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xvi SYMBOLS

o
P
R
r
r
rei
s
suc
t-s
t-t
u
v
vap
x
outlet
overall
total (stagnation) conditions
projected area
rotor
at tip
radial
runner
at hub
based on relative velocity
isentropic
shaft
static
suction
tip
turbine
total-to-static
total-to-total
unit quantities
volumetric
vapour
tangential
CHAPTER
ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 DEFINITION
A turbomachine can be described as any device that extracts energy from or
imparts energy to a continuously moving stream of fluid, the energy transfer
being carried out by the dynamic action of one or more rotating blade rows.
The dynamic action ofthe rotating blade rows sets up forces between the blade
row and fluid, while the components of these forces in the direction of blade
motion give rise to the energy transfer between the blades and fluid. By
specifying that the fluid is moving continuously, a distinction is drawn between
the turbomachine and the positive displacement machine. In the latter, the
fluid enters a closed chamber, which is isolated from the inlet and outlet
sections of the machine for a discrete period of time, although work may be
done on or by the fluid during that time. The fluid itself can be a gas or a liquid,
and the only limitations that we shall apply are that gases (or steam) are
considered perfect and that liquids are Newtonian.
The general definition of the turbomachine as used above covers a wide
range of machines, such as ship propellers, windmills, waterwheels, hydraulic
turbines and gas turbines, and is therefore rather loose for the purposes of this
text. We will limit ourselves to a consideration of only those types of
turbomachines in which the rotating member is enclosed in a casing, or
shrouded in such a way that the streamlines cannot diverge to flow around the
edges of the impeller, as would happen in the case of an unshrouded windmill
or aerogenerator.
The types of machines falling into our defined category and which will be
considered in detail in succeedinl! chanters are listed in Tahle 1.1 and fall into
u
2 HYDRAULIC AND COMPRESSIBLE FLOW TUR,!lOMACHINES
INTRODUCTiON 5

Table 1.1 Types of turbomachines


Turbine. A machine that produces power by expanding a continuously
flowing fluid to a lower pressure or head; the power output is usually
expressed in kW. .
Pump. A machine that increases the pressure or head of a flowing liquid, and
(1.1)
(1.2)
Flow rate, Q(m
3
/s)
Speed. N (rev/s)
Power. peW)
Energy difference
across turbine. {/ H (N m/kg)
Fluid density.p(kglm3)
Fluid viscosity, Jl(Pa s)
Diameter. D (m)
P =!(p, N, jJ., D, Q, (gH))
--------,
P
Q
I
,
-,-- -
I
,
,
I
I
I
,
,
I
I
I
I
I
----!
. Control surface 12
Q
gH
Figure 1.2 Hydraulic lurbine conlrol volume
In Eq. (1.1),! means 'a functionof' and g, the acceleration due to gravity, has
been combined with H to form the energy per unit mass instead of energy per
unit weight. We now assume that Eq. (1.1) may be written as the product of all
the variables raised to a power and a constant, such that
volume represents a turbine ofdiameter D, which develops a shaft power P at a
speed of rotation N, then we could say that the power output is a function of all.
the other variables, or
Ifeach variable is expressed in terms of its fundamental dimensions, mass
M, length L and time T, then, for dimensional homogeneity, each side of
Eq. (1.2) must have the same powers of the fundamental dimensions, so the
indices of M, Land T can be equated to form a series of simultaneous
equations. Thus
(ML
2
/T3) = const(M/L3)O(1/T)b(M/LTY(L)d(L
3
/T)"(L
2
/T
2
V (1.3)
and equating the indices we get
M l=a+c
L 2= -3a-c+d+3e+2!
T -3=-b-c-e-2!
There are six variables and only three equations. It is therefore possible to
solve for three of the indices in terms of the remaining three. Solving for a, b
Work is done on fluid
Centrifugal pump
Axial flow pump
Centrifugal compressor
Axial flow compressor
Radial flow fan .
Axial flow hydraulic Iurbine
Radial flow hydraulic turbine
Mixed flow hydraulic turbine
Axial flow gas turbine
Pelton wheel hydraulic turbine
Work is done by fluid
Turbomachines in which
one of two classes depending on whether work is done by the fluid on the
rotating member or whether work is done by the rotating member on the flui?
Types of turbomachines can also be defined as to the. of. flUid
movement through the rotating member. If the flow is essentially aXial with
radial movement of the streamlines, then the machine is classed as an aXial
flow machine; whereas if the flow is essentially radial, it is classed as a radial
flow or centrifugal machine. Other special types of turbomachines exist, e.g.
the Minto wheel or Baki turbine, but they will not be considered in this text.
Considering the two classes of machines listed in Table 1.1, some broad
generalizations may be made. The first is that the left-hand column consists?f
machines in! which the fluid pressure or head (in the case of a hydraulic
machine) or the enthalpy (in the case of a compressible flow
decreases from inlet to outlet, whereas in the right-hand column are listed
those macnines which increase the head or enthalpy of the fluid flowing
through them. This decrease or increase in head, when multiplied by the
weight flow per unit time of fluid through the machine, represents the energy
absorbed by or extracted from the rotating blades, which are fixed onto a shaft
The energy transfer is effected in both cases by changing the angular
momentum of the fluid. It might therefore be reasonable to assume that
different types of turbomachine would exhibit differing shapes of blades and
rotating members, and this indeed is the case, as is shown in Fig. 1.1. In
addition, because turbomachines have developed historically at different
times, names have been given to certain parts of the machines as well as to
different types of machines, and these are now defined.
(1.9)
(1.8)
(1.7)
P/pN
3
D"
INTRODUCTION 7
gH/N
2
D
2
/
Q/ND
3
(b)
P/pN
3
D"
Q/ND
3

gH/N
2
D
2
For a pump
=P/pgQH
Then substituting for P and rearranging gives
'1 =P(ND
3
/Q)(N
2
D
2
/gH)
=P/tPt/J
Figure .1.3 of hydraulic machines drawn in terms of dimensionless
groups. (a) hydrauhc turbme; (b) hydraulic pump
(a)
characteristics of any other combination of P, N, Qand H for a given machine
or for any other geometrically similar machine of different diameter. Since
these groups are they may be divided or multiplied by
to form dImensIOnless groups depending on the type of test
carned out, and It therefore follows that while in this particular case
solutIons for a, band d were found in terms of c, e and f, other solutions could
have been determined give different dimensionless groups. Each set of
g:oups taken together IS correct, although they will of course be related by
dIfferently shaped curves.
For the turbine, the hydraulic efficiency is defined as
. Power delivered to runner
'1
Power available to runner
!.3.2 Model Testing
. hydraulic machines are so large that only a single unit might be
(pqUlre?, as for example a hydraulic turbine in a hydroelectric installation
,p,roducmg many megawatts (MW) of power. Therefore, before the full-size
(1.6)
the power coefficient
the flow coefficient
the head coefficient
p=f(Re, tjJ, t/J)
P/pN
3
D
5
= P
Q/ND
3
= tjJ
gH/N
2
D
2
=t/J
The term pND2/Jl is equivalent to the Reynolds number Re = pVD/Jl, since the
peripheral velocity Vis proportional to ND. Hence Eq. (1.1) may be
as
which states that the power coefficient of a hydraulic machine is a function of
Reynolds number, flow coefficient and head coefficient. It is not possible to say
what the functional relationship is at this stage, since it must be obtained by
experiment on a particular prototype machine or model. In the case of a
hydraulic machine, it is found that the Reynolds number is usually very high
and therefore the viscous action of the fluid has very little effect on the power
output of the machine and the power coefficient remains only a function of t/J
and tjJ. To see how Pcould vary with tjJ and t/J, let us return to Fig. 1.2.
To determine the relationship between P, t/J and tjJ, the head across the
machine can be fixed, as is usually the case in a hydroelectric installa60n. For a
fixed value of inlet valve opening, the load on the machine is varied while the
torque, speed and flow rate are measured. From these measurements, the
power may be calculated, and Pand tjJ plotted against t/J.
Typical dimensionless characteristic curves for a hydraulic turbine and
_.. 1 ,,\.. Thp."p' curves are also the
and d in terms of c, e and f we get
a=1-c
b= 3 -c-e-2f
d = 5 - 2c - 3e - 2f
Substituting for a, band d in Eq. (1.2),
P = const[pl -c N3-c- e- 2f Jlc D
5
- 2c- 3e- 2f Qe(gH)f]
and collecting like indices into separate brackets,
P = const[(pN3D5)(Jl/pND2),(Q/ND3)'(gH/N2D2)fJ (1.4)
The second term in the brackets will be recognized as the inverse of the
Reynolds number and, since the value of c is unknown, this term can be
inverted and Eq. (1.4) may be written as
P/pN3D5=const[(pND2/Jl)C(Q/ND3)e(gH/N2D2)f] (1.5)
Each group of variables in Eq. (1.5) is truly dimensionless and all are used in
hydraulic turbomachinery practice. Because of their frequent use, the groups
are known by the following names:
6 HYDRAULIC AND COMPRESSIBLE FLOW
a
s
INTRODUCTION 9
01
(b)
T
PO.
s
POI
02
02s
(a)
T
Figure 1.4 Compression and expansion in compressible now machines: (a) turbine; (b)
compressor
P=p/RT and it therefore becomes superfluous since we already have T and
P as .varia?les, so deleting density, and combining R with T, the functional
relatIOnshIp can be written as
P02 =f(POI,RT
oI
,RT
o2
,m,N,D,p.)
and writing P02 as a product of the terms raised to powers,
P02 =const [(Poda(RTOI)b(RT
02
)'(m)d(NY(D)f(p.)g] (1.11)
Putting in the basic dimensions
(M/LT
2
) = const [(M/LT
2
)a(L
2
jT2)b(L
2
jT2)'(MjT)d(ljT)e(L)f(M/LT)g]
Equating indices
M l=a+d+g
L - 1 = - a +2b +2c +f - g
T - 2 = - 2a - 2b - 2c - d - e - g
and solving for a, band f in terms of d, c, e and g we obtain
a=l-d-g
b =dl2 - C - e/2 +gl2
f=e-2d-g
Substitute for a, band f in Eq. (1.11), then
P02 =const -c-e/2 +g/2(RT02)'mdNeDe-2d-gp.g]
= const x POI
x [/J(RT
oI
)I/2IpOID]g} (1.12)
"0 ,Now term in the brackets in Eq. (1.12) is multiplied top and bottom
"i?y (RToI ) and noting that PodRT
ol
equals POI' then
IIRT. In. fllT. \1/2n _ ,,/(1)7' \1/2 n n
8 HYDRAULIC AND COMPRESSIBLE FLOW TURBOMACHINES
1.3.3 Compressible Flow Machines
Not all turbomachines use a liquid (hydraulic fluid) as their fluid medium. Gas
turbines and axial flow compressors are used extensively in the jet engines of
aircraft where the products of combustion and air respectively are the working
fluids, while many diesel engines use centrifugal compressors for supercharg-
ing. To accommodate the compressibility of these types of fluids (gases), some
new variables must be added to those already mentioned in the case of
hydraulic machines, and changes must be made in some ofthe definitions used.
With compressible flow machines, the parameters of importance are the
pressure and temperature increase of the gas in a compressor and the pressure
and temperature decrease of the gas in the turbine plotted as a function of the
mass flow rate of the gas. In Fig. 1.4, the T-5 charts for a compression and
expansion process are shown.
In isentropic flow the outlet conditions of the gas are at 02s whereas the
actual outlet conditions are at 02. The subscript 0 refers to total conditions and
1and 2 refer to the inlet and outlet points of the gas respectively. The s refers to
constant entropy.
Now the pressure at the outlet, P02' can be written as a function of the
following variables:
P02 = f(D, N, m, POI> TOl> To2 , POI' P02' p.) (1.10)
Here the pressure ratio P02/POI replaces the head H in the hydraulic machine,
while the mass flow rate m (kg/s) replaces Q. However, by examining Eq. (1.10)
"''' t'<>n c"" th<>t \lcina thp of thp clensitv mav he written as
machine is built, it is necessary to test it in model form to obtain as much
information as possible about its characteristics. So that we may accurately
transpose the results obtained from the model to the full-size machine, three
I criteria must be met. The first is that the model and prototype must be
, geometrically similar; that is, the ratio of all lengths between the model and
prototype must be the same. The second requirement is that of kinematic
similarity, where the velocities of the fluid particles at corresponding points in.
the model and prototype must be related through a fixed ratio. The third
requirement is that of dynamic similarity, where the forces acting at
corresponding points must be in a fixed ratio between model and prototype.
For a geometrically similar model, dynamic similarity implies kinematic
similarity.
In order to ensure the above criteria, the values of the dimensionless
groups in Eq. (1.5) must remain the same for both the model and the
prototype. Therefore if the curves shown in Fig. 1.3 had been obtained for a
completely similar model, these same curves would apply to the full'-size
prototype machine. It can then be seen that these curves apply to any size
machine of the same family at any head, flow rate or speed.
(1.15)
or Hp/H
m
=(N
p
/N
m
)2(D
p
/D
m
)2
or Qp/Qm =(Np/N
m
)(D
p
/D
m
)3
or Pm/Pp = (N
m
/N
p
)3(D
m
/D
p
)5
T b
' ffi' _ Power transferred from fluid
ur me e IClency -, Fl'd 'I bl
U1 power aval a e
=P/pgQH
Hp/(NpDp)2 =H
m
/(N
m
D
m
)2
Qp/N = Qm/N
Pp/ =Pm/
INTRODUCTION 11
P02/POI = fTOl/ToI ), /PoI),(N/TW)) (1.14)
where it should be noted that some of the terms are now no longer
dimensionless. It is usual to plot POl/POI and T
02
/T
ol
against the mass flow
rate parameter mTW/POI for different values of the speed parameter N/TW
for a particular machine. But for a family of machines, the full dimensionless
groups of Eq, (1.13) must be used if it is required to change the size of the
machine or the gas contained. The term ND/(RT
o1
)1/2 can be interpreted as
the Mach-number effect. This is because the impeller velocity V oc NDand the
acoustic velocity aOI oc(RT
01
)1/2, while the Mach number M = V/aOI' Typical
performance curves for an axial flow compressor and turbine are shown in
Figs 1.5 and 1.6.
take place, a significant reduction in Re can occur, and this must then be taken
into account. For a particular constant-diameter machine, the diameter D may
be ignored and therefore, in view of the above considerations, function (1.13)
becomes
1.4 PROTOTYPE AND MODEL EFFICIENCY
Before leaving this introduction to the use of dimensionless groups, let us look
at the relationship between the efficiency of the model and that of the
prototype, assuming that the similarity laws are satisfied.
We wish to build a model of a prototype hydraulic turbine of efficiency '1
p
'
Now from similarity laws, denoting the model and prototype by subscripts m
and p respectively,
Now
Therefore
'1m1'1p =(PmlPp)(Qp/Qm)(Hp/Hm) = 1
and the efficiencies of the model and prototype are the same providing the
similarity laws are satisfied, In practice, the two are not the same due to scaling
effects, such as relative surface roughness, slight Reynolds-number changes
and Mach-number effects at higher blade speeds.
Increasing N/ni
2
(b)
(b)
09 ----r-
'"
0.9
Choking
mass flow
(a)
Figure 1.6 Axial flow gas turbine characteristics: (a) pressure ratio; (b) efficiency
(a)
Figure 1.5 Axial flow compressor characteristics: (a) pressure ratio; (b) efficiency
Surge line
10 HYDRAULIC AND COMPRESSIBLE FLOW
. 1/2 L/T which is a velocity, and therefore the last
But the umts of (RT
01
) 'R Id mber Thus the functional
term in brackets is expressIble as a eyno s nu '
relationship may be written as , 1/2
/
_ fRT /RT ) (m(RTol)1/2/pOID2),(ND/(RTod ),Re)(1.13)
P02 POI - 02 01 , ,
. 3) t be obtained by expenmental
The exact form of the functIOn (1.1 t tests For a particular machine.
measurements taken from model ordPlro ?gYPthee fluid as the prototype, R
, . 1 fl' d orfor a mo e usm
usmg a partIcu ar UI, ., d Th Reynolds number is in most cases so
is a constant and may be . h e 'n this parameter over the usual
high and the flow so tburbulelnt : :t where large changes of density
operating range may e neg ec e , ,
12 HYDRAULIC AND COMPRESSIBLE FLOW TURBOMACHINES
INTRODUCTION 13
(1.16)
5 4
Axial
3
0.5 I 2
Dimensionless specific speed, N. (rad)
1.0,--- --.
0.9
0.5
If the diameter is eliminated from these two equations, then
D = (gHNo)1/2/N and cPo = QN
2
(t/Jo/gH)3/2
or
~ D O ~
Centrifugal Mixed flow
Figure 1.8 Variation of hydraulic pump impeller design
0.8
f
11
'n)
"'"
.;"
~
u
l::
~ t
<>
0.7
'u
.,
IS
~ Ul
..
; ~
0.6
and
Mixed flow
Radial
QIND
3
We have seen in Sec. 1.3 that the curves showing the functional relationship
between dimensionless groups for a particular machine also apply to machines
of the same family (similar design), providing the similarity laws are obeyed
when changing to a smaller-diameter machine, at perhaps a different speed
and head. It is therefore possible to obtain curves of many different types of
machines, and to use these curves to select a machine design for a particular
operating requirement. Typical curves that might be obtained for different
types of hydraulic pumps are shown in Fig. 1.7, where it is seen that each
machine type lies in a well-defined region of head and flow coefficients, it being
possible in some cases to choose two or more impeller types for a specific flow
coefficient. There are of course an infinite number of designs that could be
produced, but for each design only one point exists on its characteristic curve
where the efficiency is at a maximum. Thus for each design of pump unique
values of cP and t/J exist at the maximum efficiency point. In the case of turbines,
the unique values would be Pand cP at maximum efficiency.
The specifications for a pump design are usually expressed in terms of a
required head H, at a flow rate of Qand speed N, the speed being specified since
motors are usually only avail;;lble in fixed speed intervals. No mention has
been made concerning the diameter or type of machine, both of which must be
determined. For the best design point, constant values of cPo and t/Jn will exist
corresponding to the maximum efficiency point, or
1.5 DIMENSIONLESS SPECIFIC SPEED
,
. :
,
I,
I
(1.18)
4
Axial flow turbines
Francis turbines
o
0.82
0.86
0.94
2 3
. Dimensionless specific speed, N. (rad)
Figure 19 Va . t' f h ' . . . na IOn 0 ydrauhc turbme runner design with dimensionless specific speed

0.90
"

INTRODUCTION 15
Pelton wheel
'1X(
0.6 1.\ 1.6
0.98
and
P
u
= p/H
3
/
2
(1.19)
. .For a turbine, the dimensionless specific speed is found b
slmdar to that for pumps except that D' r' d y a procedure
what is often referred to as the power Phand IjJ to yield
, sp' were
N
sp
= NPI/2/pl/2(gH)5/4
. (1.20)
Figure 19 shows typic I h dr'
speeds aiong with opYti:u
u
IC turdbm.e for different specific
. m or eSlgn e IClencles.
low high values of speed for
1..11, where it will be noted that and
diameters and high-specific-speed machines have small diameters. In
Putting H2 = 1 (un,it head) then
N -N /H
l
/
2
N
. . 2 - 1 1 = u ' (1.17)
and thiS IS the unit speed of th t b' .
similarly obtained to give e ur me. Umt quantities for Q and P may be
N.=SP./129
N. = SPl /53
N. = SP
3
/2730
N.=SPJ42
N.=SPs/187
Dimensionless specific speed, N.(rad)
SP. = rpm(cfs)'12/ft
3
/
4
SP
l
= rpm(m
3
/sj'l2/m
3
/
4
SP
3
= rpm(gpm)1/l/ft
3
/
4
SP. = rpm(hp)l/l/ft
s
/,
CP _ rnmlme:tric ho)'ll/ms/4
Specific speed
or
N
s
is known as the dimensionless specific speed, the units peing revolution or
radians depending on the units of N, and must not be confused with specific
speed.
Since D was eliminated at the maximum efficiency point, the dimension-
less specific speed acts as a design parameter, which indicates the type of
machine that should be used for the given N, Hand Q. Equation (1.16) shows
that a pump with a high Ns will have a low head and high flow tate, and implies
an axial flow pump with a large swallowing capacity. Alow N
s
implies a high
head and low flow rate, and a centrifugal type of pump. Figure 1.8 shows the
variation of N
s
with pump impeller type, and indicates the optimum
efficiencies to be expected.
In practice, Ns is often expressed as NQ1
/
2/H
3
/4, the 9 being dropped since
it is a constant, and the resulting value of Ns will therefore be different. It may
also be found that consistent sets of units are not always used for N, Qand H,
so that when a value of Ns is expressed, it should be ensured that the definition
being used is known. In this text the SI system will be used and Ns will therefore
be dimensionless.
However, as a point of reference, conversion factors are listed in Table 1.2
so that the reader may calculate the dimensionless specific speed from specific
speeds using Q, Nand H in other units. The fluid contained is water and, where
quoted, gpm are US gallons per minute, ftis foot, cfs are cubic feet per second,
and hp is horsepower.
Terms that are often used in hydraulic flow machines are those of unit
head, unit speed, unit power and unit quantity. They arose from the need to be
able to compare hydraulic machines tested under a set of standard conditions.
In turbine work, the speed, power output and flow rate are determined for a
turbine operating under an assumed unit head of say 1m or 1ft, its efficiency
remaining constant. For instance, consider a turbine tested under a head HI
and speed NI rpm. Then from Eq. (1.6), for any other speed and head,
HI/Ni =
Table 1.2 Conversion factors for specific speed
14 HYDRAULIC AND COMPRESSIBLE FLOW
.
__-..........."., ..--- --
16 HYDRAULIC AND COMPRESSIBLE FLOW TURBOMACHINES
INTRODUCTION 19
Control volume
20.0 10.0 5.0
and ventilators
Axial flow compressors, blowers
2.0
I'
N. (rad)
1.0 0.50
Axial flow
,. -I
steam and gas turbines
(radial flow) pumps pumps
Radial compressors
,.. . -I
and fans
I
Francis turbines I Kaplan
I -I
slow normal fast turbines
Propeller

Mixed flow Propeller
'1- '1- -I
0.20
Pelton wheel
I' 1
multi-jet
Centrifugal pumps
I"
0.10 0.05
Pelton wheel single jet _I
Figure 1.10 Correlation of rotor designs with dimensionless specific speed (courtesy of Escher
Wyss Ltd)
the smaller the diameter the lower will be the cost of the machine, and therefore
the design usually aims for the highest possible specific speed.
1.6 BASIC LAWS AND EQUATIONS
The basic laws of thermodynamics and fluid mechanics are used in turboma-
chines although they are usually arranged into a more convenient form. All or
some may be used under any set of circumstances and each will be briefly dealt
with in turn.
1.6.1 Continuity
For steady flow through the control volume, the mass flow rate m remains
constant. Referring to Fig. 1.12,
(1.21)
where the velocity vectors C
I
and C
2
are perpendicular to the cross-sectional
areas of flow Al and A
2
In compressible flow machines the mass flow (kg/s)
is used almost exclusively while in hydraulic machines the volume flow rate Q
(m
3
/s) is preferred,
Figure 1.12 Control volume for linear momentum
the surroundings is JoY, then
Q- W=m[(P2jp2 - PIjpd + - Ci)/2 + g(Z2 - Zd + (u
2
- udJ (1.22)
where pjp = pressure energy per unit mass (J/kg) C2/2 k' ,
unit mass (J/kg), u =internal energy of th fl 'd' =. metIc energy per
= potential energy per unit mass (Jjkg) _e UI fl
Per
Ulllt mass (J/kg), gZ
d
' ' m - mass ow rate (kg/s) W - k
one on surroundmgs ( +ve) (W) d Q_ h ' - wor
I d an - eat transfer to system ( +ve) (W)
n wor s, Eq. (1.22) states that in steady flow through any region: .
He,at added to Shaft work done Increase in I '
flUid per unit b th fl 'd ncrease m
- y, e UI per =pressure energy +kinetic energy
mass Ulllt mass '
per Ulllt mass per unit mass
Increase in Increase in
+ energy +internal energy
per Ulllt mass per unit mass
The steady flow energy eq t' l' '.
well as to real flu'd h' ua .lOn les to lIqUids, gases and vapours as
because man I s avmg no vIscosIty. It may be simplified in many cases
shown in th y lf the are zero or cancel with others, and this will be
e re evant sectIOns.
. Newton's Second Law of Motion
:This law states that the f 11 h .
particular direction is .. vo!u.me jna
20 HYDRAULIC AND COMPRESSIBLE FLOW TURBOMACHINES
INTRODUCTION 21
LT = m(r
2
C
x2
- r
t
Cxt)
If the machine revolves with angular velocity w then the power is
ITw =m(U2Cx2 - UtCxt)
(1.26)
dqjT =!is
causes the power developed by a turbine to be less than the ideal isentropic
power developed and why the work input to a pump is greater than the
isentropic or ideal work input (Fig. 1.4). In theory the entropy change might
also be zero for an adiabatic process but it is impossible in practice. For a
reversible process the seconp law is expressed as
where dq = heat transfer per unit mass (Jjkg), T = absolute temperature at
which heat transfer occurs (K) and !is =entropy change (Jjkg K).
In the absence of motion, gravity and any other effects, Eq. (1.22) has no
potential or kinetic'energy terms, and so '
Q- W =m(u
2
- u
t
) or dq - dw =du
where the units are Jjkg. Substituting for dq and rearranging,
!is = dqjT = (du +dw)jT
Putting dw =p dv, where dv an infinitesimal specific volume change, then
Tds =du +pdv (1.27)
Defining specific enthalpy as h = u +pv and substituting for du in Eq. (1.27),
Tds =dh - vdp (1.28)
and this equation is used extensively in the study of compressible flow
machines.
In the following chapters, use will be made of the concepts discussed in this
introduction. This chapter should have acted as a reminder of the many
separate concepts learned in thermodynamics and fluid mechanics, and has
shown how these two separate subjects combine to form the subject of
turbomachinery.
B
"
\
\
\
\
/
/
I
J
I
A ---.--
w
Figure 1.13 Control volume for angular momentum
Equation (1.23) applies for linear momentum. However, turbomachines
have impellers that rotate, and the power output is expressed as product of
torque and angular velocity, and therefore angular momentum IS the more
useful parameter. .'
Figure 1.13 shows the movement of a fluid particle from a pomt A a
point B while at the same time moving from a r
t
to r2 If the tangential
velocities of the fluid are C
xt
and C
x2
respectively, then the sum of all the
torques acting on the system is equal to the rate of change of angular
momentum,
For a turbine
1.6.4 Entropy (Second Law of Thermodynamics)
This law states that for a fluid undergoing a reversible adiabatic process, the
entropy change is ;ero, while for the same fluid undergoing a?iabatic or
rothpr thp pntrnnv inp,re::tses from inlet to outlet. It IS thIs fact that
W=m(UtC
xt
- U
2
Cx2O
and is known as Euler's turbine equation.
For a pump
W = m(U2Cx2 - Ut Cxt) > 0
which is Euler's pump equation.
(1.24)
(1.25)
EXERCISES
1.1 A radial/low hydraulic turbine is required to be designed to produce 30 MW under a head of
14 m at a speed of 95 rpm. A geometrically similar model with an output of 40 kW and a head of
5 m is to be tested under dynamically similar conditions, At what speed must the model be run,
what is the required impeller diameter ratio between the model and protoiype and what is the
volume now rate through the model if its efficiency can be assumed to be 90 per cent?
1.2 The performance curves of a centrifugal pump are shown in Fig. 1.14. The impeller diameter is
127 mm and the pump delivers 2.831/s at a speed of 2000 rpm. If a 102 mm diameter impeller is
filled and the pump runs at a speed of 2200 rpm, what is the volume /low rate? Determine also the
new pump head.
i.3 An axial now compressor is designed to run at 4500rpm when ambient atmospheric
are 101.3 kPa and 15C. On the day when the performance characteristic is obtained,
"lhe atmospheric temperature is 25C. What is the "nrr""t,."",,<l ",hi"h thp n. .. n' ... _ry
, ,I
22 HYDRAULIC AND COMPRESSIBLE FLOW TURBOMACHINES
INTRODUCTION 23
(
N )Z/5
=2.25
(
N
1
)3/5 (5 )1/Z(N )
0.266 _ = _ _1
. Nz 14 N
z
turbines. with a specific speed of 180 rpm are investigated. The normal running speed is to be
50 rpm m .both schemes. Determine the dimensionless specific speeds and compare the two
proposals msofar as the. number of machines are concerned, and estimate the power to be
developed by each machme. The units in either installation are to be of equal power and the
efficiency of each type may be assumed to be 0.9.
_1.9 Acustomer a salesman with a particular pump requirement and is quoted fot an
aXial flow pump of rotor diameter 152.4 mm. Running at a speed of980rpm th h"'d
d r 0183 3 , e mac me IS sal to
h
e Iver
l
m agamst a head of9.1 m at an efficiency of85 per cenl. Are the claims of
t e sa esman reahslIc?
l.lO A Francis turbine runs at 180rpm under a head of 146m wI'th a ffi' f935
E
h n e IClency 0 . per cent
slimate t e power output of the installation. .
SOLUTIONS
Exercise 1.1 head, flow and power coefficients for the model and
and notmg that the density of the fluid remains the same, then, if
subscnpt 1 refers to the prototype and subscript 2 to the model,
PI P
z
N
3D5 = N3D5 where PI =pz
PI I 1 pz Z Z
I
Then
Also
Then
D
z
= (Hz )1/Z(N
1
) =(2)I/Z(N1)
D1 HI N
z
14 N
z
Therefore equating the diameter ratios
4.0 1.0 2.0 3.0
Volume flow rate, Q x 10
3
(m
3
Is)
OL-_----'---_----I.__.L.-_----'---_----1__-'--_----'--_----'
o
4
Figure 1.14
20
12
16
If an entry pressure of 60 kPa is obtained at the point where the normal ambient condition mass
flow would be 65 kgfs, calculate the mass flow obtained in the test.
1.4 Specifications for an axial flow coolant pump for one loop of a pressurized water nuclear
reactor are:
Head 85m
Flow rate 20ooom
3
jh
Speed 1490 rpm
Diameter 1200mm
Water density 714kg/m
3
Power 4 MW (electrical)
The manufacturer plans to build a model. Test conditions limit the available electric power to
500 kWand flow to 0.5 m
3
Is' of cold water. If the model and prototype efficiencies are assumed
equal, find the head, speed and scale ratio of the model. Calculate the dimensionless specific speed
of the prototype and confirm that it is identical with the model.
1.5 A pump with an available driven speed of 800 rpm is required to overcome a 1.83 m head
while pumping 0.2 m
3
Is. What type of pump is required and what power is required?
1.6 A reservoir has a head of 40 m and a channel leading from the reservoir permits a flow rate of
34m
3
/s. If the rotational speed of the rotor is 150 rpm, what is the most suitable type of turbine to
use? .
1.7 Alarge centrifugal pump contains liquid whose kinematic viscosity may vary between 3 and 6
times that of water. The dimensionless specific speed of the pump is 0.183 rev and it is to discharge
2m
3
/s of liquid against a total head of 15m. Determine the range of speeds and test heads for a
one-quarter scale model investigation of the full size pump if the model uses water.
1.8 In a projected low-head hydroelectric scheme, 10000 ft3Is of water are available under a head
of 12 ft. Alternative schemes to use Francis turbines having a specific speed of 105 rpm or Kaplan
24 HYDRAULIC AND COMPRESSIBLE FLOW TURBOMACHINES
INTRODUCTION 25
whence
N2 = 2.25
5/2
x 95
Model speed = 721.4 rpm
D2= 0.266
D
1
721.4
Model scale ratio = 0.079
and diameter D are dropped to yield Eq (1 14) C 'd' fi h . . . onsl enng lfSt t e speed
parameter,
N
1
N
2
)T
01
= )T
02
N = 4500(273 + 25 )1
/
2
2 273+15
Correct speed = 4577 rpm
Solving we get
Q2 = 1.611/s
1\1 II.". _ 1 1 1 1 ({\ 1\3
hen
Considering now the mass flow parameter,
m1)Tol =m2)To2
POI P02
= (11.11)3 (D
2
)9(D1)5
0.5 D
1
D
2
1000
(
D2)4 8
D
1
=(11.l1)3 x O.714
Scale ratio D
2
/D
1
= 0.3
N1_( 20000 )(D2)3
N
2
- 0.5 x 3600 D
1
= 11.11 r
;:
Substitute for (NIiN2); then
Also
or
m2 =65 x
101.3 298 .
Mass flow obtained = 37.85 kg/s
Exercise 1.4 Using Eq. (1.5), equate the head pow'er and flow coefficients for
the model and prototype. Then
H2= 10.9 m of water
9.81 x 14 9.81 x H2
(2000 X 127)2 - (2200 x 102?
M d I ffi
. Power output
o e e lClency =
Water power input
0.9 = 40 x 10
3
pgQH
Q = 40 X 10
3
0.9 X 10
3
'x 9.81 x'5
Model volume flow = 0.906m
3
/s
Solving we get
Q1 Q2
NIDi =
2.83 _ Q2
2000 X 127
3
- 2200 X 102
3
and substituting
From Fig. 1.14 at Q1 = 2.831/s (2.83 x 10- 3m
3
/s) and 2000 rpm the head HI is
14 m and equating head coefficients for both cases gives
gH
l
gH
2
N
2
D
2
= N
2
D
2
1 1 2 2
Exercise 1.2 Assuming dynamic similarity exists between the first and second
sized pumps, we equate the flow coefficients. Thus

P=pgQH
= 1000 x 9.81 x 0.2 x 1.83
= 3.59kW
.-orr;,c Ie... .\-1/\ n t3\1lt
t
l1
hp
rOwp.r must be
INTRODUCTION 27
Exercise 1.6 We have
QI Q2
NIDi =
Q2 = N
2
(D2)3
Ql N j D
j
5.333
= --.tJ = 0.0833
60 X (1000)1/2 x (9.81 X 40)5/4
= 0.165 rev (1.037 rad)
1..10 it is. see? that the Francis turbine would be the most suitable
c Olce Jor thiS applIcatIOn.
Since the viscosity of the liquids used in the model and prototype
vary equality of Reynolds in Eq. (1.5) must apply for
similarIty. Let subscripts 1 and 2 apply to the prototype and model
respectIvely.
Equating Reynolds number
NIDi =
VI V
2
Turbine power = pgQH
= 1000 x 9.81 x 34 x 40
= 13.3 MW
Power specific speed is given by Eq. (1.20)
Np
1
/
2
N
sp
=
150 x (13.3 x 10
6
)1/2
supplied to the shaft we divide by the efficiency.
Shaft power required =3.59/0.80
Shaft power =4.49 kW
N
2
=V
2
(D
1
)2
N
1
VI D
2
For the liquid with viscosity three times that of water
N
2
4
2
N
I
=3= 5.333
Equating flow coefficients
j,..
Exercise 1.5 From Eq. (1.16)
NQl/2
N
s
=(gH)3/4
800 (0.2)1/2

