and action all fit logically within the drama. Analyze what creates suspense in the legend. Identify and discuss character feelings in the story. Ask the students what they feel the meaning of the legend is. Cyrus Dallin, No to War Identify and discuss anything not personally understood. Evaluate what "worked" in the dramatization and what they might do differently. Re-enact the dramatization, changing parts if you wish. Story dramatization may be done as a class project to enable students to internalize a story or may be rehearsed and polished for a performance to families. 119

Assessment: Students will draw or create textured collages of several geographical features of the state of Utah. The story dramatization will be video-taped and students will make journal entries of their personal repsonses in the dramatization.

Optional Activities to fill drama targets: 1. Have students collect interesting sense experiences and talk about them. (tasting something new, touching something unexpectedly, etc.) 2. Have students create their own dramatization showing how characters, setting, and actions all logically fit the drama. 3. Identify and discuss elements and techniques which make a story personally exciting in stories read silently, heard aloud, and experienced through electronic media. 4. Explain personal emotional responses to plays and novels read silently or performed live and in plays and novels presented through electronic media. 5. Compare and contrast the method used to build dramatic unity in plays and novels read silently, performed live or presented through electronic media, and explain preferences. Additional Applications: 1. Reading: Create story dramatizations as teacher reads literature from other curricula. 2. Music: Create sounds to go along with the story dramatization. 3. Art: Draw the various characters of the legend. 4. Dance: Create an Indian dance to go along with the dramatization. 5. Science: Bring in samples of petrified rock for students to analyze. 6. Social Science: Study the culture of the Paiutes.



PETRIFIED FOREST PAIUTE LEGEND Cast of Characters: Tobats--First Great God Shinob--Second Great God Indians Fish Various Animals--rabbits, bears, lions, tigers, etc. Tu-Weap--the ground Timp-I-Ah--the rocks Kaib-A--the mountains Pau--the water May--the trees Flowers Grass Willows Brush Wind Rain Snow Sparks of fire Un-Nu-Poitthe Devil Devil's Spirits


(Children will take numerous parts as the story progresses)

Tobats is the Great God! Tobats made the world. He made the Indians and put fish in the water. He made the animals. Shinob is the second Great God. He is brother to Tobats. Tobats made Tu-Weap, the ground, and Timp-I-Ah, the rocks, and Kaib-A, the mountains, and Pau, the water. Shinob looked over the world that Tobats made and said, "It is good. It is strong. It is pretty." "It is useless." Tobats answered. "It it not done. I will make May, the trees. I will make flowers. I will make grass. I will make willows and brush. I will make everything." Tobats did as he had said. He made them all of stone so they would endure forever. Then Tobats made Nung-Wa, the Indians, and all the animals.

Shinob came and looked. Shinob went to Tobats and said, "Tu-Weap (the ground) is very beautiful, but all the animals will die. They can only drink water. There is no food for them to eat. The Indians are unhappy. The wind blows and the rain falls and the snow falls and the living things are very cold. There is no fire. They cannot make houses to shelter them. The willows break when they could make baskets. Your stone trees bear no fruit. The living things can only eat each other. It is not good." 121

Then Tobats said to Shinob, "Go to Tu-Weap, the earth, and give the Indians fire. Put fire in everything. Put water also in the trees and in the brush and in the willows and in the grass so they will bend and not break." Shinob did as he was told. He called from far-off to all the tribes to send him ten strong men. As the Indians came, Shinob gave each man a stick with fire on the end to carry back to his tribe.

When the Indians started homeward, Un-Nu-Poit, the devil, found them. His evil spirits fell upon them and tried to steal the fire or to kill it.

During this great struggle, sparks flew everywhere. Whatever was touched, burst into flame.the trees and the willows and the grass and the brush. When it looked like everything would be destroyed, Tim-I-Ah, the rocks, locked the fire up. In the big fight, a few trees here and there escaped the touch of flying fire. Some are standing and some are fallen and brokenbut whether they are standing or fallen, they are still made of pure stone. This legend, which gives the Paiute version of the origin of the petrified forests found in Capitol Reef National Monument, was published in the Utah Historical Quarterly, April 1933. 122

VISUAL ARTS: Creating a still life using the theme of Utah

Objectives: The students will discuss and explore the use of subject matter in Utah artworks. Students will evaluate specific artworks according to two aesthetic theories and will draw a still-life of objects they associate with Utah.

Utah State Visual Art Core Standards: Making 1040-0101 Use blocking in as a start-up skill for drawing. Use value and texture to add interest. Observe and render details of real objects with a high degree of accuracy: Expressing 1040-03 and -0302 students will discuss and evaluate subject matter; 1040-0301 explore possible content Materials: Posters, slides, or postcards of the following artworks: Seer, Brower Hatcher [this packet] This is the Place Monument, Mahonri Young [this packet] Immigrant Train, George Ottinger Handcart Pioneers First View of Salt Lake Valley, CCA Christiansen Capitol from North Salt Lake, Louise Richards Farnsworth Sunrise, North Rim of the Grand Canyon, Mabel Frazer Wash Day in Brigham City, Calvin Fletcher Moonrise in the Canyon, Birger Sandzen Cockscomb, Near Teasdale, Doug Snow Riders of the Range, Paul Salisbury [all SMA Elementary Poster Set] Snow Canyon, Robert Marshall Dreaming of Zion, Lee Greene Richards [SMA Middle School Poster Set] Many other appropriate artworks are available on the Springville Museum of Arts web site at www.

Bruce H. Smith, Palladium albeit Anachronistic Springville Museum of Art

Introduction/Motivation: Ask students what comes to their mind when you say Utah, and list their responses on the board. Then ask students which of these ideas, activities, or places might be something an artist might want to portray in an artwork. Show the students an assortment of art prints or other reproductions and have them see if any of the things they identified are portrayed in the artwork. Have them identify additional specific things the artists have included or used as subject matter in their artworks. Ask the students what they would use in an artwork to make that artwork portray something unique about Utah. You may want to ask by subject matter type such as landscape, still life, genre scene, portrait, etc.

Have the students look again at the images and allow them to evaluate the subject matter using the criteria of whether it depicts something unique or important to Utah. Have each student vote, using as many numbers as you have images, with 1 being the least about Utah and the highest number the 123

most. Assign a students to tabulate the numbers as students cast their vote for each painting, then arrange the paintings from lowest number to highest. Allow students to explain why they agree or disagree with the class decision. (There is no right answer, of course; the point is to have the students think about the subject matter and the reasons they feel the way they do.) Lesson content/skill focus: AESTHETICS: Realistic and Expressive Approaches to Art Show the class some reproductions of artworks on the list. Ask students what the artworks have in common (all subjects from Utah, although students may also identify other similar traits.) If you have not gone over aesthetic theories in your class, you will need to include an explanation of at least the following two theories.

Explain that there are Mabel Pearl Frazer, Sunrise, North Rim Grand Canyon 1928 various approaches to art and Springville Museum of Art that some artists intend for their art work to look realistic and others intend for theirs to be more expressive. Neither of these approaches is better than the other; they are just varying views of how the artists perceive what they think art should be. Stress that there are varying views on what art should be. Introduce the realistic and expressive views or approaches to art by summarizing from the following information:

1. Realistic: Also called the Mimetic or Imitationalist theories. This view holds that art should imitate or mimic nature, and that it should accurately represent nature and life. Therefore, quality is proportionate to the art works faithfulness to the model. The artist should aim for the essence or real character of things. The objects and events are represented as to be understood by the beholder; therefore interpretations of the artwork are objective or factual rather than subjective or personal. Originally it was thought images had to idealized, but later developments show a more accurate or true representation. 2. Expressive: Also called Emotionalist theory. This view holds that art should communicate ideas, feelings, moods or emotions, and that these should be communicated forcefully and with conviction. Quality is based on the degree of arousal of the viewers emotions. The artist should aim for the depth to which the work expresses the emotions of its creator. The theory holds that art can be ugly because its based on a truth or reality. The technical or formal elements are subordinate to the expression of ideas, moods, and feelings; therefore interpretations of the art work are subjective or personal rather than objective or factual. This art form can use symbols. More contemporary approaches (i.e., Neo-Expressionism) stress crudity of rendering and subject matters that deal with the negative aspects of life (e.g., vulgarities, violence, cynicism and brutality). 124

After you have introduced or reminded the students of these two aesthetic theories, have students decide which artworks fit best under which theory. Students should explain why they think an artwork fits one particular theory better than another. Students might also determine the degree to which an artwork displays one or more theories (e.g., the work is 55% realistic but is 45% expressive). You may want to ask students whether they think the subject matter affected how expressive the pieces are, and if so, why and how. Chris Young, Cummulus Tuscany

ART HISTORY: Photorealism

Provide a variety of images, some small reproductions of photorealist works and others could be random objects cut out of magazines or photos of isolated, unrelated objects. Have the students determine what are the similarities/ differences between the images (photorealist works and photos). Use a venn diagram to facilitate this discussion and the area where the circles overlap would be where you will list common characteristics. Following might be some of the characteristics listed: Photorealist works Both Photos Objects are purposefully arranged Look real, lifelike Objects isolated Done by an artist Look like a photo Dont know the source Took a great of time to make Mundane subject matter Didnt take much time Painted to look like a photo Still-life objects Multiple copies Has a title, frame, signature Discuss the following information regarding photorealist art:

Photorealism, primarily an American art movement, uses photographic conventions such as cropping and depth of field to depict mundane subjects or urban scenes. It is linked to Pop Art with its emphasis on highly recognizable images and its rejection of abstraction. Photorealism marked American painting in the l970s, again bringing a resurgence of Realism which continually surfaces in eras of artistic expressionalways with a little different twist. This new art focused on textures, reflections, contrasts, and bringing emotion and nostalgia to the art works. Some American Photorealists are Chuck Close, Richard Estes, Janet Fish, Audrey Flack, and Duane Hanson. Although many of their works appear to images of moments in time they usually have underlying themes or symbolic references. Identify the various skills and techniques the artists would use to create a photorealist work. Some of these skills (e.g., blocking in, shading, rendering textures) will be emphasized in the following production assignment. 125

PRODUCTION: Still-life drawing

Objective: students will improve their rendering skills by drawing a still life by blocking in shapes, adding detail, and using value and texture to create interest. Materials drawing paper drawing pencils in at least 3 hardnesses objects to draw

After discussing subject matter in the previous activities, ask students to bring items to class that can be used in a still-life drawing. These items should have an identification with Utah. You may need to discuss this idea ahead of time. Some possible examples of items to bring are red sandstone rocks, canning jars full of fruit, sagebrush, quilt blocks, a cow skull, etc. Have students arrange the items as small groups. If possible, limit the light source in the room so you get interesting shadows and highlights on the arranged objects. Using scratch paper, demonstrate for the students how to use blocking in to accurately depict the position, size, and relationship of the items. Have all the students block in the shapes.

Block in by sketching the lines of the basic shapes. Draw lightly, and be willing to change a line without erasing the first line. If you want, you can draw lines to indicate the relationships among the objects or the angles. 126

Now demonstrate how to add details, texture, and value to the objects. (Dont worry if youre not very good at this, what students most need you to model is the willingness to try the assignment.) Then have students refine their drawings, adding details, texture, and value. They can use hatching, crosshatching, dots, and shading with the edge of the pencil. Have them gradually add to the drawings, trying to keep the drawing balancedeach area finished about the same amount. Students will need at least two or three time periods to work on the drawings.

Assessment: You may find it helpful to establish criteria for the finished drawings such as 5 degrees of value depicted, visible details on all items, 3 kinds of texture, drawing goes near the edge of the page on all four sides. If you establish criteria for finishing, you have a way to deal with the students who claim to be done after a very short time. They may be done, but the drawing isnt finished. When the drawings are finished, have the students self-assess their drawings based on the criteria you established. Have students also say or write how they think drawing objects associated with their state may have affected their drawingsare the drawings more expressive because of the association? Display the drawings in the school or classroom.

Variation for Advanced Students: Advanced students will probably be interested in creating artworks that reflect individuality and personal style. One way they can achieve an style is for them to render objects that have meaning for them. Ask students to bring in objects that they associate with Utah in some strong way. Have 127

students arrange a still life and do a sketch, checking to see if they like the overall design and arrangement. They should make any changes they feel are needed.

Next, ask students to make a list of descriptive words that relate to their still life and their feelings for the objects. Students should choose two or three of the words to be their focus. They should once again examine their still-life arrangements and see if the words they have chosen give them ideas about how they should approach the final drawing or painting. For instance, they should decide whether a representational approach best fits their descriptive words or whether they should use exaggeration or abstraction. If so, they should decide in what ways they want to distort the objects. If using a color medium, they will want to include decisions about the color scheme they will use. Students should periodically stop working on their drawings/paintings and reevaluate whether their artwork is expressing their feelings/ideas. When students are finished with their artworks, they should self-assess their success at expressing their feelings for the objects. You may also want to include a class discussion of the assignment, focusing on what students found difficult, what they believe they were successful at, and what they would like to try differently another time. The works should become a part of their portfolio. CRITICISM: Overview of Criticism Model

Not only can children of all ages engage in dialogues of criticism but they should. Such discussions help the child to articulate their feelings and thoughts about art and its value. Activities in criticism give children voices filled with art terminology, interpretative views and critical judgments. These higher level skills help the child give structure to their ever changing feelings and thoughts about art and how it fits in their life.

The following activity in criticism is meant to help the educator led a constructive conversation with children about art and art forms. The number of questions asked can vary, but if you want to conduct an overview of criticism they should be given in the approximate order with description first, then analysis, interpretation and judgment. This model can be used with any artwork Criticism Questions These questions can assist children evaluate (critique) a work of art. What? Description What do you see? What do you see? What are the objects you see? What are the dominant colors in this work? How would you describe them? Where are the dominant lines in this work? How would you describe them? Where are the dominant shapes in this work: How would you describe them? How would you describe the textures you see in this work (both implied and actual)? What is the main value (degree of lightness/darkness) of the work? What is the range of value displayed in this work? How would you describe the use of space in this work? How would you describe the three-dimensional quality (form) displayed in this work? 128

Optional: What is the subject matter of this work? What is the art form of this work? What is the media of this work? What are some of the skills or techniques used in this work? How? Analysis How is it put together? Where is the center of interest? What element(s) help create the center? What type of balance is used in this work? What element(s) are used to create balance? Where is emphasis or contrast used? What element(s) are used to achieve it? Choose any other dominant principle and ask how that principle is achieved.

Why? Interpretation What is the story or meaning?

What is this about? What feelings or moods are evident within this work? What do you think the artist is trying to tell us with this work? What symbol(s) are evident in this work? How do they help/hinder your interpretation of this work? What do you think was the main intent of the artist with this work? Realism? Expressivism? Formalism? Other? What background information (title, artist, context of work) do know about this work? Why would this information help/hinder your interpretation of this work? Decisions! Judgment Is it good? Do you like it? Why or why not? Rank this work according to how well you think the artist achieved his or her intent (e.g., realism, expressivism, formalism, other). Support your choice with evidence (critical information) Rank this work according to how well you like this work personally. Support your choice with valid explanations. Optional: What changes would you make to this work? Has your opinion of this work changed throughout this criticism process? If so, how or why? LITERACY Read short stories, poetry, essays, or essay excerpts by Utah writers about Utah life or scenery. Possible writers are Terry Tempest Williams, Don Marshall, John S. Harris, Dennis Smith, Douglas Thayer, and Edward Hart.

After reading one or more excerpts, you can have students write a short essay or short-short story 129

about Utahthe land or the life. Or, have the students write a cinquain poem about something in Utah. ADDITIONAL APPLICATIONS Have students make and color a poster of all Utahs State symbols.

Students can paint or make a collage of a landscape of a desert using unusual materials such as sandpaper, cardboard, etc. Students can make three-cornered dioramas of Utahs biomes and the plants and animals found there.


DANCE: Energy/Force
Objective: The students will improvise movement that demonstrates varying qualities of motion (energies) suggested by Utah land forms. They will then create a sequence by selecting, ordering and demonstrating varying qualities of motion inspired by those land forms. Utah State Dance Core Standards: Moving 1440-0101 & 0102 Warm the body and introduce the concept of lesson-energy changes, while building awareness of personal and group space. Investigating 1440-0202 & 0203 Explore energy and shape suggested by Utah landforms. Expand understanding of dance element energy by improvising sequences of energy changes heavy, sustained, percussive etc. as suggested by photos of Utah landforms. Creating 1440-0301 & 0302 Translate natural elements into body movement. Create, practice, and perform for class in small groups. Evaluate success in creating and performing. Connecting 1440-0403 Create a dance project from the sciences. Describe connections between dance and pother disciplines such as social studies and language arts. Materials: Drum and beater White board and markers CD Player and CDs Paintings, photos or drawings of Utah Landforms such as those found in the book Utah on My Mind, postcards, or calendar art of Utah If possible, student journals with writings, and drawings from field trips to various landform sites Introduction/Motivation: Display the pictures of Utah land forms and discuss various landform categories Ranch Kimball, Entrance to Zions (1934) such as deserts, mountains, salt flats, canSpringville Museum of Art yons and valleys. Draw particular attention to the mesas, buttes, pinnacles, spires, and arches that are unique in this state. Look at mountains, lakes, and valleys in various seasons.

The students should engage in a brainstorming session about words that describe the forces that created those landforms. Also discuss the sense of energy, weight, flow or dynamics that describe those landforms. Students should focus on action words (verbs that describe movement) but some useful static words (shape and size etc.) may also come from this inquiry activity. A possible list follows:


ENERGY-RELATED action verbs Eroding Carving Settling Shaking Exploding/erupting Pushing Slipping Flowing Blowing Tumbling

Other descriptive words Massive Heavy Smooth Slow Jagged Continuous Sudden Perched Pressure Balanced, etc.

MOVE and INVESTIGATE The students should warm-up as they improvise using a call and response action word activity. The teacher should call out words from the above brainstorming activity one or two at a time. The students should explore the movement suggested with commitment. Side coach the students to explore the movement: on various levels, (high, medium, low) in varying directions (forward, backward, turning) with a variety of timings (slow motion, hyperdrive) in interesting rhythmic patterns (quick-quick-slow or accelerating etc.) with different body parts (shoulders, backs, legs, etc.)

CREATE After a thorough warmup and exploration of the above concepts through improvisation, the students should select and determine a satisfying order for four or five contrasting energy words. They may work in small groups, in pairs, or as indivduals. They should then choreograph, rehearse, and perform their creations for others in the class. (6-8 students could perform at a time while the rest of the class watches and responds in appropriate ways.) Additional Creating activities could include passing out postcards or individual prints of Utah sites to small groups and having each group choreograph energy and shape movement sequences based on their groups picture. CONNECT and ASSESS Observe and discuss movement solutions with students. Expand by having them write poems or create art using the words and feelings from their choreography. Dance lesson plans, copyright pending Marilyn Berrett


Objective: Students will understand what freedom means. Students will understand that being an American involves both rights and responsibilities. Social Studies Standard: People, Places, and Environments + US Utah State Social Studies Core Standard #60500501: Explain the scope and limits of freedom in a democratic society. Book(s) This Land is Your Land or Who Came Down That Road? Materials: enough wrapped candy so each class member can have 10-12 candies Exploration: Set up the following scenario: Distribute candy equally to all members of the class at the beginning of the day. Tell them that the candy is theirs to eat at the end of the day. In the N.C. Wyeth, Our Emblem BYU MOA meantime, have the principal take on the role of tax collector coming into the classroom at different points of the day to collect candy from the students. Candy should be taken away from students inconsistently and for arbitrary reasons, for example, wearing a particular type of shoes, using a red crayon, not having their coat on, etc. The teacher should allow feelings of resentment and opportunities to complain. This can be done the day before the rest of the lesson or earlier in the same day. Expression: Discuss the situation with the class. How do they feel about the principal taking their candy? Is it fair? How does this affect their rights? What rights do you think you should have? List their feelings and concerns. Label: Define freedom. (Freedom is rights and responsibilities.) Some rights overlap the rights of others. Freedom carries with it responsibilities (discuss). Freedom has allowed the development of unique ideas and cultures. These are expressed in our government, our history, the ways we dress, act, and behave. Our expressions in music, theater, dance, and the visual arts are also very much a result of our sense of freedom.


ApplicationsMusic, Dance, Theater, Visual Arts, and Literacy MUSIC:

Objective: students will understand what freedom means. Students will understand that being an American involves both rights and responsibilities. Utah State Music Core Targets: Sing and Play Sing a variety of songs on pitch Read pitch and melody patterns Feel/understand meter of two, three, and four Show difference between beat ad rhythms Explore and Create Create a new song as a class Listen Identify by sound instruments, form, and meter when listening to recorded music Connect Learn songs and compositions that reflect U.S. History and culture Listen to music by composers from other countries that came to America to compose Materials: This Land is Your Land songbook Favorite Folk Songs by Stacy West (book and CD with songs from American History) a wonderful investment for all 5th grade classes, put out by Scholastic. Summary of Music Ideas: Social Studies Theme (Freedom in my country) met through Music: Songs were sung during all periods of United States History. They are one way people have expressed their feelings and told about the times in which they were living. Some songs were used as secret codes by people (slaves) who were not free in our country. Unique American music has been encouraged because of freedom. Composers from oppressed countries have come to America so they could compose as they wished, without fearing government control. Songs included in the packet: Frog Went a Courtin, Barbara Allen, Simple Gifts, Revolutionary Tea, Yankee Doodle, Erie Canal, John Henry, Paddy Works on Railway, Oh Susanna, Star Spangled Banner, Follow the Drinking Gourd, Dixie, When Johnny Comes Marching Home, Sometimes I feel Like a Motherless Chile, This Land is Your Land Recordings: The Banshee by Henri Cowell Rodeo or Appalachian Spring by Aaron Copland Rhapsody in Blue by George Gershwin Bartok-music for strings, percussion, and celeste Schoenberg Country-134

Stravinsky Fire Bird Prokofiev Peter and the Wolf, Classical Symphony, Romeo and Juliet, Love of Three Oranges Music Vocabulary: Pitch, melody, rhythm, beat Procedure: The following materials provide ideas that can be used throughout the year. A teacher may choose to engage children in all of the experiences or select those that seem most appropriate. A. As the history of America is studied, select appropriate songs to help express the feelings of the time. Included with each song is a lesson that will help build music understanding as well as express American History. Sing the songs many times throughout the year so that they will become part of the inner life of the child. If the song becomes the childrens, they will take it with them for the rest of their lives.

Ivan Bilibins illustration to a Russian fairy tale about the Firebird, 1899. Public Domain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Firebird.jpg

B. In just the last 100 years, much music has been composed in the United States. Much of the music is uniquely American because composers were free to experiment with sounds and music-making ideas. Ask the students what music is. Bring out the fact that music is sound organized by humans to express ideas. Encourage the students to create some sounds with their body and then to organize the sounds to express the idea of a rainstorm.. Record their composition and then listen to it, imagining that the sounds have expressed rainstorm. Play the Banshee by Henry Cowell. As the children listen, ask them to guess what instruments Cowell used, and what idea they think he was trying to express. As children share their thoughts, ask them what in the music determined the conclusion they came to. (Tempo, dynamics, tone colors, lack of steady beat, the pitches, etc.) Tell them that Cowell was trying to express the idea of a Banshee, an Irish ghost that comes to take people from the earth. The instrument he used was the piano, plucking and hitting the strings, rather than using the keys. Cowell used all kinds of unusual sounds when he composed. He was free to do so and many other composers in America started copying his ideas. Invite the children to find sounds at home, outside and in the school. Gather the sounds together and create a sound piece. Have the students decide what idea they wish to create, then set about creating it with sound. Groups of about six children are best for this activity. They can use the following outline to help facilitate the project.. Determine what you wish to communicate. Decide which sounds would work best. Decide how the piece will begin, what will happen in the middle and how it will end. Country-135

Determine how you will use the dynamics, tempo, rhythm and/or pitch. What form will your music have? Determine who will play which sounds. Experiment with the sounds and create the piece. Make sure you can play it over and over. When you are ready to perform for the class, tell your teacher.

Children may enjoy listening to other compositions by experimental composers such as John Cage, Vareze, and Harry Partch. If possible, watch the video Stomp. This group is from the British Isles, but the music is representative of the kind of music that can be made in countries that experience freedom. C. Experimental music was not the only kind of music composed in America. One of Americas most famous composers was Aaron Copland. (See background) He used American folk songs and ideas from the westward expansion to compose Rodeo. As you listen, determine what instruments he used, what meter, what dynamics and tempo to express his idea. Can you sing any of the melodies from the piece? Tap a beat while the music plays. What do you imagine as you listen? Do you think Copland was effective in his use of sounds to create the rodeo idea? Why or why not? Listen to other American composers such as Glass, Joplin, Sousa, and Ives. D. Composers who lived in oppressed countries came to America so they would be free to compose. Some of these composers wrote music about America and others just experimented with new sound ideas. Listen to Dvoraks New World Symphony or Stravinskys Firebird, of Bartoks Bear Dance, for example. Children might enjoy writing reports of American composers or composers who came to America to compose. (See webquest lesson.) E. One of the most American types of all music is Jazz. Jazz is the result of a blend between African and American cultures and music. Many kinds of jazz artists have recorded wonderful music. Enjoy listening to music by Brubeck, Herbie Hancock, Pal Winter, McFerrin, Charlie Parker, George Gershwin and Leonard Bernstein. F. Finally, folk music and protest music became very popular during the middle of the 20th century. Listen to folk music collections of Pete Seeger and the music of Bob Dylan, for example. Help children learn to listen to recorded instrumental music with interest and understanding. Their music appreciation as well as their American History appreciation will be expanded. Songs of the Colonies (next three pages) Singing and learning these songs will give students insight into the lives of the colonists. Frog Went a Courtin related book by John Langsdorf - beat, meter, rhythm, conduct Barbara Allen a romantic ballad in the British tradition Simple Gifts an American Shaker song that became and has kept its popularity throughout American culture. Country-136

Frog Went a Courtin

Rode up to Miss Mousie's door, ... He gave three raps and a very loud roar. ... He said, "Miss Mousie, are you with'in?" ... "Yes, I just sat down to spin," ... He went right in and took her on his knee, ... Said, "Miss Mousie, will you marry me?" ... Miss Mousie, she said, "I can't answer that, ... Until I see my Uncle Rat, ... Uncle Rat's in London Town, ... And I don't know when he'll be down. ... Without my Uncle Rat's consent, ... I wouldn't marry the President," ... Uncle Rat came riding home, ... "Who's been here since I've been gone?" ... "A very worthy gentleman, ... He said he'd marry me if he can," ... The first came in was an old brown cow, ... Tried to dance and didn't know how, ...

The next came in was an old grey mare, ... Hip stuck out and shoulder bare, ... The next came in was a little black dog, ... Chased Miss Mousie in a hollow log, ... The next came in was an old tom cat, ... Swallowed Miss Mousie slick as a rat, ... Mr. Frog he went down to the lake, ... And there he was swallowed by a big black snake, ... Big black snake he swam to the lane, ... And there was killed by a big man, ... The big man he went to France, ... And that's the end of my romance, ... So here's the end of one, two, three, ... The snake, the frog and Miss Mousie, ... There's bread and cheese upon the shelf, ... If you want any, just help yourself.


Barbara Allen

He turned his face unto the wall, And death was in him wellin, Goodbye, goodbye, to my friends all, Be good to Barbara Allen. Oh, mother go and dig my grave, Make it both long and narrow; Sweet William died for love of me, And I will die of sorrow.

They buried her in the old church yard, And buried him beside her, From his heart grew a red, red rose, And out of hers a briar. They climbed and climbed the old church spire, Till they could climb no higher, And there they tied a true lovers knot, The red rose and the briar.


Simple Gifts

The Tree of Life, Seen and painted by Hannah Cohoon. City of Peace Monday July 3rd 1854, from The Andrews Collection at Hancock Shaker Village. Date July 3rd 1854 Public Domain http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:Tree_of_Life_-_Shaker_-_painted_by_ Hannah_Cohoon.JPG


Songs of the Revolution

Revolutionary Tea and Yankee Doodle are on the following two pages. Revolutionary Tea Listen for symbols in the song that represent real things Island queen = Britain Daughter = American Colonies Discuss the meaning of words such as pockets full of gold and steeped. Invite children to dramatize the words of the song Keep the beat while listening and determine the meter. Then conduct the song in 4. Invite some students to tap the tambourine on the strong beat throughout the song.
"The Destruction of Tea at Boston Harbor", lithograph depicting the Yankee Doodle Boston Tea Party Date 1846 Public Domain Most children will know http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Boston_Tea_Party_Currier_colored.jpg the words to this song. Invite them to sing with you and to tap the beat. If drums of any kind are available, let students play the beat on the drum, using a mallet in each hand, assuming the position of a drum soldier.

Ask children to tap the rhythm (the word syllables) as they sing, while others continue to play the beat on the drum. Encourage them to notice the difference between the beat and they rhythm. Show students the following rhythm pattern and invite them to clap it. Ask them if it represents the rhythm of Yankee Doodle or Revolutionary Tea. (Yankee Doodle). Help the class notice that two sounds occur to every beat in this song. Invite a group of students to play the sticks while reading the rhythm. Play while the drummer keeps the beat. A third group of students can conduct the meter 4. Trade parts. Make up other verses to the song using knowledge of U.S. History to determine what each verse will be about. Consider showing the following rhythm pattern of Revolutionary Tea. Notice that in this song there are three sounds to every beat and that this song has a pickup note.


Revolutionary Tea



Now Mother, dear Mother, the daughter replied, I shant do the thing you ax; Im willing to pay a fair price for the tea, But never three-penny tax. You shall, quoth the mother, and reddend with rage, For youre my own daughter, you see. And sure tis quite proper the daughter should pay Her mother a tax on her tea, Her mother a tax on her tea. The tea was conveyed to the daughters door, All down by the oceans side. And the bouncing girl pourd out every pound, In the dark and boiling tide. Oh Mother, dear Mother, quoth she, Your tea may you have when tis steeped enough, But never a tax from me, But never a tax from me.


Yankee Doodle


Westward Expansion Erie Canalis on the next page After studying about the Erie Canal, sing this work song for the children. Encourage careful listening by asking them questions such as: What is the mules name? How long is the canal? What is carried on the barges? Who will you always know on the Erie Canal? Sing the song more than once if the children did not hear all of the answers. The verse of this is based on minor tonality. The chorus is major. Invite one group of children to sing the verse in minor, and the other to sing the chorus in major. Tell children that this song was probably sung by the man who View of Erie Canal by John William Hill, 1829 led the mule to keep him from http://www.history.rochester.edu/canal/images/1.jpg getting bored. What is boring to the children? Could they make up a song to keep them from getting bored while working? They could use the same tune as Erie Canal, or make up their own. For example: I sit in this chair and work on my math Every day at ten o clock My pencil has to write a lot Every day at ten o clock I try and try and then I pout Every day I want to shout Will someone help me figure this out? Id rather be fishing for a trout. Math time, it seems to take so long Math time, if I sing a little song The time may go much faster The time will soon run out If I sing this little song then I might figure it out.

(Im sure you can do better!) Sing the song often throughout the year so it will become a part of the children. John Henry (on the next page) Country-143

Erie Canal


Mahonri Young, Brittany Boatman byu.edu


Before teaching this song, provide background about the development of the steam engine and how it took the place of human workers building the railroad. Sing the song asking children to listen to the story it tells. Consider providing the class with a paper folded into 8 squares. As the children listen to the song, invite them to draw a picture for each verse. For the last verse, they can turn the paper on the back. Sing the song several times to allow time for the childrens drawings. This song is a conversation between John Henry and his Captain boss. Organize the class into four groups. Group one: The storyteller Group two: John Henry Group three: The Captain Group four: The baby Dramatize the songs story while singing. Allow groups to change parts. Remind the children that songs were often used to tell stories about events of the time. Paddy Works on the Railway(on page 16) Invite children to tap the beat as you sing the song. Tell them this song is in a minor key. Ask if they remember another song we learned in a minor key. (Erie Canal) After the beat is tapped, invite students to find the strong and weak beat pattern (in two). Then have them conduct while you sing. When they have heard the song several times, ask them to tap the rhythm of the song. Invite half of the class to keep the beat and the other to keep the rhythm. The beat could be played lightly on a drum and the rhythm on sticks. See if the children can determine if the rhythm creates two sounds to each beat, or three. (Three) What other song have they sung with three sounds to the beat? (Revolutionary Tea) When children know the song, invite them to make up other verses to the song. You may want them to write their words during a writing assignment and then prepare to share them the next time you sing.

Art for John Henry stamp Public Domain

http://www.postalmuseum.si.edu/artofthestamp/subpage%20table%20images/artwork/ legends/John%20Henry/BIGjohnhenry.htm

Oh Susanna (on page 17) The children might already know this song. Invite them to sing it while tapping the beat. Have them determine how many beats occur in each phrase. (8) How many phrases? (4) See if they can tap the rhythm pattern to each phrase as they sing. Ask half of the class to clap the beat while the other half taps the phrases. Challenge them to hear both parts while they sing. A few children might keep the beat on the drums while the others keep rhythm pattern with sticks. Accompany the song on the Autoharp. Ask the children to listen as you sing and play to determine on what word the chord changes. (Knee, going, true, see) Invite them to clap only Country-146

John Henry
1. 2. Folk Song from the Southern United States



John Henry told his captain, Well, a man aint nothin but a man, But before I let your steam drill beat me down, Ill die with a hammer in my hand, Ill die with a hammer in my hand. Oh, the man that invented the steam drill, He thought that he was mighty fine, But John Henry made fifteen feet, And the steam drill only nine, And the steam drill only nine.

on those words to emphasize the chord changes. Invite a student to try playing the Autoharp, changing chords in the correct place. Children may enjoy making up words to this song. Try to make up verses that are nonsense. Enjoy the fun. Country-147

Mahonri Young, The Laborer SMA

Paddy Works on the Railway

http://oldweirdamerica.files.wordpress.com/2009/03/john-henry-1.jpg Country-148

Oh, Susanna
Stephen Foster


Civil War Follow the Drinking Gourd(on next page) Invite children to listen to this beautiful song about the Underground Railroad and identify the secret codes in the song. Sun comes back = spring First quail calls = spring Drinking gourd = big dipper, travel at night Old man = peg leg Joe Dead trees = Peg Leg Joe carved messages on dead trees Left foot, peg foot = Peg Leg Joe How many rivers must be followed? Sing the song many times so the children have time to absorb all of the images. Invite children to sing only the words Follow the drinking gourd while you sing the whole song. This will give them a chance to listen once more to the other words. Ask the class to tap the beat and determine the meter (four). Then have them conduct as they listen and sing. This song is also in a minor key. Make a list on a chart of all the songs they have learned in a minor key. Consider singing each of them. Notice how different they are from one another and yet they are all written in a minor key. Invite the class to make a map with pictures that are suggested by the song to show the route followed by the black American slaves. Sing this beautiful song often so it will become a part of the children. The song represents so much about American History, and its slow contemplative mood will add beauty to the childrens lives if they internalize it.. Dixie(on page 19) Beat, rhythm, conduct When Johnny Comes Marching Home(on page 20) Minor, beat, meter, and conduct The Melting Pot Sing songs brought by immigrants from their various cultures such as La Cucaracha.

BluesJazzSpirituals The blues, jazz, and spirituals are all uniquely American musical forms that were developed by creative musicians who took elements of various musical traditions and developed something new. Country-150

Follow the Drinkin Gourd


Daniel Emmett

2. Theres buckwheat cakes and Indian batter, Makes you fat or a little fatter, Look away! Look away! Dixie Land; Then hoe it down and scratch your gravel, To Dixie Land Im bound to travel, Look away! Look away! Look away! Dixie Land. Country-152

When Johnny Comes Marching Home

Patrick S. Gilmore

Washington, District of Columbia. Hancocks Veteran Corps on F Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 1st U.S. Volunteer Infantry
Digital ID: cwpb 04239 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cwpb.04239 * Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-cwpb-04239 LC-DIG-ppmsc-02780 * Repository: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA http://www.loc.gov/pictures/resource/cwpb.04239/?co=cwp


BluesJazzSpirituals The blues, jazz, and spirituals are all uniquely American musical forms that were developed by creative musicians who took elements of various musical traditions and developed something new.

One spiritual is included on page 22: Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Chile. The refrain of this song talks about praying. These words offer a teacher the chance to talk about the the life of the slaves: many of their songs are about going to heaven or about prayer or Jesus. Although the spirituals may be, as some historians claim, the African Americans reinterpretations of hymns sung by the white Southerners, their topics also reflect the difficult lives of the slaves. You may want to ask students why they think so many of the Negro spirituals are about Goin to live with God. However, Ella Fitzgerald if this topic may create problems in your class, the song can be sung without the refrain. Have students compose their own verses. Duke Ellington Play selections of early jazz such as recordings of Ella Fitzgerald, Louis Armstrong, Dizzy Gillespie, Coleman Hawkins, Duke Ellington, Ella Fitzgerald, Bessie Smith, and Billie Holiday. Some blues artists are B.B. King, Robert Johnson, Mississippi John Hurt, Bessie Smith, Muddy Waters, T-Bone Walker, and Leadbelly. You may want to have students listen to some early jazz and then to modern jazz artists like Harry Connick Jr., Wynton Marsalis, Dave Brubeck, Betty Carter, Abbey Lincoln, or Shirley Horn. Mississippi John Hurt, left and Bessie Smith, right Country-154

Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Chile

Image Sources, previous page Ella Fitzgerald, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1940 Jan. 19 Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Van Vechten Collection http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:EllaFitzgerald.jpg Duke Ellington at the Hurricane Club. New York, N.Y., May 1943. Gordon Parks Image taken from http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aaohtml/exhibit/aopart8b.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Duke_Ellington_at_the_Hurricane_Club_1943.jpg Bessie Smith, February 3rd 1936 Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division, Van Vechten Collection, reproduction number LC-DIG-ppmsca-09571 DLC (digital file from original photo). http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bessiesmith.jpg Mississippi John Hurt http://www.nps.gov/history/delta/blues/images/people/msjohn_hurt.jpg


History Connection

This Land is Your Land

Sing while showing the class the book. Enjoy the beauty of the pictures and the relationship of the pictures to the words.

Clapping the beat. Help children notice that three pitches are sung before the strong beat occurs. These three sounds are pickup notes or anacrusis. Try singing the song and leaving the pickup notes off just sing them in your head. The only phrase that does not begin with the pickup notes is the last phrase. Repeat the song several times, asking questions to guide listening. Ask questions such as From where to where? Show the students these places on the map. Study the geography of the US. Tell about Woody Guthrie, who composed the song.

Help the children notice the syncopation in the song by clapping the rhythm to this land was in the last phrase. Ask the students to discover what words occur on that rhythm. When they have given the answer, ask them to sing that part and tell them the rhythm is syncopated in that spot. Invite the class to sing the song after they have heard it several times. If the class is comfortable singing, you may want to add the second part.

The Star Spangled Banner Extensive materials for learning about the song and the time period are included in the appendix.


Photograph, right Clint Huffman, Setting Sun Stansbury Island Clint Huffman, used by permission

This Land is Your Land

Words and Music by Woody Guthrie Countermelody by Ruth Tuleman


Robert Nickelson, Alaskan Skies, Denali


DRAMA: analyzing drama concentration, imagination, vocal and movement skills, choric reading, ensemble
Student Learning Objective: Students will increase their vocal skills through vocal exercises and through participating in a movement choric reading (Theatre Standard: Creating Drama) about the history of America (Core # 6050-0201 Outline the major historical events, people, wars and documents that played a significant role in United States history from 1492 to the present). Drama Targets Met: 1. Analyzing Drama Identify and discuss plot elements in a play or novel--exposition, main conflict, rising action, climax, resolution. analyze plays and novels for dramatic unity. analyze characters moods, attitudes and motivations in order to explain why they choose a specific course of action in a play or novel. Identify and defend own analysis of meaning in plays and novels. Identify and discuss to clarify anything in a play or novel not personally understood. 2. Practicing Drama Practice relaxing, concentrating, and imagining. Practice movement skills. Practice vocal skills. Practice connecting emotionally when reading aloud. Practice brainstorming quick ways to transform any space into a drama environment; e.g., what can desks become. 3. Making Drama Construct and perform dramatizations. Imagine and construct a drama environment. Construct and perform dramatizations that include examples of internal dialogue. Critique work and plan refinements. 4. Contextualizing Drama Compare and contrast personal preferences concerning characters moods, attitudes and motivations in dramatic presentations and people met in daily life. Analyze the ways businesses use advertising to try and persuade one to buy a product. Describe drama environments used in commercials, films, and televisions and discuss ways you think businesses selected those drama environments.


Materials: Who Came Down That Road? by George Ella Lyon (included in packet) Musical instruments: drum, tambourine, wood blocks, bells, triangles, etc. List of Tongue-twisters (included in packet) Vocal Exercises (included in packet) Process: 1. Warm-Up: theatre games found in appendix. 2. Teacher explains what choric reading is. (A group reading of a poem or body of text which may have individual parts or small group parts, divided by boys and girls, high or low voices, character or other original ways). 2. Teacher tells them they are going to do a choric reading which illustrates the major events they have been studying in social studies. 2. Teacher tells them that before they do this choric reading, they are going to practice using their voices. 3. Go through various vocal exercises. (See separate sheet) Nine Tools of Expression Going around the room and having students individually say a sentence in a different way than has been said. (Example: This is a great day) Practice with short poems before going to the movement choric reading. 4. Practice Who Came Down That Road? Evaluate. Repeat. (Suggested movements are included in script). Assessment: Have students record themselves individually reading Who Came Down That Road before practicing the vocal exercises and before creating the movement choric reading. After spending several weeks working with vocal techniques, have them record again. Evaluate and discuss improvement individually if possible. To assess as a group, answer the following questions. Are the students fully engaged in creating the movement choric reading? Can they be heard? Are they expressive in their presentation? Is body movement expressive? Are they working well together as a group? Are they using their imaginations in creating movement? Additional Activities to fill drama targets: 1. Have students identify and discuss plot elements, dramatic unity, character moods, attitudes and motivations in a play or novel. 2. Have students identify and defend their own analysis of meaning in a play or novel. 3. Have students construct a drama which includes examples of internal dialogue spoken aloud (the real thoughts and feelings of a character as spoken to an audience and not heard by other characters) 4. Have students compare and contrast personal preferences concerning characters moods, attitudes, and motivations in dramatic presentations and people met in daily life. 5. Have students analyze the way businesses use advertising to try and persuade one to buy a product. Country-160

6. Have students describe drama environments used in commercials, films, and television and discuss why they think businesses selected those drama environments. Additional Applications: 1. Math: Create a movement choric reading which includes various concepts you want students to remember. (times tables, fractions, etc.) 2. Reading: Create a movement choric reading from poems in curricula. 3. Social Science: Create a movement choric reading for a document to be memorized (Preamble, etc.) 4. Science: Create a movement choric reading for science concepts to be learned. 5. Art: Create a book of pictures illustrating the various peoples who "came down that road." 6. Art: Create a mural to be hung in the school hallway illustrating the story. 7. Music: Create original music for the choric reading. 8. Dance: Create separate dances for each group who "came down that road" 9. Literacy: Read books about history such as The Moonlight Message, by Denice Barlow Brown. This book is a fictional account of a real incident which occured in Revolutionary times. Two girls who try to help the Patriot cause and end up catching a British Spy. The story could easily be made into a short play. WHO CAME DOWN THAT ROAD

by George Ella Lyon (Adapted by Karla Huntsman for choric reading)

(Actions and breakdown of readers for lines in the book are merely suggestions. Teacher and/or students may decide on totally different groupings and actions). It is not necessary to give papers to each student. They learn lines quickly when movement is involved. (Have students in a cluster or in rows of two or three) (Tambourine) All: (Students look into distance and moving right arm from left to right, point to the right) See that path? Girl: Just a trace through the woods Boy: Till it joins the blacktop down the hill, All: ( put hands down) but folks have been traveling it thousands of years. (Drum beats or another instrument on each "old") One voice starts: (kneels down) It's an old, Country-161

Maurice Braun, The Olive Tree Springville Museum of Art

Several more : (kneel) old, Several more: (kneel) old Several more: (kneel)old All: (kneel) old road. (Mother and girl are placed together on left side of area)One Voice: (stands) Who came down that road, Mama? Mother: My great-grandma and great-grandpa just married and looking to farm, they came down that road. (Another girl and boy stand) (musical instrument: shakers?) Girl: Who came before that, Mama? Who came down that road? Several boys stand. March to the beat of a drum or whistle. Group except boys: Soldiers in blue coats, saddle high or marching Mother: They came down that road. Girl: Who came before the soldiers, Mama? Full group mimes the following action as girl and mother speak. Mother: Pioneers and settlers, honey, floating the Ohio (xylophone) Another voice: And clearing the wildwood, (wood blocks) Mother: They came down that road. Girl: Who came before the settlers, Mama? Who came down that road? Girls: Shawnee and Cherokee, (tambourine?) Boys: Wyandot and Chippewa Girls: In beads and feathers, Boys: following deer, Mother: They came down that road. Girl: Who came before the Indians, Mama? Boys: Buffalo, bear, great-antlered elk, (Instrument) to lick their fill at the flat salt lick, Girls: They came down that road. Girl: Who came before the buffalo? Country-162

Avard Fairbanks, Buffalo SMA

All: And they helped make that road. Girl: Who came before the mammoths, Mama? One voice: Fish swam in a sea so warm All: and shallow Another Voice: you could have waded across, Another Voice: except of course All: there wasn't any YOU One Voice: when water lay over that road. All: The sea left the salt lick, though. Girl: What came before the sea? Mother: Questions! (Full group moves into creative body positions) Questions crowded like a bed of stars, (move into another position) Thick as that field of goldenrod--(move into another position) (Create movements for each line. Let class come up with ideas of what they want to do) questions came before the sea and ice before mastodon and grizzly bear before Indian and pioneer, before soldiers and newlyweds All: the mystery of the making place-Mother: that came before this road. Joseph Ostraff, Albino Trout SMA


DANCE: Time/Rhythm
Objective: The students will expand their dance vocabulary with movement experiences in time and rhythm. They will explore and understand some of the music and dance styles that emerged in the United States after the freeing of the slaves. Students will connect American culture in dance and music to the concept of freedom. Equipment and Materials: Drum and beater CD Player and CDs of Ragtime, Charleston, Jazz, Blues, and Swing Music Background Information about historical and social context in which these musical and dance forms emerged in America Ragtime Tumpie, an illustrated childrens book by Alan Schroeder about American dance legend, Josephine Baker Videos of example dances such as the Cakewalk and the Lyndy found on Black Dance In America and Body Music, a fusion of jazz music and modern dance choreographed by Marilyn Berrett

Utah State Dance Core Standards: MOVING - 1450-0101 & 0102 Warm the body and introduce the dance concepts of time and rhythm. INVESTIGATING - 1450-0201 Clap and move on the beat of slow, medium and fast tempi. Explore accents and syncopation. After seeing a dance, discuss the element of time and replicate some of its rhythm patterns. CREATING - 1450-0301 & 0302 Create practice Henry Ossawa Tanner , The Banjo Lesson 1893 and perform to various styles of music from the public domain ragtime, swing, and jazz eras. After seeing a en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Henry_Ossawa_Tandance discuss the music and dance ner_-_The_Banjo_Lesson.jpg properties and elements recognized. CONNECTING - 1450-0401, 0402, & 0403 Learn and perform a social dance such as the Charleston or the Lyndy. Determine when and where it was created and discuss the difference in the music and style of movement associated with each dance. Create and watch dances that reflect cultural or historical ideas. ACTIVITIES: CONNECTING The dance standard of connecting or contextualizing - which is defined as, Appreciating dance and its historical, cultural and personal origins - permeates this lesson. Connecting should happen Country-164

frequently - before, during, and after, the moving parts of the lesson occurs.