60 (9.81 X 1.83)3/4
= 0.683 rev (4.29 rad)
For the given flow rate Fig. 1.8 shows that a propeller or axial flow pump is
required and that an efficiency of about 80 per cent can be expected. Therefore
the power required is
For the prototype
=2n x 1490 x
N
s1
60 3600 9.81 85
=2.37 rad
1490 (0.5)1/2
Ns2 = 2n x 60 x 3.3 x (9.81 x 85)3/4
= 2.35 rad
Therefore taking rounding errors into account the dimensionless specific
speeds of both model and prototype are the same.
From Eq. (1.16) the dimensionless specific speed is given by
NQl/2
N
s
=(gH)3/4
Also
26 HYDRAULIC AND COMPRESSIBLE fLOW TURBOMACHINES
,
'i.
':
I
: I
Power delivered
Power available
where N is in revls
Turbine efficiency
p= 1761 kW
Dimensionless specific speed of Francis turbine
=180/42
= 4.3rad
50 x 2 x n x p
1
/
2
2.5=
60 x (1000)1/2(9.81 X 3.66)5/4
Dimensionless specific speed of Kaplan turbine
N b
f F . b' Total power required
urn er 0 ranCIS tur mes= ---::::---=-------=-:-:--
Power per machine
10 000 ft3Is = 283.17 m
3
Is
12ft=3.66m
= 105/42
= 2.5rad
INTRODUCTION 29
9150
=--
1761
These values may be checked against those values in Fig. 1.10.
Converting to SI units
For the Francis turbine
whence
P
0.9=--
pgQH
P = 0.9 x 1000 x 283.17 x 3.66 x 9.81
= 9150kW
This is the total power delivered by all the turbines.
Now
= 5.47 revls
N
2
= 5.47 x 5.33
Model speed = 29.16 revls
H
2
=6.67m
I
N
N
S1
= (gH1)3/4
0.183(9.81 x 15)3/4
N1 = 21/ 2
N2=14.58 revls
I
6.67 m < model head < 26.67 m
H
2
=15 x 1.776
Model head = 26.67 m

= C;3Y = 1.776
Q2 = 2 x 0.0833
Model flow rate = 0.166 m
3
For one-quarter scale model
14.58 <model speed < 29.16rev/s
Exercise 1.8 The dimensionless specific speed is obtained from the conversion
factors for specific speed given in Sec. 1.5. In this casefor the non-SI units used
NtZ,7)= SPI42
Similarly for the case when the prototype viscosity is six times that of
water
28 HYDRAULIC AND COMPRESSIBLE FLOW TURBOMACHINES
From Eq. (1.16)
Equating head coefficients
r=====================--------r----------.
ii
30 HYDRAULIC AND COMPRESSIBLE FLOW TURBOMACHINES
For the Kaplan turbine
TWO
CHAPTER
50 x 2 x 1t X pl/2
4.3 = 60 x (1000)1/2(9.81 X 3.66)5/4
whence
HYDRAULIC PUMPS
p= 5209.7kW
9150
Number of Kaplan turbines = 5209.7.
= 1.76 (say 2)
Exercise 1.9 From Eq. (1.16) for dimensionless specific speed
NQ1/2
Ns = (gH)3/4 rev
2 x 1t x 980 X 0.283
1
/
2
d
- ra
- 60 x (9.81 X 9.1)3/4
= 1.88 rad
Referring to Fig. 1.10 it is seen that axial flow pumps only begin at a
dimensionless specific speed of approximately 2.0 rad. It is therefore unlikely
that the salesman's claims are realistic.
A suitable pump would be of the mixed flow type which gives the stated
efficiency at the required flow rate and calculated dimensionless specific speed.
Exercise 1.10 Using Fig. 1.9 the Francis turbine has an efficiency of 93.5 per
cent at a dimensionless specific speed of 2.0 rad. From Eq. (1.20) the
dimensionless power specific speed is
Npl/2
N
sp
= pl/2(gH)5/4
whence
pl/2 = 2.0 X (1000)1/2 x (9.81 X 146)5/4 x 60
180 x 2 x 1t
=29 563
and
P=874MW
2.1 INTRODUCTION
The term 'hydraulics' is defined as the science of the conveyance of liquids
through pipes. Most of the theory applicable to hydraulic pumps has been
derived using water as the fluid medium but this by no means precludes the use
of other liquids. Two types of pumps commonly used are centrifugal and axial
flow types, so named because of the general nature of the fluid flow through the
impeller. Both work on the principle that the energy of the liquid is increased
by imparting tangential acceleration to it as it flows through the pump. This
energy is supplied by the impeller, which in turn is driven by an electric motor
or some other drive. In order to impart tangential acceleration to the liquid,
rows of curved vanes or blades move transversely through it and the liquid is
pushed sideways as it moves over the vanes as well as retaining its original
forward component of velocity. Figure 1.1 showed typical centrifugal and
axial flow pump impellers, while between these two extremes lie mixed flow
pumps, which are a combination of centrifugal and axial flow pumps, part of
the liquid flow in the impeller being axial and part radial.
The centrifugal and axial flow pumps will be dealt with in turn in the
following sections. However, before considering the operation of each type in
detail, we will look at a general pumping system, which is common to both
types. This is shown in Fig. 2.1 where a pump (either axial or centrifugal)
pumps liquid from a low to a high reservoir. .
.. At any point in the system, the pressure, elevation and velocity can be
',hpressed in terms of a total head measured from a datum line. For the lower
',. 1_ .
I-IYDRAULIC AND COMPRESSIBLE FLOW TURBOMACHINES
. h_'o 0
.--__+- --==,..E.
F +-.--==:::::::::=4-1
Total energy line

/I
1/"
c
1/...
Datum
,__-:L -L
2.1 Diugram of a pumping system
thI: free surface above the datum line since the velocity and slalk IJIIlI
pn;ssure at Aare zero. The liquid enters the intake pipl: clIusing lh,) Iwad
"III' with the result that the total hcad line drops to point n, As the null! fh,wJ!'
l'nllll the intake to the inlelilangli of the pump at elevation hi' the 101111 Ill\llr
1
:.
further 10 the point to pipe friction lind other losst:s "II' Thl'.lhlU
i
!
\'lIkni the PUIllP lind ,'nenw is imparled to it. whkh rllism; tI\( InIal hl
poinl I> lit the pllmp oulh:\. I"lowing 1'1'(11) the (11101(1 oul!cl II' till' II I'll", ,
n'i1,'rvoil'. l'ril.:tion lind otl\('1' ";1':';1111111 for n Illtal IWlId IOWI "Iii dllWII Itt
1111 1111 H. wlwn fill ,"xii IlHm h"
111
ot:nlrs wlwll I.hl\ lIquid "1111'111 tl\l' IIt1PF"
111i' tlltlll !I,'od Ht till' llpper l'l,m'IVI"1 1r11'IIillt I" 1I111H' Iii'\-
.-1I11l11 (',.
11'1111' Plllill' j,llnl Ilth'l I(ld plllh'l IWl!h liP: nl till' IlIh'l ,,,III
null,'! I1HlIlltllt whil'lI iH wilmll" IIII' IUIII.' hil' l\ rllHllll1l1i1lH11I11i IlliI,
HYDRAULIC PUMPS 33
Pump total inlet head =pi/po + Vf /2g +ZI
Pump total outlet head = Po/PO + +Zo
i.1 dlld Iwud developed by pump = [(Po - Pi)/pg] +[(V; - Vf)/2g] +(Zo - Z,)
=H (2.1)
lltlil il' I he head that would be used in Eq. (1.12) for determining the type of
UP Iltnl Nhould be selected, and the term 'manometric head' is often used.
'>111111' h\;ad 11s is the vertical distance between the two levels in the
\1
1
11 Ii iI ud rrom Fig. 2.1 it can be seen that for the pipeline
11 =11. +
=H. +hfi +hCII +h,n +houl
jq \Vlll't h nol ing here that, for the same size inlet and outlet diameters V
, 0
I" Ihe same, and in practice (Zo - Zl) is so small in compariso\;l to (Po
'V lIulI il is ignored. It is therefore not surprising to find that the'static
IInld 1Il.:ross the pump is often used to describe the total head
II liv llw pnlllp. .
l'UWII(iAL PUMPS
f4hll\VN till: three important parts of a centrifugal pump: (1) the
t, 1111' vollll\: casing and (3) the diffuser ring.
,lIljlliWI IN oplional and mayor may not be present in a particular
(,(,jld1111\ npnn Ihe size and cost of the pump, The impeller is a rotating
:\,\iHh III i blades sla nding out verlically from the face ofthe disc.
fH lilt bllldl'l' arc SOlllclillles covered by another flat disc to give
IJ!/Hdwi, ullw!wisL'. I he bladc tips are left open and the casing of the
l!Jolin'. Ihl' .'illliil olilcr wall or Ihe blade passages. The advantage of
.'"II.hh!l1 iii Iltal nl)W i.s prevented from leaking across blade tips
HIl!\1iI1lI1,f\ 1\1 a1Ii11 11 ..'1'. As Iltl: impeller rotates, the fluid that is drawn
al 1111' iuqll:lkl' inlet or eye is accelerated as it is forced
.. P'"".",," III 1111:, WHY, tht pressure at the outer radius is much
III ill! ('\'\' illll,1 I'lIdills.
1111" Ii Vf'l V111//,11 vdocity at the outer radius of the impeller, and, to
llll,'l\l 1"\l'II\Y hy rhannill/l, it inlo presslll'c energy, diffuser blades
II diflllhJ.l tillp, lIIay hI' TIlt: stalionary blade passages so
\nlilil llll"li Ig ,'llJ'W l(llllli a!'I'll :1,': I !lllid moves throllgh
I.IHI !II IIw Ihdd being, "dlll;l'd Ivhill' t h\l I'I'CSSlll'\l l'IWI'/',.v is
VlliIL.k'l," di.llll/Wl III IV al!1tl hI' \dilil'.nl.
................. I Ott .' 'I'll' '1\1/\1 11I1""lt;"t
HYDRAULIC PUMPS 35
VII = C
x
(tangential
\-_......... "locity of "ld)
v, = C, (radial velocity of fluid)
v, "= C.
(axial velocity of fluid)
y
z
Stationar}
diffuser
vanes
With diffuser
Diffuser ----lll---i
Volute
Wilhout dilTuser
2.2 Centrifugal pump components
Finally, the fluid moves from the diffuser blades into the volute casing,
which collects it and conveys it to the pump outlet. Sometimes only the volute
I:llsing exists without the diffuser; however, some pressure recovery will take
place in the volute casing alone,
In dealing with the theory of hydraulic pumps, a number of assumptions
will be made. At any point within the blade passages the fluid velocity will
in I',eneral have three components, one each in the axial, radial and angular
lIil'm.:lions as indicated in Fig. 2.3.
The velocity may then be written as a function of the three components
V= f(r, (J, z)
IllIwlwel'. we will assume that the following hold:
'1'111"'1' arc an infinite number of blades so closely spaced that oVjo(J = O.
I'hlll is, Ihere is no flow in the blade passage in the tangential direction and
1'1 Il,
t impeller blades are infinitely thin, thus allowing the pressure difference
m'l'oss them, which produces torque, to be replaced by tangential forces
I ha I act on the fluid.
I, Thl: velocity variation across the width or depth of the impeller is zero and
hence avjt7: =O.
4. The analysis will be confined t8 conditions at the impeller inlet and outlet,
and to the momentum change between these two stalions. No
accounl is takl:ll of Ihe condition of (he lluid hctwcen thl:fw (WII fltlilillns.
Figure 2.3 Cylindrical ccoordinates for a centrifugal pump
5. It is assumed that: at inlet the fluid is moving radially after entering the eye of
the pump.
Assumptions I and 2 mean that the velocity is a function of radius only,
V =f(r), and now wiith these assumptions the velocity vectors at mlet and
of the impeller can lbe drawn and the theoretical energy transfer
Figure 2.4 showfs a centrifugal pump impeller with the .veiocity. trIangles
drawn at inlet and owtlet. The blades are curved between the mlet radl us r 1 and
outlet radius r2' a palrticle of fluid moving along the broken curve shown. PI is
lhe angle subtendedl by the !blade at inlet, measured from the tangent to the
inlet radius, while P:
2
is the blade angle measured from the t.angent at outlet.
The lluid enters the: blade passages with an absolute velOCity C1 and at an
angle IX I to the impelller inlet tangential velocity vector Ul' U1 = l' W
heing the angular v(elocity (])f the impeller. The resultant relatIve of
nnw into the hladc: passage is WI at an angle p't to the tangent at mlet.
Similarly al outlet tLhe rclallive velocity vector is W2 at angle from
lall/w
nl
10 Ihe hlader. By slIblra 'Iing the impeller outlet tangentIal velOCIty
vr,'lp, II" I Ill' :Ih',,,hlilc vdo "ily vl.:(lllr C." is oblailll.:d, thiS bCl1lgsl.:l al angle (X2
1'1'11111 till" '(:1111" 'III tlllllll' l'lnlk', IIIK }i('I'lIlhal llll: bhllk angks:11 inlet amI outlet
lin 11(11 1"1'.:11 ,It.- II'I;I,IIIV\' 11,,'\\1 "III',k:, ,II fIlh" :\11" (111111" I'llI' a gl:lwral
I I
"1' t' I SI'(' I I) II will III' a:INlIlIll'd
I 1:'1', Jlml ,mil"," III '\.l" lVI'," '.11.111" V,I ( "'I' .11 '11., ,
(2.4)
Ihllll\' 1!I01 11/', IIWI'I.::illl'llIk, 1\',' I (,.' },/I((.:osrx, then
/It(', ClISCX, (1/'; <.'f)/2
Q= 2nr
l
Crlb
l
=2nr
2
C
r2
b
2
when: ('r is the radial component of the absolute velocity and is perpendicular
(ll Ihe langent at inlet and outlet while b is the width of the blade (in the z
din:ction). It is usually the case that C
I
=C
rl
and hence (X,I =90. In this case
( "I ': 0, where C., I is the component of the inlet absolute velocity vector
rc1solved into the tangential direction. W" and C" are often respectively called
111\: relative and absolute whirl components of velocity. When PI = p/
I
, this
is referred to as the 'no-shock condition' at entry. In this case the fluid moves
tungentially onto the blade. When P2 =P2 there is no fluid slip at the exit.
'I'lli' lenlls ill (2.4) may now be examined in turn.
( ';. ( ..;- )/20 represents the increase of kinetic energy of the fluid across
(Ill: impeller, (ll i .UT)/2y represents the energy used in setting the fluid into
I'irrutur motion anout the impeller axis and (WI - is the gain of static
Iwud due to II reduction of the relative velocity within the impeller. The flow
I'ul\: is
- + q)/2
II1Iti !lIlltntillllin/'. illto I(q. (2.3) gives
/.: ,I IU:;- Un + - Cn + (WI -
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
,
/
'0
l:
!!A'l2.
elL
r
W/2.
.... --
( "

Cr.
W.
Fl,:ure 2.4 Velocity triangles for centrifugal pump impeller
l ..l SLIP FACTOR
that the inlet and outlet blade angles are equal to their corresponding relative
flow angles.
Fr.om pu.mp (Eq. (1.25, the work done per second on
I he fluid per umt weight of fluid flowing is
E = W/mg= (U2C"2 - UI C"l)/g (J/s per N/s or m) (2.2)
where C" is the component ofabsolute velocity in the tangential direction. Eis
often referred to as the Euler head and represents the ideal or theoretical head
developed by the impeller only.
Now
II was stated in the previous section that the angle at which the fluid leaves the
impdler, {/2' may not be the same as the actual blade angle P2' This is due to
lIuid slip, and it occurs in both centrifugal pumps and centrifugal compressors,
lind manifests itself as a reduction in C"2 in the Euler pump equation. One
llxpillnation for slip is that of the relative eddy hypothesis.
Figurc 2.5 shows the pressure distribution built up in the impeller
!iussllg 'S <I lie t() the motion of the blades. On the leading side of a blade there is
u high-prcssllrc region while on the trailing side of the blade there is a low-
pressure rcgion, the pressure changing across the blade passage. This pressure
dislrihution is similar to that about an aerofoil in a free stream and is likewise
IIssodated with thc existence of a circulation around the blade, so that on the
sid\' I he lluid vc!odty is increased while on the high-pressure side
it ih dl'\'("I';ISl'd, and a non-uniform velocity distribution results at any radius.
11II1t'I,d, thl' now may separate from the suction surface of the blade. The mean
din'\'jipil 01 tllIl flllw Ieavin/l the impellcr is lhcrcfore and not fJ2 as is
ll','ilillll'd ill Ihr 1'.l'lll idip hillialiilil. Thus e'l, is l'l:dUCl:d to (':"2 and the rJ)
and
E =(U2
C
2 cos (X,2 - UIe; i cos IX dig
I
Thus
... 11"tH,,I,.,- 1\1"11" "MII(.I'.. "'I,()W TURDOMACHINES
(2.7)
n/Z
(I'
N
2elsin /1
2
HYDRAULIC PUMPS 39
blades is 2nr2/Z if we have Z blades of negligible thickness. This may be
approximated to 2e/sin /32 and upon rearrangement
e = (nr 2/Z) sin /32
liC" = (U2/Zr2)(nr2 sin /32)
= (U 2 nsin /32)/Z
Now referring ba::k to Fig. 2.5 for the no-slip condition
C"2 =U2- Cr2 cot /32
and substituting into Eq. (2.5) gives
Slip factor = (C"2 -IiC,,)/C"2
=I - liC,,/C"2
=1- (U 2n sin /32)/[Z(U2- Cr2 cot /32)]
= 1-(nsin/32)/{Z[1-(C
r2
/U
2
)cotP2]} (2.6)
I'lli' purely radial hlades, which are often found in a centrifugal
nJlllpI'CSSIII'. /1.1, will he 90" and the Stodola slip factor becomes
Figure 2.6 The relative eddy between impeller blades
Relative eddy
(2.5)
U
2
['
C
r2

l
C: 2
Ideal
,
,
i'lI'lual
\ ,

.-
C
r2
.-
\
x'
, " C2
,
,
,
,-
,
liC,,= we
NIIW tlw impeller circumference is 7.11'1',. IIl1d thercnll \' IIJI' II lstance hetween
I\C" is defined as the slip. Slip factor is defined as
Slip factor = =CT.
1(1,:111'1' 25 Slip and velocity distribution in centrifugal pump impeller blades
proposed the existence of a relative eddy within the blade
ilS shown iIi Fig. 2.6. He proposed that if a frictionless fluid passes
I hI 1Ill/' Ii I hr blade passages it will, by definition, have no rotation; therefore at
I hI 1111111'1 or the passage rotation should be zero. Now the impeller has an
11111'111.11 velocity w so that relative to the impeller the fluid must have an
velocity -w in the blade passages to comply with the zero-rotation
1111111 it it HI. If the radius ofa circle that may be inscribed between two successive
1,I"dn.at outlet and at a tangent to the surfaces of both blades is e, then the slip
Hl I',iwlI hy
l:1 1.I'IIklll',l1 IIlld rocirculalioll ill a cClIlrirugal pump
(2.14)
(2.12)
Pc =pgQh
c
(Nm/s)
Summing Ihese losses gives
p. =Pm + pg(hlQi +heQ +H1q +QH) (2.15)
whnl' Ihe IIllal head delivered by the pump is defined as in Fig. 2.1 and
Jo'q. (;1.1 I.
A IIl1ll1hl:r or cflidl'l\l'i,'s are associated with these losses:
1"llIid Ill.wrl developed by pUinp
Shllil power input
P1=pgHiq (Nm/s) (2.13)
hl'J:I(ion (2,12) shows that when the discharge valve of the pump is closed,
Iltl'll Ihe leakage now rate attains its highest value.
In 110wing from the impeller outlet to the pump outlet flange, a further
hl\ad loss he lakes place in the diffuser and collector, and since the flow rate
Illll'l\ is Q. then a casing power loss may be defined as
II' /II is the total head across the impeller, then a leakage power loss can be
ddined as
1,',iIlill\"I1t1w 1",lwI'I'1I
"llId, IIl1d \'111I11111, .,
Pi =pgQihi \> (2.11)
IllIw,wel'. while the now through the impeller is Qi> this is not the flow through
Iltr \llItkl 01' inlet nange of the machine. The pressure difference between
IIl\l'dlel' lip and eye Can cause a recirculation ofa small volume of fluid q, thus
Il'dlldnl!. the now rate at outlet to Q as shown in Fig. 2.7, and then
II:l:1III:ialed wilh the now rate Qi through the impeller, and so the impeller
1'"\\1('1' loss is expressed as
range LV" < /1
2
< 30". Other slip l'al..:(\ll's ani IIllllll'd ,1111, IIII'll 1111111'
as = [A - B(C
r2
/U
2
)cotI1
2
J/l.1 (e '" ..!t ' .. )I'lil/I"I
where A and B are functions of P2' Z and I'l/I',. alld ill'sI IIsed ill IlllJ
range 30 < P2 < 80. The Stanitz"3 slip facti>r givcn by
as = I - 0.63n/{ Z[1 - (C
r
2/
U
2) cot 112] } (2.9)
is best used in the range 80 < P2 < 90.
When applying a slip factor, the Euler pump equation (Eq. (1.25
becomes
W/m=a.u2CX2-U1CXl (2.10)
Typically, slip factors lie in the region of0.9, while slip occurs even if the nuid is
ideal.
2.4.1 Pump Losses
The shaft power, P
s
or energy that is suppli& to the pump by the prime
mover is not the same as the energy received 'y the liquid. Some energy is
dissipated as the liquid passes through the and the mechanism of
this loss can be split up into the following div,ions.
I. Mechanical friction power loss, Pm due to fiction between the fixed and
rotating parts in the bearing and stuffing b<Kes.
2. Disc friction power loss, Pi due to friction befi
een
the rotating faces of the
impeller (or disc) and the liquid.
3. Leakage and recirculation power loss, PI du to a loss of liquid from the
pump or recirculation of the liquid in the iJi'Cller.
4. Casing power loss, Pc
Impeller power loss is caused by an energy (head loss hi jn the impeller
due to disc friction, flow separation and shock impeller entry. This IlIss is
2.4 CENTRIFUGAL PUMP CHARACTERISTICS
In Sec. 1.3 dimensionless groups were used to e<press the power, head and flow
relationships for a hydraulic machine, A well-disigned pump should operate at
or near the design point and hence near its maximum efficiency, but the
engineer is often required to know how the pimp will perform at off-design
conditions. For instance, the head against whic
1
the pump is operating may be
decreased, resulting in an increase in mas! flow rate. However, before
examining this aspect of off-design performal
ce
, we will look at the losses
occurring in a pump and the differing efficiencid to which these losses give rise,
whether or not the pump is working at the desijn point. We will then examine
the effects of working at the off-design conditpn.
or
Fluid power at casing outlet

Fluid power developed by impeller - Leakage loss
(2.24)
,I
fj
"
,.
f I

'Iscl'ul Iluid power
H Hi "
OJ


..l
M L
-
h.
I K
Casing loss 5% G
Impeller loss 5% hj
F
Mechanical loss 10%
C
C
x2
= U
2
- W
x2
=U2 - C
r2
cot f32
. U
z
-(Q/A)COtf32
/\ II
Flow rale (m
3
/s)
III \1 loss lo be accounted for is the leakage loss pgHiq represented by rectangle
III K I, and finally the casing loss pghcQ represented by rectangle MLGK is
If lIIoved. This leaves us with rectangle JBLM, which represents the fluid
ll'l\vcr output or power developed by the pump pgQH.
1.>'1.1 The Characteristic Curve
hdl'r's pump equation (Eq. (1.25)) gives the theoretical head developed by the
11"1111', hUl ifit is assumed that there is no whirl component of velocity at entry
lIH 1\ ('\'I =0 and the actual theoretical head developed is
E = U2Cx2/g = (Hi + hi) (2.23)
ilud if slip is accounted for, Eq. (2.23) becomes
EN = u.E = u.(Hj + hi)
IIUII' 2.M Losses in a centrifugal pump
(2.17)
(2.18)
(2.20)
(2.21)
(2.22)
'1H = Theoretical head developed by' impeller
,
Fluid power developed by impeller +Impeller loss
'1i = pgQjHi/[pgQi(H
i
+hi)] = Hd(H
i
+hd
V 1
. ffi' Flow rate through pump
a umetnc e IClency =
Flow rate through impeller
'1. =Q/(Q +q) (2.19)
M h
. I ffi . Fluid power supplied to the impeller
ec amca e IClency =----=------:-"-'=--_-:------:----:--=--_
Power input to the shaft
'10 = '1c'1i'1.'1m
A hydraulic efficiency may be defined as
Actual head developed by pump
Fluid power at impeller exit
'1c =pgQH/pgQH
i
=H/H
j
I II ffi
Fluid power at impeller exit
mpe er e IClency =
Fluid power supplied to impeller
Yfo = pgQH/P
s
C
ffi' Fluid power at casing outlet
asmg e IClency = .. ..----:-----:--_
Fluid power at casing inlet
or
or
or
or
Therefore
where the theoretical head (Hi + hi) is that obtained from Euler's equation
(Eq. (1.25)) and '1H ='11'1c'
Figure 2.8 shows how each of the power losses are subtracted from the
initial input power. The rectangle OABC represents the total power input to
the shaft while OADEFC is equivalent to the mechanical power loss. The
impeller loss pgQih; is next removed and is represented by rectangle EFGI. The
.,,".. , ,,,,,. ,"',......,1'11,", l'I.\lW IlJl(UUMI\CHINES
HYDRAULIC PUMPS 4S
according to
'.
I
~ 'I
I
r
!
~ I
r
I
lil,,,,", UU ~ ..I lI1'w !J0I1 Vlllil1lhlll 1111 111111,'1 Vl'llIdly
2.4.3 Effect of Flow Rate Variation
Apump is usually designed to run at a fixe,d speed with a design head and flow
rate and these conditions would normally occur at the maximum efficiency
point. However, it is not always the case in practice that the operating point
lies at the ~ s i g n point. This may be due to a pipeline being partially blocked, a
valve jammtfd partially closed or poor matching of the pump tQ the piping
system. Also in general a variable-speed motor is not available to correct for
any deviation from the design condition, so that in what follows it is assumed
that the speed of the pump remains constant.
Figure 2.10 shows the velocity diagrams that pertain for three possible
flow rates: normal design flow rate, increased flow rate and decreased flow rate.
When the flow rate changes, C,2 changes, and since V2 is constant and the
blade outlet angle fJ2 is constant (assuming fJ2 =fJ2)' the magnitude of W
2
and
(:2 must change along with the angle (X2' Since the effective energy transfer E
depends on C"2' then Ewill change accordingly. Thus a reduction in Qgives an
increase in C"2' while an increase in Qgives a reduction in C"2' It follows that,
should the head against which the pump operates be momentarily increased, E
and therefore C"2 increase and Qdecreases to give the new operating point at
the increased head. Similarly a reduction in the operating head gives an
incrcase in Q.
h
r
=K
4
Q
2
(2.28)
Equations (2.27) and (2.28) are plotted in Fig. 2.9 and the sum of them is
subtracted from the curve of Eq. (2.26) to give the final characteristic. This
curve is called the head-flow characteristic of the pump.
hshock = K
3
(Q - QD)2 (2.27)
where QD is the design flow rate. The friction losses are accounted for in the
form
E
----
---
'.
'.
'"
....
Hydraulic '.
.. ,.
losses '"
".
'"
......
'"
'"
EN = Err, Final characteristic
H
Slip
where A is the flow area at the periphery of the impeller and C, is perpendicular
to it. Thus from Eq. (2.23) the energy per unit weight of flow becomes
E =U2[V2 - (Q/A) cot fJ2]/g
lind since V2, fJ2 and A are constants, then
Figure 2.9 Centrifugal pump characteristic
E = K1 - K
2
Q (2.25)
lIlId this equation may be plotted as the straight line shown in Fig. 2.9.
If slip is taken into account, it is seen from Eq. (2.9) that as C,2 increases
IllId hence Q) then (Ts decreases, thus reducing the value of E in Eq. (2.25) to
EN = (K1 - K
2
Q)(Ts (2.26)
'rhc loss due to slip can occur in both a real and an ideal fluid, but in a real
!Il1id account must also be taken Qfthe shock losses at entry to the blades, and
I he friction losses in the casing and impeller vanes, or indeed at any point
where the fluid is in contact with a solid surface of the pump. At the design
pointlhe shock losses are zero since the fluid would move tangentially onto the
hladc. but on either side of the design point the head loss due to shock increases
.1.I.II",\UL1'-- "UIYIr'':' ... ,
"
" ". .. {, I
1- :
T ..."

VI
IV
1/ H = a+bQ (fJr > 90)
.. ---
_________ H =a (fJr =90)
. ------H =a-bQ (fJr < 90)
Design flow
VI
Increased flow
,.
1/
(2.30)
(2.29)
-
"
Forward-facing
Q
H=a
1llll'kwIII'd HIIIIIIII Forward
Q
1"llllrt.].. a.1 AI'llIill,11I1I'h",lrtll"110" \'III\ltlV I,hul.""tll-\ un",11l
I'. /I
H=a-bQ
and for pumps #2 typically lies between 15 and 90.
('/lSI' (;;). Radial blades, {32 =90
Writing E as a head,
Ilin
llre
2.13 Thcorctical characteristics for varying outlet blade angle
BackwllnHi,,!tI/1 vllnes
V
r
v
2
W
r
w
r
c
r
/1r < 90
C
z
Radial vanes
E=U2(U2 - C,2 cot fJ2)/g
E =(UVg) - (QU2 cot fJ2/gA)
"'"rwurdlnp.. fllcing vanes
Ill'
'I'hercfore
1+'11\11... 2.12 t \lIltrifugal pump outlet velocity triangles for varyin/\ "hull- 111111, I 11 111.1\
( '/IS(' (i). Backward-facing blades, fJ2 < 90 .
C
x2
= U2 - C,2 cot fJ2
2.4.4 of Blade Outlet Angle
The characteristic curve will also be affected by the blade angle at outlet, the
I hree types of blade settings being backward-facing, forward-facing and radial
hlades. Figure 2.12 shows clearly the velocity triangles for each case with
(',\'1 ' : O.
i\llhc inlet the effect of flow rate change is to cause eddies on the suction
surface of the blade for a reduced flow rate and on the pressure surface of the
hlade for an increased flow rate. The design condition is the 'no-shock'
rlltlllilion, which corresponds to the flow Qo in Fig. 2.9. The corresponding
Vdllcity diagrams can be seen in Fig. 2.11. In all cases it is assumed that C
x1
is

Iil,:nn' 2.11 ElTcct of now rate variation on inlet velocity
t

'I'
I
I,
I'
I
Figure 2.15 Simple volute or
scroll collector
Impeller
Volute of
y---- increasing
cross section
2.5.2 Vaneless Diffuser
Diffusion takes place in a parallel-sided passage and is by the
principle of conservation of angular momentum of the flutd. The Qlutlet
HYDRAULIC PUMPS 49
where P =radial force (N), H =head (m), D
2
=peripheral (m), =
impeller width (m) and K =constant determined from the followmg equation
for a particular value of Q:
K =0.36[1 - (Q/QO)2] (2.33)
A cross section of the volute casing is shown in Fig. 2.16. The
section is adopted to reduce the losses due to friction and impact flut.d
hits the casing walls on exiting from the impeller. Of the avatlable kInetic
energy at impeller outlet, 25-30 per cent may be recovered in a simple vdllute.
(2.32)
(2.31) If;; a + bQ
2.5 FLOW IN THE DISCHARGE CASING
i '" ...... ( iii), "III'WIII'Ii II II' iII/" VII III'''', 11
2
> 90
2.5.1 Volute or Scroll Collector
Asimple volute or scroll collector is illustrated in Fig. 2.15 and consists of a
l'in:lIlar passage of increasing cross-sectional area. The advantage of the
volute is its low cost. The cross-sectional area increases as the
illl'l'ement of discharge increases around the periphery ofthe impeller and it is
lillllHI that a constant average velocity around the volute results in equal
Jlressures around the pump casing, and hence no radial thrust on the shaft.
AllY deviation in capacity (flow rate) from the design condition will result in a
l'Ildialthrust, which if allowed to persist could result in shaft bending. Values of
radial thrust are given by the empirical relationship4
whcl'c 112 would be typically 140" for a multi-bladed centrifugal fan,
These equations arc plolled in Fig. 2.13 as characteristics and they revert
III their more recognized curved shapes (for the reasons previously discussed)
as shown in Fig. 2.14.
For both radial and forward-facing blades the power is rising cont-
inuously as the flow rate is increased. In the case of backward-facing vanes the
maximum efficiency occurs in the region of maximum power, and if, for some
reason, Q increases beyond Qo, this results in a power decrease and therefore
the motor used to drive the pump may be safely rated at the maximum power.
This is said to be a self-limiting characteristic. In the case of the radial and
forward-facing vanes, if the pump motor is rated for maximum power, then it
will be under-utilized most of the time, and extra cost will have been incurred
rill' the extra rating, whereas if a smaller motor is employed rated at the design
point, then if Q increases above Qo the motor will be overloaded and may fail.
II therefore becomes more difficult to decide on a choice of motor for these
laller cases.
The discharge casing is that part of the casing following the impeller outlet. It
has two functions: (i) to receive and guide the liquid discharged from the
impeller to the outlet ports of the pump, and (ii) to increase the static head at
I he outlet of the pump by reducing the kinetic energy of the liquid leaving the
impeller. These two functions may be called collector and diffuser functions.
'!'he former function may be used alone while the latter can occur either before
Ill' after the collector function. Tn addition diffusion can take place in a vaned
Ill' vaneless diffuser.
__________--:=-.::- .. ::-: ...7: .. ... " I' 1l\. .."tvl/\L.... INE:S
(2.36)
'I'hr VHII\'l1 dilTIIN1'1' '\VII ill 1,'1/'" .'.1
1
) is able 10 diffuse the outlet kinetic energy
III II IIl1wh lIi/'.kl 1'01,'.11I11 1,11,111 111'111'111 and with a higher efficiency than the
V11llCd
Pulling IX' =78 and (r/r
2
) = 2, the change in angle of the diffuser is almost
IXO", giving rise to a long flow path, which may result in high frictional losses,
whiCh in turn gives a low efficiency. So it is seen that the length of the diffuser
Illust be balanced by the pressure recovery that is required and an optimum
poinl is usually found based on either economic or hydraulic friction loss
\'llllsidcral ions.
tan =Cx2/Cr2 =constant =tan IX'
r( 'r is constant from the constant mass flow rate requirement, and Cxr is
I"Ollstant from the conservation of angular momentum requirement. Thus the
Ilmv in the diffuser remains at a constant inclination IX' to radial lines, the flow
pa t h Iracing out a logarithmic spiral, and if for an incremental radius dr the
IIl1id moves through angle de, then from Fig. 2.18
r de =(tan IX') dr
Ililegrating,
wll! I, /. I', Iltr 1\'1.1 Iii III (1,\ d 11111",'1 IIiINSIlI',(' pl:rpelldiclilar to the peripheral area
,01 IIII' 1II1t1l'II"1 :llId ", u:,u:dly lite same as the impeller width. Letting the
"llhrwl'il't!'d variables represent conditions at the impeller outlet and the
IIIHllllilll'l'ipled variables represent conditions at any radius r in the vaneless
dilflllWl', (111:11 from continuity
rbpCr=r2b2P2Cr2
III
C = C
X2
r
2
/r (2.35)
1''''11111':4. (2.35),for Cto be small, which is what we are trying to achieve, then r
III1IS( he large and therefore, for a large reduction in the outlet kinetic energy, a
diffuser with a large radius is required. \'\
1'01" an incompressible fluid, the inclination of the absolute velocity vector
III (he radial line remains constant at all esince at the outlet from the impeller
(l'il',. 2.1 H)
Cr =r2b2P2Cr2/rbp (2.34)
II fl'i\;l iOllless now is assumed, then by the conservation of angular momentum
Cx =C
x2
r
2
/r
11111 (',\ .) ('r (usually) and therefore the absolute velocity C is approximately
,'qllal to ex or
..........
,
,-
/ Free vortex flow
/ in diffuser passage

Q
n
b
Diffuser
passage
Figure 2.17 Vaneless diffuser passage
Figure 2.18 Logarithmic spiral now in vaneless space
tangential velocity is reduced as the radius increases, while the radial
component of absolute velocity is controlled by the radial cross-sectional area
of flow b. A vaneless diffuser passage is shown in Fig. 2.17.
With reference to Fig. 2.18 the size of the diffuser may be determined as
follows. The mass flow rate m at any radius r is given by
m= pAC
r
= 2nrbpC
r
1. The greater the vane number, the better is the diffusion but the greater is the
friction loss.
2. The cross section of the diffuser channel should be square to give a
maximum hydraulic radius (cross-sectional area/channel perimeter).
3. The number of diffuser vanes should have no common factor with the
number of impeller vanes. This is to obviate resonant or sympathetic
vibration.
,:
L
\1
Impeller
Casing IllIpeller
Diffuser
Pump tolal inlet head above
(I' .
Ik;vclopcd by pUI\\P
I )i 11''':11: I' VIIIIl:S
/I
l,() CAVITATION IN PUMPS
('nvitation is a phenomenon that occurs when the local absolute static
pn.:ssurc of a liquid falls below the vapour pressure liquid
,'Iluses vapour bubbles to form in the main body ofhqUld, that IS the hqUld
hili Is, When the liquid flows through a centrifugal or axial flow pump, the
iilalic pressure (suction pressure) at the eye of the impeller is reduced and the
vdllcity increases. There is therefore a danger that cavitation bubbles may
1(lrm at the inlet to the impeller. When the fluid moves into a higher-pressure
I'q.don, these bubbles collapse with tremendous force, giving rise to pressures
mi high as 3500 atm. Local pitting of the impeller can result when the
I'llliapse on a metallic surface, and damage ,ca? occur from th.ls
prolonged cavitation erosion, as shown 111 Fig.. NOise IS also generated 111
Ihe form of sharp cracking sounds when cavitatIOn takes place. , .
Referring to Fig. 2.1, cavitation is most likely to occur on
Ill' lhe pump hetwcen the lower reservoir surface and pU,mp 1I11et smce It
in lhis I'l:gion that the lowest pressure will occur, A cavitatIOn parameter (1 IS
t1d'ined as
The collector and diffuser operate at their ma"imum efficiency at the
.ksign point only. Any deviation from the design discharge will alter the outlet
Vl'locity triangle and the subsequent flow in the casing, Figure 2.2Q shows the
"I lilt ri bu lion of each section of the pump to the total head developed by the
pUlllp,
2.20 Ilead rise across a centrifugal pump
Throa' III .1,1111'." \,II/1rIIlI\C
vaneless diffuser. This is very advantageous where the size of the pump is
important.
A ring of diffuser vanes surrounds the impeller at the outlet, and after
leaving the impeller the fluid moves in a logarithmic spiral across a short
vaneless space before entering the diffuser vanes proper, Once the fluid has
entered the diffuser passage, the controlling variable on the rate of diffusion is
the divergence angle of the diffuser passage, which is of the order of 8-10 and
should ensure no boundary-layer separation along the passage walls. The
number of vanes on the diffuser ring is subject to the following considerations:
Collector
\
Delivery ;;
""
"

lP, '
1\ '
1
Figure 2.19 A vaned dilTuser
I
'\
I
"
Figure 2.22 Critical NPSH plotted on the
pump characteristic
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
QI Q2
Qa Q
'lin
11',hIl'IIOIl

ti
Measured


..... --------------
. .. ---------- I
... ----- I I I
I I I
I I I
I I
I I '
Zi +hin +hn =Hsuction
2.(t.1 Suction Specific Speed
II h. rrll:.llIllllllr will be dependent
11\1' lIow I'll ,lilt \l'lil hili Uli'!l 1ll'PIl I'lIl1dinll dun to cavllatlOIl. I he
PAlpg = p;/pg +Vr/2g +Hsuclion
Substituting for p;/ pg in Eq. (2.37) gives
a = (PAl pg - Pvapl pg - Hsuction)!H (2.39)
Providing a is above ae' cavitation will not occur, but, in to achieve
this, il may be necessary to decrease Hsuction by Zi and msome
thc pt'lmp may have to be placed below the or pump.free I.e.
IIcgative ZI. especially if h
n
is particularly hIgh due to a long mlet pIpe.
w';en the pump is connected to any other inlet pipe system, a as
1'1'1111I Eq. (2039) may be calculated and providing a(available) > O"e(reqUlred)
then cavitation will bc avoided.
whcrc
placcd at the lower reservoir surface, then ZA is also zero and Eq. (2.38)
bel:omes
N/'SH
1/
Figure 2.21 Cavitation erosion in centri-
fugal pump impeller
and at the inlet flange
a =(p;/ pg +Vt 12g - Pvapl pg)1H (2.37)
where all pressures are absolute. The numerator of Eq. (2.37) is a suction head
and is called the net positive suction head (NPSH) of the pump. It is a measure
of the energy available on the suction side of the pump.
Every pump has a critical cavitation number a
c
, which can only be
determined by testing to find the minimum value of NPSH before cavitation
occurs. Various methods exist for determining the point of cavitation
inception, and a
c
, and therefore the minimum NPSH required by the pump,
will depend upon the criteria chosen to define a
c
as well as the conditions
under which the test is carried out. One method is to determine the nonnal
head-flow characteristic of the pump and then to repeat the test with the inlet
to the pump progressively throttled so as to increase the resistance to flow at
the inlet. It will be found that for different throttle valve settings the
performance curve will fall away from the normal operating curve at various
points and one definition of the occurrence of minimum NPSH is the point at
which the head H drops below the normal operating Characteristic by some
arbitrarily selected percentage, usually about 3 per cent. At this condition,
static inlet pressure Pi and inlet velocity Vi are measured, and a
c
is then
I:alculated from Eq. (2.37). The minimum required NPSH or a
c
may then be
plotted for the different degrees of inlet throttling to give a curve of ac versus
now coefficient (Fig. 2.22).
In Fig. 2.1, the energy loss between the free surface (A) and the inlet side of
Ihe pump (i) is given by the steady flow energy equation as
Energy at A- Energy at i =Energy lost between A and i
Writing the cncrgy in terms of heads
(1',,1/11/+ Vt/2{J+Zi)+(h," I "Ill (2.:'X)
(/'111 -, "ll) rcprcsents thc losscs, Now VA cquals illl\l dllllllli is
-
View on
X-X
(I
Ii .. . i
I ('. 'C,"
r Impeller
". ",
"
.11 ,
II'
"
\",
I '" I
..
/
Outlet
guide
vane
I , ,
{/ I ":: U2 = U = cor
illiel and outlet and the maximum head for this type of pump is of the order of
mnl. It may be seen in Fig. 1.7 that the dimensionless specific speed of axial
III IW pumps lies at the right-hand side ofthe pump spectrum, its characteristics
hdng one of low head but high capacity. The usual number of blades lies
111'1 wecn two and eight, with a hub diameter/impeller diameter ratio of 0.3-0.6.
III Illany cases the blade pitch is fixed but most large hydroelectric units have
variable-pitch blades to allow for load variations.
Figure 2.23 shows an axial flow pump impeller. The section through the
hlade at x-x is shown enlarged with the inlet and outlet velocity triangles
tHlper;mposed in Fig. 2.24. If will be noticed that the blade has an aerofoil
and that the inlet relative velocity vector WI does not impinge
langentially but rather the blade is inclined at an angle of incidence i to the
rdativc velocity vector WI' This is similar to the angle of attack of an aerofoil
ilia frec stream. It is assumed that there is no shock at entry and that the fluid
kav\ls the hlade tangentially at exit.
( 'hanges in the condition of the fluid take place at a constant mean radius;
IIH.:rd'orc
. \
Ili'lllrl' 2.24 Axial now pump velocity triangles
(2.42)
R,
...... "", .. ,'. "111 ""lil'l't III" :.1"'1-11:11111 111'11111'1/ :IN
N"",, NUl './ ,'IN)SJI) j.II1 (2.40)
Stationary outlet
guide vanes
Thus
Stationary inlet
guide vanes
. II f(I/" N"",.) (2.41)
It IS found from experimcnis'\ lllal lllc nception of cavitation Occurs "It
values of Nsue and empirical results how that N "" 3for N in rad;s
10 Is and in mZls
z
. The caritation rna also
dete!'mmed dlVId10g the dimensionless speed by the d' Y . I
suctIon specIfic speed: ImenSlOn ess
NslNsue =
=(NPSH) 3/4IH
3
1
4
=ug
l4
Also from the similarity laws
NPSHt/NPSH2=(Nt/N
z
)ZOt/D
z
)2 =ut/uz
2.7 AXIAL FLOW PUMP
An axial flow pump consists of a pro II . . .
with fine clearances between the blacfeeti er tyPo runnmg m a casing
of secondary flows, fluid particles do is e walls. In the absence
the . h . no c anle radIus as they move through
will o.f:wirl in tangential direction
This is usually done by fitting outlet flSWlrl on 0hutlet side.
." . ow area IS t e same at
Impeller
Figure 2.23 An axial now pump
I
FiRurc 2.25 Circulation around an isolated
hlude
'""
A
V,
till' 1I11id III .. 1"1'11111 11m ill rdativdy slIlali. resliltillg ill a low kinetic
l'lu'r,..\, 1\1';:;. 1\11 axial 1I0w ptlltlp therefore lends to havc a higher hydraulic
l'ITkirHI:Y I hllli \;\:111 riftl/'lal pUlllp.
C

\
\
\
\
\
,
,
,
"-
'\'1 ,
"- ,}dl
'-'''''
"
2.7.1 nluclc Il:lcmcnt Theory
1\11 axillll10w pump impeller may have a large number of blades spaced closely
together or a fcw hlades spaced far apart, while for
cOllsidcrations, thc blade chord will vary from hub to hp. The penpheral
distall(;c between similar points on two adjacent blades is the pitch, and the
ratio nlade chord/blade pitch at a given radius is known as the solidity ratio a:
a =cIs (2.46)
IL is therefore possible to have high- or low-solidity blades, an impeller
with a low number of blades implying a low solidity, Where the blades have a
low solidity, flow interference from one blade to the next is low and the blade
Illay be considered to be acting alone in a free stream and is analysed as such.
II owever, for high-solidity blades implying very closely spaced blades, the flow
between the blades will be greatly influenced by the adjacent blades and we
must resort to cascade data for an analysis of the forces acting on them. Since
axial flow pump impellers invariably have less than six it is to
consider only isolated blade element theory for them and thiS IS now bnefly
(2.43)
(2.45)
and noting that the flow area is thl<.allllUllls li'l'lIlcd betwcen the hub and the
blade tips, then we may write
m= -
From Eq. (2.2),
or
E =U(U - Ca cot f:J2)/g (2.44)
For constant energy transfer, Eq. (2.44) applies over the whole span of the
blade from hub to tip; that is it applies at any radius r between R\ and R
h
For E
to be constant over the whole blade length it is obvious that, as U
2
increases
with radius, so an equal increase in UC
a
cot f:J2 must take place and since C
a
is
constant then cot f:J2 must increase, and the blade must therefore be twisted as
the radius changes.
Strictly speaking the work done per unit weight of flow through an
annulus of thickness dr should be considered and this then integrated across
the whole flow area from the hub to the tip
E = W/mg = U(U - C
a
cot f:J2)/g
dW = U(U - C
a
cot f:J2)dm
Hut the incremental mass flow rate dm is
and for maximum energy transfer C
XI
=0, i.e. IX
I
=90 and C
I
=Ca, the
absolute flow velocity at inlet being axial for maximum energy transfer.
Now
dm =p(2nr)(C
a
)dr
Cx2 =U - C
a
cotf:J2
Hence substituting for CX2 in Eq. (2.43) with Cd =0, the maximum energy
transfer or head is
or
alld U =wr. Therefore
J
R'
W=2npCaw r
2
(wr - C
a
cot f:J2) dr
Rh
I':qua!.ion (2.45) can only be integrated if the relationship between f32 and r is
klIown.
1"01' design purposes it is usual to select conditions for use in Eq. (2.44) at
Iht'lIll'llllradillS (Uh 1 1<,)/2 along thc nlade. The whirl component imparted to
(2.51)
(2.50)
and
E= wzrb/2ng
Z"'I ,2nl'1
Hence
From Eq. (2.43),
Bul
SlIhNlitllti\l1l llill. hi I' IN) ,'Iwn Ilu: drculation for the whole impeller as
Values of lift coefficients for differing blade profiles may be determined
from readily available tables and charts
S
and an estimate for E obtained.
The Kutta 10ukowski law(L =pUorb) for lift per unit span on an aerofoil
may now be used, where U0 is the free stream velocity. Dividing this by
gives the lift coefficient
C
L
=r b/0.5Uoc
where c is the chord of the impeller blade.
Since the appropriate free stream velocity for flow over the blade is the
relative velocity W instead of U0' and since this is different at blade inlet and
outlet, the appropriate relative velocity is usually defined as
=C; +[(W
xl
+W
x2
)/2]2
= C; +[cot PI +cot P2)/2]2
Therefore r b =0.5C
L
Woc, and substituting this into Eq. (2.50)
E=0.5wZC
L
Wcoc/2ng
Therefore
(2.47)
and
r ABCD = fV ds = f: V dS2+LC V dl +feD V dS
l
+fDA V dl
where the circulation is positive anticlockwise. But
f: V dl =- fDA V dl
while
Hence
Irealllll'lllllfl:IINl:lldl' ,111111.\';,;,/ 1WIIlr, l'I'ru'rvnd for IIw Nlldioll Oil
axwl /low, compress,llrs, til, which it iN appropriately applied.
, Consider. the. clrculallon " aroulld Ihe cOlltrol slIrface of the isolated
shown m FIg. 2.25, where the lengths AIi IIlld ( 'J) lire the blade pitches
at mlet and outlet and AD and BC bisect the flow passages between adjacent
blades,
The circulation is given by the line integral around ABCD and b
evaluated by summing the individual circulations comprising the
that '
r ABCD =S2
C
x2 - SI C
Xl
(2.48)
For a number blades shown in Fig, 2.26 the circulation around each
blade and the total circulation about Z blades is the sum
0.1' the cIrculatIOns, remembering that along a line such as BG the
for .one blade is positive (anticlockwise) while for the adjacent
blade It IS negatIve (clockwise). Therefore for Z blades the total circulation is
rADEH = zrb (2.49)
where r b is the circulation around a single blade.

I I I
//JI //J /)1 //
I / I /
/ I I
/ / / I
/ I / I
I / / /
/ / / /
L- 4 _ -- / "
E F - G- - - - -Ii
Figure 2.26 Circulation around a number of isolated blades
2.7.2 Axial Flow Pump Characteristics
Axial flow pump design has evolved empirically and it is only in relatively
modern times that aerofoil theory has been applied. Nevertheless, efficiencies
of over 90 per cent were achieved using empirical data and it would seem that
aerodynamic design has not improved the efficiencies by much.
Typical head-flow, power and efficiency curves are shown in Fig. 2.27. A
steep negative slope is evident on the head and power curves at low flow rates.
This can he explained by considering Eq. (2.44). For a given blade design at
Iixcd speed with axial flow at inlet
J\ "'" U(U - Ca cotP2)/g
Now (J PI'll porlill IIII I IIi e'l and therefore
11/,;/,1('", dJ':/dQ'1 1I
Figure 2.27 Axial flow pump characteristics
(III IIII' t1diwr,Y !Iilli'lI\1' :lIlIlIllf thi: hend. frktilln and cxillllsses that must he
It has been shown that a hydraulic pump has a design point at which the
overall efficiency of operation is a maximum. However, it may happen that the
pipe system in which the pump is being used is unsuited to the pump and a
different pump with a more suitable characteristic is required. This section will
examine how a pump and a pipe system may be matched to each other, the
effed of changing the pump speed and diameter, and finally the effect of
connecting pumps in series and parallel.
Consider the pipe system in Fig. 2.1. On the suction side the losses
expressed in terms of standard loss coefficients are the sum of the minor
losses h
in
2.8 PUMP AND SYSTEM MATCHING
hfi =4fl; Vr j2gdj
where f is the Darcy friction factor, Ii is the length of the inlet pipe and d
i
its
dilllllcicr. Thus the total head loss is
and the friction loss
hll'll\illlllltwIII illllt,/i .. illl'I,llItiVl'1\ <,ltI,,I1 dlld '''IW 1111'1l1'.iwl'l pllmpa! a
1',iVl'1I 1:\11'1'41 till' "I,ad flltW I'daliltllship hali a :111"'1 1 lIq\illiVl, slope, The power
"lIrVl' ill SilllilllJ'ly VIH''y slellp, the pltwcr rcqllin'lIll1l1lllt shut-orf being perhaps
1.\.. ,'\ liulIlS Ihal al Ihe design poinl. This makes for a very expensive
l'kl'lril; nlOlor IOl;Over the eventuality ol'low Ilow rates and so the fixed-blade
Ilxiaillow PUIllP is limited to operation at the fixed design point. Variable-flow
Illachines Illay be designed employing variable blade stagger or setting angles.
Ilere the blade angle is adjusted so that the pump runs at its maximum
dl'iciency at all loads and also reduces the shut-off power requirement. Figure
shows the clfect of changing blade stagger angle.
In Fig, 2.27 the power and head curves are seen to enter a region of
instability at about 50 per cent of the design flow rate. This is due to C
a
hecoming increasingly small and thereby increasing the angle of incidence of
Ilow onto the blade until separation and stalling of the blade occurs. The
fu rt her head rise at even lower flow rates and the consequent power increase is
due to recirculation of the fluid around the blade from the pressure side to the
suction side and then up onto the pressure side of the next blade. An increased
blade stagger angle will once again reduce this recirculation and thereby the
power requirement.
140
Head
40 60 80 100
Percentage of design flow rate
Efficiency Loci of maximum

I ' ncreasmg
stagger angle
Q
N" 4111d
Head
,
,
,
,
,
,
"
,
,
,
), 100 = d/eSign point
Power ""\
".... " ...................
'--'
300
1/,H
Figure 2.28 Changing blade slagger angle on an axial now pump
62
(2.57)
Figure 2.30 nf speed variation on
the pnint
System
resistance
;I'
/
/'
Q IN
Q IN S
ince D is constant (2.55)
, ,= 2 2
ff
or
Sinlilarly
:1111
1
Il:ffcct of Speed Variation
t '(lllsider a pump of fixed diameter pumping liqu.id.with static lift: If the
ch;\racteristic at one speed N, is known, then It IS pOSSIble to the
. 'I'esponding characteristic at speed N 2 and also the correspondmg operat-
Ull . . d N
illp' points. Figure 2.30 shows the at spee ,.
- For points A, Band C the correspondmg head and flows at a new speed
N1 are found thus. We have
H,INi =H
2
1Ni (2.56)
i\1"P1ying Eqs (2.55) and (2.56) to points A, Band C and letting the
cotresponding points be A', B' and C',
Q2=Q,N
2
IN
1
and H
2
=H,(N2)2/(N,)2
II ::1111111.1 II\' 1I111\'1! 111111 if 1111'11'1:1 1111 :.111111 IlI'lId I (II' the liquid
1'111111
1111
1'
\1,,:11 II" ill '/,l'I''' 11111\ IIw through Ihe origIn. ThiS has
illlpliclIlillllS 1I11d diamcll:1' lakc Because of the
Ilallil'ss "I' I'lltlldynamic pump eharaclcl'Istlcs. a poor estimate of.the
call scrillusly alIceI the flow rate and he.ad; whereas pOSItive
displacemcllt pUlllpS, the H-Q curve is almost vertical and, even If the head
I'h:lIlgcs sllbstantially, the flow rate stays almost constant.
Figure 2.29 System resistance and
pump characteristic curves
Operating
point
1f. H
II" ",:(.'",/" I ", I ,: I '"
Finally, the liquid Illust be IllIlVl:d lh 1111 th\' 111\\'1'1' Irsl'!"vllir 10 the upper
reservoir through the static head-H.: hel1ce the 1lll1l11lPI1Ilsing head of the pipe
system that must be overcome in order to movc Ihe lluid from the lower til
upper reservoir is
H =H. + KQ2 (2.54)
and if this equation is plotted on the head-flow characteristic, the point at
which Eq. (2.54) intersects the pump characteristic is the operating point, and
this mayor may not lie at the duty point, which usually corresponds to the
design point and maximum efficiency. The closeness of the operating and duty
points depends on how good an estimate of the expected system losses has
been made. In Fig. 2.29 the system curve is superimposed on the H-Q
characteristic.
H=H.+ho+hi (2.52)
Now from the continuity equation (Eq. (1.21)) the flow rate through the
system is proportional to the velocity, Thus the resistance to flow in the form of
friction losses, head losses, etc., is proportional to the square of the flow rate
and is usually written as
System resistance =KQ2 (2.53)
It is a measure of the head lost for any particular flow rate through the system.
If any parameter in the system is changed, such as adjusting a valve opening, or
inserting a new bend, etc., then K will change. The total system head loss ofEq.
(2.52) therefore becomes
2.33 Two similar pumps
in parallel
Figure 2.32 Two similar pumps in series
-r---Single pump,
operatmg pomt
Pumps in series
Single pump
()I"'l'IIlllIf',I',,11I1
1'''1' """1I1il('<1 P
llll1
l
lH
["",m
/I
/I
II
Figure 2.31 Effect of spccd variation
Q on the efficiency
2.K.2 Vuriation of Pump Diameter
1\ vllriation of pump diameter may be similarly examined through the
similarity laws, For a constant speed,
Ql/Di =
'I. II
,/, T
/ I
I
I
1
III',
lind we Sl:l: lhal all corresponding points lie on a parabola passing through the
iJril',ill, This nwans that for an operating point at A at speed NI' it is only
10 apply lhe similarity laws directly to find -the corresponding
opl'l'atill; poinl al lhe new speed since it will lie on the system curve itself.
Ilowever, if lhere is static lift (H
s
=1= 0) it will be necessary to calculate and then
plll1 the corresponding points N, B', C' at the new speed, since the system curve
will no 10llger pass through the origin. The system curve is then drawn to find
IIl:W operating point at its intersection with the N 2 characteristic such that
till' l:orrcsponding maximum efficiency at design point DP2 remains the same
al I >P1 hut at a <.iin'erent head and flow rate as in Fig. 2.31.
67
Pumps in parallel
'<
'. '<
- ""
'",
, '"
, "-
/
, ........
, '"
, '<
I'UIl1P I " '" ...
/'
Pump 2 "
...111
11
\'1' 1,,,'\,1 TWI1 ,11111'"'111 1'"111\1'1 I I1ll1hincd in series and parallel
(2.58)
II lid
Ill'
This curve docs not lie on the system characteristic and therefore part of
IICW characteristic must be drawn through A', B' and C' at the new
dillll1eter so that lhe new operating point may be found. The efficiency curve
moves aeross in a similar manner to before, the corresponding efficiencies
1t1' i1 weqnlll.
2.K.:1 I-limps in Series and Parallel
Sh\lldd 11\l' head or now rale of a single pump not be sufficient for an
II "phl'lIt inll. pnmps I;an he l:oll1hined in series to obtain an increase in head, or
I
1,1
I'
1I11111111111lh'/i III '1'111'11"" 1,,1. 1111",,1''' 11'1'11111111' iii 11,11/1{ "' 1/111111" IIlilip filclol' u1'0.77
IIIIIV hi' IHIIIII II 11"', (1,'I"III1i1I1' 11..., liI,-oll'liml 111'11" ""vel0l":" hy Ihe impellcl', lind thc number
III' illIllI'lIl'" hlll""Ii,
Z..\ All hnl.dlc:1' wllh I 11I11I lind lin oulsidc diameter of 406 mm rotates at 900
1pili, 'I'hll IlIlct III1"outll,1 hlmle IIl1gles lIleasured I'rom the radinl flow direction are 75 and 83
n':IIII:clivll!y. while the hlmle depth is M mm. Assuming zero inlet whirl, zero slip and an hydraulic
dlkil:llcy III'IN pCI' I:enl, calculate
(a) the voluillc flow rate through the impeller,
(h) Ihe stllgnlltion and slatic pressure rise across the impetler,
tc) the power transferred to the fluid and
(d) the input power to the impetler.
2.4 The hasic design of a centrifugal pump has a dimensionless specific speed of 0.075 rev. The
hlndes arc forward fncing on the impetler and the outlet angle is 120 to the tangent, with an
illlpcllcr passage width at outlet equal to one-tenth of the diameter. The pump is to be used to
pUlllp water a vertical distance of 35 mat a /low rate ofO.04m
3
/s. The suction and delivery pipes
II I'e each of 150 mm diameter and have a combined length of 40m with a friction factor of 0.005.
()ther losses at pipe entry, exit, bends, etc., are three times the velocity head in the pipes. If the
hilldes occupy 6 per cent of the circumferential area and the hydraulic efficiency (neglecting slip) is
'/1, per cent, what must be the diameter of the pump impetler?
2.5 When a laboratory test was carried out on a pump, it was found that, for a pump total head of
,\6 m at a discharge of 0.05 m
3
/s, cavitation began when the sum of the static pressure plus the
velocity head at inlet was reduced to 3.5 m. The atmospheric pressure was 750 mmHg and the
vllpour pressure of water 1.8 kPa. If the pump is to operate at a location where atmospheric
pressure is reduced to 620 mmHg and the vapour pressure of water is 830 Pa, what is the value of
the cavitation parameter when the pump devetops the same total head and discharge? Is it
necessary to reduce the height of the pump above the supply, and if so by how much?
2.6 The inner and outer diameters of an axial/low pump are 0.75 and 1.8 m respectively. Fixed
slator blades lie downstream of the rotor with an inlet angle of 40 (at the mean diameter)
lIIeasured from the direction of blade motion. The rotor blade outlet angle (at the mean diameter)
IIlso measured from the direction of blade motion is 30 and the rotor rotates at a speed 01'250 rpm.
If lhc whirl velocity upstream from the rotor is zero at all radii, determine
(n) the axial velocity if the /low onto the stator blade occurs at zero incidence,
(b) the rotor torque if the axial velocity is constant across the flow annulus, and
(c) the root and tip rotor blade angles for zero incidence and zero inlet whirl.
2.7 Atwelve-bladed axial flow fan has a hydraulic efficiency of 0.92, a mean radius 01'0.93 mand
I'Otates at 450 rpm. Air enters the blades axially at a speed of40 m/s and the head developed across
I he hlades is 35 mof air. If the chord length at the mean radius is 0,33 m, find the blade angles at
illiet and, outlet if the blades may be considered to aet as isolated aerofoils. If the blades are
IIcl'llfoils with the following characteristics, find also the angle of incidence of the blades and the
hlade stagger angle. All calculations are to be carried out at the mean radius.
Figure 2.35 Single axial/low pump
Q
- Instability
Q Figure 2.36 Axial/low pumps in parallel
in paralle.1 for an increase in flow rate. The combined pumps need not be ofth
salllc design. e
., 2.32 and 2.33 show the combined H-Q characteristic for the cases
01 lllcntical. pumps. connnected in series and parallel. It will be observed th t
lhe POint changes in both cases. In Fig. 2.34 th b'
dwractenstlcs of two different pumps connected' 11 I e
d
me
drawn. 111 para e an senes are
When axial now pumps are connected in parallel, care must be taken to
that the system characteristic does not cut the pump characteristic'
.. pl:lCes, otherwise instability may result. This arises due to the
sprc.HllIlg of the pump characteristic illustrated in Figs 2.35 and 2.36.
Z.H Al:rullIlllf\IIII'UIUP IUUM'II III (lUlllp Wlltlll' 1'1'011I11 low to a high reservoir having a water level
IIWi,,,,IItT "I' l.\ Ill, '1'111' 101111 lI'n.. lh ol'pipl' itl 101M) III wllh 1\ friclion fucttll' ofO.tlOSnnd its dinmeter
b /tKIIIIIIl, N.,,,,It,<tlll/lIlIIItIrIh\'" I'M','pt 1'1'11'11011. 1I,'14'l'lIIillll Ihi) mil) ol'llow hutwccn thc reservoirs
l,l r d flO /
II 1I0w wlodly 01' 1.lIm/s, The outlet blade angle is at 300 to the ta t t: 0 sand
1\:11I111111/1/\ Z,1I'0 whirl /II i/llel, alld zero slip, calculate the torque pellrJPhery.
II '1'1 I .,.' , y e tmpe er.
'. Ir "lola I:onlrtfll/lal pump hilS backwllrd-fncing blades inclined 'It 30" to th t
1I11111(II'IIc'I' Thc hladcs arc 20 III III in depth at lhe outlet. the impeller is'2S() 11111I ill
AIlf.\1to of incidencc (deg) - 4
I.ift CIIIlfficil:nl ' .(Ull
-2
-0.02
o
0.13
4
0,46
8
0.77
12
1.025
'I
I
'I
r
lind Iltll power 1"1''1"11'1 1III dill'l' II", IHIIIII' II" ,'"",.. 10 ,I-oil, II "I t'" 1'"'"1' ii'" .lIi roII II wr';
SOLUTIONS
2.9 The characteristics of a 0.7 m diameter centrifugal pump impeller running at 750 rpm are 1111
follows:
area may be
.4211.8W
Power
Angular velocity
4211.8 x 0.65
10
. : 273.7Nm
,-;
"
/1,
., (/1
2
-- W,'2)
"
10 ( 1.6)
10---
'I.X I tan 30
'/Jellll or W/(N/s)
Power delivered ,,; x (lng)
'l ..\h X 10
3
X 3.5 x 9.81
60
Torque delivered
II nlill" IIii'll' III 1111 illlt I \\111111 PIIHI'"lll III. '1'III' ..d I I I 1 ~
, l,t'"
I.'IH
til 11 ,10"
10K Ill/N
Flow area =Impeller periphery x Blade depth
=1t x IU)2 x 0.25
=15,7 x 10
3
m
2
1,'low velocily C
r2
=Q/ A
O.02X
=- "3
lS.7xlO
= I.'fX m/s
1,'1'11111 llll: ollliet velocity trianl'k
W e r ~
.<2 = t-an :\()"
ll:xcrdsc 2.2 Consider first the lIo-slip condition in Fig. 2.5.
Assuming hlades of infinitesimal thickness the flow
l'lIklllaled as
IIII' i'. I
56
o
o
0.608
o
2:10
K
10
0,466
5.45'
53
IH-'
0.388
7,61
\.IH'
42
63.5
28 35 42 49
38.0 33.6 25.6 14.5
83 83 74 51
0.311
9.07
S4
61
'I.'
0.233
9.79
64
49.5
46
7 14 21
40.6 40.4 39.3
41 60 74
0.136
9.45
o
68
o
o
40
o
o
12.6
(a) If the pump is initially used to transfer water from one reservoir to another at the same
level, determine the pump operating point if the head lost to frictional and other resistances is 35 m
at 25 m
3
/min.
(b) The pump is then used to transfer water between two reservoirs having difference in
levels of 15 m through a pipe of 0.45 m diameter. If the pipeline is 93 m long with a friction
factor of 0.004 and pipe entry and exit loss coefficients of 0.5 and 1.0 respectively, find the
volume flow rate and power absorbed.
(c) If the pump is now changed to one of 0.51 m diameter and the motor is changed, to
one running at 975 rpm, what is the new volume flow rate and power absorbed?
2.10 A single axial flow water pump has the following characteristics:
E= W =U2CX2-UICXl
mg g
Exercise 2.1 Referring to Fig. 2.5, since there is no slip P2 =Pi.
The Euler head is given by Eq. (2.2):
Apumping system in which the resistance to flow is purely resistive with no static lift exhibits the
same volume flow rate when two of the pumps are connected in parallel as when they are
connected in series. What would be the flow rate and head that a single pump would deliver when
connected to the same system?
Q(m
3
/s)
H(m)
Q(m
3
/min)
H(m)
1](%)
Q(m
3
/h)
H(m)
1/(%)
NIIW
:.: 7"
(since zero whirl)
1/
I,
'111
TlIlal head developed b)' pump
lIydrauliccrndcllcy: I d
'I'hrorcl ieal head deve ope
(0) Using the continuity equation (Eq. (1.21
rlC'1 =rzCrz
0.051 x 1.29
0.203
=0,324mjs
C,! C
I
tanPI =-=-
VI VI
C
I
= 4.81 tan 15
=1.29mjs
Volullle flow through the pump is
Q= AIV
I
= 2nr1bC'l
=2n x 0.051 x 0.064 x 1.29
= 0.0265 m
3
js
Al tangential impeller velocity is
UZ =wr 2
= 2n}0.203)
=19.13mjs
III I)()" '/,""
15"
"I'OJIl I'ig. 2.4
Al lllld, illl(leller velocity is
VI =wr
l
= 2n )(0.051)
= 4.81 m/s
nsin 30
0.77 = I - -- _
Z[I - (1.78/19)cot 30
0
J
Z =8.15
S
number of blades required = 8 ay, _
II /I /l N/1t0
1/ (),,", .. ',",0
(i()
=19m/s
Absolute whirl component C
xz
= Vz - W
xz
=19-3.08
=15.92m/s
From Eq. (2.2) the Euler head is
E = VzCxz - VIC
xl
g
and assuming C
XI
= 0 (no whirl at inlet)
E= 19 x 15.92
9.81
= 30.83m
From Eq. (2.5)
Therefore the theoretical head with slip is
EN = 0.77 x 30.83
=23.74m
The Stodola slip factor is given by Eq. (2.6).
(J = 1 _ nsin pz
S Z[I-(C,zIUz)cotPzJ
Then
whence
Exercise 2.3 (a) Figure 2.5 may be used and in this case = fJz where
pz = 90 - 83
II' the chllllgc ill pllll'ldiot /willi 1.1.11'''. IIII' /1111111' III 1/\11111'011. the tllllli
head developed by the pUllIp iN 1',1vrll II,V I'q. (.'.. 1):
H
(
1'2' '1'1) (r
c
,.; (''')
=. . .,. .. I
pg 21/
and for an incompressible fluid the total pressure head difference is
P02 - POl _ (P2 q) (P1 Cf)
- -+- - -+- =H
pg pg 2g pg 2g
1'2' . 1'1 :.c.; 143.5 kPH
(c) Power given 10 nuid::: pl/QH
=10J x lJ.H I x 0.0265 x 2H.ll
=7.DkW
(d) Input power 10 impeller =7.43/0.HlJ
,H.35kW
..:xcrcisc 2.4 The velocily diagram is shown in Fig. 2.4. "J'OIll (he conlinuily
equation, the velocity in the pipes is
"rom Eq. (1.16) the speed of the pump is determined.
NQ'/z