Introduction/Motivation: There are many possible entry points or pre-activities for these dance lessons. A web-quest activity could precede the actual dance lesson/s wherein the students engage in an internet search of information relating to freedom as expressed in the dance, drama, music and visual art of the late 1800s and early 1900s. Another possible anticipatory activity could be the out-loud reading and discussion of the book, Ragtime Tumpie. The 5th grade social studies curriculum should set up the historical context in which Ragtime, Swing and Jazz music and dance emerged. (See the background information for the fifth grade dance lesson/s in the supplements section of this packet.) Dance Lesson content/skill focus: This movement lesson should begin with an African-like call-and-response rhythmic activity. The teacher should clap out a four-count rhythmic pattern that the students immediately repeat. The goal is for the students to achieve a high level of accuracy as they reproduce the teachers rhythmic patterns. The teacher should keep changing the patterns and increasing levels of rhythmic complexity until a good sense of rhythmic skill is achieved. This rhythmic activity could include students taking turns creating and leading the call-and -response clapping and moving patterns too.

MOVING and INTRODUCING THE CONCEPTS The students should complete a thorough body warm-up focusing on movement in slow, medium and fast tempi. Include clapping and moving to rhythmic patterns that have unexpected accents and syncopation. Develop locomotor skill by exploring walking, running and leaping in slow, medium, and fast tempi. Use isolated body parts stretching and strengthening and keep the students stretching quietly in a close-but-not-touching group during the subsequent book reading or video watching activities.

INVESTIGATING THE CONCEPTS 1-Re-read a few selected excerpts from the book, Ragtime Tumpie by Alan Schroeder (Ideally, the class would have read the entire book previously and identified the historical period and the cultural context of the story.) At various points in the book, stop and have the students explore the movement ideas suggested in the text, illustrations or both. Play Ragtime music and direct students to explore the accents and qualities suggested in it. For example, the students could clap and move to the accents in the music or accents of their choice. Pick two numbers between two and eight. These are youre accents. While the music plays move with emphasis on the two numbers you chose. Move In the high space on the one accent and down low on the other. Keep counting the phrases of eight in you head and moving on your same two accents each measure. Direct the students to explore movement in isolated body parts gradually adding complexity until the whole body is accenting. Next guide the student explorations of movement in slow, medium and fast tempi while music plays. Find all the ways you can to explore moving fast while changing levels. Now try slow stretching contrasted by fast spinning. Remember in the explorations to keep emphasizing the dance goal is to show clear timing and rhythm in movement. -ORCountry-165

2-View selected excerpts from the dance, Body Music, choreographed by Marilyn Berrett. Show the picture from the book, that the choreographer used as inspiration for some of the movement and costuming of the dance. (Picture included in the supplements section of this packet.) After watching the dance, and looking at the picture, the students should replicate and explore the movement ideas they saw. Play different selections of Jazz music and direct students to reproduce the rhythmic patterns, accents and qualities of both the music and the dance. Direct the students to explore the moving to the music with isolated body parts grad ually adding complexity until the whole body is improvising. Guide student explorations of movement in slow, medium and fast temp while music plays. Have the students create shapes as if they were playing a musical instrument, (piano, saxophone etc.) then have them abstract the shape by changing the level or size of their shapes. Have the students clap and move to the accents in the music. Remember in the explorations to keep emphasizing the dance goal is to show clear timing and rhythm in movement. CREATING After a thorough exploration of the lesson concepts (accent and tempo) through guided improvisation, the students should create original 16-count movement sequences. The students may work alone or in pairs. The movement sequences should: begin and end with clear body shapes have movement accents on unexpected counts (anything but 1) use slow and fast traveling and movement patterns be 16 counts long

If time allows, the students should choreograph longer dance phrases connecting two or three individual 16-count movement phrases together. The students should select style of music they like best to play while they perform their dances. CONNECTING The students should watch each other perform and respond to the shapes, accents and fast and slow timing observed. They may also comment on levels of performance commitment and rhythmic patterns observed.

Lesson Extension: The students should participate in researching and choreographing other small group dances (3-5 students per group) inspired by historical periods, regions or famous dancers in the U.S. Possible suggestions include the following: Other African American influenced dance and music from various periods and regions such as the Cakewalk, Lyndy, tap, or jazz etc. - See video Black Dance In America Quadrilles, polkas and waltzes from the 1700-1800s Appalachian dances, music and culture Native American dances, music, and culture of the southwest, pacific northwest, plains etc. Asian, Hispanic, or other cultural or historical categories of dance and culture Other American Dance personalities such as Martha Graham, Alvin Ailey, Agnes De Mille, Gene Kelley, Maria Tallchief, Savion Glover, etc. Assess by observing and discussing the performance and choreography of each groups project. Assess completeness of understanding of historical and cultural context through oral, written and kinesthetic demonstrations of student knowledge.
Dance lesson plans, by Marilyn Berrett - copyright pending


VISUAL ARTS: American Art Forms

Objective: Students will understand that unique American art forms have been promoted as a result of the unfettered freedom artists enjoy in America. Utah State Art Core Standard: Perceiving1050-0201, Analyze and reflect on works of art by their elements and principles, Expressing1050-0301, Explore possible content in art prints or works of art and 1050-0302 Discuss, evaluate, and choose ideas and meanings for students own artworks. Contextualizing1050-0401 Describe artists intentions, 1050-0402 Connect various kinds of art with particular cultures, times, or places.

Introduction/Motivation: Unique American art forms have been promoted as a result of the unfettered freedom artists enjoy in America. Though the creativity of the human spirit exists in every people, many lands squelch the opportunity of expression through government control or political power. Thus creative genius has flourished in American society, where limitations are basically nil. Just observing art from l830 to the present, one can identify a myriad of art forms. A few that are landmarks of mid- and late-twentieth century art offer some interesting considerations for the art student. Through a balanced approachHistory, Aesthetics, Criticism, and Productiona student can appreciate and experience some of these various styles. Representative of 1830 to present day are such styles as Hudson River, American Scene, Regionalism, Social Realism, Modern, and Postmodern art. Lesson content/skill focus: Overview of American Art Styles (1830 to present) HUDSON RIVER: The Hudson River School of Landscape Painting: An Overview

The first group of American Landscape painters emerged in the 1820s and became known as the Hudson River School. Many of them painted in and around the Hudson River Valley and the nearby Catskill and Adirondack Mountains. Artists, along with poets, novelists, and essayists, delighted in describing and depicting native scenery. In fact, the untrammeled wilderness and seemingly limitless expanse of virgin continent symbolized the nations potential for greatness.

Influenced by 17th century European landscapes, the works of the Hudson River School are characterized by panoramic views rendered with precise detail. These serene and awe inspiring vistas, in which one or two diminutive figures are often shown in quiet contemplation and in stark contrast to the gigantic scale of the landscape elements, were intended to invoke elevated thoughts and feelings. The pervasive glow of sunlight, evident in many of these landscapes is characteristic of Luminism, a trend among mid-nineteenth century artists who saw light as a landscapes most important binding ingredient as well as a symbol of divine presence. (Museum of Art at Brigham Young University)

Frederic Churchs painting View of the Hudson River Valley from Olana is typical of the Hudson River School. A sweeping vista, the Hudson River visible in the valley as seen from atop rugged mountains, and the delicate but rich tones of the sunset all create a sense of wonder and


awe. No indication of mans presence is given except in the titleOlana is the name of the house Church later built on that spot.

Two other members of the Hudson River School, Albert Bierstadt and Thomas Moran, came west and not only painted glorious scenes of western mountains but also influenced local artists, resulting in the Rocky Mountain Schoolbasically, the Hudson River School moved west. See Albert Bierstadts Salt Lake City, Wasatch Mountains, from AMERICAS EDEN, MOA pkt. April, 1998) The second generation of painters of the Hudson River School concerned themselves more with recording intimate scenes of nature and wilderness views gave way to pastoral scenes hinting of human habitation. This later approach was typified by sunset views of grazing cattle and rustic farmhouses as Americas pristine forests were settled.

Frederic Edwin Church, View of the Hudson River Valley from Olana BYU Museum of Art DISCUSSION Show students the artworks View of the Hudson River Valley from Olana and Forgotten Man and have students postulate the changes in America that are represented by the two artworks. Then add the artwork Cottage Industry or Seer and ask students what it represents. See if students can create an accurate timeline of the American artworks in the packet. Have students justify why they put a particular artwork in a particular place by referring to specific information about the artwork. For example, The Artists Wife and Daughters is a realistic portrait of a woman and two girls in old-fashioned clothes, so it goes before Snow Queen. Have students check the actual dates and discuss why some of the artworks were hard to order. For example, Snow Queen and Keeper of the Gate were both created within a few years of each other and both look rather modern. This exercise should help students understand trends in art production over the years and prepare them for the following activities. Country-168


History: Repeatedly and historically, art has returned to Realism. Because of the economic depression gripping the United States in the 1930s, progressive art (so embraced by the Post-Impressionists, the Dadaists and the Surrealists) began to retreat. Replacing it was art of the American Scene painters such as Edward Hopper (1882-1967) who focused on ordinary American subjects such as store fronts, movie houses, and all-night diners. No one else had thought such mundane subjects were worthy of an artists attention. Have the students look in depth at Hoppers work. See if the students can arrange his work into chronological order- or by subject matter. Have the students search on the internet to see if they can find any progressive art done by Hopper (Note: a great site is http://www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/hopper_edward.html) Criticism: Refer to Edward Hoppers Early Sunday Morning oil painting. Note and discuss what is seen in the painting as well as its emotional impact. feeling of loneliness temporary quietness significance of title familiarity of street, store fronts hidden life behind facades variety and rhythm of windows, doors balance of verticals, horizontals emphasis and objects of interestfire hydrant and barber pole

Aesthetics: Have students compare realist and non-objective artwork according to the formalist theory. Have students take positions supporting one view or the other. They should try to convince their audience of the merits of their art approach. This is a worthwhile debate as artists during this time period were usually divided as to their approach to art making. Following is some background on the formalist approach or theory: Formalist artists were not trying to make their art look real or imitate real objects. Many of their art works were non-objective or nonrepresentational. The artists were mainly concerned with the aspects of color, line, shape, texture, or value. This approach to art became known as the formalist approach because the artists were emphasizing the formal properties of art (i.e., elements of line, shape, color, space, texture, value, and form; and the principles of design). Formalist: Also called objectivist or organistic theories. This view is based on formal qualities (elements and principles of art), stressing design and how the Carlos Andreson, Expansive Form 1952 SMA Country-169

various parts of the composition relate to each other. Quality is based on the degree of coordination between all parts. Interpretation is not necessary because art does not rely on subject matter or viewers past experiences, but on whether or not the viewer can perceive the relationships among the visual elements. What is on the canvas is important, not what it represents. Production: Have students individually choose an ordinary scene such as gym bleachers, cafeteria serving line, a row of bathroom sinks, lockers leading to an outside door, etc., as a subject for an art work. Create a mood with subject, color, rhythm. Consider adding an object of interest such as a backpack, books, or a figure. Assessment: Class critiques and journal entries Critique artworks individually in front of class, telling one good attribute and one thing to be improved, all in artistic terms. Discuss the emotional impact of the artwork. Before and during the production of the work have the students make journal entries to document the processes used in creating the piece. The journal can also be used as a place for personal discoveries and descriptions pertaining to the generation of their ideas or products, and reflections and insights gained while completing the work. Use the journal entries as a way to evaluate their artwork. REGIONALISTS

History: Artists such as Grant Wood strived to hold on to the American past, basically defined in Midwestern terms, as in American Gothic. They wished to find what might be called a usable past in the history and local traditions of the nation. Through their art, they were trying to establish roots for a nation recovering from a Depression and war. Again, freedom of expression emerged in this school of painter as other artists responded to the times in a completely opposite way. Have the students identify works according to their various regions (e.g., Dorothea Langes photos of California migrant workers; Maynard Dixons Native American images, members of the Eights urban images; images of the South by Jacob Lawrence). Remember to include images that are distinctly Utah. Criticism: Observing Grant Woods American Gothic, discuss what indicates tradition emotion objects that identify Midwest cultural aspects what makes it successful as an art work Aesthetics: Have the students discuss the following questions: Maynard Dixon, Flathead Indian and Pony BYU MOA


Production: LeConte Stewart, Threshing Wheat in Porterville Assign students the creation of a pastoral or farm scene. Research magazines, books, photographs that show rolling farm land, gardens, barnyards, rural scenery. (Some students may never have experienced the country life!) Encourage the use of rhythm, repetition, and variety in color, texture, shapes, etc.

Do images have to be pleasant, pretty or beautiful in order to be considered art? Who should decide what is art? Can children create art? Can animals create art? Should every persons endeavor to create art be considered as art? Who decides what art gets displayed in an art museum? Is art that takes more time to create more valuable that art that can be done quickly?

Assessment: Using a rubric Have the students determine a rubrics for evaluating their work. Some aspects to consider might be does the work portray a rural setting, how much of the research was used in creating the work, to what degree is rhythm, repetition, and variety displayed? These concepts can be evaluated using a checklist or a rating scale. SOCIAL REALISTS History: Directly opposed to the Regionalists were the Social Realists who, though still painting the American scene, preferred to capture the despair of the Depression. These artists were more concerned with social reform and drew freely on the Ash Can School which flourished in New York just before World War I. (George Bellows and the Ash Can School may be referred to as background.) The Social Realists focused on the slums, urban life, and the endless subjects in everyday scenes. Artists such as Maynard Dixon were moved by the poor working conditions he observed. He expressed his feelings in his painting Forgotten Man, 1934. (Refer to Maynard Dixon Art Activity and Education Packet, BYU, 2000.) (Note: see Communities and Talents lesson for more background information and activities for Social Realism) Criticism: Discuss the following, relating to Forgotten Man: Describe the objects and elements within the work Analyze what element(s) are used to achieve Interpret the emotion expressed through color Interpret the feeling portrayed with the body language of the man and others Judge the work on how well is displays emotion Judge the work on the students personal likes or dislikes Country-171

Aesthetics: See Communities and Talents lesson for background and activity on the Instrumentalist theory.

Production: Students could be assigned to tell a story or display a social concern in a work. Depict an emotion or situation that others can readily identify. Use colors and a style that will contribute to the story. Assessment: Peer or family critique Have the students conduct a peer or family critique. This can be accomplished by having several of the students associates evaluate the work according to how well it promotes a social aspect. Some of the associates to critique could be a family member, a neighbor, a classmate, an official from the school such as another teacher or the janitor. Encourage the associates to write a short response of their observations/evaluations of the work. Include these social comments with their work as they display them. MODERN

History: Two of the Modern styles that emerged after World War II again sought to express an inner freedom. These were types of art often called action painting and color field painting. Now rebelling against the fear of nuclear holocaust and a Cold war, artists such as Jackson Pollock (Autumn Rhythm), and Mark Rothko ( Orange and Yellow), resorted to a nonobjective, poetic expression of gestures and color. Nonobjective art exists for the sake of design. It stands alone as a monument to one or more of the elements (line, shape, space, value, texture, color, form), or principles of design (unity, balance, variety, emphasis, contrast, rhythm, proportion). Or it may serve to express the emotion of the artist, and/or evoke an emotion from the viewer. Pollock created chance effects by pouring, splattering, and slinging the paint in an emotional release of energy that was his storehouse of pentup forces. He felt he conveyed himself to the canvass through this focus of intense emotion. Rothko, on the other hand, begins to move ones aesthetic sense of beauty of color and shape with his large shapes of orange and yellow color. This would especially be true if one could stand and look at the painting in real life Mark Rothko, Magenta, Black, Green on Orange, 1947, Museum of Modern Art. its over 7 feet tall! However, it is interesting to note This use of a low-resolution image of a two-dimensionthat Rothko was actually intent on conveying a tragic al work of art for critical commentary on the school outlook. He possessed a melancholy, philosophical to which the artist belongs qualifies as fair use under mind and consistently tried to show the tragedy of the United States copyright law. human condition in the face of inevitable death. Again, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:%27Magenta,_Black,_ freedom emerges, not only in artistic expression, but in Green_on_Orange%27,_oil_on_canvas_painting_by_ Mark_Rothko,_1947,_Museum_of_Modern_Art.jpg viewer interpretation! Country-172

Briefly compare a modern, nonobjective work with a social realist work. Use a venn diagram to facilitate the discussion. Have the students list the general characteristics of the two styles. Criticism: Describe each painting in detailmore difficult in a nonobjective work! Discuss rhythm color intensity of expression size and effect of size on viewer simplicity feeling and emotion

Aesthetics: Use a grid that lists the elements across the top and the principles down the side to help the students understand the formal aspects of modern artworks. Use a variety of nonobjective works to have the students determine which principle is dominant within the work and then have them determine which element(s) was used to achieve that principle. Formalist artists were very concerned with the formal aspects of their work.

See information under the Hudson River section of this lesson for more information regarding the formalist theory.

Production: Using the approach of Jackson Pollock orRothko, create a nonobjective art work (no recognizable objects) to represent a personal emotion or condition. Use colors, shapes, rhythm that will convey that emotion or condition.

Critique, seeing how others respond to the artwork createdthe same or different than intended. Remember, this is part of the expression of the freedom of the viewer as well as the artist.

Assessment: Using a design grid The grid or design chart discussed under Aesthetics above can be used as an evaluation tool for this artwork or for any other type of artwork. It helps the students identify the formal characteristics of their work and can be used as a way to organize or plan their work, in addition to evaluating it. PHOTOREALISM

History: Photorealism marked American painting in the l970s, again bringing a resurgence of Realism which continually surfaces in eras of artistic expressionalways with a little different twist. The new Photorealism began as an offshoot of Pop Art, popular in the 1950s and 60s. It partly came about as fascination with camera images. Photographs were utilized by artists from their inception in the early nineteenth century. However, this new art focused on textures, reflections, contrasts, and bringing emotion and nostalgia to the art works.Have students compare photographs with photorealists works. (Note: for more information and activities related to photorealism see art history section under the lesson My State) Country-173

Criticism: Discuss the following questions: Is art better if it portrays deep philosophical meanings/subject? Can you personally like a work of art even if it might not be a good work of art according to authorities? Is a photograph of an object as valuable as an artwork of the same object? What are some the skills and techniques an artist would use to create a photorealist work? Aesthetics: See My States lesson for background and activity on the Realist and Expressivist theories.

Production:Have students set up their own small, individual still life displays. They should be objects meaningful to each person. Using oil pencils, have students create a Miniature. Concentrate on details, values, and exact execution of shapes. Make as photogenic as possible, but be aware that the artists own composition and choice of objects will be the vehicle to convey emotion.

Chris Young, Poppies & Bottles

Younger students can practice photorealist techniques by choosing a black and white photo of a simple object such as an apple. Cut the photo in half and mount one half onto a piece of heavy drawing paper or illustration board. Tape the other half of the photo across the top of the photo so that it aligns with the mounted half but so the student can lift it up to see the drawing area underneath. Have the student complete the other half of the object by using a pencil and practicing shading, blending, proportions and so forth. The student can continue to flip down the half from the actual photo to check their work.

Assessment: Formative evaluation As the students are working on their artworks have them complete a formative assessment of the process. Have the students respond to one or more of the following questions: What am I learning right now? What aspect of this assignment is confusing to me? What changes would I make in this assignment to assure success? How does this assignment apply to my current status as a student? It is important that students look at the learning/skill development as the product progresses not just at the end of it.



History: Postmodernism is the antithesis of Modernism and rejects the formalism and nonobjectivenature of modern art while gradually returning to art which relates more obviously to the real world. Social and political issues such as racism and other inequalities, sexism, environmental and urban decay are often favored subject matters. Works range from expressive tendencies with intense color, bold distortions, and crude rendering of neo expressive works to traditional materials and figurative subject matters. The appropriation of imagery is a distinguishing Jacqui Larsen, Cottage Industry characteristic of postmodernism as artists question the possibility of originality in contemporary art. Exploration of media is evident as artists create with film, video, computers, and communication technologies. The types of art forms vary to include conceptual art, earth or environmental art, performance art, and happenings art. Many African American and also women artists now make their mark as traditional stereotypes of artists and art are redefined. Some believe it is the greatest expression of freedom and the purest form or artothers feel it is only a revelation of a decadent society, and that freedom means abiding by rules and law. As the term post suggests, America and the world are in a state of transition. So we see that Postmodern art forms are as diverse as the cultures that produce them as artists continue to integrate art and personal beliefs. Their diverse expression are constantly redefining art and society. Have the students explore the Postmodernist works of Judy Chicago, Julian Schnabel, David Salle, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Jeff Koons, Ed Kienholz, Leon Golub, Cindy Sherman, Jaune Quick-to-See Smith, Nancy Graves, Red Grooms, and/or Barbara Kruger. Have them catalog the diverse nature/ characteristics of all these artists. Criticism: Discuss what events in modern society have brought about the new art. Discuss what place, if any, rules have in art the role freedom plays in creating new art is original art more valuable than appropriated art? can you modify or appropriate another artists work and then claim it as your own? is anyone in the position to judge anothers artwork, or should that be up to the artist? should art be censored? should federal funds be used to support artists? Country-175

Aesthetics: Postmodern thought shows an increased awareness of the issues that center around women. In aesthetics this has led to another view of art called the feminist theory. Introduce the feminist theory from the following concepts regarding this theory:

are there some art forms that are not as important as others (e.g., quilting, basketry)?