I .\'7.1
(IW41
1
/.,
\' I rv/r.
N
V= Q/A
0.04 x 4
=
'It X 0.15
2
=2.26m/s
Total losses =Pipe friction losses +Other losses
4flv
2
3v
2
=_... +
2gd 2(/
= x 0.005 x 40 +3) ,,2
0.15 211
8.333 x 2.26
2
=-_...
2 x 9.81
=2.16m
Total required head =35 +2.16
=37.16m
At impeller exit
u C U
- W )
g g 2 x2
19.13 ( C) =-- 19.13 '2_
9.81 tan 7
_ 19.13 ( 0.324)
- -981 19.13 ---
. tan 7
= 32.15m
whence
H = 0.89 x 31.91
=28.6m
Now
Therefore
P02 - POl = 28.6 X 10
3
x 9.81
= 278.5kPa

tan /32
= 19.13 _ 0.324
tan 7
= 16.49m/s
C
2
=(C;2 +C;Z)1/2
= (0.324
2
+16.49
2
)1/2
= 16.49m/s
Solving for the static pressure head
pz - PI =H _ (C; -:- C:)
pg 2U
'1
"IIII\! 1111'/1 pi" pl'lIIllt II iii I lIt Willi '" I 'HI/h I I" 11/'111 1\'
crTH == 0.0921
I'or case (2)
P2 Po
-+-+2
2
==--h
r2
pg 2g pg
(2
2
+ h
r2
) =(0.62 x 13.6) - 3.317 - 0.0846
=5.03m
(2
1
+hfl) == Po - crTHB _ P1
pg pg
== (0.75 x 13.6) - 3.317 - 0.1835
=6.7m
v
2
crTH =_1_
2gB
3.317

Now
From the steady flow energy equation (Eq. (2.38)) taking the reservoir
level as datum (2
0
== 0) we get for case (1) ,
PI Po
-- +- +2
1
=- - (Sum of head losses)
PO 2g pg
1'1 J' .
I I 1.,'\
I
'
ll
IIl1d al this clIllditillll fli 'fl."", Ihe vapour pressure. Therefore
_ 3 5 I.H X 10
3
2y - . - 103
== 3.317m == NPSB
" 11
1
'.1
10
/Iii
0.04
==
0.295/)2
0.136
==[j2 ,'m/s
( 'r2 : :
"'ow area
Now
Also
U2 == Nnf)
== 31.21{ x nJ)
== 9H.3D m/s
From Eq. (2.22) the hydraulic efficiency is
_ Fluid power developed hy 1
111111
11
'lH-
Fluid power supplkd 10 illlpdlc'f
H
==
r.:
or
9.HI x nl6
-
91UD x 0.7()
"'" 4.H71J) m/s
The (Hillel velocity triangle gives
(
C
.\.1,
Since Ihe flow rate is the same, hfl == h
C2
and the pump must be lowered a
dislance (Z I - Z2) =1.67 m at the new location.
0,' ,ItI
1J) 'nuJ>1
J) \ 1I.lI/10H
11l1lwlll'l' di:lIlldC'f' J) 0.. ' 1.1111
2.6 Referring to the velocity triangles of Fig. 2.24, i =0, IX
2
== 40 and
/1.1, 10" al the mean radius
d
' 1.8 +0.75
Mean Jametcr D", == ---
2
: : 1.275111
C
a
= 5.71 m/s (at the mean radius)
(b) Flow rate Qthrough the annulus is
=6.8m/s
16.69
E = 9.81 x 6.8 W/(N/s)
Then power transferred = pgQE
= 10
3
x 9.81 x 12 x 16.69 x 6.8
9.81
at the mean diameter
7t x 450 x 1.86
_..
60
nND
V=-
60
-,52025 N m
E = _C;::..Lu_W_oo,,-V_
2g
I. ." I I)f> x (II)
x 2n
tanPlr = Ca/Vr
=5.71/9.8-
At the root Ptr = 30.2
V _ n x 250 x 1.8
t- 60
= 23.56m/s
tanp1t =5.71/23.56
At the tip /311 = 13.6
u =n x 250 x 0.75
r 60
=9.8m/s
(c) At the rool
Now
At the tip
Exercise 2.7 Since the density change across an axial flow fan is so low,
it may be considered to be operating with an incompressible fluid and
therefore the same equations as apply for axial flow pumps may be used.
Hydraulic efficiency = H/E
From Eq. (2.51), E = 0.5wZC
L
Wooc/2ng and putting w= 2VD and
Z = nD/s then
Since C
xt
= 0,
(at the mean radius)
.
V="NIJ
60
= 250 x n x 1.275
60
= 16.69m/s
Q=CaA
5.71
=T
n
(1.8
2
-0.75
2
)
=12m
3
/s
C
x2 tan 40
and
=1.362MW
W
x2
+Cx2 =V =
tan 30 tan 40
16.69 = 2.92C
a
Now
and
Al the mean radius
Torque = Power
Angular velocity
Also
. 4lX1 m/s
1/ III " '
1111 "
35 x I).H I
C
x2
= 0.92 x 4 ~
= 8.51 rn/s
Therefore from Fig. 2.24
I ..
I
1.11
NAI'A .'11110
lUI
c'"
lU,
0.4
Now
tan P2 = tan-1 (CJWd
P2 = tan-1 (40/35.32)
= 48.55
Blade stagger angle = i +Pco
= 3.8 +45.3
=49.1
Figure 2.37 Lift coefficient versus
incidence angle
tanPI = Ca/U
PI = tan- 1 (40/43.83)
= 42.38
I I I I I I
4 6 8 10 12 14
Inddcncc. i (dcg)
0,2
0.4
I
,I
W
x2
= U -C
X1
= 43.83 - 8.51
= 35.32rn/s
(f = cis = cZ/nD
0.33 x 12
=
n x 1.86
=0.678
But since C
X1
= 0, and therefore W
x1
= U, then
W ~ = C; +[(W
x2
+W
x1
)/2]2
= 40
2
+[(35,32 +43.83)/2]2
= 3165.78 rn/s
Wco = 56.26 rn/s
H 2g 1
C W =-x-x-
L 00 f1H U (f
Now
i = 3.8
Now
(
4
f
l)( 4 )2 2
11:= _. - Q
r 2gd nd
2
(
4 x 0.005 x 1_000 x 16)Q2
2 x 9.X I X n
2
x O,2
s
~ If,tl ()l'lll ((J in 1l1'1/S)
v=Q/A
Bitt! pUlling
1111'11
l<wrl'isc 2,8 From Eq. (2.54)
System resistance = H. +KQ2
11"lId loss due to pipe friction only is given by
4flv
2
h--
r- 2gd
- 0.92 x 43.83 x 0.678
= 25.1 rn/s
35 x 2 x9.81
sin/I,,, =CII/Woo
/1,,, 'c, sin" I (40/56.26)
.45J"
fl'llll1 which
C
L
= 25.1/56.26
= 0.446
The acrofoil data are plotted in and the corresponding incidence angle
fCllllld from Fig. 2.37
Ill. I1\'1 III i\ULIC AND COMPRESSIBLE FLOW TURBOMACHINES
HYDRAULIC PUMPS 83
'/0 ,----------------,70
=25.4kW
. pgQH
Power to dnve pump =--
'1
10
3
X9.81 x 145 x 40.2
=
60 x 60 x 0.625
o 7 14 21 28 35 42 49 56
o 2.74 11 24.7 43.9 68.6 -
Q(m
3
/min)
System loss (m)
Exercise 2.9 (a) Figure 2.39 shows the head-flow and efficiency characteristics
plotted for the speed of 750 rpm. Since water is being transferred between
reservoirs of the same water level, then from Eq. (2.53),
System resistance =KQ2
Solving for K at the point given:
K =35/25
2
=0.056
Therefore the system head loss at the different flow rates may be calculated:
60
Efficienc,y
50
---
i::
40
8
...
5
e-
30
5
'0
IS
LLl
20
Pump characleristic
10
.',0
.'0
to
Ii
"f
,-,
,
:1;
Ifl
11 40,21l1
'I 1.,1', 1'1"1 ,,'111
:, ",1' '10 11,,1:1111111'1:. /I (III) n.o 32.8 35.4 39.6 45.5 53.1
1
/1"
,Ull _
,'0
The system resistance curve is now drawn (note that it passes through
zero) and the head and flow read off at point A. The corresponding efficiency
is read ofT at point B.
At the operating point
Q=26m
3
/min
H = 38.3m
'1 =81 per cent
(b) Sum of the head losses and static head is given by Eq. (2.54):
H=H.+KQ2
The head losses may be written as
4jlv
2
v
2
v
2
Head losses = 2gd +k.xh 2g +k.n1ry 2g
=(4X93XO.OO4 1
0.45 + + 2g
v
2
:-:(131 + 1+0.5)2
g
() 46 92 138 184 230
Sy:HI'1I1 H = 32 +5164Q2 m
II I ---'-----'--__.....J 0
o ',0' 100 150 200 250
Vllhlllll' Ilow rate, Q (m
3
jh)
I "'m.' 11/ 1'111111' 1111.1 characteristics
f!hll'/hl
I'ItI "'lidrlll V1.'I'I'r"l'lIlldillP. III t!ll" nnw lilli' pI' 145 m
3
/h is
1'111' "1Il'
f
lllilll'. point is at the intersection of the pump characteristic and
flVtJII'1t1 I'I'Nisllllll:C curves. At the operating point A in Fig. 2.3X
Q': '.45m
J
/h
100 Ilidtil lillI', IIll' niHil. 1111
characlerisllt"
wilh zero static head
W in Ill"/s)
o 7 14 21 28 35 42 49
15 15.13 15.52 16.18 17.11 IllJ 19.75 21.47
Q=45m
J
/min
pgQH
Power absorbed = --
1'/
10
3
X 9.81 x 45 x 20.4
0.684 x 60
= 219.4kW
1'/ = 68.4 per cent
H=20.4m
(c) Since we have static lift, it is necessary to construct part of the
eharacter,istic at the new speed of 900 rpm. The corresponding points for the
ncw impeller and the new speed are found from Eq. (1.6):
QI Q2 HI H2
- and =---=-
(N
I
D
I
)2 (N
2
D
2
)2
(/ (IIr
'
/l11ill)
11(111)
The new system resistance curve is drawn noting that it begins at H = 15 m.
'I 'he operating point is at point Cand the corresponding efficiency at point D.
At the operating point
TIU' hll/1l1 loss is IIIIW dl'ln'llIilll't1 for the vlIrio\ls flow rates.
o
60
10
80
70
90
30
-20
60
E,
,
\
, I
, I

1175 rpm , \
I
I
I
I
I
\ 975 rpm
......--
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
,
I
I
I
I
,
I
/
,
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
I
,
I
,
I
,
,
I
I
,
I
I
\11
.',11
20 30 40 50
Volume flow rate (m
3
jmin)
1"111111'1' 2.:'" 1'111111' dlUracteristics at 750 and 900 rpm
whcnce
Now
v=Q/A
IIlld 1:llhstillllin/!. for v
Head losses ,-, ,- 4.81 X 4
2
] Q2
2 x 9.81 (n x 0.45
2
f
1)'(IIJQ2 m
Q2 = QI y
=0.503Ql
H _ (975 X 0.51)2
2- HI 750 x 0.7
n,l) III
III
I
1.4 1.2
. Pumps in pllmllcl

__.1
(l.6 (l.!! 1.0
Volume flow rate. Q
PlllllPS in series
o ...... I
o 0.2
Systelll '
l:lIrVIl
Ii
II;
,I

II:
H = 16.5m
Q=23.75m
3
/min
11 = 62.4 per cent
P b bed
23.75 x 16.5 x 10
3
x 9.81
ower a sor =---------
0.624 x 60
= 102.7kW
The new characteristic is drawn and also the efficiency curve by moving the
corresponding values of efficiency horizontally across. The operating point
is at E and the corresponding efficiency at G.
At the operating point
Q, 0 7 14 I 'II I', .\. .")
"'ll
Q2 0 3.5 7.1 IO.h IU 1':'
.',1..\ 24.M .. \
HI 40 40.6 40.4 39.3. 3M ,Uh 2S.h 14.S 0
H
2
36 36.5 36.4 35.4 34.2 30.24 23.0 III 0
Exercise 2.10 The single pump characteristic is plotted in Fig. 2.40 along
with the characteristics for the pumps connected in parallel and series.
Since the same pump is used in both cases, for the series connection the flow
rate through the two pumps remains the same while the head is doubled
and for the parallel connection the head across the pumps remains the same
while the flow rate is doubled.
"I'llIn- 2.40 Axialllllw (111111(1 charaelerislics when eonneclcd in series lind plll'lIlh,1
l'rom Eq. (2.54) for the system curve
H=H.+KQ2
Bllt 11,,' ,0. Therefore
1I1l,d
, K =42.32
The system characteristic is parabolic and may IHlW ill fOl' VIII:iIlW,
and now ratl:S lind the point B gives the operatll1g pOint for the
plllllP within the system.
Series connection
Q(mJ/s) 0 0.136 0.233 0.311 0.388 0.466 0.608
H(m) 25.2 t8.9 19.58 18.14 15.22 10.9 0
Parallel connection
Q(mJ/s) 0 0.272 0.466 0.622 0.776 0.932 1.216
H(m) 12.6 9.45 9.79 9.07 7.61 5.45 0
SYlltmn Ilow mill (nr'jIl) ()
SYIIII'II\ loml {1lI1 (l
(l.1 0.2 (lJ 0.4 (lj (l.l,
(lA? 1.6t) llli 6.77 to.SM Is.:n
At point A both connections give the same head and flow and the system
characteristic must pass through this point and zero since there is no static lift.
At operating point A in Fig. 2.40
Q= 0.48 m
3
/s
H=9.75m
Till' r,inl'.ll' pllillp opt'fllll's lit point II:
(' OJ1! III \
11 'ill
('IIAP'IHC

HYDRAULIC TURBINnS
1111I11'11I11"IIIt'/li1 tlpl.dfh:
"liI,,1I (1'11111
111"1111 (1111
1\111\111111111 1"11Y1\!' (It WI
IInil dlll'll'III''y (""I
11"/',1111111,,"
1I11'l'hllllhHII
0,4
IIKI 1700

'll
SPIllI!' nozzle alld
IIdleelor plillc
(1111111'1"
1111 hili"
HII
.\0
"1
(III"'"
VUIII'II
l"Ipl'"1
IlIlhllll'
I,ll ,1./,
lip I" 'IlHI
10
1'1
III"tI"
111"11/11'1'
3.1 INTRODUCTION
Tur.bines are used for hydraulic energy into electrical energy. The
capItal ofa hydroelectnc power scheme (i.e. reservoir, pipelines, turbines,
etc.) are higher than thermal stations but they have many advantages some
of which are: '
1. High efficiency
2. Operational flexibility
3. Ease of maintenance
4. Low wear and tear
5. Potentially inexhaustible supply of energy
6. No atmospheric pollution
The main types of turbines used these days are impulse and reaction
turbines. The predominant type of impulse machine is the Pelton wheel
is for a range of heads of about 150-2000m. One ofthe
smgle umts IS at the New Colgate Power Station, California, with a rating
of 170 MW. Reaction turbines are of two types:
1. Radial or mixed flow
2. Axial flow
Of the radial flow type the Francis turbine predominates. a unil at
Churchill Falls having a power output of 480 MW with a head of ,\ I:' Ill. Two
88
t VPllN Ill' Ilxial now turbines cxist. hdn/\ the pwpellor and Kaplllll
IlII'hirw". Thc formcr has fixed bladcs wherea'}j Iht: lallcr has adjustahlc hllllh"j
'1'lIhlo ,1.1 sUllImaril',cs the head. powcr lind dficicncy valucs thaI 111'\' typh' il
hilt hy 110 mcans mllxima for cach type of lllrhim,.
A reversible pump -turbine call as eithcr II PUIllP 01' II lurloilll
:llld iN IIsed in pump storage hydroelectric schmnes. At times of low Ch'1'I111 "V
dml1l1l1d (e.g. durin/'. the night) d1l1:lP ('h:lririly is osed to pump wah-I' 11,11)\
1111, low to the high.. level reservoir. This wah,r llIay then he used "mill/: Ill\'
.IllY 1'01' power gencration during pcak periods. when the unil !'IIW, ,HI II
lorhi,"\ in the reverse direction.
( )ne of the largest pump storage schemes in the world is at Cahin (
ill ('olorado. where each turbine generat.es IC!C! MW with a head of ,\W III
III the sections that follow. each type of hydraulic turbine will he NllIdi,I',t
iIl:parlltely in terms 01' the velocity Iriangles. cflkiencies. reaction alld 1III'lltlld
Ill'llperation.
Tlili Pelton wheel turnine is a (lure impulSle lurhine in which a jot of Ililid
iNsuilll', from a nozzle impinges on a succe:ssioll of curved huckels l'ixl'd II'
Ihe periphery of a WhIting wheel. liS in ll. where four jets IIrc HhllWIt
huckets deOct:t the jt:t Ihrough lI'n angk: uf hclwc 'n t (,0 lIlll
in the same plane as the jet. lind it is Ilhe turning of the jel Ihllll'illl,'le\'i
Ihe IlHllllentum change III' Ihe flilid :111<1 ils J"(eaclioll on the buckels. A
is Ihen,l'ore pushed IIway by the jet IIlld llw II('XI IHI :h" IIloves rPlIlid til Ill"
silllilarly acted UpOIl. The spellt waleI' falls wl'Ilir:dly inl" lite IOWl"! f"'WI Villi
or lailraex: alld lIlt" wltok clll'fgy I'rllllH Itllzl',k olillel III 1:lill'nc!'
plan' at 1:01\1;111111 jll\,SSlIr. ','igllrl' slt",ws a IlIIW' 1'1.:1(1111 wlwrl wilh ill.
hllChl'lI,
A dill/'nlill 1.1' 1I I'dloll wlwd hydl'od'dlll 1IIl<IIIIIulillil il: l,hllWII ill
"i". ,U, "'ItI' Will,', 1.IIJ1ply is 1'1'111/1 u I'pnr.lllnlt .. ll\'lId 1'l":"I'Vllil' /II dl'vulit,1t IJ I
Figure 3.1 Elements of a Pelton wheel turbine (courtesy of Escher Wyss Ltd)
Figure 3.2 Pelton wheel (cOl/rh's,\' '!I'
Escher Wyss Ltd)
above the centre-line of the jet. Ashallow-slope pressure tunnel extends from
the reservoir to a point almost vertically above the location of the turbine.
A pipe of almost vertical slope called the penstock joins the end of the
pressure tunnel to the nozzle, while a surge tank is installed at the upper
end ofthe penstock to damp out flow control pressure and velocity transients.
It is emphasized that, compared with the penstock, the pressure tunnel could
be extremely long, its slope is extremely shallow and it should undergo no
large pressure fluctuations caused by inlet valve flow control. The penstock
must be protected against the large pressure fluctuations that could occur
between the nozzle and surge tank, and is usually a single steel-lined concrete
pipe or a steel-lined excavated tunnel. At the turbine end of the penstock
is the nozzle, which converts the total head at inlet to the nozzle into a
water jet with velocity CJ at atmospheric pressure.
The velocity triangles for the flow of fluid onto and ofT a single bucket are
shown in Fig. 3.4. If the bucket is brought to rest, then subtraclill/l. Ihe hucket
speed UJ from the jet velocity CI gives the relative fluid vdndt,V WI Ollto the
bucket. The angle turned through by thcjd ill the hOl'i:l.\llltnllll/llw durill/\ ils
passage over Ihe bucket is ir alid tIw rdll IiV\' I'X it yl'!'" II \ I. 1\'. Ir I hI'
Surge tank
Pressure tunnel
I
,I) 1"'111111 w);" \ hydroolcclric installalioll
H'
h,
H
1,\
W/m = V(W
1
, WI cos ex)
(3.4)
Theoretical
VIC.
\4---\ Actual
0.5
Jil,:llrc 3.5 Efficiencies and jet speed ratio of a Pelton wheel
Ihen if ex = 180, the maximum hydraulic efficiency is 100 per cent. In practice,
the deflection angle is in the order of 160-165 to avoid interference with
the oncoming jet and l1H is accordingly reduced. Figure 3.5 shows the
Iheoretical efficiency as a function of speed ratio. The overall efficiency is
Illwer than the theoretical as well as having a reduced speed ratio at maximum
el1iciency. This is due to pipeline and nozzle losses, which will be discussed
in a later section.
E= V(C1 - V)(I- k cos ex)/g
where k is the relative velocity ratio W
2
/W
1

If the hydraulic efficiency is defmed as


Energy transferred
l1H = Energy available injet
=E/(Ci/2g)
Fq, (11) becomes
Figure 3.4 Velocity triangles for a
Pelton wheel
"
hlldel speed .vector lI2 is adqed to W]. in the appropriate direction, the
eXIt, C2, It shollid be realized that the component
( \.\ 0.1 ( 2 can be In the posItIve or negative x direction depending on the
II III gIll (lide of U.
"rolll Euler's turbine equation (Eq. (1,24))
W/m= VIC"'J V
2
C
X2
IIl1d sincc in this case C
x2
is in the negativc x direction,
W/m = V{(V + Wd + [W}, cos(180 - ex) - V]}
no loss of relative velocity due 10 friction across the bucket surface
(III', ' : W},), then
E = V(C I . 'lI)(1 - cosex)/g (3.1)
I E being watts per newton per sccond weight of flow.
I.qllatlon (11) can be optimized by dill'crentiating with respect to U. Thus
dE/dU =(I-coscx)(C1-2V)/g=O
II,I' II maximum, and Ihcl1
r
I
I
I'
",
I
I' T
.'/: "
12

jU,
('
I
2J

V
(3.2)
u=('1/2
hack inlo I':q. (11) gives
/';111"" ('i'( I ws rx)/4y (:1.3)
111 1"'II
I
'tip. SIII'I'lIl"l' I'rklioll 01' Ihl: hllt'kd is prcsellt 111111 H',. / II',. 'I'hrll
J.2.1 Pelton Wheel Load Changes
Ilydralllic turbines are usually coupled directly to an electrical generator and,
since Ihc gencrator must run at a constant speed, the speed V of the turbine
mllsl rcmain constant when the load changes. It is also desirable to run at
IIlaxillllllll efficiency and therefore the ratio V/CI must stay the same. That
is, jel velocity must not change. The only way left to adjust to a change
ill tIIl'hinc load is to change the input water power.
'I'hl' inplIt walcr powcr is given by the product pgQII' hilt H' is constant
Spell!' vlIlvc
High load
_.
.. .. :::::

Low load
",h"11 "SI'II':liwd IItI I,"" lit '"' 'I'V IIl'I 111111 wl'il'''l "I II"\\,, Nil\\'
!':mll','v:1I ,'lid "I'pipl\illl'
I' illdim; InIlH.IIII:lrli,ll1 ,'IIll'iI:IIl:Y ,
I lIvailahl\lllllWllll'Vt III'
III
II lid
Energy al nozzle ollllcl
NOi',i',le efficiency = . '
bnergy al nozzle IIlld
Figure 3.6 Load control by a spear valve and deflector plate
liN = H'/(H I - "1') ::::: (.\,/,)
. . Actualjet velocity
Nozzle velocity coefficient =Th-' t' I' t I 'ty
eore Ica Je ve OCI
Nozzle and pipe transmission efficiency =(H/HI )(H'/lI) C;,/20H I
Also
SII
III' \ \ Fully deflected jet
'" -<Bucket
, ' trajectory -.......,
, '
, - "
. .... _
Deflector plate in
normal position
o
'I'hcrdore the nozzle ellkiency becomes
tiN = = , U I
The characteristics of an impulse turbine arc shown in Figs 3,7 alltl \ H
These curves arc drawn for a constant head and it is seen that peak. pllwn
I\lId efficiency occur at about the same speed ratio for gate openlllg 111111
lhat the peak values of efficiency do not vary mUCh: Thl,s IS due to the I\ll/,/.II'
velocity remaining constant in magnitude and directIOn as the llo.w rail'
l:hanges, giving an optimum value of U/CI at a fixed speed. WlIldal\l'.
(and therefore C
1
), and the only remaining variable is Q. The change in flow
rate is effected by noting that Q= CIA, where A is the nozzle area. Since CI
is constant, then the cross-sectional area of the nozzle must change. This is
accomplished by a spear valve, which alters the jet cross-sectional area as
illustrated in Fig. 3.6. The position of the spear is controlled by a
servo-mechanism that senses the load change. For a sudden loss of load, a
deflector plate rises to remove the jet totally from the buckets and to allow
time for the spear to move slowly to its new load position. This prevents
excessive overspeeding.
Ill'
, \:/1
3.2.2 Pelton Wheel Losses and Efficiencies
1'111111'1' ,\ 'f 1
1
1111 It "' \ \'1 1I,11f. lillll.1 III VlIl'illllll 111I1,1.hJ !IIIIIIII,'"
Head losses occur in the pipelines conveying the water to the nozzle and are
composed offriction and bend losses. Losses also occur in the nozzle and these
are expressed in terms of a velocity coefficient C
v
' Finally there are windage
and friction losses in the wheel itself. The total head line is shown in Fig.
3.3, where the water supply is from a reservoir at a head HI above the nozzle.
As the fluid moves through the pressure tunnel and penstock up to entry to
the nozzle, 'a frictional head loss h
r
occurs. A further head loss h
in
due to
losses in the nozzle takes pll:!.ce so that the head available for power generation
at exit from the nozzle is H':
H' =HI - ("1' +"in)
_. r2/"/1
_.' \ 'I -
'Ill -
Constant head
l!1l
" 70
hll
N
5
3.3 RADIAL FLOW TURBINE
The radial flow or Francis turbine is a reaction machine and. to achieve
reaction, the rotor must be enclosed by a casing to prevent dl:villtilln of the
1I1!10I '.111'1111111111', "1"111101 1111 "I", .. I II,,' ill."t. '. 'I'll\' dilli'l' 111'
1111", (111111 11',1,111111 I,dltl IIl1d 11I11'"ltil' wlll'd ill 1111' 1'111'1111'1' IIII' wIIIl'I.
Hlldll <I Ilip,1I :111I11l' 111,101. III1 pn'lwlIlI' l'II1'I/'V illtll
l'ill''1W ill II IIII'/./',m, whidl ill il:.e11' 1'II1'II1S pII1'1 III' 1'111111'. NilH'I'
il :llillil' pn'lllllIn', dl'lIp 111'1'111"1, 111'1'11:<:; (1II'hilll' 1'111111', parI III' lhl: wllrk dlllll'
ltv 1111' IllIid 1111 the 1'1111111;1' is dill) III I'\,al'lillll 1'1'11111 Ihe pressllre drllp. alld
1'111 t ill dII" III II dHllIl',e ill killel k lH!Cq',\', wh idl l'\'pnlSI)nts an impulse I'll lidillll,
1'11'.1111' \,111 II1\11WS a CI'IISS sl:l;lioll Ihl'llll/',11 :1 1,'l'lIlIds turbine. A typical 1'01111'
I'i 111:111 HhllWII.
'l'lw lolal III;ad 111'11\1: radial nllW IlIrhim; 1'lIIIges from about SOil dllwlI
III \11111. alld dillll;lIsillllkss specific specd 1'1'0111 0.3 to 2.5 rad. The WlltlH'
III ,'lllnll II vIIIIIII: III' spil'lll cllsill/.'.. It tlK;1I passes through a row of Iixl,d
",llhk VIlIII'S follllwed hy adjustahk guide valles. the cross-sectional an,a
111'1 W,'\',II till' lIdjustllhle Vlllles heing varied 1'01' now control at part load. Th,'
(hell illlllledialcly illio the rotor where it moves radially thl'llll/'h
II ... 1'111111' valll:S allli cxits I'I'I\Il\ thc rotor hladcs at a smaller diameter. anl'l
whil'll il IUI'IIS thl'l\u,.,h I)()" illto the dl'aft tube, The function of the dmft IlIhl
I:, Itl hrill/', thl: watl:r pn:ssllrc hack to tl1l1 prcssure of the tailrace, and dlllllll'
Ihi:1 prol:tlSS 10 I'ClllOVe Ihe killclic l;lIergy still cxisting at the runnel' IIuth I
III 11111111\ rlltlll's thl: work Irallsfcl' is al:complishcd not only while till' Wllh I
I:: IIIIIVill/,. r:,diallv hilt also in a part axial direction. This is dOli\' IIv 11
Illliidolls choke of rolOI' lksigll.
IlIl:ollsid 'ring tile now through the runnel' of a radial flow turbilll' IIlld
II ... I hWl'clical allalysis wit h respect to the velocity triangles. the lmlll\'
1I1lHllillptions will hl" iliad, as I'llI' Ihe e 'ntrifugal pump. Figure 3.1 t show!i
II ... tolal energy line through the complete system from supply reservoir tIl
III ill':Il:I:. Till: I'l'l:I' SlI rl'al'l' 01" till' rcservoir is often called the 'head water', '1'1\1'
IIl1id llxpcriencl's a I'ri'lilllllll head drop hl'll in the pipeline up to the inlet
lIallge 01' the turhine al point O. At this point the fluid enters the volute. tl\l'
hXI,d inlet guid\' vaill's and also the adjustable gil ide vanes, where a furthl'l
I'tktillnal head loss h
ll
is experiellccd. Upon leaving the inlet guide VllIWli,
1III'I111id IlIOVCS into the runner where a frictional head loss hr takes plHlT
while l;nerp'y is slIpplied to the runnel' and shaft. The total energy lilli'
h) 1111: IH,ill( J where the Iluid exits from the draft tube with a
I"ridional head loss 11,1 occllrring in the draft tube, and a residual kincl1l'
I'IWI)',y \IlSS 1':1 !I :It Lxii I'rllill the draft tube, In considering the (lVl.'I'\I1l
III I'hi Ill) dlidClicy. the inlet volutc and draft tuhl' lire considered to be partH
III' til\' IlIlhilll'.
Tht' 1111("( and outkt vdlll:ily triangll's 1'01' thc runner arc shown in I,'ig
\,I.' :ilwws the water from the inlet guide vanes at I'Udius 1'\
wit h ahsolute velocity (' \. lit all angle (X I to the direction of rotatinll. Tit\'
11I1I1'1'I1Iial vdodty at inlet is III' and hy suhtracting U\ from ('. the I'daliv\'
wl"l ilv V\'d"I' WI IIhlt,ilil'd at :111 HII)',h- fll to Ihe direction of rlll:llillll,
f'l It, "I'ill Ihl' inkl "iudI' i1I1/1lr 1'111 f.lllIl'k I'll'\' mtry, AI thc ontkl I."
Figure 3.9 Variation of Pelion
wheel efficiency with load
Figure 3.8 PelIon wheel power oulpul
versus speed at various nozzle sellings
100
4
5
N
NIIII.It. Ill'
I
Constant head
25 50 75
Percentage of full load
20
o
80
40
100
mechanical losses and variations in loss coefficients cause the small variations.
In practice, one is usually more interested in the fixed-speed condition since
the generators run at constant speed. Figure 3.9 shows that the
variation of efficiency with load is slight, except at low loads where the
decrease is due to changes in nozzle efficiency, and at high loads where the
increased jet diameter gives rise to higher bucket losses.
p
Finure :U2 Velocity triangles
1l1l'II Francis (moine
(luide vanes
m0
r
7.
11
__
'I'1Ii11'11"C
/
j h",
Ih.
" h,.
Total
energy
line
..
c::
0
H
"0
II, ..>oi
..
0

C'I
II
I
',. I
",
101"1111' ,1.11 1;,llI'l'l',y tlislrihutioll through a hydraulic reaction turbine
Volute
Fixed guide vanes
Adjustable guide vanes
Runner
Draft tube
Support bearing
I l
I
'" ,LJ
(a)
IJIi
"'illlll'.' .1.l1I i\ "'1'11111'1:1 IIII'hllll' 4 /';8c1/I'I' WY8S Ltd): (II) hydnll'h'I'II'il' hlllllllllliioll:
IIolllllhll1l' 11111111"
99
thc watcl' Ieavcs Ill' hillde al 1111/'11' /t, II' II" 1,1"/',11111.11 \T[(I, ily \,", Itll, llil
result,a,nt of W
2
and (I), hell\/" 1I11' ,d':.II [lIl, lllllh'( vdodly TIll' !low
veloclttes Crt and C
r2
arc direch:d 10WllldN till' lit' 1'1I1ulion and alll f'.iVl'Il
by Q/2nr
t
b
1
and Q/2nr
1
b
2
respectively, I, is 1111: dthe runlWI"
Euler's turbine equation (Eq, (1.24)) givcs
E =W/mg =(V! C
x
! - V 2CX2)/Y (J/N) Cl,t)l
and E is a maximum when C
x2
is zero, that is when the absolute and llllw
velocities are equal at the outlet.
I.'u/"III, All till' kll/"III 11,1 UlllO IIH'II'Wll'll, IIUti llilll'l' till' IIIW,k /11'
tlIV"I/',I'I\"I' ':lllllild IHII n,'I','d IIhOll1 H", (0 l'lltllll'l' lhlll of till'
III'llIldllry IlIym' dlll:S 1I11t OCl:III', thc dl'llrt tllhe l'ollid Iw vl:ry 111111'.. ill
Ill/itl 1111 ';1111
1
;1' limit 1111 thl: valuc or Z2 due to cavitation, and this is disl:ussl:d
III II 11111'1'
\..\.2 Turbine Losses
1'[1l' It ClIIlIlIlCl: al'ain be related in terms of an energy balance through Ihl\
11I1'\lilw:
(110)
(,\}II)
(:\.11))
(llHI
(ll'/)
received by flllllwr
I,'\uid pow\' I n\l:tilnhk i1t inkt 111111",1'
PI =pgHrq (N m/s)
Shaft output power
Overall efficiency = ----- ---
Fluid power available at inlet flange
Ilydraulic dl'iri 'IH'Y
Pc = pgQh
c
(N m/s)
The total energy balance of Eq. (3.14) thus becomes
pgQH =Pm +pg(hrQr +hcQ +Hrl1 +Ps)
IIlld
Ill'
Then we have
('asing power loss Pc is due to friction, eddy and flow separation
ill t he casing and draft tube. If this head loss is he then
,,1111. wilh a total head H
r
across the runner, the leakage power loss becolllcs
P, =pgQrh, (N m/s)
I.eakage power loss PI is caused by a flow rate q leaking past till: 1'1111111'1
lIllli therefore not being handled by the runner. Thus
I'", ,shaft power output, Pm =mechanical power loss, P, =nllltH:1'
\II'Wl;r loss. 1'0'-' casing and draft tube loss, PI =leakage loss and P=: wain
IIIIWI:1' lIvnilablc, Together, P, +Pc +PI is the hydraulic power loss,
Runner power loss P, is due to friction, shock at impeller entry anlln"w
:wplll'l\l ion, and results in a head loss h
r
associated with a flow rate through tilt,
1IIIlller 01' Q,:
Q=Qr+q
Turbine total outlet head =P3/pg + +2
3
where the pressures are gauge pressures. Summing these,
Total head across turbine =(Po - P3)pg + - +(2
0
- 2
3
)
=H
But in the tailrace P3 is atmospheric and 2
3
is zero, Therefore
H = (Po/pg + +2 0) -
Also
and
H =H! - h
fp
- (111 )
and the energy given to the runner by the water per unit weight of flow is
Wlmg =H - h
d
- hl-h
r
(112)
If the water discharged directly into the tailrace from the runner outlet
the kinetic energy lost would be high. By fitting the draft tube between runne;
outlet tailrace, a continuous stream of water is formed between the two,
The taIlrace velocity is reduced because of the increase in cross-sectional
area of the draft tube, and, because the tailrace pressure is atmospheric, the
runner outlet must now be below atmospheric pressure. Applying
the energy equatlOn between the runner outlet and tailrace gives
P21pg +VV2g +2 2 = P3/pg +VV2g +2
3
+h
d
and putting P3 and 2
3
equal to zero
P2/pg = - - 2
2
+ h
d
(:',13)
There is a limit to the amount that V
3
can be reduced becalll't' of Inhl'
3.3.1 Net Head Across Reaction Turbine
The net head H across the turbine is the difference in the total hcnd
between the inlet flange and the tail water level. Gross head H! should not
be confused with net head. Thus
Turbine total inlet head = Polpg + +2
0
"Iuid pllwer input
'I'
: :
I:
I
I
i
Ii
I'
,
Head
-
U,V\ C1
)'111, "'IIII'
Brake power output
Water power input
The energy distribution through an axial flow hydraulic turbine is the same
liS ill Fig, 3.11. However, the velocity triangles are markedly different since
thc Iluid is assumed to flow from blade inlet to outlet at a constant radius.
A Kaplan turbine is illustrated in Fig. l15. The inlet guide vanes are fixed
IIlid arc situated at a plane higher than the runner blades such that the fluid
IlIlisttUrtl through 90" to enter the runner in the axial direction. Load changes
III'C c1Tected by adjustment of the runner blade angle. The function of the
guide vanes is 10 impart whirl to the fluid so that the radial distribution of
vdocily is the sallie as in a free vortex, Since this type of turbine is used for
Inw heads alld high Ilow rates, the blades must be long and have large chords
fjn lhal Ilwy 111'1) strollg enough 10 transmit the very high torques that arise.
I'ih:h/dllll'lll'lltills 111'1 loS typical rill' axilll now turbines and this results
ill 1\ 1'11111' riw III' Ni1\ hl:Hkd 1'\111111:1',
:4.4 AXIAL FLOW TURBINE
.1.14 Rea<.:lion turbine <.:haracteristics at constant speed but varying gate opening
The inlet runner area is constant and therefore to satisfy continuity
relative velocity WI must decrease. The result is that the flow onto the
rUllner is no longer shock-free and at exit C
2
may increase. This gives a
higher kinetic energy loss at runner exit as well as increasing the whirl
t:nmponent C...
2
down the draft tube. The flow is then spiral in nature, which
del;rcascs the draft tube efficiency. The efficiency of a reaction turbine at light
Inads therefore tends to be less than that of the Pelton wheel, although the
desiv,1I maximum efficiency may be greater.