Feminist: This view is based on the theory that womens experiences differ from mens and this concept must be taken into account when critiquing a work of art. Quality is based on the consideration of what it means to be female in the culture. It must be understood in the context of what was possible for women at the time the object was created (i.e., cultural attitudes, beliefs, and politics). Class, economic, gender, ethnic, and social considerations are important. This view also holds that art should be interpreted through a womans point of view and there should be less distinction between art and craft. Have the students view various postmodern works through the lens of a women. Have then report on how art reflects (or not) the current views of society. Production: Have the students choose a postmodern art form to replicate. Using the catalog/list generated for the art history section they can choose one or more characteristics to appropriate for their own work. They may choose to replicate a media, subject matter, approach, or theme. Assessment: Portfolios As the students begin their work have them create a portfolio of the various processes used in making the work. Some of the items for the portfolio might be brainstorming notes or sketches, examples of artworks that they chose to appropriate, or notes of various artists or artworks. Encourage the students to keep examples that did not work to show the process of being able to start over or adjust. Personal notes that reveal the artists intent or purpose might also be meaningful. Portfolios help document the many processes that go into art creation.

SUMMARY By experiencing a variety of recent styles of art through History, Aesthetics, Criticism, and Production, students increase their artistic knowledge and skills. The overriding liberties and freedoms in America have provided the vehicle for uninhibited expression and creativity in Visual Art. References Janson, History of Art, Harry M. Abrams, Inc., 1997.

Rosenthan, Norman and Christos Joachimides. American Art in the 20th Century, Prestel, 1993.


Sixth GradeThe World

Use the following information to help you create a webquest that relates to a particular area of your sixth grade study. Include history, music, drama, dance, and the visual arts to help students get a broad based understanding of a particular area of the world or of a specific time period. WebQuests What is a WebQuest?

According to Bernie Dodge, (2001) a WebQuest is

Why use WebQuests?

an inquiry-oriented activity in which most or all of the information used by learners is drawn from http://ifaq.wap.org/posters/www.html the Web. WebQuests are designed to use learners time well, to focus on using information rather than looking for it, and to support learners thinking at the levels of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation.

WebQuests provide structure and guidance both for students and for teachers. The stated ideal of engaging higher-level thinking skillsthough making good use of limited computer access--seems to resonate with many educators. Appropriate WebQuests are not merely worksheets with URLs. How to create a WebQuest Five guiding principles in creating WebQuests are captured in the word FOCUS: Find great sites.

Orchestrate your learners and resources. Challenge your learners to think. Use the medium. Scaffold high expectations.

Find Great Sites

Find sites that are readable and interesting to your students, up-to-date and accurate, and come from sources not ordinarily encountered in school. Master a search engine such as AltaVista, Google, and Northern Light. Learn the quirks and advanced search techniques. A useful web page is Seven Steps Toward Better Searching http://edWeb.sdsu. edu/Webquest/searching/sevensteps.html. World-177

Probe the deep Web which includes archives of newspaper and magazine articles, databases of images and documents, directories of museum holdings, and more. To locate some of these sites use Bernie Dodges page called Specialized Search Engines and Directories http://edWeb.sdsu.edu/ Webquest/searching/specialized.html. Dont lose what you find. Compile bookmarks from several computers by using a web based bookmark server such as Backflip (www.backflip.com). Once youve set up a free account, you can log in from any computer and look at or add to your bookmarks. One especially useful benefit is that you can set up categories and subcategories and put each bookmark into some kind of organizational framework as you find them. Orchestrate Learners and Resources A great WebQuest is one in which every computer is being used well and everyone has something meaningful to do at every moment. Therefore you need to organize resources and people as there are usually not enough computers to go around. Here are some of the possibilities for organizing resources: A single computer can be used to drive whole-class discussion and exploration with the teacher, not the students, controlling the pace. One to 10 computers can be used as learning stations for students to cycle through while others work offline. If the only access to the Internet students have is by a scheduled (and limited) set of lab periods, then a well-orchestrated lesson frontloads that lab visit with offline activities so students are prepared to use lab time well. If all computers dont have Internet access, then students can access Web archives created on another computer and saved on their hard drives.

Designing a great WebQuest is also a matter of organizing your learners. Though having teams and roles for students to play is not a critical attribute of a WebQuest, practical considerations lead to group work being more common than not. Cooperative learning strategies such as individual and group accountability, promoting interaction and interpersonal skills and group processing are important.h Much of the learning in a WebQuest takes place away from the computer as students teach, debate, and debug each others conceptualizations. Try to provide information that all members of the team will need to accomplish the end goal. Challenge Your Learners to Think A WebQuest can provide an engaging and complex backdrop on which to hang bits of knowledge that would otherwise seem static and inert. The key element of a great WebQuest is a great task. Its all about what we ask learners to do with information such as problem solving, creativity, design, and judgment. Find a list of these task types and examples on the San Diego State University WebQuest Taskonomy page http://edWeb.sdsu.edu/Webquest/taskonomy.html. Use the Medium

The pedagogical structure of a WebQuest is not limited to the use of the Web, but a WebQuest thats fully flexing the model could not be accomplished easily on paper. World-178

People. The internet is a network of people. In addition to selecting interesting and appropriate Web pages for your students to read, line up humans with expertise to share. There are ask-an-expert sites for many fields of study. Children in other classrooms can also serve as learning partners and sources of information. The ePALS site (www.epals.com) is an excellent way to connect with other schools. By creatively selecting and recruiting, you can bring other useful people into your lesson with a simple e-mail link. Conversation. You can add a page to your WebQuest that allows students to post their opinions and findings, and invite others outside your classroom to participate as well. The QuickTopic site (www. quicktopic.com) allows you to add an interactive forum to any Web page in a matter of seconds.

Selective glitz. Take advantage of audio, video, and images on the Web when appropriate. The FindSounds site ( www.findsounds.com) lets you search for sounds using keywords. The addition of a Webcam view associated with your lesson.The Earthcam site (www.earthcam.com) will help you find Webcam views. Scaffold High Expectations A great WebQuest asks students to do things they might not ordinarily do. Scaffolding is a temporary structure used to help learners act more skilled than they really are. Three types of scaffolding are: reception, transformation, and production. (See Scaffolding Tools at http://projects. edtech.sandi.net/staffdev/patterns2000) (Dodge, 2000).

Reception. The Web allows us to put students in touch with resources that they might not have seen before. If learners are not fully prepared to extract information from that resource, then everything else in the lesson will be based on shaky ground. A reception scaffold provides guidance in learning from a given resource and retaining what was learned. Examples of reception scaffolds include observation guides, tips on how to conduct interviews, and online glossaries and dictionaries.

Transformation. WebQuests ask learners to transform what they read into some new form. Because this might not have been commonly experienced by learners in their earlier education, they might benefit by explicit help on such processes as comparing and contrasting, finding patterns among a number of similar objects of study, brainstorming, inductive reasoning, and decision making. Production. WebQuests commonly require students to create things theyve never created before. The production aspects of the task can be scaffolded by providing students with templates, prompted writing guides, and multimedia elements and structures. By doing part of the work for students, we allow them to go beyond what they would be able to do alone. Conclusion The WebQuest model continues to evolve. Over time, the number of high-quality WebQuests available will increase. By following the five FOCUS principles, new WebQuest creators can take advantage of whats been learned as a community and give the next generation of teachers a better place to start. World-179


Search Tools:

AltaVista: www.altavista.com Dogpile: www.dogpile.com Google: www.google.com Internet Movie Database: www.imdb.com Northern Light: www.northernlight.com Yahoo!: www.yahoo.com

Other Web Sites:


American Memory Collection: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/mdbquery.html Process Guides page: http://projects.edtech.sandi.net/staffdev/tpss99/processguides/index.htm Dodge, B. J. (1995) Some thoughts about WebQuests [Online]. Available: http://edWeb.sdsu.edu/courses/edtec596/about_Webquests.html. Dodge, B. J. (2000, June). Thinking visually with WebQuests [Online]. Presentation at the National Educational Computing Conference, Atlanta, GA. Available: http://edWeb.sdsu.edu/Webquest/tv/.

Dodge, B. J. (2001, May) FOCUS - Five Rules for Writing a Great WebQuest [Online]. Featured article for International Society for Technology in Education. Available: http://edWeb.sdsu.edu/Webquest

Note: The majority of this information is an edited version of the Bernie Dodge article,FOCUS - Five Rules for Writing a Great WebQuest as mentioned above.



Helpful Websites

1. http://www.xmarks.com/site/falcon.jmu.edu/~ramseyil/drama.htm Must-see website which has dozens of links for Storytelling, Drama, Creative Dramatics, Puppetry, & Readers Theatre.

2. http://sagecraft.com/puppetry Everything you could possibly want to know about puppetry (uses in education, building, festivals, etc.) 3. http://www.3.sk.sympatico.ca/erachi challenging and creative teaching ideas. Includes lesson plans and related texts.

4. http://www.aate.com/ The official Alliance for Arts in Theatre Education website. Includes resources and current information on the state of theatre in education.

5. http://www.insightlearning.com Includes free learning-style personality test plus ten-day membership with over 2000 lesson plans which engage learners through dramatic teaching methods. 6. http://www.googlesyndicatedsearch.com/u/BYUa site to search for drama/theater workshops 7. http://www.childdrama.com/lessons.html links to a large variety of drama lessons with divisions by age level, lesson type, and cross-curricular content

8. http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/teach/les.cfm high-quality lessons searchable by age level, drama type, and cross-curricular content 9. http://www.eldrbarry.net/roos/art.htm a long list of websites for how to teach storytellingas well as links to storytelling resources online MUSIC WEBSITES 1. http://www.xmarks.com/site/falcon.jmu.edu/~ramseyil/songs.htm Resources on childrens music and songs: evaluation, reviews and articles. 2. http://www.musickit.com/ 3. http://preschooleducation.com/shelper.shtml In spite of the name, the songs onthis website are for any age World-181

4. http://www.lessonplanspage.com/Music.htm Music lesson plans for different age levels. Also includes other arts.

5. http://www.contemplator.com/america/ Popular Songs In American History Website. American Folk and Traditional Music with Lyrics, Midi Files, Tune Information and History behind the folksongs and ballads. With folksongs arranged by time period. 6. http://www.theteachersguide.com/kidsongs/ahuntingwewillgo.htm Downloadable lyrics and midi files for childrens songs DANCE WEBSITES 1. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mariachi History and description oif Maricahi music

2. http://www.mariachiconnecticut.com/ourmusic.html Clips and files of mariachi music

3. http://www.alegria.org/modules/content/ Links to different regions of Mexico with small videos of local dances

4. http://vofl3450.homeunix.net/danishfolk/Costumes/FC-Lund/home.html Full-color lithographs of traditional Danish folk costumes ART WEBSITES Art websites are included on the following page. The next 3 pages have educational websites of many kinds.


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Web Address http://www.artcyclopedia.com/index.html http://www.artlex.com/ http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/educators/lesson_ plans/art_design.html http://americanart.si.edu/research/tools/ask/ http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/teaching_materials/curricula/minisites.html http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/teaching_materials/curricula/curricula.cfm?subject_id=VIA http://www.uen.org/utahlink/activities/view_activity. cgi?activity_id=5353 http://www.uen.org/utahlink/activities/activities2.cgi?core_ area_id=5 http://www.usoe.k12.ut.us/

Description of Site art encyclopedia: fine art search engine art dictionary: pronounciation, images, definitions on artists, styles, terms Smithsonian art lesson plans Ask Joan of Art ArtsEdge mini-sites w/activities and resources on art themes ArtsEdge/Kennedy Center teaching materials UEN (Utah Ed. Network) art activity sites UEN art activities USOE (Utah State Office of Education) website Example of an art webquest Webmuseum network: over 10.000 articles Examples of art webquests Lesson plans, activities on visual arts/Sanford Art Ed websites Artedventures Watercolor articles/demos online Metropolitan Museum of Arts downloadable teacher publications The Mets podcasts for children Met Museum educational site - lots of resources Library of Congress organized by Memory, Reason and Imagination Art Room - activities, exhibits for children UMFA teacher resource center National Gallery home page Smithsonian magazines archives of art articles Adventures in art history (trapped inside an artwork) Art activities and links art exhibits Springville Museum of Art web site BYU Museum of Art web site Teacher info on Jacob Lawrence Teacher info on William Johnson art images images, bios, art information, links Contemporary Art information, news, images Lesson plans from the National Art Education Association

10 http://www.eduweb.com/pintura/ 11 http://ttt.teachtheteachers.org/projects/PWalker2/index.htm 12 http://www.techtrekers.com/webquests/ 13 http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/ 14 http://www.eduweb.com/portfolio/visualartsadv.php 15 http://www.alifetimeofcolor.com/main.taf?p=4 16 http://www.watercolor-online.com/ 17 http://www.metmuseum.org/explore/classroom.asp 18 http://www.metmuseum.org/podcast/index.asp 19 http://www.metmuseum.org/explore/index.asp 20 http://lcweb.loc.gov/exhibits/treasures/ 21 http://www.artjunction.org/ 22 http://umfa.utah.edu/TRC 23 http://www.nga.gov/home.htm 24 http://www.smithsonianmag.com/search/?keyword=arts 25 http://www.eduweb.com/insideart/index.html 26 http://www.theartgallery.com.au/kidsart.html 27 www.smofa.org 28 http://cfac-old.byu.edu/index.php?id=194 29 http://sheldon.unl.edu/HTML/ARTIST/Lawrence_J/SSII.html 30 http://americanart.si.edu/education/classroom/help/resources/ 31 artnet.com 32 art.com 33 http://www.myartspace.com/blog/archive/2009_04_01_blogmyartspace_archive.html 34 http://www.naea-reston.org/learning/lesson-planning


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Web Address

http://proflearn.classroom.com/ProfDev/Conferences/ Past/handouts.asp?confID=LVG01 http://lesliefisher.com/handouts/index.html http://essdack.org/?q=frontpage08 http://web.mac.com/tammy.w/TipOfWeek/ TammyWTechTipOfWeek/Tech_Tip_of_Week_Tammy_ Worcester.html http://web.mac.com/tammy.w/Tips/Ideas_Activities_ Tammy_Technology_Tips/Archive.html http://delicious.com/glennw98/lessonplans http://mtilley.wikispaces.com/ http://essdack.org/?q=frontpage08 http://www.literacyleader.com/ http://kevinhoneycutt.org/ http://michellef.essdack.org/ http://www.apple.com/quicktime/download/ http://electronicportfolios.com/ http://www.eduscapes.com/tap/topic82.htm http://www.altavista.com/ http://www.johndgreen.net/k12sites.htm http://www.funbrain.com/


**Copies of handouts from Classroom Connect conference Handouts on how to use a variety of software ESSDACKEducational Services & Staff Development Association of Kansas home page (next 8 entries) Tammy Worcesters technology tips for teachers such as an image search engine not blocked in schools Tammy Worcesters technology ideas and activities History lesson plans links A wide variety of resources and evaluations of resources ESSDACKEducational Services & Staff Development Association of Kansas home page resoreces & ideas for teaching reading, writing, listening, speacking, & thinking Using 21st C. technology Teaching math creating electronic portfolios Web resorces for creating electronic portfolios Locating video and sound on the internet **Educational websites by subject matter Learning network sites - use pull down menu

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http://soniacoleman.com/Tutorials/PowerPoint/Sound/ How to add sound to Powerpoint basics.htm http://www.pptbackgrounds.fsnet.co.uk/pptips.htm http://dkc.esc20.net/default.htm http://www.puzzlemaker.com/ http://school.discovery.com/clipart/index.html http://school.discovery.com/schrockguide/ PowerPoint hints and tips Curriculum/lesson planss/rubrics, kid safe search Puzzles and games http://school.discovery.com/clipart/index.html Teacher resource guide Jelly Belly bean art gallery *Great source for rubrics - Spanish too Download PowerPoint tutorial

24 http://www.jellybelly.com/ 25 http://rubistar.4teachers.org/
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http://search.conduit.com/ResultsExt. aspx?ctid=CT2319576&q=PowerPoint+-+EndNote+3+% E2%80%9CHOT+TIPS%E2%80%9D+Tutorial http://digitalstorytelling.coe.uh.edu/ http://questgarden.com/ http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/help/default.aspx

Digital storytelling how to and resources for creating webquests Guides for working with Office/PowerPoint

http://register.music-oasis.com/Download/index.aspx? Free sound effects s=soundeffects&c=450754&SessionId=2db92601-51714f68-9f3a87a2f0894131&fn=39eWECoPS&adid=2782002950 http://soundbible.com/ http://www.wavsource.com/ Free sound effects Sounds


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http://www.findsounds.com/ http://simplythebest.net/sounds/ http://www.mp3.com/ http://www.real.com/ http://edcommunity.apple.com/ali/ http://www.childrensmusic.org/webcasthowto.html http://www.how-to-podcast-tutorial.com/00-podcasttutorial-four-ps.htm http://epnweb.org/ http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2007/sep/18/ link.link16 http://www.moma.org/explore/multimedia/interactives-online-projects http://eduscapes.com/tap/topic43.htm http://www.eduplace.com/ http://www.sun-associates.com/lynn/pbl/pbl.html http://school.discovery.com/schrockguide/eval.html http://www.kn.pacbell.com/wired/fil/ http://www.webbrain.com/ http://www.dogpile.com/ http://www.searchengineguide.com/ http://www.refdesk.com/ http://www.homestead.com/ http://trackstar.hprtec.org/ http://www.keeboo.com/enu/index.asp http://www.blox.com http://gaggle.net/ www.epals.com http://www.4teachers.org/projectbased/checklist. shtml http://www.actden.com/

Sound sources Sounds Music and audio plus streaming media Streaming media - Real Player 8 - free Apple Learning Exchangelessons, activities, podcasts, movies, images, resources How to create a music webcast How to podcast Educational podcasts, includes student work Why schools should podcast and sources

Online projects at Museum of Modern Art, NYC, NY Project, Problem, and Inquiry-based Learning Examples of project-based online learning Examples of project-based online learning Evaluations of internet resources Filamentality-helps for web-based lessons Search engine for the web Mega-search engine Search engine guide Research tools - 500 online directories and language translators Creating a website *TrackStar - learning site highlighting online projects Create multimedia books on the web -virtual books (see #1) Free online spreadsheets and electronic presentation tool Free email monitor w/filters Teacher monitored email for students Online electronic checklist tool Online tutorials on application tools

http://brainconnection.positscience.com/ http://www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Bloom/blooms_ taxonomy.htm http://www.alexams.com/Capella/ED7503_InstMedia/ bloom%20taxonomy.htm http://www.fno.org/ http://www.freeinquiry.com/critical-thinking.html http://www.sjsu.edu/depts/itl/graphics/main.html http://www.edwdebono.com/

Brain research/how the brain works/puzzle of the week New descriptions of Blooms Taxonomy How to apply Blooms Taxonomy to the classroom From now on learning - McKenzie examples Critical Thinking Critical thinking 6 thinking hats from Edward de Bono - great games too


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http://www.piecesoflearning.com/ http://www.netsmartz.org/ http://www.cyberbee.com/

Nancy Johnson author of Questioning makes the difference Online safety for kids Copyright, curriculum formats for kids

http://www.kn.pacbell.com/wired/fil/pages/listgamesli. Hotlist on games html http://www.eduplace.com/math/brain/ http://www.deathclock.com/ http://www.jigzone.com/ http://www.teacherweb.com/ online-technology-training-modules.html Web+2.0+Photo+Tools Brain teasers - by age level Internet clock - keeps track how much longer you will live Jigsaw puzzels Free teacher bulletin board Technology tutorials Techno-constructivist websites 60 days trial on digital curriculum - free black line masters Educational links - lesson plans

76 http://carlanderson.blogspot.com/2009/07/free77 http://technoconstructivist.wikispaces.com/ 78 http://www.digitalcurriculum.com/ 79 http://oops.bizland.com/



Lee Udall Bennion (1956 ) Spring City, Utah Snow Queen: Portrait of Adah 1992 oil on canvas 48" x 36" (121.9 x 91.4 cm)


Born March 17, 1956, in Merced California, Lee Bennion moved to Utah in 1974 to study art at Brigham Young University. In 1976, she married ceramicist Joseph Bennion and moved to the rural setting of Spring City in Sanpete County, Utah. Today she has three daughters and is energetically involved in both church and community activities in the family-oriented life of Spring City. In 1983, Lee returned to Brigham Young University where she earned a Master of Fine Arts in painting. She has received numerous honors and awards from the Art Community, is a frequent participant in presentations and workshops for artists and educators, and has been the featured subject of several articles in national art publications, including Southwest Art.

reach the viewer, and some kind of dialogue occurs that goes beyond the recognition of the subject.

Lees commitment to family is reflected in the subject matter of many of her paintings. Her husband Joe believes the objects Lee sees with her eyes are transferred as visual information through the conduit of her soul. Lee Bennions distinctive style, with its pensive, elongated figures, is not so much portraiture as her own special harmony between subject, emotional atmosphere, and viewer. She says of her work, Although I primarily paint the figure, portraiture is not my main concern. My painting deals with form, color, and feelings foremost. Often a likeness of my model is also found in my paintings, and I enjoy this when it happens. My figures are often slightly distorted, never quite perfect, but hopefully still reflect the warmth and goodness that I feel exists within them. I am most pleased when these feelings

Redheaded Adah Bennion, the youngest of three children of Joseph and Lee Bennion of Spring City, is often the subject of her mothers paintings. Snow Queen, depicts the six year old in her pajamas standing in a window casement, with cutout paper snowflakes on the glass panes. In her left hand, Adah holds a troll doll, her hand covering its face. All the viewer sees is the dolls legs and bright red-orange hair.


Typical of Lee Bennions work is the composition, which concentrates upon the essential componentsin this case, the window and figure. Another feature of Bennions work is the elongated figure, whose position she arranges to create an effective design. In this oil painting we see Adah gazing impishly at

the viewer, while her pink-stockinged foot is wedged on the side of the window casing.

Although a bright, engaging portrait of her daughter, this painting, like Bennions other work, has layers of meaning and references. There is a visual play on words in the paper snowflakes on the inside of the window and the real snowflakes outside. The troll doll is a reference to time and a tie to Lees own childhood, when the dolls were first popular. Bennion also says that at the time of the painting, when Adah was young, Lees life primarily revolved around her family and home, and she was inside much of the time. Thus, subconsciously, she painted the interior scene to represent her life, and the window to represent the future changes and possibilities.

As with most of Lees work, Snow Queens subject looks out at the viewer with an unusually direct gaze, not only conveying Adahs personality, but also allowing Lee, as the painter, to engage the viewer through that gaze.



Fredric Edwin Church (1826-1900) View of the Hudson River Valley from Olana (1867) Oil on canvas 12-1/4 x 20-3/8

Frederic Edwin Church was one of America's finest nineteenth century oil painters. He was born in Hartford, Connecticut on May 4, 1826. He received training at the hands of accomplished artists. He first studied with two local artistsAlexander Hamilton Emmons (1816 - 84) and Benjamin Hutchin Coe (1799 - 1883). He then was privileged to be Thomas Cole's first student. Thomas Cole was one of the founders of the Hudson River School. From Cole he learned the technique of oil sketching. Cole used oil sketches to develop an idea for a painting. Often these sketches would be done indoors in his studio. greatest natural wonders, Niagara Falls. In this work, Church portrays the effects of the glorious combination of light and water. He also proves his mastery in painting water. Additionally, his Heart of the Andes (1857), painted from one of his South American expeditions, won him great fame for its remarkably rich depiction of the South American mountain jungle. Painting accurate

Church adopted Cole's oil sketching technique and took it out into nature. "Plein air' oil sketches were not a new development. Pieffe Henri de Valenciennes (17501817) praised this method in his book, Elements of Practical Perspective, (1800). Asher B. Durand (1796 - 1886), an earlier Hudson River artist, also advocated the careful study of nature outdoors. He is believed to be among the first in this country who painted directly from nature.

In 1849 Church came into his own as an artist with his painting, West Rock, New Haven (Haying Near New Haven), which was exhibited at the National Academy of Design, New York. This is an idyllic, pastoral landscape of remarkable clarity of form. The giant West Rock looms in the background of the painting, with the foreground taken up by a field of plowed hay detail in a landscape was one of Church's hall being gathered by farmers. Another work which marks. helped to establish Church. as one of America's greatest landscape painters was Niagara (1857). View of the Hudson River Valley from Olana This painting captures the purity and power (1867) was painted a few years before he began of America's edenic wilderness in one of her construction on his Persian-style, Victorian Artists-189

mansion, Olana, on that spot in New York state. In 1860, Church had bought the Wynson Breezy farm and he built a small cottage on it in 1861. In 1867, he increased his holdings to include the summit of Siengenbergh, on which, in 1870, he started to build the home he called Olana, which comes from an Arabic word meaning our place on high. Church considered this spot the center of the world.

paintings by Church of his Hudson River property. It is a testimonial to Churchs adoration of the natural world.

Frederic Edwin Church died on April 7, 1900 in New York. References:

In View of the Hudson River Valley from Olana, over half of the picture plane is devoted to the sky and clouds. Church masters the brilliance of the fading sunset: the clouds slowly fade from a fiery pink-orange to a more subdued grayishlavender. View of the Hudson River Valley from Olana is one of the only fully completed

Gibbs, L.J. (1994). 150 Years of American Painting. Brigham Young University, Museum of Art, Provo, Utah.

Stebbins, T.E., Jr. (1978). Close Observation: Selected Oil Sketches by Frederic E. Church. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Turner, J. (Ed). (1996). The Dictionary of Art. Vol. 7. Groves Dictionaries Inc., New York.

Prepared by Allyson Hawkins, Museum of Art, Brigham Young University

Fredric Churchs mansion, Olana photo credit, Hudson Valley Network

Additional Sources: Paintings and biography www.stanford.edu/~ulysses/painting/ church/ Niagra Falls www.iaw.com/~falls/cataract.html



Maynard Dixon (1875-1946) California/Mt. Carmel, Utah Forgotten Man 1934 oil on canvas 40 x 50

Maynard Dixon was a product of the West. Born January 24, 1875, in Fresno, California, his remarkable paintings of Western landscapes and of American Indians depicted a land and a people that Americans wanted to romanticize. Dixons painting career can be divided into three primary phases. During his first phase, he began painting desert scenes in a simplified, almost cubist manner. Later, after marrying his second wife, the Depression-era photographer Dorothea Lange, he turned to melancholy, stylized images of the Great Depression and to turbulent views of city life.

contrasting colors and bold composition make the painting seem larger than it is. In addition, Dixon's approach to painting the road and its surroundings both created a relaxing view of the area and glorified its natural setting. He made no attempt to add details to make it more lovely, but painted nature as he saw it, letting the beauty of the landscape stand for itself.

In his later years, he married fellow muralist and artist, Edith Hamlin, and maintained a successful studio in San Francisco. However, because of Maynards increasingly poor health, in 1939 he and Edith moved to Tucson, Arizona, where they established a winter home. During the summers they lived in the Mt. Carmel, Utah, and Dixon returned to studying the landscape of the West. The two of them made painting trips to surrounding areas as Maynards health allowed. According to Robert Olpin, "Dixon continues to be recognized as the greatest painter to capture the grandeur and monumentality of the Southern Utah landscape." Road to the River, Mt. Carmel, Utah depicts a view from behind his house, looking toward the muddy Virgin River. In the small oil, he has portrayed nature in a calm manner, contrasting the serene, blue mountains with the energetic, golden poplars. The artist chose to paint a simplified view of the area, subduing the foreground colors and creating strong geometric, almost cubist, figures. The


Dixon's painting manner is difficult to classify. Olpin describes him as a Cubist Realist; however, his lifes works also show the influence of the Impressionists, the Modernists, and painters of the old West such as Frederic Remington. He was a social critic and a poet, fearlessly painting commentaries on the plight of the Native American and the victims of the Great Depression. He lived among the figures he painted, spending time among the Hopi, Blackfoot, and Navajo Indians, and living in undeveloped Western areas like Taos, New Mexico, and Mt. Carmel. His character and

his work make him one of the West's greatest painters.

Ultimately, Dixon's goal was to touch our human side with his landscapes and scenes of the city. He wanted to allow us to feel. He makes this point in one of his poems, written under his trademark thunderbird signature, "This is my mark, / this is the mark I make / upon your heart." As he once said, "Painting, as I see it, must be human rather than artyit is a means to an end. It is my way of saying what I want you to comprehend. It is my testimony in regard to life, and therefore I cannot lie in paint." Maynard Dixon died in 1946, and in the spring of 1947, his wife, Edith, scattered his ashes near their beloved Mt. Carmel home. As author Donald J. Hagerty states in Desert Dreams, Standing there, [Mt. Carmel] you can look west toward Zion National Park, beyond which the landscape descends toward the silent vastness of the great Basin. In every direction, the West unfolds: mesas, buttes, lovely valleys and spectacular canyons. . . . Hundreds of other places, named and unnamed, echo back in form, color and light. This is where [the] artist searched for beauty and understanding, revealing the spirit of a time and a place through his work . . . This is Maynard Dixon country. Albright.Art in the San Francisco Bay Area , exhibition catalogue Hagerty, Donald J. Desert Dreams The Salt Lake Tribune Olpin, Robert. Dictionary of Utah Art



James T. Harwood (1860-1940) Lehi/SLC Boy and Cat: My Little Son, Heber James 1910 oil on canvas 40" x 32-1/4"

J. T. Harwood was born in Lehi, Utah, on April 8, 1860, into an arts-oriented family. As a youth he spent time sketching, and later studied art with Utah artists George M. Ottinger and Danquart A. Weggeland. In 1888, at their urging, Harwood became one of the first of a group of Utah-born artists to travel to France and study art in Paris. Before going to Paris, Harwood fell in love with his art student, Harriet Richards; and in 1891, while in Paris, they married. In 1892, he became the first Utahn to have a painting in the prestigious Paris Salon. During the next few years, the Harwoods divided their time between a Salt Lake City studio and Paris, where they returned repeatedly for refresher experiences. In 1904, having returned to the United States, James began to teach art in the local Salt Lake City high schools and to paint in his studio. During the period of 1907 to 1910, Harwoods work changed from tightly controlled Academic Realism paintings similar to the 17th century Dutch and became more oriented toward tonalism and somewhat broader in approach as he moved toward Impressionism. In April of 1921, his beloved Harriet died. Two years later, Harwood became the head of the art department at the University of Utah. As chairman, he developed an art program which craftsmanship, an emphasis that was carried forward long after Harwood was gone. In December of 1927, Harwood met and fell in love with a young literature student, Ione Godwin. Their relationship was considered scandalous because of the age difference of

47 years, but on June 1, 1929, they married. Harwood found in Ione the inspiration to begin a re energized period of work.

At 70, Harwood resigned from the University of Utah to have more time to paint and took his family to Paris once again, where he painted, made prints, and participated in exhibits. Over the next nine years, Harwoods art became recognized for its pointillist style. He made frequent trips to Europe until 1939, when the threat of war kept the Harwoods in Salt Lake City, where he died in October of 1940.


Harwood, although an exacting draftsman, had a warm personality and was known as a patient, loving teacher. As an artist, he is known for charming slice of life genre paintings like Boy and Cat: My Little Son, Heber James and Richards Camp, Holiday ParkWeber Canyon as well as for his later pointillist landscapes. He also was a gifted printmaker and watercolorist.

In Boy and Cat: My Little Son, Heber James , the artists fifth and last child, Heber James Harwood (1905- ), is shown sitting on a pew from an old Latter-day Saint (LDS) chapel, which Harwood bought and put in his studio. The barefooted Heber James wears overalls while he sits and eats a raisin bun. A pet cat curiously sniffs, interested in the food, and the childs eyes tenderly engage the viewer. The picture is a warm embodiment of family life, painted by a caring father, James T. Harwood.

The painting is a combination of the Academic Realist and Impressionist styles. The emphasis on rational space, clarity, order, calm and quiet which Harwood adopted from the academic tradition is combined in this painting with the beginnings of the influences Impressionism would have on him. Through the use of the impressionist brush technique, Harwood was able to capture the essence of the young boy without resorting to minute details.


ARTIST: Brower Hatcher (1942 ) TITLE: Seer 1995 MEDIA: Mixed SIZE: 22' x 6' x 5'

Brower Hatcher was born in 1942 in Atlanta, Georgia. Since childhood he has constructed "elaborate fantasy worlds, miniature landscapes, rivers, roads, houses, water wheels." These constructions exercised his creative abilities and allowed him to enter his "private world," a place that today could be called his artistic imagination.

After graduating from high school, Hatcher entered Vanderbilt University in Nashville, Tennessee. He assumed a degree in engineering would help bring his "involvement with building" into focus. His artistic imagination, however, began to conflict with the pragmatic course work in civil and mechanical engineering. In an effort to maintain balance, Hatcher left Vanderbilt for the Pratt Institute in New York to study industrial design. Although Hatcher pursued his required studies long enough to receive a Bachelor of Industrial Design degree in 1967, he had begun his lifelong work as a sculptor by simultaneously studying with Anthony Caro and other English artists. This led to an invitation from Caro for Hatcher to study at the St. Martin's School of Art in London. It was here that Hatcher began to form theories about his art, ideas about rational art and logical systems," that continue to influence his work.

He completed an M.F.A. equivalent degree in 1969 and continued at St. Martin's as an Hatcher soon began suspending figures, instructor until 1972. He then secured a teaching symbols and other objects in these geometrical position at Bennington College in Vermont where webs. As his works began to grow in size, he eventually became head of the sculpture he started collaborating with engineers and division. Hatcher now resides in Diamond Point, computer scientists. He is known today for New York where he devotes his time to his family his large public sculptures, such as the 32 foot and to his sculptural pursuits. Artists-195

In England, Hatcher's earlier works of abstract shapes of woven colored wire, dubbed "color bushes," were experiments with mathematical systems and color. At Bennington, these works evolved into "space-frame" constructions of small polyhedral modules connected by geometrical shapes.

standing figure, The Principle of Justice in the Municipal Courthouse of Roanoke, Virginia; Starman in the Ancient Garden in Philadelphia; Prophecy of the Ancients at the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis; and now Seer at the Museum of Art at Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah. Frank MacIntyre

References: Arts Council Collection. London: Arts Council of Great Britain, 1979:118 Knobler, Nathan. The Visual Dialogue. 3rd edition. New York, et al.: Holt Rhinehart and Winston, 1980. Higuchi, Shoichiro. Public Art: Urban Sculpture of 50 Cities in USA. Tokyo, 1990

Some of the items suspended in the metal web of Seer

A wagon wheel like the ones on the wagons the early settlers used to travel across the plains to Utah A beehivethe official symbol of the state of Utah

An allosaurus skulla dinosaur found only in Utah

A cricketthey threatened to eat all the first crops. The pioneers were saved by seagulls that ate the crickets.

Brigham Young



Joseph, Haiti Haitian Harvest 1975 oil on canvas 16 x 24


This artist, who goes only by the name Joseph, is a contemporary Haitian artist of the naif, or naive school of art. Haitian art has a rich history and a number of styles of art, but it is known as one of the worlds biggest producers of highquality naive art. slave trade to maintain this economic position. This reliance on slaves set up several future problems for Haiti. First, the slaves brought with them their religious practices of Voodoomore a lifestyle than religion, but at odds with the Catholicism of the French. Second, the French were unduly harsh with the slaves, creating hatred in an already resentful environment. Third, a class of mulattos arouse, helping to create the class system that is still in place today, in which a minority of light-skinned, Catholic, sophisticated, French-speaking, and wealthy Haitians are pitted against the dark-skinned, voodoo-worshipping, Creole-speaking, and poverty-stricken masses. (www.medalia.net/ Hhistory.html) Since a successful slave revolt in 1791, Haiti has been in a state of anarchy, with rampant poverty among the large lower class, with a

Haiti, a tiny island in the Caribbean, has majestic mountains that look down on sandy beaches with palm trees and green valleys dotted with bright hibiscus flowers. What it doesnt have is tourists. The reason this potential tropical paradise has few tourists is its tragic, turbulent history of abuse, bloodshed, power, and greed. (www.medalia.net/Hhistory.html)

In December of 1492, when Christopher Columbus landed on the island, the native Arawak Indians called it Hayti, or mountainous land. The Spaniards imperialistic ideology dictated that they use and abuse the Arawaks nearly to the point of extinction. Because Haiti has fertile soil and a strategic position, it was sought after by Britain, France, and Spain, becoming a French colony in the middle of the 17th century. (www.medalia.net/Hhistory.html) Although Haiti flourished under the French Haiti became invaluable for its

cocoa, cotton, sugar cane, and coffeethe success brought increasing demands for cheap labor, which they supplied by importing slaves from the west coast of Africa. (www.medalia.net/Hhistory.html) By 1780, Haiti was one of the richest regions of the world, and France relied heavily on the Artists-197

Haitian Harvest, Joseph

short period of stability during the American occupation from 19151934. Although the American occupation resulted in an improved infrastructure, in 1957, Francois Duvalier, Papa Doc, declared himself President for Life. His repressive government ruled by terror and failed to help the people educationally or economically. When Duvalier died, his son Jean Claude, Baby Doc, came into power. His government, still oppressive and greedy, improved the peoples lot little. Since Baby Doc was exiled to France, the country has been ruled by elected officials and military leaders, none of whom have been able to lead the country effectively nor solve its problems of poverty, instability, and divisive class distinctions.


Since that explosion of Haitian art, several different schools or styles have developed as groups of artists have disagreed and split to form their own academies, each with its own philosophy. (Michel-Philippe Lerebours, Brief Overview of Haitian Art, found at: (www. studiowah.com/intro/lerebours.html p. 1) Some artists have joined the modern art world, and have carved themselves places in the American art market. These artists actually outnumber the naif painters, at least those who left their mark on the saga of Haitian painting during the last 40 years. (Bloncourt, p.1) Within the naif or naive tradition, there are several different styles, although certain art historians argue some of these groups actually should not be categorized as naive, such as the voodoo painters, or those termed painters of dreams. (Bloncourt, p.1) But many artists still exist whose colorful, detailed works of daily life convey their optimistic versions of Eden. These artists portray an innocence that art historian Gerald Bloncourt asserts naive art must havean authentic purity that comes not just from a lack of outside influences but also from an untainted vision . . . of creation.

Out of this complicated and often tragic history has come a rich art tradition that owes much to the complex Indian-French African-Spanish culture that spawned it. The first artists whose work came to the attention of the art world were self-taught artists with no preconceived idea of what art should be. This lack of outside influence resulted in an art that portrays the whole kaleidoscope of Haitian life and spirit with an unprecedented vividness, openness, and honesty. (www.egallery.com/about.html p. 1)

However, as early as 1807, King Henry Christophe had encouraged cultural activities, and around 1820, the French artist Barincourt founded an art school in Port-au-Prince. We also know that some of the artists working in Haiti from 1830 1850 were trained in France and worked out of Port-au-Prince and CapHaitian. Other academies of drawing, painting, and sculpture were founded in the 1850s, in 1860, 1880, 1915, and 1930. Then in 1943, an American, DeWitt Peters, moved to Haiti and To look at examples of Haitian art, go to http:// founded the Centre de Arte and became the www.galleryofwestindianart.com/ This site, by the has spark that set the powder off and . . . detonated many examples of haitian art, and the images [a] formidable explosion of Haitian Art. (Gerald enlarge when clicked on. Bloncourt, Haitian Painting: Reflections on Naifs and Moderns, found at: www.studiowah.com/intro/bloncourt.html p. Artists-198

Although little is known about the artist Joseph, his work is typical of the naive artists of CapHaitianbright colors, elegant lines, detailed brushwork and meticulous paint handling. He paints everyday life, but his view is optimistic, depicting Haiti as the lush paradise it could be; a better life he may have experienced only on a canvas. (www.haitianart.com/biointro.htm p. 2)


William S. Kendall (18691938) New York The Artists Wife and Daughters 1906 oil on canvas 60 x 40

William Sargeant Kendall was born in Spuyten Duyil, New York, in 1869. He began studying at the Art Students League in New York when he was seventeen. At nineteen, he went to Paris and was accepted into Ecole des Beaux Arts. Two years later, at 21, he had a painting accepted in the Salon and was awarded an honorable mention. Since acceptance at the Salon was still the worldwide standard for success, his award brought him letters of congratulation from American collectors and an offer of a teaching job at the Copper Union in New York City. However, he was convinced to study for another year in France. Returning to the U.S. in 1892, Kendall took a studio in the University Building on Washington Square in New York City. He taught a womens painting class at the Cooper Union from 1892 to 1895. One of his students was Margaret Weston Stickney, whom he married early in 1896, a little more than a year after they met. Kendalls pictures of his family fall into four principal categories; mother and child, girl and mirror, tree pictures, and youthful nudes. The subject he loved most and which he painted most extensively was mother and child. Kendall made numerous preparatory drawings and sometimes created a complete color cartoon. Although he made corrections in anatomy and design before beginning to paint, his canvases still usually took him months to complete.

Their first child, Elizabeth, was born that fall on Gerrish Island off the coast of Maine, where they had spent the summer painting. With Elizabeths birth Kendall found his subject matter: his family. Beatrice was born in 1902 and Alison in 1907, so for about 25 years he always had a Kendall child to paint.

Kendall specialized in painting children and many of his best paintings are of his own daughters. The Artists Wife and Daughters depicts his wife and two little daughters at evening time. A feeling of peace, of maternal tenderness, and of filial devotion emanate from the canvas. Artists-199

Like may artists of the period, Kendall relied on portraits for part of his income. His sitters included Helen Huntington (later Mrs. Vincent Astor), and President William Howard Taft. However, posing for Kendall was no easy task. Helen Huntington sat 24 times before Kendall considered her full-length portrait finished. His usual fee for a full-length portrait was $4,000; a head alone was $1,500; head and hands, $2,000; and a half length portrait, $3,000. ( p 1027)

When his painting Alison was exhibited at the Art Institute of Chicago in 1910, it won the Potter Palmer gold medal and $1,000 and was bought by the Buffalo Fine Arts Academy/ Albright Art Gallery. However, in the 1940s, abstractions were in vogue and the museum auctioned the painting for a fraction of the price the museum had paid for it. Today, the paintings whereabouts is unknown.

Over the years, Kendall won numerous prizes, including a medal at the Carnegie Institute in 1900, a medal at the Paris Universal Exposition of 1900, the Shaw Prize of the Society of American Artists in 1901, and the Shaw Fund Purchase Prize in 1903. In 1901 he was elected an associate of, and in 1905, an academician of the National Academy of Design. William Kendall began teaching at Yale University, becoming head of the department of fine arts in 1913, and moving his family to New Haven. One former student described Kendall as being intensely earnest, unalloyed by a sense of humor, and given to fits of displeasure. Perhaps because of his extensive duties, his portraits from this periodmany of Yale deans, appear stiff and uninspired. (p. 1028)

William S. Kendall, An Interlude Public domain http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:An_interlude.jpg

In the fall of 1921, the Kendalls were divorced. Then in March 1922, Kendall resigned from Yale, and in June, sold the New Haven house. Shortly thereafter, he married his longtime friend, student, and occasional model, Christine. He was 53 and she was 32. Increasingly unhappy about the growing dominance of modern art in New York City, the Kendalls moved to an isolated, mountainous area near Hot Springs, Virginia, with a view across the Allegheny Mountains into West Virginia. There they built a large house and stables for the Arabian horses they raised and rode year round. Kendall continued to exhibit, turning to classical subjects, mostly adult nudes, with

romantic Greek titles such as Eidolon (ideal or insubstantial) and Cyridedia. However, his inspiration was gone; there were no more Kendall girls to paint. References

Antiques, pp124-129 November 1983



Jacqui Biggs Larsen (1962- ) Springville, Utah Cottage Industry 1998 Mixed media 48 x 66

As a girl, Jacqui Biggs Larsen rode her bike down to the local strip mall and dug through dumpsters for bits of this and that, which she used to make cards for her family. However, when she majored in art at BYU, she was pushed toward a more academic approach, partly by the structure of the art program, which focuses in the beginning on developing basic skills and a visual vocabulary. In her advanced classes she was dissuaded at times by particular teachers from creating the kinds of works she now createsa complex combination of collage, montage, and assemblage that generally includes some drawing and painting. believes these artifacts provide an entrance to her pieces and physically attach them to the here and now. This dual role of the artifacts, being old but in the present, is representative of what Larsen says is at the heart of our experience contradiction. We are part earthly creatures and part spiritual, and Larsen seeks in some way to bring these realms together. Like many postmodernists, Larsens work is layered with meaning, and although the symbols often have personal meaning, they also are

Jacqui Larsen says her works are, like many artists, ways to define the self, to explore who she is. Although her works are Postmodernist (see The Art section, definitions), she says none of the academic work was left behind or lost, just incorporated into the particular kind of work she now does. (She is remembered by classmates as being one of the best draftsmen in their classes.) Her works reflect the complexity of the times, the complexity of womens lives, and in particular, her own complexity. She says she finds herself exploring childhood, sisterhood, maternityin ways that question western traditions of idealism. By replacing representations of femaleness with images of everyday women, I hope to piece together new myths and narratives. In these ways, Larsen is also a feminist artist, concerned with issues contemporary women face. To create her artworks, Larsen uses actual artifactsphotographs, torn-up maps, pins, string, casters, quilts, old savings stamps. She


universal enough to allow viewers to understand and to tie the images and ideas into their own experiences. Larsen wants to know why and how she got to be who she isto be aware of choices and possibilities. Viewers who seek to understand Larsens work are likely to find themselves

motivated to explore and question as well.