__
....,
1'11'1" rille. U
. - ..........;:"...,.....::::::::::::---..
'III II'" I I'",I//i,//)II (.I ..'.I)
'I'hl' It'II,1I (/'" ! Ill' Hq, I V I) HI tht' Inllltlli'r PCI'
1I1l1l W,'II\III .d Ihlld IllIw, lllf II111xilllUill effkil;llcy
'III' II I <'... ,II/If
,l.U (:urvcs
( '1I1'Vl'H or wall:r pllwer inpul. torque exerted by lhe wheel. How I'll II:. el'lkimcy
IlIld Ilrllkc pllwer output for a conslant gate opening arc drawn in I"ig, 3. 11
. . In with the impulse wheel. the now rale is nil IOlger
wheel speed since there is now an unbrokcn How of water
dllwlI 10 Ihe laill'lll:c and changes within Ihe runncr Ihe How, or most
inlm"HI. however, is Ihe bchaviour of the turbinc al conslanl spced, sinl;cthe
/'\'nl'l':Ilor nlnH at a fixed spced. As the electrical load changes. Sll thc Dow
ral\' is dlllnll.cd by varialion of Ihe gate opening. From a set of ehllradllrstic
\'III'V,:H at difTercnl gale openings, Ihe constanl-speed characteristil: of Fig.
,1.14 IS l:tlnstructed, II is seen thai the head increases slighlly as the load is
due to the friction head loss, which, being proportional 10 Q!, is
kss at ,hghtcl' loads, It will also be noted thaI the eflkiency curve at conSlant
IS 11111 as nat liS I'or an impulse turbine.
Whcn a reaction turbine operating at constant speed experiences 1I bad
dl:ITI:IlSI:, thl: cross-sectional area betweell the inlet vanes changes and angb (X 1
N(rpllll
1,'IHIIII' t 1.1 111,1,,111'11 IllIhllll' III l'!III,\illi' 1'1"'11111/\
, 'I ,I' 'I 11'\ I JI ...... , ..."'l
Propeller (fixed blade)
lOll
1111 .
Kaplan
If /i is conslant along the blade radius, and C
a
is constant over the
,'rll:ls"seclional area, then as U
2
increases from hub to tip, V cot PI must
10 keep Eg. (3.23) constant. That is, PI must increase from hub to
til' alld Ihe hlade must therefore be twisted. .. .
The characteristic curves for the axial flow Kaplan turbme are slmJlar
III Ihose or the radial flow turbine, and a comparison of the efficiencies of
U
2
"'1\111'1' .1.1(, Vdlldly lriangles for an axial flow hydraulic turbine
(3.22)
I. Spiral casing with fixed guide vanes
2. Adjustable inlet guide vanes
3. Transition passage
4. Runner
5. Draft tube
:1I5 Axial now Kaplan turbine (courtesy of Escher Wyss Ltd)
Nllw
The velocity triangles are usually drawn at the mean radius, since
I'lllldilions change from hub to tip, and are shown in Fig. 3.16. The flow
vdlldly is axial at inlet and outlet and hence Crl =C
r2
=Ca' The blade
vdodty vector V I is subtracted from the absolute velocity vector CI (which
is III angle (Xl to V d to yield the relative velocity vector WI' For shock-free
('lIlry onto the runner, WI is at the blade angle PI' For maximum efficiency,
whirl component C
x2
is zero, in which case the absolute velocity at exit
is lIxial, and then C
2
=C
r2
Euler's turbine equation (Eq. (1.24)) gives
E = U(C
x1
- C
x2
)/g (J/N)
lIlId 1'111' zero whirl at exit
Ill1d llln'lilre
(123)
.'0
I I I
111 (,(j till 100
III 1t1lillqfl lil ,II 11".11 I'0Wfl
liil\Ure 3.17 Conlparison of hy-
dl'llnlil: turhine
Figure 3.18 Cavitation limits for reaction turbines
8
I I
I 2 4
N
"
)( 10-
1
(rcv)
1101
0,0\
1111:
111"1
II
I'"'I" II...
III
1,1 II 1',,'ncl'Illor is 10 be driven by a small Pelton wheel with a head of 91.5 mat inlet to the nozzle
Illill of 0.04 m
3
/s. The wheel rotates at 720rpm and the velocity coefficient of the
lillI/I,' hi O.IJH, If lhe efficiency of the wheel (based on the energy available at entry to the nozzle)
h flO p"r ccnt and the ratio of bucket speed tojet speed is 0.46, determine the wheel-to-jet-diameter
1111111 III Ihc centre-line of the buckets, and the speed of the wheel. What is the dimensionless
plllwr Ilpedfic speed of the wheel?
1,1 II reservoir with a height of 280 m is connected to the powerhouse of a hydroelectric plant
1111 1I111\h Ihree pipes each 2.5 km long and with friction factor 0.006, in which the head loss is
11111 III llxceed 34 m, It is a requirement that a total shaft output of 18 MW be developed, and
III nchicve lhis it is decided to install a number of single-jet Pelton wheels, each with a
din",nsillnless specific speed not exceeding 0.23 rad. The ratio of bucket speed to jet speed is
1I..l1l. while lhe wheel speed is to be 650 rpm. If the nozzles have a discharge coefficient of 0.94
Iliitl vclllcily coefficient of 0.96. and assuming that each wheel has an overall efficiency of 87
p"r I'Illlt, lind
(al Ihe number of Pelton wheels required,
(h) Ihe wheel diameter,
(cl lhe jet nozzle diameter and
(tI) lhe diameter of the supply pipes.
,1..1 The hllckets of a 'Pelton wheel ddlll,;1 Ihe jet through an angle of 170, while the
,,'llIlive' velocily of the waler is reduced hy pcr cent due to buckel friction, Calculate
III\' Ihcllrctical hydraulic efficiency from Ihel vdoclty for a bucket/jet speed ratio of
11..1'1, IllIder II gross head of IIOt) III Ihe whl','l ,(e'\'I'I"p" 1:!50 kw when Ihe loss of head due to
pip, frldion hetwcen 1111\ and 1I11ok lu,lIllil. TIll' hlll'klli cirdc dialllcter of Ihe wheel is
(3.25) U =[(Patm - Pvap)/pg - 2
2
]/H =(NPSH)/H
.1.5 CAVITATION IN TURBINES
The critical value of NPSH at wnich cavitation occurs is determined
from a test on a model or full-size machine in which P2 is decreased until
the minimum value at which cavitation begins or the emciency suddenly
decreases is found. Knowing 2
2
and H it is easy to compute the critical
value Ue, which is the value below which u, as given by Eq. (3.25), for any
other similar machine of the same homologous series must not fall.
Equation (3.25) shows that the maximum elevation of the turbine above
lhe tailrace is given by
Tllrbine cavitation occurs on the suction surfaces of the blades, at the runnel'
olltlel. where the static pressure is a minimum and the absolute velocity high,
All hough it has little if any effect on the performance of the turhine since it
Ol;curs after the runner, it should be avoided if at all possible. Referring again
10 (3.13), as the outlet velocity V
2
increases then P2 decreases and has its
lowest value when the vapour pressure is reached. At this pressure cavitation
hegins, and putting P3 equal to Patm and P2 equal to PVlIP' Eq. (3. t 3) becomes
[(Vi - - hd=(Palm - PVlIP)/NJ - 2
2
(3.24)
Division of Eq. (3.24) by the net head across the turbine gives the Thoma
cavitation parameter for the turbine:
2 2 =(Patm - p",p)/pg - ucH (3.26)
Jo:quation (3.26) indicates that, as the aet head is increased, so the turbine
elevation above the tailrace must be recreased. For an excessive net head,
might be negative, which implies Ihat excavation would be needed to
place the turbine below the level of the tailrace.
The dependence of U
e
on the dimensionless specific speed and thus on the
design of the turbine is shown in Fig. 3.18 where turbines of high N. huve
II high (Tc und must therefore be set bwer than those of smaller Nil' The
similarity relationships used for pump; in connection with cavitalion may
IIlso he IIsed for turbines.

1111 '11'1""'" lillli (\\1.
1
'" ili 11"11 j' II' I J <I 1'\iI Ip"d I ,11""'11 III 1
1
11' t I (1/
lit, 11,1" IIii' '1IIpid". 11111' I i III' ''', \ "1, IiI liill, Ii 111111,'1 .I/IIHlllldl fl"
11111\111111111 l'lli, I\"".\' ", I'J\\, I lit, 1"111' I IlItI'ill' IWill,:1 lit 1111' 111,.,111":.1
11111 l'allN off l'IIpidly III PIIIJ ""hi , IIlIt till I': IIplall (1II'1Iilll' IIIW II
11111\'11 nllilcl' I hall Ilw 1'1'11111'111 II lid, \" Ii 'II', H '.I III dol" 11111 Xillllllll dlidt'IIl'V,
'1'111: advalliage of adjustable IIladl'l: 1111 IIII' 1\ IIplall (IIrhille is showlI I;v
I'll/llparilll-\ il wilh the curve for a nXI,I .. propdler lurbine (also sllow;.
in "i!", 117).
tI ',11/111
S( )I,llTIONS
\
Il 1l,Il49 0,096 0.144 0.192 0,24
Il tUM 0,1 0,18 0.28 0.41
N"III'vl
P,
U =0.46C
1
= 0.46 x 41.52
=19,1 mls
u=roD where D is wheel diameter
2
x 19,1 x GO
'I.'ll ' ;l,'n:
Vdllcily coefficient
C
1
C=---
v (2gH)1/2
C
1
=0.98(2 x 9.81 x 91.5)1/2
=41.52m/s
P =pgQHf/o
= 10
3
X 9,81 x 0.04 x 91.5 x 0.8
Power developed =28,72kW
3.1 Overall efficiency
Power developed
'10 = Power available
Ihl 11"11'111111,, Ihl 11111101 "",.1, "I 1111'1111"1' hhllh! il' Ih" whirl cOlllp"nent at outlet is zero.
I' I C'1I1o'1l11l1o' Ilw Ih"1I11'111'II1 1"1\\'1'1 Illllpill il' till) whirl III inlet nnd outlet IS the same at
.llIllldll.
'II II hv,li IInlir t IIrhlnll Iii d":lll'.neoi 10 I'lln III lOO I'pm ulldel' a net head of 50 m and to
'f\lW III pllW"!'. The ollliid velocity nl' the nuid is expecled 1,0 be 10.4m/s and It
1'IIII'"woI 10 lIillllll\: Ihe runner OUIlet at a height or 6m above Ihe The
I" ,,,,"1111' j,1I'qllivlllclllln 1ll,3 mol'waler and the saturation pressure ofwaterts4 kPa. Determme
III) Whl:lhlll' Cllvitation is likely 10 occur, .'
(h) IIII' Iltllililll\ height of thc runner outlet if is to.be and r
10'1 IIII' III:IIIIIIISS belwcen runner outlel and lallrace when caVitation IS Just about to occu .
1'11110'111 "lIvilutilln parameters are given below:
I
900mm and there un' IWII 1"1", 'I'h,' 111I:;1i \, h.. Ii Iii I' 'II I II'IB, Hud Ih" 111",,'d ,,1'1'''lullllll
of the wheel and tlH' ,lIulIH'11'I' "I' th,' 1111"1,, ,I II!. ", ill,,1 Io\dlllul'" 1'1111'1,,119 III 0,'1 tlllll1l1 thlll
calculated above,
3.4 An electricity 1\1111"1'11111111 illSIIlIlIlII"1I W" II l'I,'Utl', 11111011\1' wllh II mlillionut sJlt.:ed of
1260rpm, The nlll IWlld lI<;roSS Ihe turhillll I; I 0,1111 II iii I II", V"llIlIlll Ilow ratc is 0,5 111 "/s, The
radius of the I'lIlIlItll' ill 0,11 Ill, the heighI of tl'" 1'111111"1 Vlliles III illlel is 0,03 m and the angle of
the inlet guide Vlliles is sci at 72 from the rlldlill ,1I1'1:1:lion, Assuming that the absolute now
velocity is mdilll III exil, lind the torque und power exerted by the water, Calculate
the hydraulic efficiency,
3.5 An inward Ilow rudial turbine has an overall efficiency of 74 per cent. The net head H
across the turnine is 5,5 m and the required power output is 125 kW. The runner tangential
velocity is 0,97(2(///)1/2 while the flow velocity is 0.4(2gH)I/2. If the speed of the runner is 230 rpm
with hydraulic losses accounting for 18 per cent of the energy available, calculate the inlet
guide vane exit angle, the inlet angle of the runner vane, the runner diameter at inlet and the
height of the runner al inlet. Assume that the discharge is radial.
3.6 A Francis turbine has a diameter of l.4m and rotates at 430 rpm. Water enters the
runner without shock with a flow velocity (C.> of 9.5m/s and leaves the runner without
whirl with an absolule velocity of 7m/s. The difference between the sum of the static
and potential heads at entrance to the runner and at the exit from the runner is 62 m. If the
turbine develops l2250kW and has a flow rate of 12m
3
/s of water when the net head is
115m, find
(a) the absolute velocity of the water al entry to the runner and the angle of the inlet
guide vanes,
(b) the entry angle of the runner blades and
(c) the head lost in the runner.
3.7 An inward flow vertical shaft reaction turbine runs at a speed of 375 rpm under an available
net total head from inlet flange to tailrace of 62 m. The external diameter of the runner is 1.5 m
and the dimensionless power specific speed based on the power transferred to the runner is
0.14rev. Water enters the runner without shock with a flow velocity of 9m/s and leaves the
runner without whirl with an absolute velocity of 7m/s. It discharges to the tailrace with a
velocity of 2.0m/s. The mean height of the runner entry plane is 2m above the tailrace level
while the entrance to the draft tube is 1.7 m above the tailrace, At entrance to the runner the
slatic pressure head is 35 m above atmospheric pressure, while at exit from the runner the static
pressure head is 2.2 m below atmospheric pressure. Assuming a hydraulic efficiency of 90 per
cent, find
(a) the runner blade entry angle,
(b) the head lost in the volute casing and guide vanes, in the runner and in the draft tube and
(c) the draft lube entry diameter.
.1.11 An axial flow hydraulic turbine has a net head of 23 m across it, and, when running at a
:lllCCd of 150rpm, develops 23 MW. The blade tip and hub diameters are 4,75 and 2.0 m
n'sllCclively. If the hydraulic efficiency is 93 per cent and the overall efficiency 85 per cent,
I'ukiliule Ihe inlet and outlet blade angles at the mean radius assuming axial flow at outlet.
.\,11 A Kaplan turbine operating under a net head of 20m develops 16000kW with an overall
dlkicncy of 80 per cent. The diameter of the runner is 4.2 m while the hub diameter is 2m and
IIH' dimensionless power specific speed is 3rad. If the hydraulic efficiency is 90 per cent, calculate
Ih,' Inlo't und exil angles of the runner blades at the tip and at the hub if the flow leaving the
IIllInN Is purely axial,
,Uti 1\11 II.\ial 0011' lurbine wilh lip and hub diamelers of 2,0 and 0,8 m respectively I'lltaies at
,"'II'Ilill, I'hl' IlIl'hilll' is Iitted with fixed slator blades upslream of tbe rotor 111101 III Ihn IIleun
,IIIlIIII'h11' 1111",(' III" sci ,,142" lnlhe direclion of hlade rotalion, Alsn, ul 111111111'1111 "lilllll'h',1' Ulltl
1111'11'11111'" 1'111111 111\' dm;.:!illil of hlutl\l rolalioll, Ihe hillde IIl1lde ul illll'lllI 1111"
(I') """1111111/',,, ,'''",llIIlIIlXilll vuln'ily nero!-': I Ill' :III1II1I1I1I,whllll:l till' 11o0l\' 1'110' 1111 \Vhi! h Ih,>
11111110' ,'I' Ii" I, kill t' ,d' IIll' I'llllll' hladl'll ill l,I'I'II'1
IIU HYDRAULIC AND COMPRESSIBLE FLOW TURBOMACHINES
Jet area
A =Q/C
1
0.04
---
41.52
=0.963 x 10-
3
m
2
and jet diameter
_(4A)I/2
d- -
11:
= (4 x X 10-
3
Y/2
=0.035m
Diameter ratio
D 0.507
-=--
d 0.035
= 14.5
Dimensionless power specific speed is given by Eg. (1.20):
Np
l
/
2
N =-'---
sp
= 720 x (28.72 X 10
3
)1/2 x ( 1 )5/4
60 10
3
9.81 x 91.5
= 0.0131 rev
= 0.0131 x 211: rad
Power specific speed = 0.082 rad
, Acheck with Fig. 1.10 shows this value of N
sp
to be within the range for a
Pelton wheel.
Exercise 3.2 (a) From Eg. (1.20) we get the power specific speed for each wheel
Npl/2
Nsp = pl/2(gH)5/4 where N is in rpm
Available head
H = Gross head - Head loss
= 280 - 34
=246m
Availllhk POW\)!' P\)I' WIIl.',1
HYDRAULIC TURBINES 111
p = (0.23 X 60)2(9.81 X 246)5/2 x 1000
211: x 650
= 3266kW
b f h 1
Total power output
Nurn er 0 w ee s = .
Power per machme
18 X 10
6
=
3.266 X 10
6
= 5.51 (say 6 machines)
(b) Nozzle velocity coefficient
C = C
1
v (2gH)I/2
Jet velocity
C
1
= 0.96(2 x 9.81 x 246)1/2
= 66.7m/s
Bucket speed
U = 0.46 x 66.7
= 30.7m/s
Wheel diameter
60 xU
D=--
1I:N
60 x 30.7
11: x 650
= 0.901 m
(c) Overall efficiency
Shaft power developed
'10 = Power available per wheel
18 x 10
6
Power per wheel = ---
0.87 x 6
l44H MW
Abo
I'\I\VI'I II VlIllllhk wheel' :O.S

(J
H =600-48
=552m
C = Ct _
v Theoretical velocity
C
1
=---=--
(2gH)1
/
2
.. Power outpul
Ilydrauhcefficiency =_. ,....
Energy available injcl
W
=

N"u.lc velocity coefficient
/\1 c'lllry to nozzle
Thlls
:1.3 l'igure 119 illustrates thc system with Ihe velocity t rilllll'kh.
1'1 "III 1':'1. (14)
1'11"11\ \.Ie, IlIkl vdlldly

"'4
Ii\t,

I-

u'
J
..
.. ,
1'/0"
where d is the nozzle diameter
rrd
2
(2gH)1
/
2 Q
=
4 Cd
d = ::yl2 x [(2 x 9.81 246)25 ]
Nozzle diameter d = 0.174 m
rrd
2
Q=vA=v-
4
d =4 x 0.006 X 2500v
2
2 x 9.81 x 34
=0.09v
2
m
C _ Actual nozzle discharge
d - Theoretical nozzle discharge
(d) Total discharge for six machines = 1.55 x 6
=9.3m
3
/s
Total discharge or flow per pipe = 9.3/3
=3.1m
3
/s
Thus
Discharge coefficient
and flow rate
But
The frictional head loss in the pipe is given by
h
r
= 4flv
2
2gd
where v is the flow velocity and d the pipe diameter. Whence
and substituting for v
and
d
5
= 1.4
d = 1.07m
C1 = 0.98(2 x 9.81 x 552)1
1
2
= 102m/s
Netw
WIlli (lIC\.,-U
2
C,2
/I{(tJ I Wd I (J W]. ells (IMO" IX) I}
r'l ' I (1)( 1 keos IXII
\
Wheel rotational speed
Hence for one nozzle
for C,d gives
W=Tw
4080 x 2n x 1260
60
kW
I'IlWI)1' ()xcrlcd
C
xl
= Crl tan 72
= 4.42 x 3.08
= 13.6m/s
T= - 300 x 13.6
= -4080Nm
Torque by water on runner = 4080 Nm.
1'11,' iukl urea A is
A,; 2nl' I hi where b1 is the inlet runner height
;'; 2n x 0.6 x 0.Q3
, ;0.113 m
Z
l\low nllw velocity C
r
I is given by
Crl = Q/A
0.5
=--
0.113
= 4.42m/s
I'ltifl is the torque exerted on the control volume (i.e. on the fluid). The
1111'11 exerled by the fluid is +4080 Nm and is the torque exerted on the
IlIllllel'.
'/' ,m(1' " . 1'1 C.d )
11,'1 IdlH:ll the flllw is radial at outlet, C"z = 0 and therefore
T= -mrlC
xl
=-pQrlC
xl
= - t0
3
x 0.5 X 0.6C
xl
= -300C
xl
Nm
where A is the nozzle area
m= 143.5 kg/s
where d is the nozzle diameter
d2 = 143.5 x 4
7t x 102 X 10
3
= 1.792 x 10- 3 m
2
d=42.3mm
where W
z
' ,kW,. Suhstituting 1'01' thl' liylllitolt;
W/m=0.47C
1
(C, 0.4'l('d(1 O.HHcos 170")
W=0.465mC;.
Theoretical hydraulic efficiency = 0.465/0.5
=0.93
Actual hydraulic efficiency = 0.9 x 0.93
=0.837
Wheel bucket speed
v = 0.47 x 102 m/s
N= 0.47 x 102 x 60
0.45 X 27t
= 1017rpm
A t I h d I
ffi' Actual power developed
c ua y rau IC e IClency = ----=-------=:....--
Energy available injet
0.837 = 1250 x 10
3
0. 5mCi
Substituting for CI and solving for the mass flow rate
1250 x 10
3
m-
- 0.837 x 0.5 x 102
2
= 287kg/s
Also from continuity
m=pClA
pC
l
7td
z
=
4
Exercise 3.4 The angular momentum equation may he us()d.
and hence
\
'1 I If'
III "I
/In,N
(,0
CIO x o.n x (2 x I).XI x 5.5)1/.\
n x 23()
Ill .''' III I',IV\' f hI' Itll\\k 11111',1,' III Wi ( 11<11"
nND
U1 =60
n x 430 x 1.4
= _ . _ ~
60
,-"' 31.5 m/s
Power output
'I :-:._--
" Power available
125 X 10
3
Q"" 0.74 X 10
3
x 9.81 x 5.5
=3.13m
3
/s
125 X 10
3
PIIQII : .:
0.74
3.13
"-
I - n x 0.836 x 0.4(2 x 9.81 x 5.5)1
1
2
lleight of runner ~ 0.287 m
1(111111,1 illid dilllllcler' . ().H36m
( )vl"I'lIl1 dlkicllcy
lill\Wf niwll III l'UIIIWI'
W III ( (I, ( '" (I.\l'.....l
K....rt'isl :l.() t lse the notation of Fig. 3.12.
(II) l(ullllcr tip speed
~ I
11"111 willi h I',
\\'11 II ", ( '" '
H1111111'1" 1l1'1'1'I1
C..,l = 0.423(2gH)1/2
UIC..,I
'1"=--
gH
0.82 =0.97(2gH)1/2C"'1
gH
Exercise 3.5 Figure 3.12 shows the velocity diagrams at inlet and outlet.
Hydraulic efficiency
PlIWCI'I1,\I"Il,d
11.. =
~ Power availahle
538 x 10
3
pgQH
538 x 10
3
= : ~
10
3
x 9.81 x 0.5 x 124
=0.885
= 88.5 per cent
tan PI =Crt/W..,I
Hydraulic elliciellcy
:=: O.73J
0.4
=-::-:--:-:----:--::-:::c
0.423 - 0.97
Power given to runner
'1" =--------
Power available
m(UIC..,1 - U
2
C..,2)
=
pgQH
But since the flow is radial at outlet, C..,2 is zero and mequals pQ. Therefore
whence
Now
tan (Xl = Crt/C..,I
= 0.4/0.423
from which inlet guide vane angle
(Xl = 43.4
0
113 HYDRAULIC AND COMPRESSIBLE FLOW TURBOMACHINES
HYDRAULIC TURBINES 119
\
0.1) x I).X I x 62

('" I

0.9 x 9.81 x 62
C"l=-----
VI
lienee loss of head in the runner
(PI +(2
1
_ 2
2
) = 62m
(
33.8
2
_72) (31.5 x 32.4)
Head loss in runner =62 + 2 x 9.81 - 9.81
- 13.69m
7I:ND
U
1
=--
60
n x 375 x 1.5
=
60
:'" 29.45 m/s

111111 ('x2 =O. Hence
":xcrcise 3.7 (a) From Eq. (3.21) the hydraulic efficiency is given by
Power transferred to runner
'7H = Power available
Power transferred to runner =pgQH'7H
=W'7H
Illli from Euler's turbine equation (Eq. (1.24))
W V
1
C
X1
- V
2
C
X2
E =- =--=--=-='------=---"'=
mg 9
1111\
(/
V1C.<1
..
w
111(/
9.5
=----
32.4 - 31.5
= 10.55
(b)
C =(C
2
+C
2
)1
/
2
1 ,1 xl
= (9.5
2
+32.4
2
)1/
2
=33.8m/s
Runner blade entry angle PI = 84.6
0
=
32.4
=16.3
0
(c) Total head across runner
= Energy (head) transferred to runner +Head lost in runner
But ex2 = 0 since there is zero whirl at outlet. Hence
C
X1
= 12250 X 10
3
x 60
10
3
x 12 x 71: x 1.4 x 430
= 32.4m/s
Guide vane angle
Inlet velocity.
whence
At inlet
At outlet
Now for zero whirl at outlet
I I
I
I
i
I 1
I
1 I
I ,
The velocity triangle is tIWI'du... IHI 1"111\\111 ill 1..'0 wilh II, . (.\ I'
W" II, (',\'I
= 29.45 ' ,. I X.5X
= 1O.86m/s
tan (PI - 90) = W
x1
/C
r1
10.86
=--
9
= 1.21 m/s
PI - 90 = 50.4
Entry angle
(b) (i) Fo: the volute casing and guide vane loss, apply the stead flow
energy equatIOn between points 0 and 1: y
Po PI V
2
-+-+ZO=_+_1+Z +h
pg 2g pg 2g 1 loss, 1
Now VI = C
I
and
q = +C;I
= 18,58
2
+9
2
= 426.2 m
2
/ S2
',b 1111111111' VlIl1l1'rl
(._ 1'1,' )
\3
b
I .1. 'IHI I ' 11',,,,,,,,1
h""s.1 =: 62
Ikal! losl incasing =3.27m
1111 !"til' IlIss in Ihe runner, apply the steady flow energy equatilln
III hlil"ll \u,illts I alllJ 2:
/', 1'.' 1" V
2

I I I ZI : + + Z2 + hlos
s
2 + Work (head) given to runner
/',1 .',/ 1'1/ '
W UtCxl
_.
1111/ 1/
29.45 x 18.58
.-
9.81
55.8m
/ II' II 101'11
I, ,(35 + +2) _ (_ 2.2 + 7
2
+1.7) - 55.8
I",,, /, 2 x 9.81 2 x 9.81
5K.72 - 2.0 - 55.8
R\Inner head loss =0.92 m of water
I,
I'
18.58
29.45
9
{11I1 Applying the steady flow energy equation between points 2 and :I:
P2 + + 2 =P3 + V; + 2 + h
pg 2g 2 pg 2g 3 1018,3
lhlll' \ hi atmospheric pressure (zero gauge) and 2 3 is the datum level, WIWIIII'
h =2.0 - (0 + 2.0
2
+0)
1088,3 2 x 9.81
=2.0-0.204
1Icad loss in draft tube =1.8 m

Figure 3.20 Velocity triangle at inlet
(rl I>imcnsionles's power specific speed from Eq. (1.20) is
Npl 12
N = '
"" I' 1/2(1/
\
__ "."1--' rLUW rUKUUMACHINES
HYDRAULIC TURBINES 123
p
1
/2= 0.14 X (10
3
)1/2 X (9.81 X 62)5
1
4 X 60
375
4578 X 10
3
Q= 10
3
X 9.81 X 62
= 7.53m
3
/s
FI
Flow rate
owarea = -----
Flow velocity
Thus
Flow rate
=2140
P=4578kW
0.9 = 4578 X 10
3
pgQH
(this is the power delivered to the runner)
Exercise 3.8 Mean diameter
d =D+d
m 2
4.75 +2
=
2
= 3.375m
Overall efficiency
Power developed
110 = P '1 bl
oweraval a e
. 23 X 10
6
Avallable Jower = ---
. 0.85
=27MW
Q
=- since C
2
= C,2
C
2
and at exit from the runner the flow area may be written in terms ofthe runner
exit diameter and runner height b
2
:
1td
z
b
2
=Q/C
z
where d
z
is the draft tube entry diameter. Now the runner height at entry b
l
is
given by
7.53
1tx1.5x9
=0.178m
Also
b
l
b
z
=2+--1.7
2
= 2 +0.089 -1.7
=0.389m
Substituting for b
z
we get
d _ 7.53
2 - 1t X 0.389 X 7
Draft tube diameter = 0.88 m
- .
Also
Available )ower = pgQH
27 x 10
6
=10
3
x 9.81 x 23Q
Whence flow rate
Rotor speed at mean diametel
u =1tNdm
m 60
1t X 150 x 3.375
=---,.---
60
= 26.5m/s
Power given to lunner = Power available x 11H
= 27 x 10
6
X 0 93
=25.11 MW
11111 theoretical power given tc runner is from Eq. (1.24)
W= pQUmC.
d
(Cx2 =0)
25,11 x to
e
,:=: 10' X 119.7 X 26.5C
xl
X lOt>
( '.\ I
10\ .", 119,9 X 2(,5
'/.lIlli/I,
---
where N is in rad/s
124 HYDRAULIC AND COMPRESSIBLE FLOW TURBOMACHINES
Axial velocity
G = Qx4
o 1I:(D2 _ d
2
)
119.7 x 4
11:(4.75
2
_ 2
2
)
= 8.21 m/s
From the inlet velocity triangle
tan (180 - /3d = Co
Vrn -C"1
8.21
=---
26.5 -7.9
Inlet blade angle /31 = 156.2
At outlet
tan /32 = CoIW"2
But W"2 equals Vrn since C"2 is zero. Hence
/3
8.21
tan 2=-
26.5
Outlet blade angle /32 = 17.2
Exercise 3.9 Using Eq. (1.20) for power specific speed,
Npl/2
N =----:--::-----::-
sp pI / 2(gH)5/4
N = 3 x ( 10
3
)1
/
2(9.81 X 20)5/4
16000 X 10
3
= 17.41 rad/s
17.41 x60
= 211: rpm
= 166.3 rpm
Overall efficiency
Power developed
'10 = P '1 bl
oweraval a e
HYDRAULIC TURBINES 125
Therefore
. 16000 X 10
3
Avallable power = ----
0.8
= 20 000 kW
Also
Available power = pgQH
Therefore
20000 X 10
3
Q= 10
3
x 9.81 x 20
= 101.9m
3
/s
Power given to impeller = Power available x '1H
= 20000 X 10
3
x 0.9
= 18000 x 10
3
kW
Now from Eq. (1.24) the power transferred per unit mass flow is
Wlm = V 1C"1 - V2C"2
lind putting C"2 = 0 since at exit flow is purely axial, and writing VI in terms
or the radius at the blade tip, i.e. at 2.1 m,
~ r
18000 x 10
3
= 17.41 x 2.1 x 10
3
x 101.9 X C"1
C"1 =4.8m/s
Mean flow velocity
Co = 11:(;2~ :2) where D and d are tip and hub diameters
101.9 x 4
11:(4.2
2
_ 2
2
)
=9.51 m/s
1111I1Il Fig. 3.16
W"1 = U - C"1 at the blade tip
=(17.41 x 2.1)-4.8
=31.8 m/s
nud
lun (IHO" <c/I tl' -, C"IW'1
')51
,\ t.H
At r = 2.1 m
Inlet angle III 16.14"
.' '"nl'lt,tlll (II) TIll' nllw ml!" ir. 1'1111'1111111.1 III lIlt IIltilll 111111 1/11
II ""ltv lllllll,'kr: 1I11'i". ,1.111 lin
l\kllll
and .
J)ld
2
2 +0.8
=
2
dill'
Ii
:. : 18.33 m!s
=104m
18.33
=----
1.11 +1.6
=6.76m!s
nNd
rn
:--
60
n x 250 x 1.4
=:----
60
C"n(D
2
- d
2
)
Q= - since C" is constunt
4
6. 76 X n(2
2
- 0.8
2
)
=-
4
=17.84m
3
js
C __ 18.33
,,- Cot 42 +cot32
(lIll,'rom the outlet velocity triangle
tanP2 = C,iUm
6.76
=
18.33
II "Ill llw inlet velocity triangle
Um =C,,[cot (Xl +cot (180 - PdJ
-l( 9.51 )
P2 =tan 17.41
W
x2
=U
=17.41 m!s
W
X1
=17.41-(4.8 x 2.1)
=7.33m!s
(180 - Pd =tan-
l

__1(9.51)
- tan 7.33
Inlet angle PI =127.6
Outlet angle P2 =28.6
tanP2 = C,,!W
x2
9.51
=36.6
At the hub, r = 1m
At r = 2.1 m
Wx2 =U (since flow is axial at exit)
=17.41 x 2.1
= 36.6mjs
At r= 2.1 m
Outlet angle P2 =14.so
Whence
At r= 1m
At r= 1m
Whence
At r= 1m
The point to note in this problem is that we have assllllwd the energy
transfer across the annulus to remain constant lind Ihlll 1/11' axial now
velocity remains constant.
128 HYDRAULIC AND COMPRESSIBLE FLOW TURBOMACHINES
HYDRAULIC TURBINES 129
(c) The theoretical power is calculated by determining the energy transfer
through an annulus of thickness and integrating between the hub and tip
radii for the total theoretical power.
From Eq. (1.24)
W= m(UC
X1
- UC
x2
)
But CX2 is zero and CXl is constant and writing mand U as functions of the
radius we get for an annulus of thickness dr:
(
2XNr)
dW= pC
a
(2nrdr) 6() C
x1
Integrating
w=Pc
a
n
2
NCX1 !1 2d
15 r r
0.4
= 10
3
X 6.76 X x
2
x250 x6.76 xcot 42 [r
3
Jl
15 3 0.4
= 8348(0.333 - 0.0213) 10
3
Theoretical power =2602 kW
If the power is calculated at the mean diameter
W=mUmC
xl
=10
3
x 17.84 x 18.33 x 6.76 x cot 42
=2455kW
The difference is 6 per cent.
11.5
0.4
,
,.
I'
r1lu
t;,
I'

t'.
,.
l
, ,
11.1

n 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25
Dimensionless specific speed, N. (rev)
. 11';'11'(' 3.21 Critical cavitation parameter
11\1' dWlracteristics are plotted in Fig. 3.21 and it is seen that cavitation wiJI
11
1
"11 r.
lh) The limiting height above the tailrace for no cavitation is when
i', 0.\. Solving for 2
2
Exercise 3.11 (a) Dimensionless power specific speed is given by Eq. (1.20)
Np
1
/
2
N = --:-c-::----
sp p1/2(gH)5/4
300(2 X10
6
)1/2 1
= 60 l"()3 (9.81 X 50)51
4
=0.0969 rev
(negligible)
(datum)
f'J =Palm
V.I:-:: 0
i': ,\ :()
IIUI
Z2 =10.3 - 0.408 - 5
=4.89m
((.) Using the notation of Fig. 3.11 between sections 2 and 3:
f" PJ V;
+ .,. +2
2
=-- + -- +2
3
+Losses
I'll 20 pg 2g
4 X 10
3
50 x 0.1 =to.3 - J - 2
2
9.81 x 10
1.\'111'11 Ii miting height
611 SO
4 X 10.
1
)
10.
1
), I).K I.
q = [ (Palm Pvap) - 2
2
]1H
C" r(IOJ
From Eq. (3.25)
lI,tl'l'IK
130 HYDRAULIC AND COMPRESSIBLE FLOW TURBOMACHINES
Therefore the head lost in the draft tube is
h
d
(Pva
p
- Palm) +2
2
+
pg 2g
At the limit ofcavitation 2 2 = 4.89 mand substituting into the above equation
4 x 10
3
10.4
2
hd = 10
3
98 - 10.3 +4.89 +--
x . 1 2 x 9.81
= 0.408 - 10.3 +4.89 +5.51
Head loss h
d
= 0.511 m
CHAPTER
FOUR
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS AND FANS
.", INTRODUCTION
Illlring the Second World War, great progress was made in the development
or gas turbines using the centrifugal compressor. This followed from the need
fill' /ws turbines to be supplied with large amounts of high-pressure air, and the
compressor became a natural choice as it had previously been
II'Nt'arched for use in small high-speed internal combustion engines. Although
llw centrifugal compressor has been superseded by the axial flow compressor
1Iljd aimaft engines, it is useful where a short overall engine length is required
Hwl where it is likely that deposits will be formed in the air passages,
IU'calise or the relatively short passage length, loss of performance due to blIi1d,
III' Ill' deposits will not be as great as in the axial compressor. The centrifufr.nl
I ilil II lles:;or is mainly found in turbochargers, where it is placed on th0 S:iUW
"It,dI :IS :111 inward flow radial gas turbine, which is driven by engine exhauNI
1'1';;':: (Fil' Pressure ratios of4: 1are typical in a single stage, and of
I lnre possihle if exotic materials are used for impeller manufacture. The be:>l
are 3-4 per cent below those obtainable from an axial fl.1W
I designed for the same duty. However, at very low mass flow ratc/,
I.hl nxiaillow l:ompressor efficiency drops off rapidly. It is also difficult to htlld
IIIl rllquired for small axial now blading, and manufacture of thi,:
,Pld 11l11\lllc.:itlr blades becomes more expensive. If the density ratio .lcr.)s:,
Illl "1lIl\ll",';UI is less than about 1.05, the term 'fan' is used to describe tIlt'
1I111d1U\I III Iltlll case the fluid is treated as being incompressible;
1"011'11','.11,10 npw equations lllust be used. The term 'hlower' is often used in
I d.I" "I '1.111'
pI
J".
Actual W
2
('
I
Eye tip or shroud radius. R
-- - No slip
--- With slip
"",,,,,,rJ
til _Ilk, It
,. diUtlllttiifl_....
Hub radius. r __--::'ll
Impeller
Hub } Eyc
........ Shroud
Vaneless

132 HVDRAULIC AND FLOW TURllOMACIIINK<;
4.1.1 Elements of the Cen!rifugal Compressor
The elements of a centrifugal compressor are similar to those of a hydraulic
pump, with some important dirrerences, and these are illustrated in Fig. 4.1.
The gas enters the compressor at the eye in an axial direction with
absolute velocity CI' and moves intQ the inducer section, which can be
separate from or be a part of the blades. The inducer scction transfers the gas
onto the blades, and enables it to move smoothly into the radial direction.
Energy is imparted to the gas by the rotating blades, thereby increasing its
static pressure as it moves from radius r
t
to,.z (Fig. 4.2), and the gas moves orr
the blades with absolute velocity C
z
. It should be noted that the blades are
radial, and since it is conventional to measure blade angles from the radial
direction in centrifugal compressors, the blade angle {/z is zero, while the
relative velocity vector W
z
is at angle {1'z because of slip. Ideally, the
component C,z equals U2' but it is reduced due to slip. The relative velocity
vector WI at the inlct is obtained by subtracting UI from CI' Pre-whirl may be
given to the gas at inlet, but this will be in a later section. The Stanitz
(4.5)
(4,4)
(4,\)
11
0
+ =hi +Cfj2
hOI =:: hI + CIl2
no shaft work has been done and assuming adiabatic steud"
Casing
equation along a streamline may be written as
Total enthalpy h
o
= h +C
2
/2 "'" Constant
for the fluid that is being drawn from the atmosphere into the
the total enthalpy is
11
00
= h
o
+C5/2
Ih" lInpclh\1 t hv Poll'; elllefs a vanck:s,; space where it moves
clllcllllg the difluscr, in whidl the static pressure is
llKln.\'K'IIL JI\l.' dcaranu: Iwt wc(m the impeller blades and inner walls of
I'll) kept It'O small as possible to reduce leakage and in some
thl'llhdvcs arc shrouded. Since we are dealing with a gas and
in 11'HlIH::raturc and pressure causes the density to change, it is
III examine the performance of the machine in terms of the
properties of the gas, and this is done through the MollieI'
403,
at section I is
Impeller
section I to 2 the nuid moves through the impeller where work is dcmc
II to increasc its static prcssurc from P1 to P2' Writing the work done per
mass on the Guidin terms of enthalpy we get
lV/ill =11 02 - hOI
;:; U
Z
C
x2
- UICxl
after substituting for h
o
'
I =iii +Cil2 - Ulex1 =1/ 2 + n/2 U2Cx2
(1 II
H 'j
F,,,
C'

2
It"o '" h"l
hilt"" 11":1
o
By Euler's pump equation -(Eq. (/.2511 WIt h01l1 slip,
E U2C,,)1I
Although Eg. (4. /l has hecll modified by the slip fador to giw Lq (>I)L
a,UVa is still thc theoretical work done on the air, since slip will be pte,.cnt
even if the fluid is frictionless. In a real fluid, some of the power supplied by IIII'
impeller is lIsed in overcoming losses that have a braking effed on the ail
conveyed by the vanes, and these include windage, disc friction tInd Glsing
friction. The total power per unit weight of now is therefore modified by Ii
power input factor ' ...hich typically takes values between l.(l35 and 1.040,
and with slip,
Entropy. .I'
4.3 Mollwr chart for a ccntnfLlg,tI comprC$sor
I
,1HU ,,-Ill \1011
Ub,l<' lil' ,,!,,'nl (mi';)
iH"'O:' \tHl'd"! lip 'I,,'!',I (l1'>l1I 1'1 H I'll
I
H!II
a,,, J41) 111/"
l' 1..1
0. I),'):!
1.04
Equation (4.11) can he written in terms oflluid properties and now angles
CENTRIFUGAL COM"RESSORS Al"D I-ANS 137
The slip factor should be as high as possible since it limits the energy
transfer to the fluid even under isentropic conditions and it is seen from the
velocity diagrams that C.
t2
approaches U2 as the slip factor is increased, The
slip factor may be increased by increasing the number of vanes hut this
increases the solidity at theimpellereyc, resulting in a decrease in the flow area
at inlet. For the same mass llow rate. the now velocity ell at inlet must therefore
he increased and this increases the loss due to friction. Acompromise is usually
reached, slip factors of about 0.9 being typical for a compressor with 1921
vanes.
While it may seem that a high value of power input factor til is dCi'lirablc, it
found that the rate of decrease of isentropic efficiency with increase in l/J
any apparent advantage, so the ideal should be to Imve a power input
factor of unity.
The pressuremtio increases with the impeller tip speed but material
III renl.th considerations preclude this being increai'lcd indefinitely. Centrifugal
III are proportional to the square of the tip speed and, for a light aUoy
tip speeds arc limited to about 46001/5. This gives a pressurc ratio ()f
4: I. Pressure ratios of 7: 1are possible if materials such as titanium are
(4,9)
(ill II
I'll d.' J.. I I,'L II
( ), I" 11'; II
[II '1,( / 11,1
II III, Illit, I!
BUl
h(J2 "/zOJ .'" t{1rr,Ui (J/kg)
After writing C" To in place of /ZO. we get that the work input is given by
1'02 'r;l\ = (4.8)
where C
p
is the mean spedlk: heat over this temperature range. Also. since no
work is done in the diffuser, 11
02
= ll
u3
, and Eq. (4.8) occomcs
With reference to Figs tA and 4.3, a compressor ovcrall lotal-to-tot:ll
isentropic efficiency 'Ie may he defined as
Total isentropic enthalpy rise between inlet and outlet
'ie = '------'-',.,-,." .. ,.. .-,"... - .. ------..,...... ,..
Actual enthalpy fiSC between same total pressure linlits
=(11
03
," - 11(1)/(1'0:1 - hOI) (4,101
where lhe subscript '5S' represents the end stale on the tofal hllV 1'" \
when the process is isenlropic. Thus
'Ie =(Tn.h ,
== To 1(1'().1,J/;) I 1)/('1;,\1;" )
where I jg l\ constant throughout the impeller. In general
1= 11 + C?/2 - lofer
=II +(C; +C,;)/2 - UC',\
= II +(W
2
- W; + - UC"
=II + LW
2
-(U - cy + C;]/2 - (lex
.", II + W
2
/2 U
2
/2 C;/2 + UC" - VC" + (:;'/2
=hI W
2
/2 V
2
/2
=h
o
.,,, U
2
/2 (4.6)
where 1l(],<o1 is the total enthalpy bascd on the relati YC velocity oflhe fluid. Thus
11 2 -Ill = - Uf)/2 +(Wy - (4.7)
since II =1
2
, In Eq, (4.7) the main contribution to the static enthalpy rise is
from the term - Uf)/2.
tn preliminary design calculations it is usual to assume c.'l =0, although
is not always the case, whencc from Eg. (4.3) the work dOl1c on the fluid
lIllIt mass becomes
136 HYDRAULIC AI'D COMI'lll'SSllll.l' FLOW TCRUOMAClllNFS
(4.14)
(4. I5)
l4,16}
'I. Ii)
and
'11 nH
2
(1 ,,2/R
2
)
nH2/\
t 1 i (i'
SIlI"i!illHlon for AI into 1:-:'1.(4.14) gives
11/ /',lrU'!kC
1
Jllllfn/,(\/m
z
(b)
IiIlHH'lIl1i:1I vl'!ocily of the impeller at the shroud. mdius
\{i'lIlranging gives
U;' (' 1
11','(;.\11 . 1111(1'0'; /1\)
ClJNTRlJIlJGAI. COMPRESSORS ANI) FANS 139
triangles for (a) large and (bl small inlet areas
diameter is small, the blade speed is small but the axial velocity
and the velocity diagram of Fig.. 4.5b may be drawn,
takes place through the annulus formed by the shroud
tlil,' hub radius ,.. For uniform axial now into the eye
m=P1A1C1
lllkl velocilY triangle (Fig. 4.5),
u,
extreme cases, the relative velocity vector WI is high but it
1Ilinimum value when moving from one extreme to anotbcr, If
.""",,1, .. ';11\1 can be determined, Mach-number effects can be avoided
(4,
and
then
I. If the eye tip diulllclcr is I"rp,l', t.lwullOIlI (nil' 'II Illi Yn m'ndn
Ve!odlY <'I is low :l1ld till' blillk '.pc.ed I'. IIlVh, l!'iHlfllllt' iti II!!,
diagralll of hI'.. \ \1
or
4.1.4 Diffuser
4.2 INLET VELOCITY LIMITATIONS
The change of pressure ratio with blade tip speed is shown in Fig. 4.4 for
various isentropic efficiencies.
The stagnation temperature of the gas at outlet from the diffuser should haw'
as small a kinetic energy term as possible. as this eases the problem (If
combustion chamber design. Typical compressor outlet velocities arc of
order of90 m/s. The diffusion process is carried out in a diffuser as described
Sees 2.5.2 and 2.5.3, some diffusion also taking place in the vanclcss
between the impeller tip and diffuser vanes. The flow theory described in
sections is applicable here. The maximum included angle of the vaned
passage is about 11", any increase in this angle leading to a loss of eltlCll'nn'
through boundary-layer separation on the passage walls. It should also
remembered that any change from the design mass flow rate and presslll'c
will change the smooth now direction into the diffuser passage and
therefore also result in a loss of efficiency, This may be rectified by lit
diffuser vanes.
For adiabatic deceleration of the lluid from absolute velocity (' .. In
with a corresponding increase of static pressure from /12 to p.\,
h
02
=11
03
as follows: since
138 HYDRAULIC AND COMPRFSSllILE FLOW TURnO.\1;\CH1NFS
Mach-number considcrutions at tbe eye of a centrifugal
relative velocity WI n very sensitive value as far as COmpfC'i'" If pelll!l
concerncd. Should the Mach number at entry to the impelici hI'
unity, then s!wek waves will form, wilh alliheir
we have a uniform absolulC velocity CI with zero wl1ld ({' ,I 01,11
centrifugal compressor. Two cases may Ill' hll IIl1' '."IiW
rate, both cases being cxtrc.m:s.
Ihl
L\
C
/,tl

Ii \ ''"''
I \
\ I
\
\
\
\ I
\ 1
\,
\j
,
1
('
I
MACH NUMUER IN THJj: DIFFUSER
AND INLET GUIDE VANF.S
Mach numhcr of the fluid leaving thc impeller may well he in
01 I llowevcr. it 1m::; been found that as long as the radial now vclocity
I hen no loss in efficiency is caused by the formation or shock
CENTRIFUGAL COMI'RliSSORS .... SD h\NS 141
Itluld it not be possible to restrict the Mach number at inlet to an acceptahle
He as described in Sec. 4.2, it may be achieved by placing guide vanes at the
t Figure 4,7 clearly shows that the inlet guide vanes impart a whirl
lPOlWllt C.
d
to the fluid, thus reducing W
l
to an a<.:ceptablc value.
the work capacity is reduced since C.
d
is no longer zero. It is !lot
to impart pre-whirl down to the hub, as, in this region, the lluid is
\-"hen: lll;af sonic conditions due to the lower blade speed. The pre-whirl is
Horl: gradually n:duccd to zero by twisting the inlet guide vanes.
the righHtand side of Fq. (4.22) may be plotted and the
Illfl;.;iltlUm value determined along with the corresponding blade angle at
the maximum occurs. This maximum value may then be equated to the
IIJI'I'l1ll1nO side of Eq. (4,22) and the maximum mass now mle determined.
,.,. """1 L' 4.6 shows Eq. (4.22) plotted for air at P(ll =101.3 kPa and T
Ol
=288 K
it is seen that the blade angle is almost constant at 60'" for maximum
flow. Therefore, by specifying the relative Mach number IVI1.'",' the
value of mass !low may be calculated. Mach numbers arc
AI"II '"II), restrictcd to about 0.8 to ensure there is no shock-wave formation.
(4.18)
I
Ii/I
PIIIT, =(PotlTod[1 ,,'1,. U[1
:::: (Pol/Tod[l -I- (y.- I)A'lT/2r Iii; II
()
0.05
and
Then
Now
140 HYDRAUIJC ANI) ('OMI'IUi5SIULii FLOW TUIUl()MACHrNI'S
0.25 _.- .
e,l =0
y 1.4
J! [ "" f!1/Wl'l
+(;'-l)Mi!2r
li1
i' 1) (4.191
Thcref()f'c substituting for PI from Eq. (4.l <J) into Eq. (4.16),
tnw2RTtlllnkl'oi = {l1)(cosI1d/[1 +(1'-1)MT/2r
l
()'-1l (4.20)
Writing the relative Ma<.:h number based on the rclntive velocity Wt, then
ltul)
l
R7'otlnkpOt:::: Mf.felaNsin2/lt)(cosfJd/[1 +(I' l)Mi/2]11(1'-1l (4.211
From Eq. (4.18), (Jodo, = [I + - I)Mr/2]li2 since (/:::: (yUT)IO and ,lih'l
substituting for at in Eq. (4.21) and putting M
1
:= Ml ...1COS!311
(mw
2
}j[nk)!poj (yRT
o1
)1/2]
:::: An.td(sin
2
IJ I )(cos /1, )/[1 +('l! - 1 tl/2] lllr 1)1 3/2 (4..1\1
It should be remembered that Eq, (4.22) is applied at the shroud radius 1\
and consequently {II is also the blade angle at radius R since it is at this radul,<
that the maximum \'Hluc of relative velocity onto the hlade will ocelli'.
Therefore, for a gas of known inlet stagnation conditi.ons (e.g. IllI'
M
'"
i 0.15
d-
w
...
.:;>
VI 0,10
:I:
IX
',fall is II separate phenomenon, which may lead to surging but C,lll
I'll It-; own in a slablc operating condition, Figure 4.9 illustrates the <lil'
10(1<; in a !lumber of blade passages,
Ilhflllirll. Stull
WI: hav\' a cornpn:ssol' operating at point 3 on the negative slope of
hh',hlic(fiig. 4.R). Areduction in mass now due, suy, to a momentary
iU\\'will tallse an increase in the delivery pressure PI)), which will tend to
Itl\l' lllW;s now to point 3, and this negative slope rcpresents a region of
I t is self-correcting. If the flow rate drops to a point
t.o 6 on the positive t-l!ope of the characteristics, the delivery
if/.',,\ will cont.inue to decrease, causing a further drop in mass flow and
II(-J . hop in flll.\' and so on until point I is reached, where the mass now is
Till' flnw mllY even become ncgative through thc compressor. When
pn,sslIl'l: 1'0.\ has reduced itself sufficiently due to the reduced flow
\Ill' nnw becomes established once again and the compressor
fIlii) Lilli it till' rllstricled mass flow is again reached, when prllt-lSUrC
,Hili. 011(1,' again takes plaee_ The pressure therefore surges back and forth
t.1I1,,'abll' lilshion, which, if seVere enough, l:ould lead to failure of parts of
IHtPlC'i!;OI. Ikcause of the reduction of mass flow, lhe axial velocity C"
IH'TVc IN reduced and therefore the relative now angle onto the blade fj 1 is
lil'll Till: air now onto the blade will no longer be tangentiaL Surging
tn \loginatc in difl'uscr passages where frictional eITccts or the fluid next
4\'i'"\' !,ulfm:cs retard the flow. Indeed, flow may well be in reverse from
\1111\1" to the next. The likelihood of surging can be redllccd by
he number of dilTuser vanes an odd-numher multiple of the impeller
III till., way a pair of diITuser passages will be supplh:d with air from un
fhiHllbn of valles and pressure fluctuations are more likely to be evened
illli\lljd ,Iw circlImference thHn if exact multiples of dilTuscr vanes are
!hlyr'd
".11,;,,111'.1, ;Ilthpugh Ih.. Inlllple"-'''l ellll:I\'IlI,')' at tillS
111'.1 bdow Ih,- maXllIllllll dhcinwy. AInri her Incrcase in III ass !low
10 pllilll :{, IIII.' prl'ssun,' tHIs dropped slig.htly from lhe
\al\le hilt Ilw dliciencv is flOW a maximulll. This Ii') likely to be the
lIow la\(' r;;tio. A r\llther increase in mass flow Sl".'CS the
i'\Il\'t' tU':l't:asing unlil it is almost vertical at point 4 where the
t" 1\'111 Thl'ol'ctit:ally, point 4 would be reached when all the input
III inlernal friction, However, the curve just
ltot I\hlainahle prnctkally and some of the reasons for this are now
, <'III JIll",,, 1 Fil.:urI.' ,til The
(7(lmprL'SSlH
5
l__
waves. In addition, prnvidnl \'( 'W;(illtl ;\ IIVIlIar 1l1111110nf lllll willi III' ,fir,n
is maintained in the vilnckss splice ht'lwn:n illlpdkr tip alld dll1n:.\'I, llil'li
supersonic diffusion call take plat:c in the vaIll: less space. Thi:i n'dllct':i tlli'
Mach number at inlet to tfie diffuser vanes to about O.X. II igh /\'Iadl lllllllhl'l"
at inlet 10 the dilrllscr vanes will also cause high 'II Ilw ::Ingllatlull
points on the diffuser vane tips, which leads to a vnriatlon of slatk
around the circumference of the diffuser. This pressure variation is t r:l1lsrnil k"
Tll<I,inlly across the VandeR$ space and can cause cyclic loading of t he illipdb,
which may lend to early ratigue failure.
4.5 CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR CHAUACTERISTI('
The characteristics of compressible now machines are usually (kscribed in
terms of the groups of variables derived in Eq. (1.14). The characteristics ;(L('
given as a series ofcurves of PO:,/POI plotted against the mass Ilow pnrarnth'!
m1'k?/pot for fixed speed intervals of This might be dOllt hv
controlling the now through a valve situated downstream of the
outlet flange.
An idealized fixed-speed characteristic is shown in Fig. 4.8, III disClIS..;illl',
the i\hapc of this curve. much of what will be said will also apply to the aXiid
flow compressor characteristics of Sec. 5.10.
Consider a centrifugal compressor delivering through a flow control valve
situated after the diffuser, If the valve is fully closed, a ccrtain pressure rali"
from inlet across to the diITuscr outlet will be developed, and this is shown ;\1
point 1in Fig. 4.8. This pressure mtio ii') due solely to the vanes moving the 1111
about in the impeller, As the now control valve is opened, and air flo".... heglll",
the difl'usercontributcs to the pressure ratio, <lnd al point 2 the maxifllllill
CENTHU'I!Gt\1. COMPRESSORS AND FANS 145
(4,24)
(4.25)
(4.26)
mjIi ={YPo2PoZ [2/(y + l)](Y+ lli(}' - I J} 112 (4.28)
r.qs (4.23), (4.27) and (4.28) refer to the flow areas at the respective
t he overall pressure ratio and efficiency plotted
rbed speed intcrvals of Nrn't. It is usual to transfer constant
unlo the l.'orresponding constant-speed curves of the pressure
11',,,,'11"1'1<.1 H',", and then join those points together to form constant
III rs.
lhal at all speeds the range of mass now over which the
wiJI operate before surging or choking occurs is quite
Ih(' margin decreases as the speed increases. The onset of surge
llIcn'JI'''lI'''n. high mass l10ws as the speed increases, while the locus of
i;, ealbl the surge line. Maximum elliciency is seen to Qccur
l/it 'aHgl' point, making this type of compressor relatively
1I1li',', /low dWl1gcs liS far asinslability is concerned, The limit of
oW I', l!'.uallv scI hvdloking in rhe ill1pdlcr, while lhcsurgc limit of
'lUll till!" '11i.... , it Curve
fldpo, =(T1/To])1{('I l)
from m "'" paA
Ill/A ={JOlllOl(T
l
I1
0l
t"+ l)i2(}" 1)
. Substituting from Eq. (4.26) and rearranging gives
(l
u1
ao
1
[2(1 + UI/ 2C
p
1'otl/(Y +Or-It 11J2{)'-1)
IYPuIPol[2(1 +U7/2C"T
(1
)/(Y + IHr+ (4.27)
is simply a modified version of Eq. (4.23) and shows that the
now rate increases with impeller speed,
diffuser passages Eq. (4.23) also applies with the subscripts changed
'HilIit'll"! oullet conditions
T
OI
=1'( +(yRT( - U;V2C
p
TtlT
o1
=2[1 +(UV2C
1
,T
o
dJ/(v 'I- I)
;,;",,11 ".,,,,,' !low.
,,/!'PIO""!: occurs when the relative velocity equals the acoustic velocity aI' Eq,
4.5.3 Choking
If the mass flow is increased to the right of point 3 on the nega live sl(lpe 01
characteristic (Fig. 4.8), a point 5 is reached where no further ilH:rcW;l: in
flow is possible no maHer how wide open the flow control valve is. This "1,11"'11.",
that .11 some point within the compressor sonic condilions ha V(' been ... ,.,1'...
causing the limiting maximum mass 110w mle to be sci as in Ih('
compressible flow through a cOl)vcrging-diverging nozzle. Indeed,
condition arise. shock waves may well be formed within cerlain (1":',';,1("))
Choking may take place .It the inlet, within the impeller, 01' In the
section. It will occur in the inlet if stationary guide vanes ai" hUld
maximum mass flow being governed by the follo\vlng siandard I"IILII
isentropic flow at the throat of a cOllverging noah::
m/Il {)'PooPl... 12/()' + 1)]1" Oil, 0: lil
where stagnation conditions at Inlel arc knowll :lnd :( is Ihl' 1I1l1\
In stationary velocity Ihal is choked IIII' :illsnlult'
In the rotating impeller it is the rdalive vdlldly IV Ihnl i',lh" chili,,.. I
If the air angle or incidence onto blade A is excessive. due fl) ;1
partial blockage or uneven flow in the dilTuser, the blade may stall, Hlld bee,Uht'
of the partialm<lss flow decrease in the blmle passage. the deflected air ell"'I"!
the angle of incidence to the left of blade A to increase while thl' angk III
incidence to the right of blade Awill tend to dccrc'lsc. Thlls blade Hwill he
next to stall while blade A \\I'iIl be unstalled and the pro(;ess is repealed all'IIH
the periphery of the disc. Prolonged cyclic loading and unloadi.ng of lite mill'
blades can lead to fatigue failure or even immediate catastrophic lililurl'. 1h,'
stall propagutcs in the opposite direction to blade mol ion at <\ frequcllt\
related to shaft speed. In compressor tests, rotating stall may be ,lUtlthl\
recognized as a high-frequency 'screech'.
Figure 4.9 Rotating $1.111 pTOpagalion
I'dalive flow Mach number inlet ofa ccntrifuglll compressor is to be flO greater than
mtlo of hub to tip diameter at the eye is OJ!! and the air enters the eye without whirl.
'1II1i1'''''''''" II..,. inkf I:nidc VUlle:, filled at the eye such that free now is
\ hi IIll' "h"I,", At ill<' III' radi1ls 01 the cye Ihe inlet relative Mach number is nVito
"ii lIHl'dk' 1.,11,11,,1111,,1 dhdrnl'y ufO.9 is required. The ;tlr lcuvel> the tip (If the
wOh" 'd"lil\' "t ')(fill;':'. till' lrnpl'ller fip diameter.is 0.45 In lind the outlet
fH ,,,,lit" ""'lIlhllll"" ..I I'rlllfily :tll'\i! from the impeller is 5(lIn/& and the
pilI 1111 ',h" lildOl "f iI 'II., ,1.slIlm"l, flllli the guide vane inlet anille allhe
""""" ph",.,"'" .it I!Iqwlll'l '>1,,1,1
i\ n,nlrifugal compressor impeller has 17 mdilll YlUleS or lip diamelcr HiS mm. It mlalcs al
H)(I fplll l\llll the air mass now rate is 0.6kg/s with 110 whirl at inlet. Calculate the Iheun:lical
transferred tn the air. At inlet 10 the impeller, the mean diameter of the eye is 63.5mm while
til!"! ,III: milliS height at the eye is 25 mm. The sialic pressure Hnd temperature at the impdler inlet urc
lind 293 K respectively. Determinc
t'ti the hlade angle at the mean diameter at impeller inlet,
(hI stagnation temperature at impeller exit and
l!'1 jhl' iitagniition presslIfe at impeller exit if the (otalto-l\ltal efficiency of the impcller is 9(1
I h,' j IfH.imulll iipeed of rotation for the flow rate condition if Ihe mas;; now
Hllil
Ihe eye lip dblll1l:ter.
Illk! 1'[1i IOUkPa and 1;.1 =28SK.
'.'HUjll "',\0" opera at a pressure mUn of J.ll and fl speed of 12000 rpm delivers II kg!s of
tarlnt b to be 0.92.tl1e power factor 1.04. and the overall isentropic cfficiwcy
'he impcller OIulct diameter. Assume zero whirl.
M.wh l1omlx,r ortlw air k:<wing the imlJl:llcr vanes is to be unity so as 10 ensure thaI no
i.Y""'" ,It. If Ih,' los\eli !lIlhe impelkr and diffuser arc the same, what must be the depth of
CENTRIFliGAL COMPRESSORS "'ND fANS 147
lOll k1'.. amI '1;., 2l\8 K.
1 (I, IIlh\: "Hlldc',s :.pa"" is 4() mill wide, the diffuser throat radius 0.4 m and there
(Hjlllni'll'l 'honlll'h, t1Ch'wllIll' IhI.' ,1I11'115er vane inlet angle and Ihe Ihroat width oft h\,) diffuser
of 100 kPa and 15"C The hub diameler is 0.13m and the eye tip diamcler 0.3 m. If the
now iuto the eyc of lhe colllprcssor is Skg/s and lhe slJl:ed is 16200 rpm, calculate the blade
angle atlhc and tip of the eye and the Mach number at the tip of lhe eye. A,sume zero
whirl at inlel aud no los",es in Ihe inl<tke ducl.
A motnr raled at 580kW is available!(l drive a celllrifugat comprcssor of 480111111 'Hiler
at a speed ofl0(XIO rpm. At thIJ impeller outlellhe blade lInglIJ is26S measured from the
and the now vdocity (radial component) at from the imlJl:lJer is 122 m/s. If a
efficiency of95 percent is assumed, what nil' flow is to be ex[)Ccted? Assume there is 110
What ,Ire the eye tip and huhdiamelers ifa radius ralio of0.3 ISChOSCIl for the impeller eye lind
velocity at inlet is 95 mis with zcro whirl'! What will be the overall lot,llto-tOllll isentropic
rln.ICII1CV if un overall tlltal pressure ratio or 5.5 is required'! Assumc thai the flow [0 Ihe inlet is
m,olllpress:ihie llnd ambient air conditions llfe 101.3 kPa and 288 K.
Acentrifugal CIlmprcssor compresses air at ambient temperatun: and pressurc of 211H Kand
fIJspeclively. The impeller mils at " ti,) speed of 365 mis, thIJ radial velodty al exit from
iUlpdlcr is 30 mls and the slip factor is n.9, Calculate the Maeh uumber of the /low at the
,',","''',,,, lip. If Ihe impeller tOlnl-to-total efficiency is 90 per CIJOt and thc now lIrClI f"'lm the
."".... ,". ;. is 0.1.193 m
2
, calculate the nlll.'\S now rate or air. Assumc zero whirl at inlet. and radial
Figure 4.10 Typl.:al I:entrifll/';i!
compressor mT;,'Nptll (relative to design value)
Surge line
Design
point
-Th. - D.esign
\ \ \ JJspeed
0.40 U.53 0.67 0.8..0.87.931.0
N/T:,;t
minimum mass flow is set by stalling of the now onto the diffuser vancs. Fl') a
"'aneless diffuser the surge line would be further to the left of that shown HI
Fig. 4.10, thus increasing the mass now range at the design speed.
In all the exercises below, the following properties for air may be WNlIlWd
Ratio of specific heats, i' := 1.4
Specific heat of air at constant pressure, C/, 1005 J/kg K
Gas constant, R=287 J/kg K
Assume a power input fador of I unkss olhc)'\\'I',t' slarrd
4.0-
EXERCISES
1.0 ..
()
4.1 A single-sided eCfllrifllgrJl "'<11111"1";',,,, dww'; ait Ir,jlll til.' .'!I""'.pl"., I"" ilt!i
80
'"