Jacqui Biggs Larsens ability to create powerful artworks that provoke us to examine our lives and what they mean has garnered her many awards, fellowships, and grantsmost recently, two grants and a fellowship from the Utah Arts Council, and the first place award in the Spring Salon at the Springville Museum of Art, April 1998.

of its history of household use,made the perfect background against which I could juxtapose more mechanized images. The picture frame, for instance, crops the young girl ironing at the shoulders, perhaps reducing her to a specific function.

Larsens piece, Cottage Industry, also is a feminist work, in the best sense; it explores issues common to women. The artwork protests the categorization, duplication, and trend following that is particularly strong among women. However, the artwork does not reject all traditional values. The composition uses an antique quilt as the stretched backing. The quilt is mellowed, worn, beautiful, but not a carefully made heirloom. The pieces vary in size and shape not as parts of a particular design, but rather with what must have been available scraps. The doll clothes are from a Shirley Temple doll, the child actress who defined what a beautiful little girl should be for at least two generationsdimples, carefully curled ringlets and a combination of brighteyed innocence and sweet flirtationa real doll. The numbered tickets along the sides of the piece, the repetition of images, and the joined rulersused to produce two drawings with the same proportionsall protest the production of copies, especially copies of people.

The three Shirley Temple paper doll dresses, I hope, are more open ended: are they other worldly Muse figures, or societal cutouts suggesting appropriate girlhood activities, such as dancing, gathering fruit, or making crafts? By repeating the image of myself ironing across the bottom of the canvas, I not only echo the rhythm of the repeating quilt squares, but also mimic an industrial production line, one which produces little girls as though from a template. The act of ironing, then, becomes the girls difficult work: how to labor authentically and become a self rather than a product.

Jacqui herself says, In Cottage Industry, I found myself exploring tensions between childhood and societal expectations. Even the title echoes this. Cottage implies a quaint domestic setting, one in which a four year old, like the one pictured ironing (who happens to be me), could grow up unimpeded. Industry, on the other hand, suggests a mechanized, defined outcome or product. I began this piece with a vintage quilt as background. It caught my attention because of its obvious homemade quality, pieced together from sewing scraps and worn clothing, and the randomness of the colors and patterns. The rips and stains, echoes Artists-202


Nok, Nigeria Male Head c. 2nd Century AD Terra Cotta


The Nok tradition represents the earliest known sculpture yet found in sub-Saharan Africa (Africa south of the Sahara Desert) and it seems to have paved the way for the later tradition of magnificent terra cottas and bronzes that were developed at the holy city of Ife, in western Nigeria. The art of Ife, in turn, inspired and stimulated the later Benin and Yoruba sculptural art forms.

Nok clay sculpture was hand-molded and fired in open pits. Sculptures associated with the Nok culture represent a mature, developed style, and show none of the traces of experimentation usually associated with the beginning phase of an artistic tradition. This indicates that the simplicity of the sculptures is a deliberate choice and not a lack of skill. Nok pieces have a refined sophistication that is usually associated with work that is a by product of an established tradition and long history of refinement. The styles found in the art of the Nok range from an almost abstract stylization to that of a more naturalistic mode. This head exhibits naturalism, but in a minimal fashion. It is the earliest example in Africa of human figurative sculpture on a scale approaching life size. From the nature of the breaks near the neck, many of the heads seem to have been part of, or destined to be part of, a body. The Culture and Period

The Jos Plateau, in central Nigeria, covers an area of about 3000 square miles. The region was populated, from about 900 BC to about AD 200, by the Nok, an ironworking people. It is not known what the people called themselves, so the culture has been named after the town of Nok, where the first object was found.


The Nok crafted fired clay or terracotta sculptures that range in size from small pendants to life-size figures. Iron tools and cast bronze burial artifacts from the Nok culture provide the earliest evidence of the Iron Age in West Africa. First discovered in 1928 in the small tin-mining village of Nok, artifacts of similar features were found over an area that stretched about 300 miles east to west and 200 miles north to south. The first objects to be systematically excavated were unearthed on the site of a tin mine by the archaeologist Bernard Fagg in 1943. Radiocarbon dating has placed the original pieces between 500 BC and AD 200. The most characteristic Nok artifacts are clay figurines of animals and stylized human beings,

and Early History, Thames and Hudson Ltd., London, 1978 Edited by Patrick Eddington, Highland High School from materials in The Docent Sourcebook UMFA.

usually heads; perforated eyes of an elliptical or triangular shape are typical of the style. Other artifacts of the Nok culture include iron tools, stone axes and other stone tools, and stone ornaments. For more information about ancient cultures in Nigeria and African Art in general, check these references:

d'Azevedo, Warren L. The Traditional Artist in African Societies, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1975 Davidson, Basil. African Kingdoms, TimeLife Books, NY, 1966 Elisofon, Eliot. The Sculpture of Africa, Hacker Art Books, NY, 1978

Eyo, Ekpo & Frank Willett. Treasures of Ancient Nigeria, Detroit Institute of Arts, Chicago, 1980 Fagg, William & Margaret Plass. African Sculpture, Dutton Pictureback, Studio Vista, NY, 1973 Shaw, Thurstan. Nigeria: Its Archaeology

Images, this page, from tribalarts.com. Used by permission



Dennis Von Smith (1942 ) Highland, Utah Keeper of the Gate 1989 oil on canvas 60" x 60"

Dennis Smith was born in 1942 in Alpine, Utah, where he lived until 1961, when he traveled to Denmark to live for two and onehalf years. While there, he was attracted to the expressionism and humanistic themes of Scandinavian art. Upon returning from Denmark, he graduated from Brigham Young University and continued his graduate studies there until being accepted to the Royal Academy of Art in Copenhagen, Denmark. This exploration of childhood and family has inspired artwork that is exhibited through galleries in the United States and is permanently installed in public plazas, airports and buildings. Smith has received commissions from public and private institutions, and his art is located in many locations across the United States as well as in Russia and England.

By 1968, after returning to Utah, Smith had set up his first studio in his fathers old chicken coop and had begun to exhibit his work. Originally, he was best known for his sculptures of children, which exhibit his ability to capture moments of play, reflection, and intimacy. Other early works such as his flying machines, like Aeroplane Contraption (1975), depict the fanciful imaginings of children. His sculptural pieces range from life-size garden sculptures to small, figurative bronzes. In the late 1980s, Smith turned to oil painting for an inner exploration, a creative exercise where I dont have to prove anything. While Smith may not have felt the need to prove himself with his paintings, the paintings are proving that as an artist, he is not restricted to three-dimensional art forms. His painting style leans towards Figural Abstraction, and his paintings, though often intensely personal, are built on metaphors universal enough to invite others in, to share their memories and symbols too. Some of his paintings, like Keeper of the Gate (1989), and many of his sculptures, are celebrations and explorations of the freedoms and restraints of childhood.


The Art The painting represents the artists childhood memories of Alpine, Utah, vividly recollected in paint. As a memory, it is slightly jumbled in terms of perspective, color, juxtaposition, and size, just like a dream. The painting is based on a time when the artist had just turned eight years old and received a birthday gift of an American Flyer bicycle. His parents told him not to ride

farther than the gas station at Four-Corners. The gas station was the edge of his world, it was the Keeper of the Gate to the outside world for the curious and adventurous boy. Like much of Smiths work, Keeper of the Gate deals with balance. In this particular piece, the balance is between safety and freedom. The painting shows the area he was allowed to roam as a child. Within it, the gate represents the boundary where his freedom both began and ended. Smith is exploring both the nature of freedom and of limits, which themselves often simultaneously give and restrict. Furthermore, the painting comments on the setting of arbitrary limits and on strictures on freedom and free agency, which are set by others.



Gary Ernest Smith (1942 ) Highland, Utah Youthful Games 1984 oil on canvas 48" x 48"

Gary Ernest Smith was born in the rural Eastern Oregon community of Baker, in 1942. He attended Eastern Oregon State College and Brigham Young University, from which he earned a Master of Fine Arts degree. He served in the United States Army for two years as an illustrator, and he was on the faculty at BYU and acted as gallery director for three terms. Smith has been self-employed as an artist since 1972. He and his wife, Judy Asay Smith , have four children and live in the arts community of Highland, Utah. too limiting. As an artist he concentrates on spatial and coloristic solutions, and his themes are often spiritual, though the interpretation is clearly unique in form and style. The subjects of Gary Smith's art lie in three major areasovert and latent religious subjects, landscapes, and evocations of the rural west, each born from poignant personal experiences in his life.

Gary Smith presents impressive credentials as an artist. Though famous for his paintings, in recent years he has also turned his talents to sculpture. His paintings, some of which depict rural America from the turn of the century to the present, and others, which depict early Utah and Oregon 20th-century life, hang in museums, in private, corporate, and university collections, as well as in churches along the Wasatch front. He is extensively published as an illustrator and has received many major commissions for his paintings and sculptures.

Smith admits to being a "driven painter" who needs the distractions of his musician wife and his children to rescue him from spending all day in the studio. He attributes this work ethic

Dr. Vern Swanson, of the Springville Museum of Art, describes Smith as "constantly seeking his ends through stylistic experiment." Smith strives for simple, direct statements that capture the essential character of his subject: icon and image are more important than explicit detail. "Large bold shapes, " Smith says, "with minimal detail, are the substance of my work. Most of the detailing in my pictures is 'implied' rather than painted." Often termed a neo-regionalist, Smith works on the basis of reinterpretation of rural, midamerica themes. While acknowledging the appropriateness of the term, he also feels it's Artists-207

to his upbringing. With his brothers and father, Smith worked on the family cattle ranch and farm. "Farming is hard work; I didn't want to do that the rest of my life, " he says. " I wanted more. I wanted to be an artist. I had no idea what that entailedit was a dream, kind of an unreachable dream." Gary Smith has obviously reached his dream. "Art is a way of addressing humanity, " Smith says, " and my works attempt to merge ideas and memories." Smith believes, "Good art functions on many levels. There is the surface appeal of subject, and below that are layers that may be peeled off, revealing information about the individual artist and the psychology of his era. There's the subject but there's also the underlying theme." Theodore F. Wolff, art editor for the Christian Science Monitor, says of Gary Smith,

It is as changing and evolving as life itself. To unite humanity with the earth through art is like combining the body with the spirit." Of Smith, Wolf also wrote, Few artists today see things whole. Most prefer a sliver of the truth and an art defined by theory, passion or imitation. Not so Gary E. Smith. For him art is expansive and holistic, ideal for sharing what is good, beautiful and true, and the best way to communicate one's deepest beliefs and intuitions. That personal insight Smith struggles to attain and to share has successfully expanded to encompass the viewers of his paintings. Careful observers walk away from his paintings with a broader, more appreciative view of beauty and of the goodness of the earth and the people who work it, and of this artist, who paints it.

Smith is a rural artist, not an urban one. His interests lie with individuals and families interacting patiently and philosophically with the land. The people in his paintings are at peace with themselves and with their worldand when theyre not, they accept their fate with quiet dignity. Even his children at play remain, at all times, part of the landscape; they and the rhythms and patterns made by their activities are not more and not less a part of the total picture than the fields in which they play, the ponds on which they skate, or the wooded farmland in which it all takes place. Youthful Games, a painting such as described above by Wolf, evokes memories and feelings of summer evenings in a rural neighborhood, where the local children try to prolong their freedom past the golden light of evening. A group of teenage boys is portrayed playing touch football deep into dusk, when the football can no longer be seen and everything in their world is blending together into night. Smith says his ". . . art is a constant struggle for the new insight, for the more effective technique.


ARTIST: Mahonri Macintosh Young (18771957) SLC/New York TITLE: This is the Place Monument dedicated 1947 MEDIA: bronze SIZE: approx. 60 x 83

Mahonri Young was born August 9, 1877, twenty days before the death of his grandfather, Brigham Young. Mahonris Salt Lake high school experience was notably shortit lasted one day! He claimed he had more important things to do. The more important things were repairing the family furniture and modeling figures.1 He was asked to mold the figure of a woman in butter for the creamery exhibit at the Utah State Fair. Completed and set in place, this work of art was as short lived as his high school education someone forgot to shut the ice box door.2 In 1897, determined to satisfy his interest in art, Mahonri took a job at a bicycle repair and stationery shop in order to pay J. T. Harwood $2.50 a week for art lessons. Describing his study of art, Mahonri said, I have always drawn, and since I was 18 have consciously tried to learn to draw. I have loved and studied all the great draftsmen, but have always gone to nature for my material. I have tried to make good drawings, not drawings that look good.(View, p.1) In 1899, Young was able to travel to New York where he enrolled in the Art Students League, studying the Beaux Art muralist's approach to representation under Kenyon Cox. In 1901, he returned to Utah where he took a position at the Salt Lake Herald as a photoengraver. This time he saved his money to travel to Paris to study art. Young earned $18 a week, and within a year's time, he saved $750 in earnings which he combined with a belated inheritance of $280 from his grandfather Brigham's estate. He then obtained a small loan which provided him with the remaining amount needed for his trip to Paris (View, p. 2). Once in Paris, Youngs time was full of academic study. His real education, however, took place in the classrooms of nature, the studio, and the museum gallery. Much of his time was spent

at the Louvre, where he studied the works of the masters (Step, p. 7). As he studied, Young became aware that he tended to paint linear action studies which related more to sculpture than to painting. For this reason, he shifted his study to sculpture; however, throughout his career he continued to win respect and national prizes for his watercolors,

Portrait of Mahonri Young 1908 Lee Greene Richards


etchings, and oil paintings. Although Young experimented in contemporary approaches to form, he always returned to realistic expression to pursue his interest in capturing the human figure in motion (View, p.2)

Young spent the majority of his life in New York. His career there earned him a national reputation. Now famous, Mahonri Young received numerous awards for his sculptures including the Helen Foster Barnett Prize from the National Academy of Design in 1911, a silver medal in 1915 at the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, and a first prize award at the Los Angeles Olympic Games art exhibition in 1932, to name but a few. He also received a number of important commissions (View, p.2).

From 1916 to 1943, Young taught intermittently at the Art Students League in New York. He also was involved in a number of professional associations and art clubs including the Society of American Etchers, the National Academy of Design, the National Sculpture Society, the Society of Etchers of Chicago, the New Society, the Utah Artists' Club, the New York Water Color Club, and the Century Club. Young died in 1957 in Salt Lake City, Utah (View, pp.2-3). ENDNOTES 1 A Step Beyond: Artists Archives, Exhibition Essay, Lee Library BYU 1987 p. 6. 2 A Step Beyond, pp.6-7; "A National View," Mahonri Macintosh Young Biographical Information, Evenings for Educators Packet, Springville Museum of Art, p.1. 3 Swanson, Vern G., Robert S. Olpin, and William C. Seifrit, Utah Art (Layton: Gibbs Smith, 1991).

His most noteworthy commissions included the modeling of life-size Native American figures for the American Museum of Natural History, the Seagull Monument for the LDS Church, a lifesize statue of Brigham Young for Statuary Hall in the United States Capitol, the Monument to the Dead for the American Procathedral, a life-size statue of prizefighter Joe Gans (which is now on display at Madison Square Gardens), and This is the Place Monument at the mouth of Emigration Canyon for the Utah Centennial in 1947 (View, pp.2-3; Step, p. 8).

During his life, Mahonri Young completed an estimated 120 sculptures, 300 etchings, and 1500 watercolors. He also produced more than 100 oil paintings and thousands of sketches, using any available surface. As a sculptor, Mahonri Young was interested in capturing the strengths and weaknesses of the human figure. He is known for his series of sculptures depicting the common laborer or working man and for his numerous depictions of prizefighters. (View, p. 3) One critic said that "No other American sculptor has better represented strength in action and real movement." Young will always be remembered for his realistic depiction of the bone, brawn, and sweat of the heroes of progress: the worker, the blacksmith, the scrub woman, and the athlete.3 Artists-210

Appendix A
List of Suggested Images for K6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Springville Museum of Art Poster and Postcard sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Utah Museum of Fine Art Elementary Poster set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dance Top-down Body Parts Warm-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Star Spangled Banner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Append-213 Append-215 Append-217 Append-219 Append-221



List of All Suggested Images for Study k-6

Suggested masterworks and artists for kindergarten: Snow Queen by Lee Bennion Boy with a Bun by James T. Harwood Chelsea VI by Donald Olsen Snap the Whip by Winslow Homer Portrait of a Man by Paul Klee The Scout by Frederic Remington

Suggested masterworks and artists for first grade:

Entertaining: Favorite Ladies II by Jeanne Leighton-Lundberg Clarke Handcart Pioneers First View of Salt Lake Valley by C. C A Christensen New Bloom by Trevor Southey Peaceable Kingdom by Edward Hicks Breezing Up by Winslow Homer Sinbad the Sailor by Paul Klee Church Picnic by Faith Ringgold Mural by Jackson Pollock Banjo Lesson by Henry Tanner Suggested masterworks and artists for second grade: Keeper of the Gate by Dennis Smith Wash Day in Brigham City by Calvin Fletcher Youthful Games by Gary E. Smith Ranchos Church or flower works by Georgia O'Keefe Peasant Dance by Pieter Bruegel the Elder I and the Village by Marc Chagall The Blue Boy by Thomas Gainsborough

The Virgin Forest by Henri Rousseau The Gleaners by Jean-Francois Millet Parade by Jacob Lawrence Black Earthenware Bowl (or other ceramic works) by Maria Martinez Suggested masterworks and artists for third grade: Factory Worker by Mahonri Young Channel Three by Edith Roberson Riders of the Range by Paul Salisbury The Cradle by Berthe Morisot My Gems by William Harnett Enamel Saucepan or other works by Pablo Picasso third grade images continued:


Man in the Golden Helmet and other works by Rembrandt van Rijn La Grande Jatte by Georges Seurat Summertime by Romare Bearden Suggested list of masterworks and artists for fourth grade: Immigrant Train by George M. Ottinger Rhinoceros by James C. Christensen Capitol from North Salt Lake by Louise R. Farnsworth Apples and Oranges or other works by Paul Cezanne Dempsy and Fripo by George Bellows Mother and Child by Kathe Kollwitz Bedroom at Arles and other works by Vincent Van Gogh The Letter and other works by Jan Vermeer Blue Atmosphere by Helen Frankenthaler

Suggested list of masterworks and artists for fifth grade:

Paul Revere, John Hancock, Massasoit, and Sacajawea by Cyrus E. Dallin Sunrise North Rim by Mabel Frazer Cockscomb, near Teasdel by V. Douglas Snow Fur Traders Descending the Missouri by George Caleb Bingham The Sacrament of the Last Supper by Salvador Dali Dancing Class and other works by Edgar Degas Young Hare, Self-Portrait, and other works by Albrecht Durer Harvest Scene by Paul Gaugin The Great Wave by Katsushika Hokusai Suggested list of masterworks and artists for sixth grade: Road to the River by Maynard Dixon Moonrise in the Canyon, Moab, Utah by Sven Birger Sandzen Richards ' Camp, Holiday Park - Weber Canyon by James T. Harwood Dancing at the Moulin de la Galette, Luncheon of the Boating Party by Auguste Renoir View of Toledo by El Greco (Domenikos Theotocopoulos) Interior, Flowers, and Parrots by Henri Matisse The Bullfight by Francisco Goya Christina's World by Andrew Wyeth Capriccio: A Street Crossed by Arches (and other works) by Antonio Canaletto


SMA ELEMENTARY POSTERS AND POSTCARDS Lee Udall Bennion Snow Queen: Portrait of Adah C.C.A. Christensen Handcart Pioneers First View of Salt Lake Valley James Christensen Rhinoceros Jeanne Clarke Entertaining Favorite Ladies II Cyrus E. Dallin Paul Revere, Portrait of John Hancock, Dallin w/ Massasoit, Sacajawea Maynard Dixon Road to the River Louise Farnsworth Capitol from North Salt Lake Calvin Fletcher Wash Day in Brigham City Mabel Frazer Sunrise North Rim of the Grand Canyon John Hafen The Mountain Stream J. T. Harward Boy with a Cat Richards Camp Donald Olsen Chelsea VI George Ottinger Immigrant Train Edith Roberson Channel Three Paul Salisbury Riders of the Range Sven Birger Sandzen Moonrise in the Canyon Dennis Smith Keeper of the Gate Gary Smith Youthful Games Douglas Snow Cockscomb, Near Teasdale Trevor Southey New Bloom Mahonri Young The Factory Worker SMA MIDDLE SCHOOL POSTERS Carel Brest van Kempen Lou Jene M. Carter Raymond Jonas Jacqui Biggs Larsen Robert Leroy Marshall Lee Greene Richards A. D. Shaw Alexei Trotsenko Lizard Relay: Jaquarundi with Green Iguanas and Banded Basilisks Mostly Flowers Abstract Configuration Cottage Industry Snow Canyon Dreaming of Zion Twice Told Tales Curious Onlookers

SMA HIGH SCHOOL POSTERS Gregory Abbott E. J. Bird Alex Darais Silvia Davis Lee Deffebach Valoy Eaton Carol Harding Wayne Kimball Sacred Cows of Art History Horse Traders Over Three Billion Served The Guest George II Antelope Symbols of the Orient I Have a Headache This Big Append-215

Lee Anne Miller Gary Price Mahonri Young

Storm Spirits on Horizon #6 Irises Da Winnah!