:0
E

2.0
146 llYORAULIC AND COMl'RESSlllLE FLOW ILRII01.1ACHINI:S
Cr
T
01
-
2C
p
288 6.6
281.4 K
CENTRIHKiAL COMPRESSORS AND h\NS 149
/)"1
=11:(0.15
2
- 0.065
2
)
"'" O.0574m
2
POI
Pl=--
RT
o1
10
5
=
287 X 288
== 1.21 kg/m
3
I,he continuity equation (Eq. (1.21))
m
CIl ==
PIAl
i'H'IHIOpk lIow al inlet
8
::= ""0'
1.21 x 0.0574
== 115.18m/s
is 110 inlet whirl component, CII == CI' the absolute inlet velocity,
klllperal ure equivalent of this velocity is
115.18
2
.=_.,.,_..._-... -....,..".....
lC
"
2 x 1005
=6.6K
Let the hub and tip radii at the eye be denoted by I'll and 1', respectively.
the now area of the impeller inlet annulus is
AI = n(r; ....
first a value for density jJ I based on ambient conditions:
2kgis
525 mis
96pcr cellt
95m/,
81 per cent
16(lm/s
l!3 per cent
6mm
1,()4
15 kgis
16000 rpm
288K
101 kPa
0.9
42mm
J7 mm
0,9
1.04
O,55m
Mass flow ralc
Impclltlr lip speed
Mechanical cfficiency
Absolute air velocity :It diffuser exit
Compressor tolal-to-lolal cffiekncy
Absolutc velocity at ililpelicr cutry
cfficieney
Axial dcpth of impellt:r
Power input factor
Mass flow
Speed
Inlet total tempcrature
Inlet totlll pressure
Impeller isentropic dlicieTlcy
Width of vaneless space
Axial depth of vaneless space
Slip factor
Power input factor
Impeller outer diulUcter
(al Delerminc the shan power,
(b) Cnlculatc tile total and Sialic OIl diffuser outlet.
(e) If thc reaction ratio (II, - hd/(II) lid is 0.5. lind the radial velocity. ;lhsoilltl" M.\.lI
number nnd totalllnd static pressures at thcimpcller exit. Diffuscrcmdency (ill. II J )/(11 \ II, i
(d) Determine lhe impeller tntal-ta-total efficiency.
(e) If a VlllIClcss dilfu,cl' is filled. what is the ratio of inlel to Ia(!ius PI' Ihe dlf".,1"1 '
(f) Detefmine the impeller slX-ocd.
(al Assuming no pre-whirl at the inlel, whal ,Ife Ihc stagnation conditions at the impeller
outlc!'!
(h) Show lhllt the radial velocity is approximately 100 mis at the impeller outlet anti
c..,lculate the Mach number and air angle ,ll the impeller outlet.
(c) Calculate the angle ofthedilTuser v,lnc !cilllin!! edges and the Mach number at this radius
if the diffusion in the valleless space is j,entropic.
4.10 Tile stagnlltion pressure lind tcmpcrllture at the inlet of a centrifug,lI compressor an'
WI kPli and lOOK respectively. The impeller has 19 mdinl vallCS and uo inlet guide vanes. 'I'll"
following dntll apply.
Assume Tv, = 2KK K and 1'(11 IOl.J kPa.
4.9 A ccntrifugal ImsJhe following design data:
148 HYDRAULIC AND COMPIU:,SSIIlIE I'LOW TURlIOMAClIll'ES
Exercise 4.1 In Fig. 4.2 the blade angle 11" mcasurtd wil" 10 IhI' iPHd
velocity Ca' is required to be found at the huh and tip, Fil'.1 Ihe VdOlI!
must bcdetcrmined froHllhcconlinlllly bUI idll." IIII' inkl dCtliiHV
is unknown a Irial-;1I1l1crror pllll'l'duH' llllH,l III' lollow\'d., ;H,'HI.nIlIlH IiIiH 11
dcnsity bast"d Ol! the ink! !;la".l1l1liOIl Ulltdll!llll'i 'llw 1IH'lhpd h 'wI. nllllu'l...\
SOLUTIONS
and new
C
r1
lan/1
1
122 tall 26.S
p,
503 m/s
llsing Fig. 4.2, since there is no slip the blade angle at impeller
tlw rdativc velocity vector angle =: {12)'
nND,
U, "" -
60
n x 20000 x OAR
60
u __ 2 x n x
1- 60
= llO.3 m/s
CENTRIFUGAL COMI'RliSSORS AND FANS 151
I ( 110.3 )
III h = tan 1'22.25
=42.05"
(it =(yRTtl
112
=(1.4 x 287 x 280.57)112
=:: 335.8 m/s
velocity triangic
WI =(C; +
:= (122.25
2
+254.5
2
}li2
=282.3 m/s
Relative Mach number =: WI/at
282.3
=
335.8
Mach number required is thal based on the relative velocity at the eye
!\l'llllslilC velocity
lhe hub
tall
= 254.5 rnls
I (V.
I
) {J It =tan'
(II
PI
PI = /iT.
92.2 x 10"
2M7 x 281.4
= \.I4kg/m
3
. 21lNr
t
2 x 1t x 16200 x 0.15
U
I
= "60-= 60
q 122.25
2
--- =
2CI' 2 x 1005
=7,43K
T
l
=288 - 7.43
::= 280.57 K
5(280.57)3.5
Pt::= 10 -288
= 91.25 kPa
91.25 x 10"
PI =287 x280.56
"" 1.13 kg/m)
Further iterations arc unnecessary and the value f} I = 1. IJkg/Ill' IIlil Y
taken as the inlet density and e" =:;; C. =122.25 m/s as the inlcl vdncily
At the lip
c = 8
u 1.14 x 0.0574
=122.25m/s
Blade angle
Repeat
150 HYVRAllI.IC AND COMI'RESS!IlLE FLOW TURIIOMACHINES
Then new
r
I
since ex:! =u2 for zero sUp
('1'2 =stutic temperature at impeller tip)
CENTRIH.lGAL A"n I'A:-:S J53
:L!IL5 mjs
(a2 = acoustic velocity Ht impeller tip)
0.9 x
('; (.t') t ( 'I,.,"}
1005 X 288(5.5286 - 1)
'Ie =22'2'.) X 103 .--.
Efficiency.:=, 0.818
lht vdol'll\' Iriallgle" of Fig. 2,5,
pfDhkll1 therefore requires C
2
and T
2
to be evaluated.
r, =51.7/0.3
Ti(> = I
From Eg. (4.10), compressor total-to-total efficiency is
1103", - h
O'
II =.. .....-'
e Il
o3
-Ir
01
'c\'t'II't'l!lt 4.3 The absolute Mach number of the air leaving the impeller
PI =POI
m=p,A1C
1
== p, n(rr - rr,)CI
== - I)C1
Assuming incompressible flow at inlet
POI
::::=. ,.

101.3 x 10:'
=
287 x 288
Hence
1'10 ''Ill IIlIlI
II. II" dill/III 11'1 " I 1n\tll
=1.226 kg/m">
Thus
til = WJ222.3 X 10
3
01
3
/s
Theoretical power = Power available x Mechanical efficiency
w= 580 x 10
3
X 0.95
=551 kW
r
2
_ 2.47
" - 7t x 1.226 x (J.:D3' Ij'e
6.677 x 10 1 III
W/m =503 x 442
m=551/222.3
2.47 kg/s
Using the continuity equation, the mass flow rate through the annulus 01
the eye is
But e
xl
is zero, therefore
From Eq, (1.25) the power per unit mass flow is
Wjm == U
2
C,v2 - U,C
X1
and
152 HYDRAULIC AND COMI'RESSIllLE FLOW TURllOMACHI"liS
154 HYDRAUUC AND COMI'RESSlllLE FLOW nm.UOMACfllNES CENHUH)(iAL ('OMI'lWSSORS AND FANS 155
u ('
I ,I
O.63n
Z
a,= I
I'I)-I,ni',
II //11 r)) 1,(",
O.8X4
fl2 = (P2 )(.P(2)POI
()1l2 POI,
== 0.607 x 3.03 X 101.3 x
:::: 186.3 kPa
186.3 x 10
3
p., = '.,.,..,., ... _-.
287 x 353.2
::= 1.84 kg/m
2
"'" I .... 0.63 x n
17
m;:;;: 1,84 x 0.093 x 30
"'" 5.13 kg/s
11 oI(d)OO><. 0, I (15
(;0
IIN1>;1
Ml
f),' (' ...'), )3..,
. 1. - .-
_., ....,.. ',=
Pal 407.3,
= 0.607
II'TII alhl ( , ,'qn"h /1., IhI' wlllri wlodtv at lll\pdkr lip Wln,nlll
4.4 For rmtial vanes the slip factor may be found from the Slallil/
(Eq. (2.9)) with {J
2
=:; 90".
fad or
Hence

T
2
:::: T
Ol
_.'
2e
p
108800
:::: 407,3 -
=353.2 K
Now
a.Vi
T02 =T(1I +c
I'
_ "8 0.9 x 365
2
- ... g+ 1005"
=407.3 K
M2
=0.876
With zero inlet whirl Eq. (4.2) gives
W/m =0'.c'.'2U2
Also
At impeller outlet 111 =P2A2C,2 where (12;:;: P2/RT2 and note that these all'
static properties. The static pressure 1'2 is found by first solving for the impell",
total pressure ratio POl/POI' and then relating 1'2 to P02 by means or thl'
isentropic pressure ,temperature relationships.
From Eqs (4.10) and (4.11) rearranged for flow in the impeller:
[10'[ ('rep )]//()' I)
""" I +'10 -C-::. _. 1
i'Ol TOI
[ (
407.3 )];\.5
= 1+0.9 288" I '.
::=3.03
Thus
(
'1'.. ))'/11'''1)
.. -
, Tn!
4.4 X 10
5
To;! = .....
("
4.4 x lOS
.'"" '--'<
IOOS
== 437.8 K
From Fig. 4.3 the impeller efficiency is
h02' hOI
Iii::::: ""-"'--._ ..
h02 - hOI
CI'(T
o1s
- Tod::::: '1i Wjm
0.9 x 83.76 x lOJ
= .."".,-.--' .....
0,6
= 125.64 x 10
3
, 125.64 X 10
3
Ci
T1)2' =._-+ Tj +
e
p
2C
p
_ 125.64 X 10.1 +293 + IOSY
1005 2 x 1005
'''' 423.9K
.\00100
100';
CENTRIFUGAL COMI'RESSORS AND FANS 157
83760
h == + "\ 004 X 10
5
01 0.6 ..
=4.4 x lOS N mjkg
hWnll('pic relationships
from Eq. (4.5),
101\ I t
"'I) I
since C.
1
::::: 0
I t III I
(IO(h
m=p,A.C
a
=P1A1C1
C 0.6
'1 = 25
2
0.61(252)
"'" 108.7mjs
(a} I't - 1'0 =25 mm and (I'll +I't)/2 = 31.75 mm. Solving for I'll gives
(2 x 31.75) ...- 25
I'h =
PI
1'1 = ....
RT
I
93 x 10;\
= 287 x 293
= 1.I06kg!m'\
= f9.25nun
1', =44.25mm
u nNDm
1- 60
::::: 152.9m/s
/1 1 = tan - I
Inlel blade angle = 54.6'
(
b) _.'- .. I q
10' =h j +2
Mass flow
At the eye
From the vclodly triangles of Fig. 4.2
tan/i
l
=Ut/C
I
Al mean radius
156 HYDRi\Cl.IC AND COMl'lll'SSmLF FLOW TCRIlOMACHlNI:S
and
since C1 =C
u
(no whirl)
IV
I
:\1.
1
COS {I,
0.'1/ cOs lIO'
,\I, I
m=P
I
A
t
C
I
t he area in terms of the radius ratio and tip radius
til =
o
o m W
Bladtl inlet illlgic at shroud, III (deg)
0.3
0.1
4.11 Mus. flow parameler versm blade inlet angle at the shroud
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRL',SORS AND FANs 159
IInessary tn determine C
t
and Pl'
It 1 find (. I' from the inlet velocity triangle of fig. 4.2 althc eye tip radius
WI"" (\/c:os{J
I
2 0.2869
w "'"
3.08 X lOll
=9313987
W =3051 radis
Optimum rpm
[hI The eye lip diameter is found from lhe continuity equation for now into
rye. Once again all equations apply al the lip radius.
I II', (,l! )1 II I (l
It )
itt J.m: 10
k=l
"" I - 0.38
2
== 0.8.556
Exercise 4.5 (a) Using Eq. (4.22) the appropriate known dula arc substituted,
noting thaI all conditions apply al the eye tip or shroud.
"" 338.67kPa
(
298.9)3.5
POI= 93 -293
= 99.7 kPa
158 HYDRAULIC A='D COMPIWSSIIILE ILOW rURBOMAClIINES
Therefore
(
423.9),1.5
POl = 99.
7
29H:ij
and the RHS of Eq. (4.22) becomes
RHS =
[1 +0.5(1.4- I)O.9S
2
coS
2
flit
0.9127 sin
2
fll cos {II
=
(l +0.1805 I.:OS
2
fJ 1)4
Choosing values of fJ
I
the RHS of Eq. (4.22) is evaluated:
The LHS of Eq. (4.22) becomes
410
2
LHS= . .
n x IUi556 x 1.4 x IOU x 10
3
X (1.4 x 287 x 288)1/2
=3.08 x 10- Hw2
The results arc ploued in Fig. 4.11 from which it is tkduced I hal I h,' R
reaches a maximum at f11 =60".
Equaling lhe LHS and RIIS wilh (i
l
110,
fl1ldeg) 10 211 30 40 50 55 59 60 61 65 711 HI!
RHs O.0!4 0.0550.11l) 0.193 11258 0.279 O.2S6 0.2870.28'1 OII'l lL'\i ill',
IJ
(from Eq. (4.9))
414.15 x 60
n ;, 12000
TrIV' [)1
60
= 288 '\ gtl.21H, I)
O.Bl
e
.
('E"ITRll'lIG,\L COMf'IlFSSORS Mm h\t\S 161
= 1613111/s
u,
, 163.3 x 1005

1Jl4 x 0.92
=171526
U
2
=414. 15111,/S
4
nl< 1.11 x 0.8556 x 161
=0.008 33
R =0.0913m
Eye tip diameter"" 183 mill
I'. PlOt"ll liolla 110 II '1,,1 II o.x:n Half of the overall
o H') (1,0') alld IIWrt'hll'l' the dfcdivc efficiency oCthe
11"01/"11 I" /,,,. i.. (I oWl! 0,91.
'1lIpdkl '11111'1' di:lIllder O.659m
From Eq, (4,1 I) the stagnation temperature difference is
I)Mr
2
=275K
'-" 1+0.4 X 0.485
2
2
=1.047
T ." 288
1-1.047
IOU 10\ ..' I")!"
2Wl,'XiI (, 04 ,
1.11 HI
(', =M
1
bR'f\)li
2
=0.485(1.4 x 287 x 275)1/2
== 161 mjs
'rhcn
Putting
then
then
Now
Whence
and putting
160 HYDRAVI.IC AND COMPRESSIllLE fLOW
, I', 111111
It!
l',e"2
,1.'
lin,
n,nIX!
/I Ol,'ll)
2.127 x 77.17
O.l14X7 m':
HIl!,' Iht '11111. t liltd dill""."! \ illll':, Iii, II. III
1,1.1111', P''!HIf;', th,d ! ,t I "ll'd
,!Olllll\l 1 hI!
/1
2
Un i ',f ,
=381 m,/s
=0.92 x 414.15
= ,Hh'RT
z
= (II
J
X (1.4 x 287 x :176.1)
= 151 117 In2is"
C;z =
= 151 It 7 145 161
=5956 m"js
C
rz
=77.17m,/s
ili{ dHI\\, lht ab"olnt; vdorltv vI'dOl (' ;It ;Il1git' t'lil
\\'IF!I ihl'IW' flul\,,< 11110 Ihe illllW,1 do "0
Ii, !he IlIkl illlgir .. I IIii' ,llIluo,;'1 V.lIIl";
the Ullltinuity the arca
I he vdoci t y I rjangles of Fig. 4.2
1'0 l'ind the now velocity normal to the periphery of the impeller
and
= 0.528 x 4.29
=2.266
451.3
T
2
"" 1 .0"
-t ._
=376.1 K
, I '
(
',I," )YiiY-ll
pz 2
-" .. .. - :;:;;:;:.
POJ '['OJ
From Eq. (4.11) aftel' rearranging the subs.cripts
;::: ='( 11- )"'(: II
._-, (I 'I'
'00 since Till"" TUJ
== 4.29
T
llz
= 163.3 +2gg
=45UK
pz "'" 2.266 x 101.3
=229.58 kPa

=0.5282
162 IIYDRAUUC AND ('(),fPRf.'>SlIlLE !'LOW Tl.iRIlOMAClllNFS
q
T2 = Toz "'?C
-'I'
Therefore substituting for q
., (1 )2(1.4 x 2g7T
z
)
Jz = 451.3 --''''2x1005.-
and
CrSI'RlI'liGAI. ('OMI'RrSSORS ANI> IANs I(.s
( ,
,
ii, 2/f:< OJ69 x Depth of vane
:.: (1,]69 x 0.0235
0.0:14 'i
P
1'=
UT
139 X 10
3
287 X 325.8
1.487 kg/m
J
III Fig. 4,12. the area of flow in the radial direction at
1 Flow horn impeller to diffu,cr
(from exercise 4.6)
'-'" 1.37)
fl Lj7J 10/'
I 191-, I'i!
Po =4.29flo I
('2
'1'= '1'0- 2(';
I'
= 451.3 - 125.5
=325.8
P
POl '1'02
=
=0,32
"" 0.32 x 4.29
p (p )(/10:')
= Po;
To find the radial velocity C, at the diffuser vane entry, !itart by assuming
the value at the impeller exit, i.e. 77.17 m/s. Then
C
2
c; + c;
2(", 2e"
77.17
2
+ 346.7
2
=
2 x 1005
=125.5K
(151117)1.'2 X 0.3295
0,3695
=346.7m/s
164 HYDRAULIC COMPRESSIBLIi FLOW
Now if we assume that no losses occur across the vandes:> space, the (llhel
half of the total losses takes place in the diffuser itself. Then fl02 at the impdkr
tip equals the stagnation pressure at the diffuser vane inlet Po. Therefor!'
Also
CE:-:TR1FIXlAl. COMPRESSORS ANI) PANS 167
,-I, 1l.o:U5 vane depth)
II Uti' III
nIl} rl )7.4
\} '1
320,2
""
27.4
CI.'::::: 85.1'
tan x' =ex/c,
f1'I,'II'I,"'. to Fig. 4.12
III pAC II/l,e, (r means W.r.t. radial direction)
C (5UK X 2CI')li2
.12.1.4 m/s
C
2
/(2C)= 51.38K
T=399.9K
it ,C,
('
that there is no change in the new values so the radial velocity at
t11 roat "" 27.4 m/s.
now direction of the absolute velocity is given by '1.' at the throat:
Nt:glccting vane thickness
Flow area = 2n x Radius of diffuser throat x Depth
"" 211: x 0.4 x 0.0235
A, 0.()591 m
l
4
C := . .' -----.---.
, 2.47 x ll0591
=27.4m/s
f' kI'd
/,,' .. 1/1, I'illl \
Moving to the radius ut the diffuser throat, at Ihtl throat radllh. llA
C .. =(151117)'i2xO.3295
.\ 0.4
346.7
tan c(' = 31.37
!j,' = 84.83
1(,(, IIYIlRALil.lC AND COMPRl:SSIIlU: FI.OW niRIIO\lAClIlNliS
Repeat the calculation using this new value of c,.
C1/(2CI') = 61 K
T"" 390,3 K
Repeat the: {;alculation.
P/P02 =().601
p:= 261.4kP"
p ::::: 2.33 kg,im'\
C,=31.6m/s
C
2
/(2C
p
J=60.29 K
T = 391 K
P/P02 =0.605
p=263kPa
p ::; 2.34 kg/m
3
C, "'" 31.37 m/s
No further iterations arc necessary. Thus at the inlet to the valle:, ( "
31.37 mis. Then
"'0 J20.2m,/s
Start the iteration at the previous valuc of C, at tIl\' dillm.\1 inlet
51.51'
T J')9.X K
(since U2 "'" ('x2
nND
2
60
If x 12 noo x 0.76
60
,111.51l1/S
(,UN'\l{IlUGAI. COMl'lWSSOftS ""II FA'S 16')
0,9 4TI.,V 2H2.7 :': 42.15
'HR. l O ~
I 1l.IIc,H
W/m =CI'(T02 T(1 )
:= 0'.U;lC
x2
- U I c.d
=42.1 5m/8
282,71 + 90
2
- 253035
2
C = ....-.----.-.... ,
xl 2 x 282.7
impeller total-ta-total efficiency is g.iven by
(al 111(" til')
. rrND
1
l! 1= "--...- ..
60
12000 x 1! x 0.45
-
60
=282.7 nI/s
I "I' ~ I : I ( "I I (
WI :::: 0.75 x 337.X
90
2
:::: ""!SX ...
- 2 x 1005
""" 284K
a
l
=(}'RT[}112
=(1.4 x 287 x 284}112
== 337.8 l11/s
= 8.5 mill
. A
Throat width = 1(' D 1
) x ept 1
0.002
- -
10 x 0.0235
= 0.0085
As ...ie have 10 diffuser vanes. the width of each throat is
168 IIYDRAULtC AND COMI'RESSIllU: FLOW TlJlUIOMi\('W:-;ES
Exercise 4.8 The velocity triangles of Fig. 4.2 may be used.
,\1
1
== WI/aj
At the tip
=253.35 IIl/S
Now from Fig. 4.7 at the inlet tip
Therefore
and
T
02
197
= 288 + 1
T
Ol
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSORS I'II:'\S 171
1C x 16000 x 0.55

60
=460.7 m,/s
(",2:;:; a,V2
0,9 x 460
414m/s
T;12 = 197 +288
=485K
"",197K
= 1.68
1.04 x 0.9 x 460,72
T-, ..,..,....,.,._.-._._-.
01 - 1005
=541.4kPa
T . - T. _
11.\ 01 - 1005
101111l';
illl';' l\tillWtl (11 impdkllH'nphrry
I HII, llllprllci dcplh
II IUUl
UO<. \'1111 '
Now for the impeller
=( I +17;( To I))3.5
=( I+
= 5.36
I" ,
=0.9 x 477.5
=429.75 mi'S
= 1.668 x 288
=480.3 K
= I _ 429.75
2
+ 50
2
T02 2 x 1005 x 480.3
=0.806
PojPol = [(1.668 - 1)0.9 +
= 5.2
()2/1'01 == 5.2 X O.l106
L5
=2.44
Impelkr out!ct stalic pressure 2(15.X k1':1
From the clTicicncy equation
Also
Now
170 llYlJRAt"lJC AND l'LOW
But
Therefore
Substituting
Exercise 4.9 Impeller lip speed
ill\! /I,
-'" (1.4 x 287 x 394.75)11
= 191<.1 m/s
,I
(,
'11 " lj ')' "
'.-II
('I'NTRIHIOAL C(JMf'RESSUI{S FANS 17.1
, I
/' {'" ,( I",
1.1'.1
('1 =(90.25 x 2 x 1005)1'1
= 425.9 m!s
,He, Ill). II
,II \'1 1\
100
=
425.9
=76.4'
425.9
i'vl, =
39803
= 1.07
414 x 0.275
<U17
35(), I m;\
as ;1 lirst try C, lOOmis. Then
(,} 100"1 359,1.
1
:1('" 2 1005
tNI\K
1111' PfI.ll'tdllll' as in p:trllh)
t\ssuming free vortex flow in the vaneless space and denoting coudl
II(' diffuser vane tip without a subscript,
til(: outlet velocity triangle

U.',.
90.25 =4SS
=394.75 K
=
= 263.4kPa
15
From the outlet velocity triangle
C?, e
2
2
+
_.. ,,, .... :::=. .. ,',., ...
2C
p
2C
r
+ 414
2
2 x 1005
=':)0.25 K
172 IIYDRAULI(' AND COMPIU:SSIIIlJ', FLOW
263.4
=
287 x 394.75
=2,33kg/rn'\
From isentropic relationships at a point
0.0619 x, 2.13
Impeller outlet radial vclocit y HHU Ill,';
Using the cq uatio!l of state
Thus
I mpcller outlet Mach 1l1l111lwl (' )i,l,
Now
The equation of continuity gives
Ii
I, (
f i, j
I',
1',,\ 6.';() III I
f'!':-;T1l1HX;,\L (OMI'RLSSORS AND I.\NS 175
POJ =(1 + YWi -1)
POI C"Tol ,
(
I +
1005 x 290
0.6311.
(f, =I - Z
0.63rr
19
= O.lN58
Hi
Shaft power
'I",
6.59
W/III =11
0
.1 - h
nl
=ljJa.U 2C., 2 since Cd =0
= since U, ::= C.
..., .\.r.
W=1.04 x 0.8958 x 525
2
x 2
:;:;: 513.56 kW
513.56
Shaft powcr=
0.96
= 5J5kW
hom Fq. (4.11)
Now for a radial vaned impeller the Stanit.... slip lhctor equation is used.
. ... Power transfcrn:d to air
1'.,.{'n:ISC 4.10 (al Mcchamcal effiClencv =--- .
, Power supplied to shaft
ItlO', ')'
11 /'1
(
i (170'1
11 'in
'J.' =: 78'
359.1

75.9
316,3
fl2"" 287 x 415.9
"" 2Ji5
Ii =2nr x Depth of vanes
"'" 2 x 1t x OJ 17 x ll.037
=0.0737111
2
C .._ 15
r - 2.65 x 0.0737
C
2
76,8
2
t- 359Y
2C
I
) 2 x 1005
=67.09m
2
j s2
7'-417.9K
p= 321.7kPa
1'2 =2.68 kg/m
3
C. =75.9mis
= 76.8 m/s
Next try C, =76.8 m/s.
Mach number at vane
Therefore there is little change in C, and thus this is the radial vdodl\'
at the diffuser vane tip.
At the vane
Vane angle
174 IfVDRACT.l<' AND (OMI'RI'SSmu: FLOW TIIRIlOMAClHNLS
=523Ji m/s
160
2
= 290 - -----.. ' + 131,87
2 x 1005
=29012.74+131.87
=409.1 K
c
2
1 +(1' -Tl
1(' 2 1.
- 'I'
=1,29
"
52J.6" (aJ! 2)2
":'3.(,' (O.RlJ5R x 52sf
' .11(,.' ,170,1"
= 51 +( I
= 255.5 +8.25
"" 263.7K
CENTRIFUGAL COMPRFSSORS AND FANS .77
"2"" (i'RT
2
)l/2
;;=(1.4 x 287 x409.1)1!2
=405,4
C
2
=[2 x 1005(255.5 + 290 - 409,I)J
'
!2
I ,
T,!. .- T, == 0.5 x 263.7
==131.87K
il j ill!lwllcr uut
ilIil",I,,-,. at impdlcr outlet
M2 =C21a.!
523.6
-
405,4
r,ll
.,
\
( C; I \ )
.'1/,
,'I /'
( ,,.
I
2 x 1005 x
II
95
2
.
2 x 1005 x 545.5
=0.9917
But
f'J= 665(0,9917)3.5
"" 646kPa
Di!1'uscr outlet static pressure == 646 kPa
'I' 't'
ll' "" 1+ .. -- ..
(., - 'C
- 1'
513.56 x 10.
1
+290
2 x 1005
=545.5 K
c
2
"t' - l' + 2
02 - 2 )C ..
- 'r
(c) At the impeller (Jutlel
17{1 HYDRAULIC Al'lJ COMI'RESSIllLl' FI.OW TlJRIIOMACHlNES
Also
2C ['('1'
* p .. ' 0.\
From the equation for reaction
Rearranging
Substituting
or
Thus
and
where l\i' is in rpm
2
525 x 2.402 x 230.2 x 0.006 x 60
52253 rpm
95
= 525
CENTIUFUGAI. COMI'RESSOR$ AND FANS t79
P2
P2
282.1 x 10
3
::: 2trlx 409.1
=2.402 kg/m
3
nNm

1'21(("r2/)2 x 60
N
rille at impeller outlet
m"" ()2A2Cr2
"" 21tP].f
2
C
r1
h
2
(c) Assume that C. C
r
and if the gas moves in a free vortex then
Cx3f3 "'" Cx2
f
2
since C,d Cr;l' then C"" C3 and
f2 C,d
f:\ =C,d
since - Td =(T" T.)
(
545.5 ),1.5
P02:::: 282.1 40ff
=772.3 kPa
[(
772.1)ILlMr,'JI(
= 290 ,- 1 /,,54.\<1
228.9

255.5
[(
) )(r Ui}' 'II ( ,. 102 I
Ili""'JO! --- -I 110.1
POI. , .'
(
0.83 x 13 1.87 )3.5
:::: J+----
409.1
=2.29
646
P]. =2.29
"'" 282.1 kPn
(
l' - T)i',1(i 1)
P3= I+tl ;I ].
() '1'
PI ].
Using isentropic relationships at a point
(d)
(
1,,
', )ii(Y-1)
POl 02
"." .. .
P2 ,T2
whence
to the impeller outlet. Diffuser efficiency
11 30 '- h2
'/0='---"
It;! - h
z
and this relates the isentropic enthalpy increase to the actual enthalpy
increase. Rearranging
tIl> ='l2(i; ,- 1)/(T3 - T2 )
[ (
p)(i"lliY Ji( )
:::: T2 - I / T;, - T].
178 HYDRAULIC AND COMI'IU'SSlRLE FLOW TlJRllOMACHINES
Compressor and turbine blade passages: (a) turbine; (b) compressor
(n)
AXIAL FLOW COMI'RESSORS AND FANS 181
u
t
(a)
with high efficiency, the process of diffusion cannot be carried out so
idly due to the onset of separation on the suction side of the blades, and
sequent stalling. This is similar to the included angle of a diffuser being too
\l and separation taking place along the diffuser walls. Typical blade
ions arc shown in Fig. 5, I, where it will be noted that the angular turning of
rdative velocity vector is mueh greater in the turhine than in the
The maximum rate of efficient diffusion within the hlade rows is
lvulcnt to a cone angle of about 7" or S".
tn studying the now of the l1uid through an axial compressor, it is usual to
Illdm' Ihe changes taking place through a compressor stage, Astage consists
row of moving blades attached to the periphery of a rotor hub followed by
of fixed blades attached to the walls of the outer casing. The compressor
de up of a number of such stages to give an overall pressure ratio from
to outkt. l'igun: 5.2 illustrates a ICw compressor stages,
t will be that al the inlet to the compressor, an extra row of fixed
inkt guidc vanes, are litted. These do not form part of the stage
solely 10 guide the air at the correct angle onto the first row of moving
Till' ur lhl: hbdes is also seen to decreasl; as the fluid moves
l,I.h IIll' compressor. This is su that a constant axial velocity through the
teNsor IS nwillfaill\:d as the density increases from the low- to high-
1:(lIISlalll axial velocity is convenient from the point ofvicw
1""1\ hull,s hv 1IIlIlIl';lIl<;;t l'equin:llIcllt. The analysis for flow through the
will Ii, Nt Iw ,lest' I ihed Itl Il'fIlls 111'1 wp-dill1ensionalllow. The flow through
IIllt' iN lIsslIllll'd III (akr plan' at a l11eall hlade hcight where the blade
Imll vdorllilm III Iltkl ,\lid \I\llh'( ,Ill' till' sallie, there bcing no llow in the
dltlll'lIilH Whitl UllIIlHlIll'lilN "f VdOl'lly will nisi ill lhe direction or
t1loIInil
5.1 INTRODUCTION
FIVE
AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS AND FANS
CHAPTU(
Because of a lack of knowledge of the aerodynamic bchaviour of axial IIllw
comprcssor blades, the initial simple concept of using a reversed turbine ;1'; ;111
axial flow compressor resulted in compressor elliciencies of less than 40 1"'1
cent. Some early gas turbines did use axial flow compressors but these !';IVI'
turbine efficiencies of thc order of 55 per cent, and it was only willl IIII'
development of aeroplanes, and research into the aerodynamic hchavillill ,1/
wing scctions, that blade design for axial flow compressors beC<\IlH' (".
tablished, Some early investigators suggested that efficiencies of l)() PCI (I'lil
would be reached, and this is now indeed the case, this figure surpassilll' 1111'
maximum centrifugal compressor efficiency by about 4 pCI' cent. Ilmwl'l'l, It
penalty has to be paid for such high etliciencies and, with tile :lXI:1I IIllw
compressor, the performance is very sensitive to its mass l10w rak at tile
point. Any deviation from the design condition causes (he c1licicncy II) dlllllllil
drastically. Thus the axial flow comprcssor is ideal lelr cOlls(alll 1011.1
applications such as in aircraft gas turbine engines, They arc alsn II) he Illlllhl
in fossil fuel power stations where gas turbines arc used lelr (oPl'lI'l', Ill' IhlJ
station output when normal peak loads arc exceeded.
The simple expedient of using a turbine to opcralt' as ;1 11111
into difficultics because of the nature of thc air nnw ill III(' two III tlit!
turbine, the blades form a converging passagl\ I Ill' all'a al ,"kt funl.ttl!
than at outlet, with the Iluid Iwilll'. ;In'l'il'lakd III IhI' paw,agl' Illl'lllll!,I,"''''
the Iluid is diffllsed wllh a plnsillc )Jilin fllkllll!, ph,\'(- throllV,h II hilldl' lll1'iMM-f
of inncasi lip. s,'l'liol1al 0111':1 Wlilk ,I IIlIld I'/HI hI' 1I1.II'lI'nlfI"lIIlW'j II wittli!
INU
Hl2 IWDRAULJC A:"1) COMl'l{ESSlIlU I LOW TURIlOMACHIr-;fS ,\XIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS AND FANS 183