SMA ALL LEVELS Carlos Andreson, Still Life with Guitar Robert Barrett, Camille, Seated Joseph Henry Sharp, Playing the Game Gary Smith, Farm Boy with Brown Cap UMFA ELEMENTARY POSTERS Pieter Brueghel the Younger Dance Around the Maypole Elizabeth Catlett I Have Special Reservations School of Gerard Dou A young Scholar in His Study Dutch 17th C., Baroque Jean-Honore Fragonard Mademoiselle Marie Madeleine Guimard Sir Thomas Gainsborough Portrait of Mrs. Casberd Matteo da Gualdo Crucifixion w/ Saints Francis of Assisi, St. Anthony of Padua, Mary Magdalene, Mary Cleophas and Mary Salome Marie Louise Elizabeth Princess Eudocia Ivanova Galitzine as Flora Vigee Le Brun Helen Levitt Hide and Seek James Peale The Ambush of Captain Allen McLane Georges Rouault Mme. Louison, plate VII from Cirque de ltoile Filante Christian Schussele Game of Marbles Francesco Solimena The Death of Saint Joseph UMFA MULTICULTURAL POSTERS Africa, Nok culture Chinese, Qianlong Period Mexico, Maya Culture New Mexico, Mimbres Culture South India, Chola dynastry Thailand, Ayutthaya period BYU MOA POSTERS Maynard Dixon Forgotten Man Tusayan II Judy Pfaff Notes on Light and Shadoqw Abbott Thayer Noon Mahonri Young Navajo Woman and Herd Append-216 Head Imperial Vase with Bats and Clouds Seated Figure Bowl Shiva Nataraja (Shiva as Lord of the Dance) Walking Budda


Objective: The elementary age students will participate safely in a thorough warm-up at the beginning of their dance lesson. Equipment and Materials: I. Drum and beater II. CD Player and CD, Ric Chitwoods Musique pour La Danse Moderne III. Model Skeleton IV. Dance, by Bill T. Jones and Susan Kuklin

Read the first 8 pages of Dance and show the model skeleton. Ask the students to do a top to bottom full body warm-up by moving all the joints in their body. Direct them to quickly find their spaces in a side-by-side circle (grades K-2) or in their own personal (or general) space in the room. TEACHER SCRIPT HEAD Start moving the top of your body--your head (playing music with a 4/4 rhythm, demonstrate and say) Look up and down, look up and down, 4xs = 8 beats Now look side to side--stay right on the beat, 4xs = 8 beats Lean your ear over to your shoulder--now try the other, 1x = 4 beats (go slower)

Now we have made a pattern (say and do) Look up and down, up and down, now side and side and side and side (keeping same tempo/beat) Lean your ear to one side for four beats, then over to the other for four beats Do it again: (repeat pattern 2-3 times) SHOULDERS then ARMS What is the next part of your body?--Shoulders and/or Arms (possible responses) Lift shoulders up and down, up and down, 4xs Circle your shoulders forward, 2xs, now try it backward, 2xs Now one up, then change (alternating 4xs). Do it in a pattern Lets start with shoulders up and down, up and down, circle around and around Repeat 2xs then add: Alternate one shoulder up while one is down and change trying it slow then fast (repeat pattern) ARMS can Bend and stretch, and clap, clap, clap Shake and stretch, and clap, clap, clap Cirlce and stretch, and clap, clap, clap


Repeat the pattern and each time you stretch your arms stretch them in a different direction Repeat a third time and each time you clap your hands, choose a different place to put them (repeat pattern several times). BACK, RIBS and WAIST (Could do this one sitting with legs folded) Round your back over so it looks like a ball--sit up straight so very tall Push you ribs forward--look up and stay tall Spin around once, then stretch but dont fall Hold still and get ready to go back to the ball (note rhyming words) (repeat pattern 2-4 times)

HIPS, LEGS and FEET (Explore these--sitting, standing, or both--first explore different bending, stretching, shaking, swinging and circling ideas then make a pattern that can be repeated. Good alignment and safety tip--make sure knees bend directly over toes when standing.)

WHOLE BODY Try standing in the shape of the letter X--feet wide apart, arms stretched. Bend you elbows and knees at the same time and then stretch back to the X. Bend and stretch, bend and stretch (repeat 3-4 times). Now curve your whole body into a small, round shape. When I beat the drum, stretch into a new long stretched X shape, but twist the X shape in a new way (Like a rubber band). Boom! (Repeat)

Add locomotor steps--go skipping, (accompany with a long-short, syncopated rhythm on the drum). Explore hopping on one foot then on the other foot,then jumping. Try turning around as you jump, etc. (with music and drumming). Heres a pattern--Hop on one foot (4xs = 4 beats), hop on the other foot (4xs = 4 beats), then jump and turn around (4 slower jumps, 2 beats per jump.) Dance is B.E.S.T. lesson plans, copyright pending Marilyn Berrett 2001


Our National Anthem

Music, History, Language, Drama, Art By Susan Kenney

When several students in my university music methods classes indicated they did not know all of the words to the first verse of the Star Spangled Banner (and even fewer students knew what all of the words meant), I wondered if we needed to give more attention to teaching our national anthem in the elementary grades. After some research and thinking, the following ideas and process emerged. Because of the complexity of the poetry, the song offers us an opportunity to explore history, vocabulary, and spelling through drama and drawing as well as through music. In the process, the children can be involved in activities that are challenging cognitively, physically, and socially. The music lesson can become a whole language experience for the whole child. Feel free to use any or all of the ideas, or to alter them according to your needs. Before Teaching the Song Many words and expressions in The Star Spangled Banner are foreign to most children. Before teaching the song, provide some background information and activities that will help acquaint modern-day children with the events surrounding the writing of the words. Several introductory possibilities are suggested.

Tell the Story Tell how The Star Spangled Banner came to be written. Use and encyclopedia, or find a book on the subject in the Library. One child-friendly book is The Story of the Star Spangled Banner, by Natalie Miller (Chicago: Childrens Press, 1965).

Play a Game Create two sets of word cards for each child or group of children as illustrated below. The children should match each card with its appropriate definition. They may use dictionaries to assist them.

When the children know the words, create two teams. Select a scorekeeper and a leader. The leader gives a word from the white car to team. 1. If answered correctly, team one gets a point. If not, team 2 has a chance to answer. If no one can answer correctly, no points are given. The next word is given to team 2, etc. The teams may have their deck of cards for reference.

Dramatize the Story The following script provides ideas for acting out the story of how The Star Spangled Banner came to be written. Several versions of the story exist, and historians are not sure of all the facts. The source I used to write this script is from the Library of Congress. The Star Spangled Banner by Oscar George Theodore Sonneck, Chief of the Division of Music, (Library of Congress, Washington: Government Printing Office, 1914). The Star Spangled Banner A skit in six scenes

Actors needed: Francis Scott Key, author of the words John S. Skinner, government agent for flags of truce and exchange of prisoners James Madison, President of the United States Append-219

Dr. Beanes, a United States doctor held prisoner on a British ship Judge J.H. Nicholson, Chief Justice of the Baltimore Court of Appeals and Mr. Keys brother-in-law Ferdinand Durang, local musician and actor, attributed with the first singing of the song British General British Soldier Printer Narrator

Narrator: During the War of 1812 (in August of 1814), the British had burned the Presidents house and other public buildings in Washington, D.C., and then retreated. When they left, they took with them William Beanes, an American doctor, and held him prisoner on a warship in Chesapeake Bay. Beanes was a friend of Francis Scott Key. Key asked James Madison, then President of the United States, for permission to talk with the British hoping to get Beanes freed. Scene1: Washington D.C. September 1814. Francis Scott Key talking with President James Madison. Key: Mr. President, I would like your permission to go to the British and ask that William Beanes be freed. President Madison: You have my permission to go, but be careful. Take Mr. Skinner with you. He knows all about how to exchange prisoners. Key: Thank you, President Madison. Mr. Skinner: We will fly a white flag on our boat so that the British know we are not coming to fight, but to make a truce.

Scene 2: Mr. Key and his friend, Mr. Skinner, boarding the British ship. Mr. Key: I have come to get my friend, Mr. Beanes. Will you release him? British officer: Yes, we will release Mr. Beanes, but not until after we have attacked Fort McHenry in Maryland. In the meantime, you will be held prisoner with Mr. Beanes. (To a British soldier): Take these men to the prisoner-exchange boat. We do not want them to go ashore and tell the Americans that we are going to attack Fort McHenry. British soldier: Yes, sir! (To the prisoners): Follow me.

Scene 3: Mr. Key, Mr. Beanes, and Mr. Skinner on the prisoner-exchange boat. Mr. Key: The fighting has been going on for hours. Fort McHenry does not have a strong defense. They could be captured. But I can still see the flag flying, so I know the fort has not been captured yet. Mr. Beanes: Night is approaching; perhaps we should try to get some sleep. (Men lie down and try to sleep.) Mr. Skinner: I cant sleep. Look, whenever they fire a bomb I can see the flag. So far, they have not captured Fort McHenry. (The three men pace up and down the deck of the boat, worried and fretful.) Mr. Key: The fighting must have stopped, because I cannot hear gunfire. Can you tell which flag is flying over Fort McHenry? Is it the British Flag or the American Flag? Mr. Beanes: All I can see is smoke from the gunfire. I cannot tell what flag is flying. (Men pace some more.) Mr. Skinner: Dawn is approaching. I wish I knew who won the battle. Look, the smoke is clearing. Mr. Key: Can you see the stars and stripes? Is the flag still flying over the fort? Mr. Beanes: Yes, yes, the flag is still there. Mr. Key: I am so grateful. This is a wonderful moment. The British have not taken over Fort Append-220

McHenry. The flag is still flying. I am so happy that I must write about it. (Mr. Key writes): Yesterday we were taken prisoners by the British. The British attacked Fort McHenry. Last evening, just at twilight, we could see that the flag was still flying and we were proud. Through the night the bombs bursting in the air provided light and we could see the broad red and white stripes and the bright starts, streaming in the wind, proving to us that the British had not yet conquered the fort. But as dawn approached we could not see because of the smoke and haze. Did the Star Spangled Banner still wave or was the British flag waving over Fort McHenry? As we worried, the smoke cleared and we could see the Stars and Stripes. We were thrilled. British officer: Mr. Key, Mr. Beanes, and Mr. Skinner, follow me please. You are to be freed today. (The men follow the British officer out.) Scene 4: Mr. Key in the office of his brother-in-law, Judge J.H. Nicholson. Key: Hello, Judge. Here is a poem I have written about our experience on the British prisonerexchange boat. What do you think of it? I will be going home soon, now that the battle is over. Judge J.H. Nicholson: Its good to see you, Francis. This is a very good poem. Thank you for the copy. Please tell your family hello when you return. Key: I will. Goodbye, now. Judge J.H. Nicholson: Goodbye. (Mr. Key leaves.) This is a great poem. I am going to take this poem to the printer and have copies made for the people in the town. Scene 5: The printers office of the newspaper the Baltimore American. Judge: My brother-in-law, Francis Scott Key, just have me this poem. I think the people of this town would like to have copies of it. The Printer: I will print it on handbills and we will pass it out to the people of the city. Does it have a title? Judge: Call it, The Defense of Fort McHenry. (Quick production pantomime.) Scene 6: The town square filled with people. The Printer: Everyone, here is a new poem by a gentleman who witnessed the attack on Fort McHenry. (He passes out handbills to a crowd of people.) People: This is an interesting poem. (People mingle and discuss the poem together.) Ferdinand Durang: Gather round. Ill sing this poem to the tune of an old song we all know, To Anacreon in Heaven. (Mr. Durang climbs up on a chair and begins singing the song. As he sings, the others join in. Narrator: Sometime later, the name of the song was changed from Defense of Fort McHenry to The Star Spangled Banner.

More than 100 years later, in 1931, the U.S. Congress officially approved the song as the National anthem of the United States.

Draw the Story 1. Invite the other children to draw different scenes from the story. Put the drawings together in order, and tell the story with pictures. The pictures could be taped together to make an accordion book display, or could be glued to a long strip of butcher paper and made into a roller box display. 2. Consider helping the children make scenery for the skit. Study encyclopedias, history books, and maps so the scenery will be as accurate as possible. Append-221

Learning the Song The following questions and ideas may help the children listen attentively to the song and think about its meaning. Use any or all of the items and in any order. Consider taking 2 or 3 days to teach the first verse. Follow similar procedures to learn the other verses.

3. Make a large mural of the story. The mural might illustrate the night on the boat, and the morning when the flag was still there.

Focusing on the Words 1. Show the picture of Fort McHenry drawn on the cover of this issue of The Musical Classroom. Ask the children what this picture has to do with music? After some discussion, about Fort McHenry, remind the children that Francis Scott Key wrote a poem about his experience while he was being held prisoner. He used many unusual words in h is poem. For example, near the end of the first verse, he referred to the United States but used different words. What are the words he used? (Land of the free, home of the brave.) The melody emphasizes those words, land of the free, by moving up the scale. (Loo the melody on those words.) Then it comes down to end the song on the word, brave. Sing those words with me. (Oer the land of the free, and t he home of the brave.)

2. Listen to the song and tell me what words Mr. Key used to mean early in the morning, (dawns early light) and what words to mean evening (twilights last gleaming)?

The lowest sound in the song occurs on one of those six words. Which word? (Gleaming)

3. Did Mr. Key write this poem in the evening or the morning? (Morning/dawn)

Yes, gleaming. The melody on the word early also goes quite low. Sing about the dawn and the twilight, listening, to sing the low notes correctly.

4. Mr. Key referred to the flag at least five times in this song, but he used the word flag only once. What other words did he use that referred to the flag? (Something we proudly hailed, broad stripes and bright stars, something gallantly streaming, something we watched, the star spangled banner.) 5. The flag was inside Fort McHenry, but it was high above the fort walls and barricades. The light from the rockets made it possible to see the flag. What was the barricade called oer which they watched? (Ramparts)

6. The flag is described using the words stripes and stars. What kind of stripes, what kind of stars? (Broad, bright) 7. Sometimes we say the flag is flying in the breeze. This song says it is streaming instead of flying. But how is it streaming? Hint: the way it is streaming is very proudly and bravely. (Gallantly) Append-222

The word ramparts is emphasized by the melody, which jumps up on the word ramparts. Try to sing that musical jump. (Oer the ramparts we watched were so gallantly streaming)

8. Mr. Key and his friends could tell the flag was still flying even in the middle of the night. How could they tell? (Rockets red glare, bombs bursting) The idea of the rockets and bombs exploding high in the air is emphasized by the high melody in this part of the song. This is the most difficult part of the song to sing so you will need to take a good breath, sit very tall, and be prepared to sing that high melody. As you sing, try to imagine the rockets and bombs bursting in the middle of the night, up high in the sky. Focusing on the Rhythm 1. Clap the beat with me as I sing the song. Use a quiet clap with two fingers of one hand tapping the palm of the other hand. 2. Try patting the strong beats on your laps and clapping the weak beats as I sing.

3. This song has a meter of three. Lets conduct the song as we sing it again. (Bring the hand straight down in front of body on beat one, away from body on beat two and toward body on beat three, making a triangle shape.) 4. Clap only the strong beat and feel the weak beats without clapping them. 5. See if you can catch each word that occurs on the strong beat by singing only strong beat words as I sing the whole song. (Children would sing say, see, dawns, light, etc.)

6. Now try to sing everything except the syllables that occur on the strong beat. (Children would try to sing O, can you, by the, early, What so, -lay we, at the, -lights last, -ing, Whose broad, etc.) Enjoy the challenge of this activity. Children may need to hear the song several times to be successful. Mastery is not as important as practicing the song over and over again. 7. All children in rows 1 and 2 sing words that occur on the strong beat, and everyone else sing words that occur on the beak beat.

Focusing on the Melody 1. Listen to this melody pattern. (Loo the melody of the first 5 words [Oh, say can you see] and show a chart similar to Chart 1.) What words occur on that melody? (Oh, say can you see) Does this melody occur more than once? What other words occur on this melody? (Whose broad stripes and bright stars) Sing those two parts with me. 2. Here is another melodic pattern. (Loo the melody of the What so proudly we hailed, and show a cart similar to Chart 3.) What words occur on that melody? Does the melody occur more than once? What other words? (Oer the ramparts we watched) Sing these two parts with me.

3. Prepare large copies of the 5 charts below and obtain an American flag. Divide the children into 5 groups. Give each group one of the five charts and assign them to sing when their part comes in the song. Append-223

Group 1: Group 2: Group 4: Group 5:

Oh, say can you see

Group 3:

by the dawns early light

Whose broad stripes and bright stars through the perilous fight the bombs bursting in air Oer the ramparts we watched

What so proudly we hailed And the rockets red glare

at the twilights last gleaming were so gallantly streaming

Gave proof through the night that our flag was still there. Everyone joins in on the last part as someone holds up the flag.

4. Listen to the bells play a melodic pattern and tell me what words go with the pattern. (The melody of the first five tones Oh, say can you see, outlines the tonic chord. Place the four bells for the first five words on a desk.) Bill, will you play each of the tones whenever they occur in the song?

Conclusion When the children know verse one, invite them to stand and sit it as an anthem. Add accompaniment if available. On another day, teach another verse of the song. /Copies of the song can be found in most music textbooks.

5. Place the following words on the board without the asterisks. Sing the words, asking children which syllables have more than one pitch. As the children discover the answers, place two dots over each syllable with two pitches, and one dot over syllables with one pitch, as illustrates. Invite children to sing, taking care to give each syllable the correct number of pitches.


Contents Appendix B Theatre

The Tale of Rabbit and Coyote Vocabulary Drama Techniques Theatre Games Dancing Pants, The Preamble, Rhyme, The Witch Vocal Elements Tongue Twisters Drama Order Form



The Tale of Rabbit and Coyote

by Tony Johnston A Mexican Folk Tale Adapted by Lauren Phillips


Rabbit Chilies (1,2, 3, 4, & 5) Farmer Wax Farmer Pot Water inside Pot Coyote Wasp Nest (2) Wasps(4) Lake (3) Cheese Moon Storytellers (4) Sound Crew

Costume Suggestions

dressed in all brown with rabbit ears attached to a headband black pants and green shirts plaid shirt, overalls, and cowboy hat plaid shirt, overalls, and cowboy hat all black all blue all in yellow with coyote ears attached to a headband brown shirt and black pants yellow shirt with black pants all blue all yellow white shirt and black pants all black

Suggestions for Sound Suggestions for Stage

Drum, tambourine, guiro, shakers, wood block with mallet, Mexican folk music

Storytellers Audience Cultures 8 Append-227

Sound Crew

(Rabbit, Chilies 1,2,3,4, & 5) (playing Mexican Folk music) Storyteller 1: One night, a long, long time ago when there was a gigantic full moon in the sky Storyteller 2: A clever brown rabbit was wandering through a huge field. (pallet on wooden block like foot steps) Storyteller 3: As he walked through the field he came upon a garden with the biggest green chilies he had ever seen growing in it. (chilies sitting on stage) Storyteller 4: Rabbit loved green chilies so much that he jumped right into the garden and began eating the biggest of the chilies. Rabbit: Oh, I do love chilies, especially green ones. (Bend over and lick lips) Chile 1: Please don't eat me! Chile 2: Help me, help me! Chile 3: Get away silly Rabbit! " Storyteller 1: The chilies screamed, not wanting to be eaten, but that didn't stop Rabbit. He ate... (tambourine rattles) Chorus: One, Two, Three (chilies 1, 2, & 3 leave stage) Storyteller 2: of the chilies. When he finished eating, he hopped away to his burrow. Rabbit: Mmmm., that was a good meal. (hops off stage)

Scene 1

(Farmer, Wax Farmer, & Chilies 4 & 5) Storyteller 3: The next morning the farmer went out to his garden to check on his prized chilies. (chilies 4 & 5 still on stage in garden) Storyteller 4: He gasped when he saw that his three biggest, glossiest, greenest chilies were gone. (hit drum to show surprise) Farmer: Where are my biggest. glossiest, greenest chilies? Chile 4: We don't know where they went Chile 5: We're all that's left (farmer walks around searching) Storyteller 1: He looked all around, trying to figure out what happened. Then he saw Rabbit's tracks. Storyteller 2: He was furious and decided to make a trap to catch that pesky, clever Rabbit. Farmer: I'll catch that pesky rabbit if it's the last thing I do. Storyteller 3: He made a beeswax doll that looked just like himself and placed it in his garden. Then he went back home. (farmer leaves and wax farmer comes out) Storyteller 4: When night fell, the Rabbit went back to the garden looking for more of the delicious green chilies. (hit wooden block for footsteps) Append-228

Scene 2

Rabbit: Those chilies last night were so good I had to come back and get more. Storyteller 1: He was surprised to see Farmer in the garden and crept up to him to say hello and ask for some chilies. Rabbit: Hello Farmer. Can I have some of your delicious chilies? Storyteller 2: When Rabbit said hello, the wax farmer said nothing. Storyteller 3: This made the Rabbit so mad that he punched the wax farmer right in the arm. (hit drum) (Rabbits arm sticks to wax farmer) Storyteller 4: Rabbits paw stuck in the wax. This made him even more angry. Rabbit: What is going on here? Im stuck. Storyteller 1: He was so mad that he punched the wax farmer with his other paw. (Rabbits other arm sticks to wax farmer) (hit drum) Storyteller 2: That paw stuck too. Rabbit was fuming mad now. So he hauled off with one foot and walloped the wax farmer. (hit drum) Chorus: Ay, ay, ay Storyteller 3: Now Rabbit was trapped for sure. (rub stick along guiro) Rabbit: Help, Im trapped!

(Farmer, Rabbit, Pot, Water inside Pot, Coyote) Storyteller 4: When the real farmer awoke the next morning he went to see if his trap had worked. He was happy to find the trapped rabbit. Storyteller 1: He threw Rabbit into a sack and took him home to eat for supper. Farmer: Ha, Ha... Ive got you now you pesky Rabbit. Youll make a wonderful supper for me. Storyteller 2: When he got home, he hung up the sack, built a fine fire, and put a pot of water on to boil. Then he went to find some herbs for his Rabbit stew. (pot and water inside pot enter stage) Farmer: Ill be right back with some herbs... then its rabbit stew for you. Storyteller 3: From where Rabbit was hanging he could see Coyote coming his direction. (hit wooden block) Storyteller 4: Coyote called out to Rabbit to find out what he was doing. Coyote: Hey Rabbit, what are you doing ? Storyteller l:Rabbit responded by telling Coyote that the Farmer wants him to marry his beautiful daughter. He was even boiling water to make hot chocolate for a huge party to celebrate. Rabbit: Hi Coyote. Farmer wants me to marry his beautiful daughter. See that water boiling over there, Farmers getting ready to make hot chocolate to celebrate. Water inside pot: Bubble, bubble, bubble (shake tambourine) Storyteller 2: Rabbit then told Coyote that he didnt really want to marry the farmers daughter. Rabbit: Coyote, the only problem is that I dont want to marry her, Im too young to get married. Storyteller 3: He told Coyote he could take Rabbits place if he wanted to. Append-229

Scene 3

Rabbit: If you want, you can take my place Coyote. Storyteller 4: Coyote thought this was a wonderful idea and quickly traded Rabbit places. Coyote: Yea, Ill trade you places. Storyteller 1: When the farmer came back he grabbed the bag and saw Coyote inside of it. He popped Coyote right into the pot of boiling water. Chorus: Ay, ay, ay Storyteller 2: Coyote felt the hot water and jumped right out. Shouting that he would catch that clever rabbit. Coyote: Ill catch that clever Rabbit.

(Rabbit, Coyote, Wasp Nest, Wasps) Storyteller 3: So Coyote searched and searched for the Rabbit. When he finally found him he shouted that he was going to eat him. Coyote: Now that Ive found you, Im going to eat you. (wasp nest enters & makes circle with wasps inside) Storyteller 4: Rabbit replied pointing to a wasp nest on a tree branch, If you eat me who will take care of the little children in this little school? You see, someone has to give it a little knock if one of the students tries to leave. Rabbit: You cant eat me, if you do no one will watch over the kids in this school. Whenever a kid tries to leave, I have to knock the school with a stick. Storyteller 1: Coyote liked to give knocks to things, so he quickly took the job. He sat by the wasp nest and waited for one of the students to leave. (One wasp leaves nest) Storyteller 2: It wasnt long before a wasp flew out, so Coyote picked up a stick and gave the wasp nest one good whack. Storyteller 3: Suddenly all of the angry wasps flew out of the nest and began chasing Coyote. (wasps leave nest & surround Coyote) Coyote: Oh no. Theyre after me. All I did was give them a little knock. Storyteller 4: Coyote ran to a pond and jumped in with only his nose sticking out. So, the wasps stung his nose over and over again. (shake tambourine) (wasps pretend to sting Coyotes nose) Chorus: Ay, ay, ay

Scene 4

(Coyote, Rabbit, Lake, Cheese, & Moon) Storyteller 1: Coyote was furious and he soon began searching for Rabbit again. Coyote: Im so mad. I cant believe that Rabbit tricked me again. (form lake with cheese in middle) Storyteller 2: He finally found rabbit at the edge of a huge lake. Coyote was all ready to eat him when Rabbit pointed to the reflection of the moon upon the water and said. Dont eat me, Ive been waiting for you so we can share that piece of cheese you can see in the middle of the lake. Rabbit: Why would you want to eat me when Ive been waiting for you so we can share that Append-230

Scene 5

piece of cheese sitting in the middle of the lake. Storyteller 3: Rabbit continued, but, before we can eat the cheese we must drink all of the juice that is surrounding it. Rabbit: We better start drinking all of the juice surrounding the cheese (Coyote bends to drink from lake) Storyteller 4: Coyote then began drinking the water in order to reach the cheese. After a while he said that there was no way he could drink anymore, but Rabbit told him to drink just a few more sips. Coyote: I cant drink anymore, I feel like Im going to explode. Rabbit: Keep drinking were almost there. Storyteller 1: Coyotes stomach got bigger and bigger as he tried to drink more and more water. He drank so much that it started pouring from his ears. Storyteller 2: Coyote turned to tell Rabbit that he couldnt possibly drink more, but when he turned he saw Rabbit running away. (wooden block and drum for both foot steps) (Rabbit runs away towards opposite end of stage) Storyteller 3: Coyote tried to run after Rabbit, but couldnt move very fast because all the water had made him swollen up like a sponge. (Coyote runs in slow motion after Rabbit) Storyteller 4: Rabbit was running to a very special place. He knew of a ladder that reached all the way into the sky. When he got there he began to climb. (shake shakers) (moon enters stage near Rabbit) Chorus: Up, up, up Storyteller 1: he climbed all the way up to the moon. Then Rabbit hid the ladder so Coyote couldnt ever reach him. Storyteller 2: Coyote finally found where Rabbit had run to and began searching for the ladder, but couldnt find it anywhere. Coyote just sat there looking up for Rabbit on the moon. Storyteller 3: And thats why, to this very day, Coyote sits gazing at the moon. Every now and then he howls up at the moon because he is still very furious with Rabbit. (play Mexican folk music)


defined in agelevel terminology by Char Nelson

Actiona thing done Beginning, middle, endbasic dramatic structure Body parts as charactersuse of individual body parts to create a living beinghand, foot, or ear puppets. Body shapesuse of the body to create a shape or statue Charactera living being different from all others, created with body, voice, and mind. Dialoguethe words that characters speak to each other Characterizationthe process of creating a living being Conflictthe struggle that happens when characters want different things. Conflict resolutionthe process of settling a disagreement Evaluationa time when students and teacher talk about what was clear and what could have been cleared in a dramatic exercise: What did you see? What more would you have liked to see? General movementuse of individual body parts to move in different ways Group dramatizationan exercise in which characters use dialogue to tell a story with a beginning, middle, and end. The story includes a conflict or problem the characters solve. Movement skillsexercises that increase the ability to communicate with the body. Pantomimethe use of only the body to communicate an idea. Objectivewhat a character wants Side-coachingcomments a teacher makes during a dramatic exercise to support or refocus students explorations. Simple dialoguethe most basic words that a character speaks, that tell what a character wants Soundsthe most basic for, of communication with the voice, without using words AppendixBpageAppend-232 Append-232


Vocal skills consist of several elements: Pitcha voice can go everywhere between high and low Tempoa voice can go everywhere from fast to slow Tonea voice can tell us how someone is feeling Breath controlthe tool to make sounds and words Dictionthe tool used to say words so they can be understood Projectionthe tool used to allow the voice to be heard

Drama Techniques
Choral readingan exercise in which a variable number of students read the same text together Improvisationan exercise in which students make up action (with or without dialogue) on the spot Process Dramastudents participate in an experience as if they were the characters involved: analyzing and creating the characters and the direction of the experience. Puppetrythe use of body parts as objects or characters Skill-based activitythe integration of a dramatic skill into a curricular lesson Story dramaan exercise in which a narrator tells the parts of the story while students act it out Readers theatrean exercise in which actors read the text rather than presenting it memorized or improvised Theatre gamessimple exercises designed to increase the ability to th8ink and communicate with the voice and body and work as a group Theme-based activityTeacher-in-role guides the class through a dramatic activity on a curricular theme. Vocal exercisessimple exercises designed to improve vocal flexibility, diction, and projection


Theatre Games
Animals The leader has participants find a space in the room. She then calls out the names of various animals: tigers, bears, buffaloes, snakes, turtles, cats, dogs, rabbits, etc. Participants become these animals immediately as she calls out each name. Animal-like people The lead-in to this exercise is the exercise above. The leader has three or four players go to the center of the room. The audience then names certain animals for the participants to become. The players then act as these animals until the leader feels they have adequately captured the essence of the particular animal. The audience then gives the players a situation. For example, they might be at a cocktail party. The players are to act as people with the before-discovered animal characteristics. (For example, a spider might become a slinking gigolo attempting to seduce a cat-like woman. A dog might become a loud-mouthed little man always barking at others and giving them orders. Impulse Participants stand around in a circle facing each other. One person does a sharp action such as saluting another, clapping hands once, pointing a finger, falling to the ground, or twisting the body. He focuses this action on another person in the circle. That person must repeat the action and then do a new action to someone else in the circle. The game should be continuous, with no pause in the transfer of the action. The object of this exercise is to free the impulses and create spontaneityto enable the actors to not preplan what they are going to do. When players find that impulses do just come, they are able to relate better to each other. It is important in this exercise to not chastise students for preplanning but to help them by side-coaching: Just keep it going. It will come. Just let it come. Thats okay. Just keep going. MachinesImaginary One player goes into the center of the room and starts a continuous action and sound. Another player joins him, relating to him in some way. (If the player were doing a pumping action with his arm, the second player might do a counter pumping action in direct relationship to the first player.) Other players then add on, continuing to relate to the machine as it is being built. Variations of this exercise are, (1) telling players that the machine is going much faster and faster until it finally falls apart, and (2) telling players that the machine is getting old and rusty and is going slower and slower until it finally stops. This exercise helps to release the initial selfconsciousness of beginning players as it helps to create an ensemble feeling within the group. MachinesReal


One half of the group acts as audience for the players. The audience gives the players a machine to be as a group. Players cannot take any time to preplan who will be what particular part of the machine. (Some of the most common machines chosen are egg beater, typewriter, garbage disposal, lawn mower.) After playing for awhile, audience members select increasingly complex and difficult machines. MirrorsPaired This is a common theatre game. Two players stand facing each other. One person begins a slow motion movement while the other person follows. Players are to look into each others eyes and not at the movement itself. Many times players avoid dealing with the dramatic problem by moving too fastresisting the communication that must take place between the players. The leader should walk around the room and coach players to move in slow motion and to solve the problem of the game becoming one with the other players movement. MirrorGroup The leader forms the group into a somewhat triangular arrangement with one person in the lead, two people at the leaders sides, and the rest of the group filling in behind. No two people are to be on the same floor planes. The leader tells the person at the point of the triangle to begin a slow motion movement. The others follow that movement. Side-coaching comments can include Feel with the group. Focus on the problem. Become one with the group. Players often ask if they are supposed to look at the other players. The leader should just keep telling them to Become one with the group. This specific exercise creates a particularly effective flow of energy and contact within the group. Monster As with the Machines exercises, players again add on to each other. Players are told to become a monster which has a center and two symmetrical sides. If the first player forms the center or the body of the monster and the next player forms the left side of the monster and is doing a stroking motion, the right side player must do the exact same stroking motion on the right side. Variations of this exercise are, (1) the monster makes sounds, and (2) the monster eats someone. Movie Half of the group are actors and half are the voices of the actors. The group thinks of a type of movie they would like to do such as a horror film, a western, a love story, etc. The actors provide the action of the movie while the voices provide the dialogue. Only two people can be on the stage at any one time. Either the actors or the voices can initiate the action of the story.


Puppetry Many exercises can be utilized using puppets instead of the players themselves. Any of the above exercises may be done with puppets. Vocal Warm-ups Players kneel on the floor with knees spread shoulder width apart. They then put their foreheads on the floor and clasp their hands on top of their heads. Any series of vocal exercises may be done to loosen the vocal mechanism. These can include scale exercises, tongue twisters, and the singing of songs. Women Two players are given a situation (ladies in a beauty parlor, friends waiting for a bus, etc.) One of the players starts a conversation, but breaks in the middle of a sentence. The other person must fill in the rest of the sentence, plus add more to the conversation. He then breaks in the middle of a sentence and the other person must fill in. Two rules to the game are, (1) Neither player can deny what the other person has said, and (2) The second player must add more to the conversation. For example, if one player said, Arent you that belly dancer from . . , the second player couldnt say, No, Im not a belly dancer. He must add on and not deny what the first player said. He might say . . .Anchorage, Alaska. Yes, I had great experiences there. Do you remember our old friend. . . . . .Jake Garfunkle. Yes, hes balding, isnt he. The last time I saw him was at a party in . . . This exercise is particularly helpful in getting students to not preplan what they are going to say next. They dont have time!!! Face-Sound Game Players sit in a circle. One person turns to another and gives a sound while doing a motion. For example, she may pull her nose and say oohga or zonk or blammy or wow.) That person then gives this motion and sound to the next person in the circle. That person gives it to the next person and so on around the circle. When the sound and motion come back to the original person, she repeats it. The next person in the circle must now do a new sound and motion and that sound and motion goes around the circle. This procedure is repeated until all have had a chance to do an original sound and motion or until interest wanes. Poetry Building Either the leader supplies poems for players to use or players are asked to bring poems. The larger group is divided into two or more smaller groups, depending on the number of players. The players are given poems and asked to express them in any way they wish. They may use body movements, variety in voices, various levels, dance choreography, stylized movements, anything. Each group preforms for the others and evaluative comments are given about what worked and what didnt work about the way the poems were done. Very interesting programs may be developed through the use of this technique.


Sculpture Three players are required to play this game. One is the sculptor and the others are the sculptures. The sculptor forms the two in some relationship to each other. He then calls out Curtain or go, and the two must immediately begin to react to each other. After they have related to each other for a little while, he calls out Freeze! A new person comes to the work area and must take the place of one of the two sculptures in the exact same position. The player who is replaced then becomes the sculptor, who may reform the sculpture any way she wishes. Players continue until all students have had a chance to be a sculptor or sculpture or until interest wanes. Story-as-one One person starts a story and the other players are to begin telling the story at the same time. Players usually ask if they are to talk after the storyteller talks, but the leader should just sidecoach them to Tell the story at the same time. That is all. Just tell it together. This exercise creates a tremendous amount of concentration and group feeling. The leader sits in the circle with the players and can tap an object on the floor to signal a change in storytellers. Walk-Walk-Freeze Players are told to walk around the room, using all the available space. When the leader calls out Freeze, they are to take a position immediately. The leader calls out Freeze! four times and the players change position each time. This exercise helps to loosen the body and is a great help in releasing inhibitions! Freeze positions are many and varied! Walk-Walk-Freeze In Relationships Players are again to walk around the room in haphazard fashion, as they did in Walk WalkFreeze. This time, however, when the leader calls out Freeze, they are to freeze in some relationship to another person. Freeze is called out four times and the players are to change their relationship to that person each time Freeze is called. Name Six All the players except one, who stands in the center, sit in a circle. The center player closes his eyes while the others pass any small object from one to another. When the center player claps her hands, the player who is caught with the object in his hand must keep it until the player in the center points to him and gives him a letter of the alphabet. (No effort is made to hide the object from the center player.) Then the player who has the object must start it on its way immediately so that it passes through the hands of each of the players in the circle in turn. By the time it returns to him, he must have named six objects that begin with the letter the center player assigned him. If the player does not succeed in naming six objects in the time the object goes around the circle, that player must change places with the player in the center. If the circle is small, the object must be passed around the circle two or three times so there is adequate time to name six objects. Append-237

Singing Syllables Players sit in a circle. One goes from the room and the others choose a wordfor example, Washington. The syllables of the word are distributed around the circle. Wash is given to the first group of players, ing to the second group, and ton to the third group, so that all groups have an assigned syllable. To a familiar tune such as Yankee Doodle or Dixie, the players sing their syllable over and over. The odd player walks about from group to group and tries to piece the word together, using as many guesses as is needed. The game may be made more difficult by having players change places after the syllables have been given out, thus dispersing the groups. The groups all sing their syllables to the same tune simultaneously. Building a story A large group sits in a circle. The sidecoach chooses one of the players to begin telling a story. The story can be known or made up. At any point in the story, the sidecoach points at random to players who must immediately pick up where the last player left off, even if in the middle of a word. For example: 1st Player, The wind blew. . . 2nd player, the hat off his head. Players are not to repeat the last word of the previous storyteller. Gibberish Gibberish is a substitution of shaped sounds for recognizable words. Gibberish is a vocal utterance accompanying an action, not the translation of an English phrase or sentence. Ask the whole group to turn to neighbors and carry on conversations as if speaking an unknown language. Players should converse as if making perfect sense.


Dancing Pants
by Shel Silverstein And now for the Dancing Pants Doing their fabulous dance. From the seat to the pleat They will bounce to the beat, With no legs inside them, And no feet beneath. Theyll whirl, and twirl, and jiggle, and prance, So just start the music And give them a chance Lets have a big hand for the wonderful, marvelous, Super sensation, utterly fabulous, Talented Dancing Pants.

by Elizabeth Coatsworth I like to see a thunderstorm, A dunderstorm A blunder storm. I like to see it, black and slow. Come stumbling down the hills. I like to hear a thunderstorm, A plunderstorm, A wonder storm, Roar loudly at our little house And shake the window sills!


The Preamble
Group 1: All: Group 2: Judge: Group 3: Judge: Mother: Soldier: Group 1: Minister: Soldier: Group 2: Mother: Minister: Judge: Group 3: All: We The people Of the United States In order to form A more perfect union Establish justice Insure the domestic tranquility Provide for the common defense Promote the general welfare And secure the blessings Of liberty To ourselves And our posterity Do ordain And establish This constitution for The United States of America

The Witch
She comes by night, in fearsome flight, in garments black as pitch. The queen of doom upon her broom, the wild and wicked witch, a cackling crone with brittle bones and desiccated limbs, two evil eyes with warts and sties and bags about the rims, a dangling nose, ten twisted toes and folds of shriveled skin, cracked and chipped and crackled lips that frame a toothless grin. She hurtles by, she sweeps the sky and hurls a piercing screech. As she sweeps past, a spell is cast on all her curses reach. Take care to hide when the wild witch rides to shriek her evil spell. What she may do with a word or two is too much grim to tell. Jack Prelutsky


1. PITCHMusical tone of the voiceHigh? Low? Tenor, bass, soprano, alto 2. PITCH CHARACTERISTICS winsome strained raspy harsh gravelly grainy shrill screechy breathy edgy tinny growling sharp brassy husky scratchy rumbling hoarse piercing restrained thin guttural constricted cracking grating clear cutting metallic strident reedy

3. TEMPO faster slower much faster much slower a little slower a little faster alternating: fast and slow the same as your own starts fast and slows down starts slow and speeds up slower as fast as you can as slow as you can

4. RHYTHM syncopated waltzing crashing plodding sporadic languishing attacking dramatic sweeping lazy looping marching

5. PLACEMENT nose top of head toes throat front of mouth back of mouth (denasal or soft palate means very little if any air coming through your nose) chest middle of your brain

6. MOUTH WORK New York accent puff cheeks Tight Lips Southern accent Sloppy S Lazy S Loose Lips

*Used with permission from Pat Fraley, Los Angles Voice-Over Artist, (818) 760-2748


Expanded expression can be gained through 9 tools: 1. Loud L 2. Soft S 3. Fast


4. Slow __________ 5. Raise Pitch 6. Lower pitch 7. Pause before a word 8. Pause after a word ________

9. Varied tempo of entire phrases or sentences.


You can also gain much expression by simply emphasizing the verbs.

Exercise: Take a newspaper article and underline the words you feel are important. Practice each of the variations above, reading the article aloud 9 times once for each variation. Practice the following sentence, emphasizing the underlines words in each of the 9 ways listed above. The wind howled through the trees, sweeping the leaves through the thicket.


Tongue Twisters

Around the rugged rocks the ragged rascal ran. Can you can a can as a canner can can a can? Fred fed Ted bread, and Ted fed Fred bread. Freshly-fried flying fish. Lesser leather never weathered wetter weather better. Old oily Ollie oils old oily autos. Roberta ran rings around the Roman ruins. Seventy seven benevolent elephants She sells seashells down by the seaside. Six sleek swans swam swiftly southwards The sixth sick sheiks sixth sheeps sick. Three free throws. Wayne went to Wales to watch walruses. A bitter biting bittern Bit a better brother bittern, And the bitter better bittern Bit the bitter biter back. And the bitter bittern, bitten, By the better bitten bittern, Said: Im a bitter biter bit, alack! A skunk sat on a stump and thunk the stump stunk, but the stump thunk the skunk stunk. A tutor who tooted the flute Tried to tutor two tooters to toot. Said the two to the tutor: Is it harder to toot or To tutor two tooters to toot?

Fuzzy Wuzzy was a bear. Fuzzy Wuzzy had no hair. So Fuzzy Wuzzy wasnt very fuzzy, Was he? How many boards Could the Mongols hoard If the Mongol hordes got bored? How much wood would a woodchuck chuck If a woodchuck could chuck wood? He would chuck, he would, as much as he could, And chuck as much wood as a woodchuck would If a woodchuck could chuck wood. My dame hath a lame tame crane, My dame hath a crane that is lame. Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. A peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked. If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, Wheres the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked? Swan swam over the pond, Swim swan swim! Swan swam back again Well swum swan! There was a fisherman named Fisher who fished for some fish in a fissure. Till a fish with a grin, pulled the fisherman in. Now theyre fishing the fissure for Fisher.


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Dramatizing Mother Goose Dramatizing Classic Poetry Dramatizing Three Classic Tales Dramatizando Tres Cuentos Classicos Dramatizing Myths and Tales Dramatizing Aesops Fables
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Smith & Kraus, publishers 1.800.895.4331 Books by Louise Thistle Dramatizing Classic Poetry middle & high school

Dramatizing Myths and Tales Grade 3High School


An ideal way to involve students in classic literature and to integrate dramatization with the study of poems as literature. Written for teachers and recreational leaders with varying degrees of dramatic arts experience. This unique book contains: More than 50 classic poems dramatized, often with gestures for every line in the poem, and with literature questions to copy for the students. Poems by Shakespeare, Langston Hughes, Emily Dickenson, Robert Frost, Edgar Allen Poe, Christina Rosetti, William Blake, e.e. Cummings, Alfred Lord Tennyson, William Wordsworth, Lewis Carroll, Walt Whitman, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Carl Sandberg, Thomas Hardy, Edward Arlington Robinson, and others. Costume pieces and rhythm instrument suggestions to involve students completely in the poems and to make the poems fully alive. Topics for critical thinking, Writing, and Art for each poem including explanations of poetic devices used in the poems and questions on the devices.

Five full-length reproducible scripts Warm-up acting exercises Illustrated dance step instructions Warm-up acting exercises The mechanics of play direction Costume-Instrument ideas Directions for writing your own script Research questions

This unique approach to theatre arts draws upon the richness and diversity of five culturesWest African, Mayan, Native American, Japanese, and British. Designed for groups of up to 35 students, this book

Dramatizing Myths and Tales is a charming book filled with dramatically interesting ideas, engaging activities and meaningful stories from around the world. --Rodney Terwilliger, Specialists in Drama, for Young People, State of the Art (Journal of the American Alliance for Theatre in Education) DRAMATIZING AESOPS FABLES GRADES K-8 Eight Fables adapted and scripted for classroom dramatization with full-page illustrations 27 additional fables with instructions for adapting them (and other literature) to the narrative mime form. Introductory lessons adaptable to any age, small groups, English Learners Critical thinking questions for each story and activities for reading, art, and drama follow-ups

Louise Thistle makes classic poems come alive. The material appeals to all ability levels. I followed the directions, and let my students create their own presentations. English learners internalized the language. This well-written book on dramatizing literature has --Rebecca Beaver, San Diego City Schools, Classroom Teacher of English been tested in the classroom with a wide range of students Learners, Mainstream and Gifted and Talented Students. including English Learners and the gifted. Rosemary Howard, Instructor, Drama in Education, Brigham Young University, Childrens Book and Play DRAMATIZING MOTHER GOOSE Review.

An ideal way to introduce and involve people of all ages in classic literature through drama. Written for teachers, parents and recreational leaders with varying degrees of dramatic arts experience, this book contains: 17 of the most beloved Mother Goose Rhymes scripted to dramatizing in the classroom and on stage. Simple costume and musical instrument suggestions for each rhyme Historical background on Mother Goose and on each rhyme Dramatizing Mother Goose is a delightful introduction to an instructional practice with almost unlimited potential for language and literature enrichment across the grade levels. Cathy Bishop, Reading Specialist, The California Reader (Journal of the California Reading Association)

The Teachers Guide to Play Acting in the Classroom PRE K-2



These special picture books in English and Spanish versions develop language through dramatization. Classic stories are dramatized with actions to do and chants to say for every sentence. These techniques develop language skills and imagination simultaneously. These books required little preparation for use and proved engaging....When the group retold the story, the children, including two students with language disorders used the vocabulary in the story and demonstrated the value of repetition and pairing words with movement. The ASHA Leader, Journal of the American Speech, Language and Hearing Association