(.\ II liil I.W

E == (U2C. 2 - U1c., t )/0
Ilw W!O('ily triangks. and noting that C. is COllstant through thl.:
iii ill U,
nt(. (1.25))
/' (I(',,(lall/l, lallll,l/ll (Wi(N/s)1 (5.2)
ClWIHY lIall',ln nlaV obI> !It "'1\lltll ill II'nns Ill' till' absolute velocity
L.-., _.,--.fS'.
{'
--- _
cts
Vdocil)' triangles for an llxial now comrrcssm staGe
Disc or
huh
i
[nle[
are:\
.'1'
I
G
R V R S
"'igurc 5.2 An compressor stage
The rotor and stator rows ofu stage arc shown in Fig, 5.3. Note that all :Inglt>,
arc wferrcd to the axial velocity vector CIl'
Air exits from the previolls row of stator blades at angle (',(1 with ahstillllt'
velocity C
l
. The rotor row has tang,cnti<ll velocity U, and comhining the t\\'o
velocity vectors gives the relative inlet velocity vector WI at angle Ill' AI rotnl
row outlet the velocity triangles arc similar to those drawn for the axial 110\1
pump, und the absolute velocity vector moves i/lto the stator row whell' th,'
now direction is changed to:13 with absolute velodty C.J' The diagrams hillt'
hecn drawn showing a large g;,tp between the rotor and stator blades; this i', IIi!
clarity. In practice, the clearance between rotor and slator rows is sOlal!
II' the following stage is the same as the preceding one, the stagc s.. id II i h"
normal. For a normal stage CI ::;;;. C
J
andy, c. )J' Hi" is less Ih"ll HI' "howmg
thut difTusion oftlu; rdative vclodty has taken with ';l"lic P'I".',UI<
risc across the rotor blades. The air is' llmed low;, nb t he axial 11111'1'1 lOil I,V thf
blade camber and the cOcctivc now an'a is from inkI to \llllkt. 11111',
causing diffusion 10 take plal:e. Similnr diffllsltln (\1' the .. b';\IIIlU' vein'll \'
place in tile stator, the ahsolute vl'l,,(ilv vcrl,,\ h illWl1l lllllli'd Ii.,,,,,, ....,
the axial directiol\ and a f\lflhn\tati. lHI",'illll' 11',1' "nlll
The energy givcn tn Iht' ;111 Pi', IIlllt \lIa,,'i 11.,\\' tiltl' h l.'lH\l hI lidl"
5.2 COMPRESSOR
184 AND COMI'Rh'l.'iIllI.1: H.(lW TlJRIlOMACHlNI:S
AXIAl. FL.OW COMPIUiSSOIl.S AND FANS 185
(5.6)
(\Xl
(5.7)
1I02rd = 1101 rei
(11 2 lid (("2 - Cd)[(U-- ell +(V -- C'I)1/2 = 0
(11 2 - hd .j- (W'2 W"dIW
x2
+ W
xl
)/2 = 0
{Ill 11 d + W.;tl/2 "'" 0
(J'V;, '" W;,) "" (Wi Wf) since C, is constant Therefore
il 2 + WV2 =ill + wil2 (5.5)
Eq. (5.5) can be written
I hi ,'IWlg\, Ill/HI I In lhl' lluid will k ahsorbl,;d usefully in raising the
'ilid \'\'luIIi volt hl' ;\11 and SOllie will he wasted in overcoming various
'nill 10""f" l/uWl'\'t'I. Ihl' whole of Illl' wOIk input will appear as a
/dn IrmpcLtllH" 11',1' ull hI' ,Hi n'gal 011 he isenfropic
l \\ III 1I'1i III In IIi', iii tr'lHpn .11111 ("; illld ;Ill it llJ'-ks 1'1'0111 Jlq. (5.2) is
J{carranging.
the relative total enthalpy is based on the relative velocity.
Equation (5.6) shows that the total enthalpy based on relative velocities in
rotor is constnnt Heros." the rotor and this result is nlso valid for the axial
gas turbine rotor. A comparison of Eq. (5.5) with Eq.(4.7) indicates why
WI halpy change in asingle.stage axial now compressor is so low compared
centrifugal compressor. The relative velocities may be 01' the same order
but the axial Oow compressor reedves no I,;onlribution from the
l!llllllll.H.' in tangential velocity.
Till' isentropic efficiency is written as
Ideal isentropic work input
'I. = .-.. ..-..-- ....
,. Actual work input
= (1r0 .1" hod.!(hoJ hod
Writing
then
Figun> 5.4 Mollier chart for lITl axiallhlw stage
Equation (5.2) or (5.3) may he used depending upon the infil1111al
available.
The flow through the slage is shown thermodynamically Oil the
chart in Fig. 5.4 and is similar to that for a centrifugal complCSS(l1
enthalpy l.:hange is l.:ontinuous taking account of irrevcrsibililics ill the
and stator.
Assuming adiabatic now through the stage. h'l\ 11
0
.', and 1
Eq. (5.1) may be written as
(W/(kg/s))
186 HYDRAULIC AND COMI'RFSSlIlLE I'LO\V TlrRHOMACH[};US AXIAL FLOW COMl'lU'SSORS AND rANS I K7
In practice C
u
is not constant along the lcngt h of the blade and, to account for
this. II work done .. ;. is introduced, dcl1ncd as
Actual work absorbing capacity
Work done factor"" . -.------ .
Ideal work absorbing capacity
{', I't
(5,10)
U (W'I I lI',dl2U
()I:111/111 lall/I,,)/.ll;
(t '".I'Hlnn /1.)
./. LlIl/l,
(LIIlII, j IHII/II. .', wllik till' WIIO <!l axial vdowy to hLhk
lIow'iwlhcwlll It limy Iii' showlI ';IlIlHady thnl til\' Ir;\l'!illll
fi IV,) and e'l U Thercl'ore
(C\.' C, I) (Ifill II',:)
(11
2
-. hi) == (Wi -
J< (Wf C.,d]
I IV;d ... (c,; + C.\I n
(IV', 1+ 11', . )( WI! Wd/[2U(C
d
C\I U
reaction ratio is a measure of the static enthalpy rise that OCClll'S in the
expressed as a percentage of the ((llal static enthalpy rise across Ilw
It is defined as
Static enthalpy risc in rolM
R= ..------.-... . ....----..- ..
Static enthalpy rise in stage
"" (11
2
-II
J
}/{II) hi)
if C
1
::= C", then
(11:\-1,\)::= (11(1.\ - hal) =UIC'2 - C
xl
)
',uhslitnting for (11
2
-- hI) and (11
3
- II al in Eq. 15.10) the reaction 1;11 in
REACTION RATIO
Figure 5.5 illustrates thaI it is only at the inlet of the machine that lht:
ve!i:)ci1lv profile is fairly constant over the blade length. The fiolid boundaries of
rotor and stator exert more and more inllucncc on the velocity profile as
air moves through the compressor. The variation in work donc factor ill
5.6 shows that ? decreases as the number of compressor stages incn:ascs.
(5.9)
10
Hence
0.8
0
':-__..J..-__.L_. . L,... _.. .
4 8 12 16 .:0
Stage I1t1mlwr
Figure 5.6 Variation of WDl'h ,h'lll' f;ll'lo, w,llt IHIIIIII"1 .. I \L'r- "
liigurc 5.5 Variation of :Ixilll velocity along a blade
-.:: O.lJ5

t;
..:!
0.9

a
0.85
(5.14)
(5.13)
!
"
... u
1/ = W/IlIU
2
=(1I 0J - hod/U
2
= },(C.
d
-
=J.(C"./IJ)(tan:X2 - tan a.)
ljI =..ttfJ(tan:X2 - tan \Xd
F
x
=Lcos + J) sin fl",
=Lcosfl",[1 +(Cn/Cdtan !1 ,]
the lift coefficient is defined as
C
L
=
I Ill' bhlde arca is the product of the dtOl'd c and Lhe span I, und putting
AXIAL H.OW COMPRESSORS AND FANS IR9
LIFT AND DRAG COEFFICIENTS
illl<,iri"r the rotor blade showlI in Fig. 5,S with relative velocity vectors WI
W2 at anglcs Ii t and /1
2
, This system is similar to now over an aerofoil so
lift and drag forces will be set up all the blade while the forces on the air
act in the opposite direction as shown in Fig. 5.9.
The drag force is defined as acting in the line of the rnean velocity vector
at angle 11.,. to the axial direction as defined by Eq. 15.11), and the lift force
perpendicular to this,
The resultant force experienced by the air is therefore given by the vector
Fig. 5.9, so that the force acting in the direction of blade rotation (the x
is written as
lJ
(e) R < 0.5
U
(a) R 0.5
u
(b) R;:. 0.5
Figure 5.7 EfTcCI of reaction ratio 011 the velocity lri:lfIg1cs
5.4 STAGE LOADING
For a reaction ratio of 50 pCI' cent, (/1
2
-lId:::: (h.\ -liz), that is the stall;-
enthalpy and temperature increase in the rotor and stalor arc equal. Also, fnHIl
Eq. (5.12), #2 = ':Xl' and when the outlet and inlet velocity triangles an:
imposed, the resulting diagram is symmetric;11. This is shown in Fig. 5.7a In,
R > 0.5, Fig. 5.7b shows the diagram skewed to the right since Ill> ':1.
"
and Ihr
static enthalpy risc in the rOWr is greater than in the stator. The static pn'c".lIt"
rise is also greater in the rotor than the stator. If R < 0.5 the diagra.tn is
to the left as in Fig. 5.7c, and static enthalpy and pressure rises arc grcah'l
the stator than in the rotor. Areactiml ratio of 50 per cellt is usually cho';rll
that the adverse pressure gradient over the stage is shared equally hy I ht' :,liitlll
and rotor. This decreases the likelihood of boundary-layer scpnJ'illillll III hU11l
the stator and rotor blades and is the condition for maximum tcrl1peral ,
and cll'icicncy.
If t.he power input is divided hy 1111' 1l't11\ lUI II dlll1t'!I.l"llk,f. ,,,t'IlI,wlll
called the sta!!c loadIll!, lildl", I\"-IIIt"
188 HYI>RAlJlIC AND COMI'(U'SSIllU: FLlIW llJRIIOMAClllNI,$
r
190 HYDRAULIC AND COMI'RESSllll.l' FLOW TUIU10MACIlINES AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS AND FANS 1')1
BLADE CASCADES
previous sections have concentrated on relating. the required energy
or stage work to the blade inlet and outlet angles for both the rotor
stator. The next requirement is to decide on the blade shape that will give
required stage work at the maximumefficiency along with the minimum of
loss.
In Sec. 2,7.1 usc was made of blade element theory to relate the blade lift
to the energy transfer across the impeller of an axial now pump
(2.61, the blades of axial flow pumps and hydraulic turbines being of
solidity. Axial now compressor (and gas turbine) blading is of high
", J. with the result that the gas now around a blade is affected by tlw
Hround adjacent blades. In order to obtain infonnation on the effcct of
blade designs on air flow angles. pressure losses and expected encrgy
lJUllsfcr across blade rows. one must resort to cascade wind tunnels and
410flcade theory.
1\ cascade lS a row of geometrically similar blades arranged at equHI
from each other and aligned to the flow direction as shown ill
fit.", 5.10. The row of blades is installed on a turntable at the end of a wll1d
11l1H\cl channel such that the angle ofincidence of the blades with respect hIt he
Jllll'(wching air may he varied. Vertical traverses between successive hbHll",
uy then be made with pitot tubes, and yaw meters to determine
11!IC:; and air flow angles, Figure 5.10 is known as a linear cascade and call Ill'
IllVjllcd as a row of compressor blades unwound from the to form 111L'
Fi"ure 5.9 Resolving hlade into tli"
difcction of rotation
F

l'V", =Calcos fJr.: then


Fx """ pC,;dC
L
scc{1.,[l + (Cn/CL)lan Ii ,,,]/2
The power delivered to the air is given by
UF.t =m(h
03
- hod (W)
"" (le)s(1'OJ - hOI)
where the flow through one blade passage QI' width 8 has becn
Therefore
'/1 "" (ho) -/iO! )/iP
=Fx/pC"lsU
= (C"IU)({,/81 sec (i , (CI. f CD tan /1 ,1/2
=(/*'/S) sec fJ",(CL +CI) tan /1, )/2
For maximum efficiency, the mean flow angle If, is usually ahottl ,h
substituting f(>r this into Eq. (5.15), the optimum hlade loadlllp ladnl
becomes
V/"PI =: (</1/ \/'2)(c/s)('1 -I C
n
)
If Cu is much smaller than C\, which is w,wtlly Ihe \":t:.e f(l, a writ "".11'.".",
blade, then
192 IlYDRAULIC A!'-[) COMI'RESSlIILE HJIW n'RIlOMACIllNES
AXIA! II.OW COMI'RnSSORS ,\NIl FANS 193
(5.18)
.\';1
30 I
25 j'
I
20 .'
J
5
Trailing
edge posltinns
/1\
.. ' / \
/ \
/ \
;
' \.

/ \
\,
t 1
4
I
2
Distance along trailing edge of casell\!I:
UlOId H'l nf ClIl\'(:S ';(1(:11 as Fig. 5.12 are obtained for different im:idem;c
Ihe mean ddkclion and presslll'e loss coclTicknt for cach curve, i:
L11',/,1 ';, arc plolted againsl incidence angle as in Fig. 5.13, The
1'.1':(", wlllt ;Ji\gk or llIt'idcm:c lip 10 a maximum I;" This is the
wlll'II' ',l'p:lIatioll ,IITlils till the suctiou surface of the hlade, and
Illay !Hlllw wi'll ddlll,'d in sllllletksiglls, il is taken as the angle
flw UI\"II\ IHI':,'<lIl(" j" twil't' 1111' minimulll, (I is eVident
tlllwldtllll. Ihl' 1'11'.. In'," I', Llirly Cpllstillll alld it is
iln dIH'\' III ddk, 'I"" /+ lhal I', ai",. Illlltp;lllhlc with low
Iq1lF',,'lblll\( till I f1iltllilllitt alld hy U'II\I'lIlillll
. /\ M"", /\ 1\ __
7' v-----Y V
5.12 ('llscadc deflcdioll allli prCSSlII'e loss curves al otIC Hf\[de of illl'ldcllu:
), Thl: chord (' is the distance between blade inlet and trailing edges,
. i.tllgga angle is Ihat between the axial din;ction and the chord and
I\UR'1l1s t he angle at which the blade is set in the cascade, The Illude spacing
!tlill the blade pitch. If til,: air enlers wilh velocity C\ al angle Ci
l
,
f\Jlgk of incidence j is (a I . cr'l ). The air leaves the blade with velocity at
j i(,: and Ihe dilTcrcllcc (CL
2
._. is the deviation angle ii, The air deflection
j'i t (1
1
1..! l. and it is this angle along with the cascade inlet and outlet
Hillill pressures flo I and flo} that are measured in the tra verse along s. The
HI I he I raverses arc lIsually presented as in Fig. 5.12, the stagnation
Iii,,;:, being plulkd as a dimensionless number given by
From 3 and 4 it is evident that a cascade lest only applies for one radius alld
inlet angle, and therefore it lTlay be necessary to carry out a number of tests 10
obtain u reliable picture of the flow in the blades.
5.601 Cascade Nomenclature and Curves
Before venturing further into cascade testing and blade design, it is l1ecessan'
to define various important angles relevant to the design. In Fig. 5.11 ;1
cambered blade is shown with a curved camber line through the ccntn;.
The tangents to the camher line at inlet and outlet arc the camber angles (I,
and to Ihe axial direction respectively. The blade camber angle {I is defined :1',
I. Jn the machine, annulus wall houndary layers exist at the blade hub and lip.
'} In the mm;hine, alternate blade rows interfere with the perceived cascade
data now pattern.
3. In the machine, the solidity decreases from hub to tip.
4. Blade velocity varies from hub to tip, thereby affecting the blade inlet angk.
cascade. The number of blades comprising Ihe cascade has to be sufficient 10
eliminate any wind tunnd wall boundary-layer efftx:ls, and suction slots arc
often let into the tunnel walls to control the bOllndary layer.
The data obtained from cascade lesting have to be corrected before
application to II prototype compressor can be made. The reasons for the
corrections arc because of the differences between now in the actual machine
and flow through Ihe cascudc. These differences arc as !i)lIows:
194 HYDRAl.II.1C A:-in COMI'IUiSSlRlJ-: FLOW TlIR!lOMACH1>:ES AXIAL FLO\\! CO\H'RESSORS Ar-;O ,;\>;S 195
Figure 5.13 Cascade mean (\.:ncetio!l and loss curves
Figure 5,14 Cascade nominal deflectio!l
versus air llutlet angle
C
fl t
'"
,
i"""\'
,
,
ui
,
"
._l..--L... _ I I
10 30 50 70
Air outlet lingle, .:t.: (dcgl
111lnUtlli C'Il may be obtained, where ell is the blade profile drag. The method
approach is to equate all forces acting on the ail' to the rate of change of
1.1I1\l'lltlltn of the air,
III Fig. 5.15 two blades of a cascade having chord cand pitch s are shown.
1-,1'1'1 iOllS I and 2 the total ail' pressures arc Jlo 1 and P02 respectively with
l,!,pondillg velocilies of C\ and C2' while the density change across the
'11th: is negligible. The static pressure change across the cascade is
-15
'----
--__1.-....__-
-20
0.025
5.6.2 Cascade Lift and Dnlg Cocftkil'llts
where
The pressure ratio is gl!Vl:nwd hy thl' dllll!'l It' Vllf III!' ''';tW' nlld Ih!'; ,'11,. ,,,,,,i
depends on the total 101 holh tht' wi,lI illl" !,tnlill ltl\\', lPHIl
cascade k:d "'\1"". III 1/-0 iI'" lilt\' lill PH'IIl' hid i I ;11111
m=O.2J(2a/d +0.1(((2/50)
and II is the distance along the chord to the point of flIHxilllUlll ('amlin lot
circular arc camber line, (211/c) "" J, Hnd this hlade form is oncll tho:.rH
1:* =0.81;,. The nominal defiection angle 1:* is dependent mainly 011 I
pitch/chord ratio (s/c) and ':;(2' this being detcrmined from a large lltllnhcf
cascade tests. It is thus possible to plot a set of mastcr curvcs of 1.:* vcrsliS 1 !
diOcrcnt values of (Sid. These curves arc particularly useful to the ii,',: II> "" "
when any two of the three variables are fixed. For example, iI'the rolnt
and outlet angles {J I ,lOd /12 are known, 1:* can be found, and at angle Ii"
can be read from Fig. 5.14.
The deviation angle (> is caused by the air not remaining attached I..
blade over its tolal curvature. () is given by the empirical relationship
() =mO(s/'c)1/2
]<)6 IIYDRAt.:1.1C I\ND COMI'RFSSII\J.l' Fl.OW TUIUIOMACIlINES
(5.25)
",! I) I HII! ,.
,- ,(IH 11 "1 1:\11 d .. 1 ! !
Ian"' :1.,,) =(pC;s/cos G(,Htan C(l - (.In :X
2
)
.j (spC;'/2cosCt.,)(tan
2
a
j
tan
2
,x
z
ltantx,
::t"Jtan ax
L =(1'(',; s cos a, )[(t,1l1 ::I
l
- tan (;(2 1
(
> 0
+ r.t) tan'Xl)(tan a
l
+ tan:Xz}/4]
("i/'o cos :x, ) tan rt,
+(tana
1
+tatlCt.
z
)2/41
(;08 11",) 1<111'1.",
(f/C',:S cos rt "Hlanr:;(t - taox2)!cm,2 a". (sj'io cos iX,.) Ian IX ,
C'". '"" C)COSCL, and ('II =C\ CO$a,; thus substituting in Eq. (5.15) gives
C
n
=2(s/cJ({'o/pCy)(cos;\ .a,)cm:,2 ':Xl) (5.2(1)
1\ similar procedure may be followed for C
L
by suhstituting for 1) and 1\1'
(5.24) to give
lanal)
1Ltan a, (s/cos C(,)[p(Cf .. ('D!2 - f'o]} tan IX.,
D/cos
1
ct., cos CI., )(tan
2
1X
1
tan
1

- (f/C';s/2cosCI.",){tan
2
:x) ._- lan
2
til)
+ :X,,)
The first two terms on the RHS arc equal and therefore disappear to k;,I\'\:
D=stio cos a,
"IJfvllllll!1 the drag by 0.5 pC;,c gives the drag codfit:icnl
(5.12)
(s/cosa,l[p(q ('ni2 Pu I
Now {l +tan
l
("I,) =sec:'.:x" and tan:X
L
= (tan Cit + tan ""I)i,), TIt,.'1l'It'I"
D/cos
2
'1.. l;lIll'x.,)(I:lIlZI j Lill ,I
Therefore
/. sin Ct. i Dens Yo", --- = 0
L= a,,)(tan:t I - tan ,Xl) - () tan a,
Substituting for Land /l.p in Eq. (5.23)
and noting that
J) =/. tan :1., --. 8/1.p/cos Ct.",
In the x direction the velocity changes from C.
d
to C.'2' and noting that tJII'-;i-
are in the negative x direction.
Leos :1.,. +Dsin::t, := - - C,<1)
= pC;s(tan a
l
tan al)
and
f) = rt,)(tan ctl - tan :):2) - [) tan a, ] tan rL,
(s/cos C3l/2 - Po]
and rearranging
!:J.p = /I(Cf qJ/2 Po
where !:J.p =(P2- 1'1) and PI) =(POI .- 1'(2)'
The summation of all forccs acting on the air in the control volume in the\
and y directions must cqual the rate ofdHlnge of momentum of the air in the:,!'
directions. Considering first the y direction, since ell is constant, there is nu
velocity change from 1to 2 in the y direction and consequently no momentultl
change. Hence for a unit length of blade,
where it should be noted that 1'0 I > POl because no work is done in the eascatlt'
and the flow is irreversible. Equation (5.21) will be written as
given hy
198 lIYDRAUI.lC ANI> CO\WRrSSlllLE FLOW TURllOMACHI:-;ES AXIAl. FI.OW COMPRI'SSORS A::"'D I'Al'S 199
!,'il:llre 5.16 Lift alld drag cocllkicnts [tlf the cascade from Eqs (5.26) and (5.27)
(5.32)
(5.30)
(5.31)
(5.29)
70 Figure 5.17 Nominal lift coeffi
cients for the cascade
1\I'I\lal rise in compre"sor blade row
IlIl'll! rlll'i11 in blade row
\vlll Oci'ur wlH'1! Po is zero, that is when there
iii'il'iHh' f1wldorc from Fq. (5.22)
,'/<'
-----J1.5
-----JI.O
EFFICIENCY AND STAGE EFFICIENCY
CDS =O.018Ct
GOA =0,02(8/1)
drag cocfficient is given by
('In =CD +ellA -+ CDS
drag coefficient
shown in thc previous sectkm that linear cascade data may be
lIs\;d 10 determine the lift and drag coefficients for the cascade and
ItHl(hllc(1 hv the addition ofannulus drag and secondary losses in order
imate I drag cocO'icicnt for an annular cascade. After determining
hl15J 1), the loss coefficient po/O.5pCr is determined from
111(' hlade row cfllcicncy lib is defined as
I is the blade height.
5
1.0
3
C
I.
O.ll75
0
c
V
....
c::
ti
'J 0.050
I;
\I
:;
'" bJ,
,.;
ell
0 0.025
0
__L_
-20 -15 -to -5
() 5 !O
<lllgle. i (dcg)
..-------------------,1.5
The air inlet velocity Cl' the incidence angle i and the blade inlet ;lI\ld,
:x'I arc known and therefore:x, ( =. (X'1 +i) is also know'n, The deviatiolll: is I COif I
from Fig. 5.13 for the angle of incidence, and ':X., . .,... tan- I [(tan all tan ,1,).1
whereGC2=(Ct, I:),
Knowing (s/c), values of i;o/O.5pCf can be read from Fig. 5,13 for
incidence angles and upon substitution or these variables into Eqs (5.2111
(5.27) curves of C
L
and C
n
may be plolted against the incidem;e angle as
in Fig. 5.16. Finally the lift coefficient can bc plolled against lhe air olltkt ;,
':1.
2
for the nominal value of c* for a whole serics ofditTcrent ry ,"'.,..1.... ,
to givl"l the vari<ltion of C'" with air outlet <Ingle for a particular (sid
(Fig. 5.171.
The drag coefficient is usually very small in comp;lrison wil.h ( I
therefore often ignored so that Eq. (5.27)
C" = 2(s/c)eos:X,(tanCt
I
tallC(21
To the profile drag as givcn hy Eq. (5.2(1) tWll further Illll'.! 1,,
for reasons described in Sec. 5.6. al<..' t1h' drill' d'ftTh due I" lit,
the compressor, usu;llty ealkd the ;\IIlltdn'; dlHI'. 'Ind IIH' ';l'IIlIHhl \' I.
caused by trailing vortices al tIll' bl;td, tip'., I;n'llllllill rdilllllllo,lllp'; 1\1
these drags ilS 1'01111\\1\,
200 HYDRAULIC A'>;I) COMPRESSIBlE FLOW TlJIU\OMACllt:<:I'S AXIAl. FLOW ANI) FANS 201
15.]!'!)
, I f ,lit ./dl' 1(, .11 ',.!dt tl
It"
/ \
\
\.
\
/"
dO
(p+dp) \r+drldl!
on a nuid clement
Ii \\' I\i
dp/2) dr'
on the two-dimensional principle could be seriously in error as
ce,hHHll'Il" blade angles,
Radial now is caused by a temporary imbalance between the centrifugal
radial pressure forces acting on the fluid. When these forces balance each
then.: is no radial velocity and the fluid is said to be in radial equilibrium,
lll('! hod of analysis is known as the 'radinl equilibrium method' and
lhat all radial movement of the streamlines takes place in the rotating
passages, while on either side the streamlines arc two-dimensional us
raledi" hg. 5.18. The analysis examines the pressure forces acting on an
ollluid, shown in Fig, 5.19, and equates these forces to the centrifugal
ill'lllIg nn the fluid. The stagnation enthalpy h
o
at any radius is then
and tht following equation is derived:
dllll/lIr C;/rt (', dC)dr + C
n
dCjdr (5.37)
1'l,I;1l1PII {'l \ IJ I:, II\!' radi;d l.quilihritllll equation and may be applied to
III dllkn.'111 1'01 lIh(anu', jf il assumed that the energy
11111';1:.1111 iU ,ill udti. Ihcn liltiJdr (\ and
(5.34)
(5,351
l'htUft' fh;\
!Iihr, fl!\\' Lq LHIHI f:q"HtidHiHI
11,,1<
Slat or lJ.l,uJc
lib =(L\ij'h"," Po
= I {in/lip, h.",
[{OIOT hlade
If, for 50 per cent reaction, total values arc used instead of static values, thtH
the total-to-tol.al pressure ratio is approximately equal to the static-to-slaln
pressure ratio.
SO we have heen considering only those now;; Ihat arc two-dimensional III
nature in that only whirl and axial now velocities exist with no radial vclOt:il.\
component. In axial now turbomachincs with hub/tip ratios greater than 011
this is a fair!v reasonable assumption concerning the flow in the annulm., hIli
for hub/tip less than 0,8, the assumption of t wodimcnsionaillow is HO
longer valid. This is seen to be so in the case of aircraft compressors, and at I
end of gas turbines where, because of the high mass
requirements and the need for as small a fmntal area as possible, the trend Is
longer blades on a smaller hub, Radial velocities set up in the blade nm
now result in an appreciable redistribution of the mass Oow, which
seriously affect the blade outlet velocity distribution, Consequently allY
where both actual and theoretical static pressure differences are expressed in
terms of known angles. For the normal stage, CI "" C.\, and therefort: the stag!:
ist;nj ropic eO'ideney can be approximated to
5.8 FLOW
and blade dricicm:y is defined as
777T1I17Tl/l!/1/ /}/ / " .. illi/.'
It can be shown that for reaction ratios of 50 per cent, when (T
2
Td in the
rotor will equal (T\ T
2
) in the stator, the blade cl1iciency and stage iscntropic
cfficiencics arc the'same, For other reaction ratios, the stage efficiency is given
by
202 HYDRAULIC AND COMPRESSIllLE FLOW TlJROMACHINI'S
AXIAL FLOW COMPIU:SSORS AND FANS 203
5.9 MULTI-STAGE PERFORMANCE
('I'U)
(5.42)
Figure 5.20 Mlllti-,Iagc comprcssion
s
topic process,
the numerator consists of a number of isentropic enthalpy increases. But
entropy increases through the compression, so the constant pressure
"'\i"'I'1'" and
II'./' tllllstll' \ I 11..!I' ]d11
IIplII Iq. (.'i .. II). and fill" the constant in Eq. (5.42). then
11.,(111.'1) II)' I )i)" l(d/'/I')
,"""",,' lidWI'l'l1 II ... linn\; 01 till' from I 10 II.
IJ. > 'h
IS. I he overall single isentropic compression efficiency is less thun the
'elficicncy. The difference also increases with pressure ratio and with the
Ilf stages, .
Tn accuunt for compression in stages, a small stage or polytropiC
lell!,\' is dell ned for an elemental compression process, This efficiency is
(\I','\'(I to bl.: constant throughout the whole compression.
heal. then for the elemental compression in Fig. 5,21
'I == dTidT (5.41)
I' '
(SAO)
(5.39)
C,r "" cansl
WI",== (1111'
and the isentropic efficiency of the compression is
'Ie == (hils - hlJ/(h
ll
ltd
W,lm == (/1
2
, hI) +(11.1" h,)l (h,j., h,d I (II". h,)
and if for similarly dcsigm:d stage" the dHl"hmty 'I" !Ill' ";11111'. th"1i
'I" (W,"lIlt
t
(h
u
h,)
lfwe nowcompress from Ito 5in a number of small linilc Ihe h"HI
work done is
which upon integration gives
C. is constant over the annulus, then dCIl/dr == 0 and hcnce
dC.../dr = _. C,,:/'-
and this is the requirement for flow in a free vortex with the whirl velocity being
inversely proportional to the radius. The outlet blade angles would therefore
be calculated using the free vortex velocity distribution.
It is not necessary to stipulate that dl/o/dr be zero or indeed that ell is
constant at all radii. It might be desirable to specify a radial distribution of
energy transfer, choose a radial distribution for C
II
and calculate C., as a
function of r which satisfies Eq. (5.37). Having discussed the principle of
dimensional analysis, however, it should be stressed that it is not a panacea 1'01
all design problems since loss of performance due to boundury-layer growth
and secondary losses detract even from the improved accuracy of radial
equilibrium analysis.
The total pressure ratio across a single stage is dependent upon the
tempcruture rise across the stage, and the unthinking might assume thaI, Iii
find the total pressure ratio across N stages, it would only he necessary ttl
the prcssure ratio to the power of tile number of stages, such that if Pnr Ih,
pressure rutio for one stage, then the total pressure ratio is given by (PIIt.)"
However, this is not correct, since for the same temperature rise per stage.
the entropy increases, the pressure rise decreases, as examination nl I
Mollier chart will show. It is here lhat the small stage or polytropic
'Jl' is employed,
In Fig. 5.20, if we compress in a single compression from I ttl
isentropic work done is
204 lIYDRAtJLlC Al"J) COMI'RI1SSIIlLE FI.OW TURllO!>1ACIIINES
T
tiT
Figure 5.21 Polytropic or small "law
compression
and rearranging,
PU/PI =(TII/Tl)'I")'/(Y-1)
Atypical valuc for polytropic emciency is (j,SH and in initial design I,;lU'l..lllillll 'IPi
it is often assumed that Ill' ;;;:; 1"-
If it is assumed that we have equal totnl temperature riscs in cach
and denoting the inlet conditions by 01 and outlet conditions at the last
as 0[1, then for N stages,
I
- (T IT )'1")'/(1-' I)
POll fill ('1 .
Also
== +NL1To)/'I;J1
where A is the stage total temperature rise. It is abo usual to assume thilll
polytropic and tolal-to-total stage isentropic efficiencies arc equal at a
about 0.88.
While it is possible to make a very rapid calculation of
I hrough the compressor by this method, the step-by-step Cil kula110li
conditions lhroughollt the machine should still be made, p:trticui:lrly II
forms change.
5.10 AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSOR CHARA(TEIUSTI< 'S
A multi-stage axial compressor characteristic is shown III "II'. I,
compming this with Fig. 4.10, il is seen I hn lllll: prcsslIn' .illill iif I he 'XIII
compressor is less scnsitive to mass now variations at;r /',!Vt'll ',pted lIliltll'"
axial compressor.
In Fig. 5.22, Ihe ,k'ill'll IlIW.'; lIow illld p,nqlJ(' nlilP ,HI' ,It 1"'1111 I
AXIAL "LOW (OMPIU,SSORS ANn FANS 205
[)c,ign pomt
I
_J
1.2
Axial now compressor characteristic
I opt:rating at this condition, all air flow angles and velocities throughout
\'nIlIJH'cssor arc at their correct design values. We will examine what
within the compressor when the mass Oow at the design speed is
H!!:d. and when the speed itself is changed. In practice the design point is
III the surgt: linc (point 5) and if the mass tl(W,I is only slightly
pressure ralio uud density in the rear stages will both incrcklsc.
IIIfpA, the axial velocity will decrease and hence the incidence
will incrcase sharply in the rear stages. thereby causing stalling in
\\,tsdy, a small in mass now will lead to a sharp drop in
latlo In point 2, 'nlc dcnsity also drops sharply so that e
a
increases.
ill Ille large of the incidence angle in the rear stages,
UIlll'illll' ,.Ialiing III the fear slagcs with negative incidence.
''I"'ed (,f til" \,UlIlpn'SSUf is redllced sothal the operating poinl moves
111;\',', II. oW and I hcrdorc ( '" 1:,11 fash:r lhanl he hlade speed V, result.ing
IIlllden,,, ;tllglv i\ hlllh,." :.Iighl reduction inlllHss now along
fIJI I .,p",'d dlill .Hln hi Ii' wllllt;I\'!' Itll Ie dle!'l Oil Ihe lirst-slagc density
41"'" il hili 11'1 ill II ;tnd llll',,ibk slallillp ill 1111.' first If
IHflil',,'d ,111m\, >.\,1".'.1, till' ldu'lthflnd ofli,sl:;I:lgeslalling
10 I nill I'> Inv low illid '"W'UllIl"lItly ( "
2()(i HYDRAUI.JC AND !'LOW TURlloMACHINES
AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS AND FA-SS 207
5.2 An axial nuw compressor stage with 50 per !.'Cnt reaction has lhc following dat:!:
lOOmis
0.5
n.HI\
lU,,1
I.l

0,1\11
'1'1 I kl'.1
1\', .
llw rotor uit inlel ungle,
til,: 11I1I11hcf of stages required.
till: stalic lempcrutufc of the air at cntry to the rotor and
!he rotor inkt rdative Mach tIllmher.
llow has 10 stage,; and the following data apply loe:lch slagl' at th.. 11'1\.'.111
!lll'.nlllll' "II \'dol:!ly at ['Utor inkl
1l111".. "I,,!.. 'I'll \l'I\iuIY af wll\l' onlkl
,h!lIi'III\,lo,
110.' lol,d Imv.1l11' fill,,, "llh.. lli'd ',"we "Il'! Ih.. ,11"1,111 ',l:ltB' 1'1"""'"
1
' 1"11,,
np11, fl'\t lH ;1 l,thul,'I.OI y ;1 ',[iq'plil,\,IIHH ,Ill 01 ,hI' if
U-o\ rlfHt 11,.\\ ff h tkculnlln tnlW I ' till} 1I).h\ IId\'\ l p,:t
1.1",1., ';\,d'd I', I.,I'( ",,""I ,Ill! , ,,,,,I d I, ,1\'''1".11 Hu,kl Ihh 11""\ l'olld'lI,illll",tlllt' ,,1,,11\
Iqlnl iHlil"lilh.' ,,-HHHl _IlH'lwHpcd \Vlild t; tfu '\ldi
U
" fllHI
IIw \hHt t:tl,tlt, Ii:
fUI the blade and air angles at the mcan radius.
Ib) the mean mllius.
the bl.\de height,
1<1) the pitch und chord and
the number of blades.
thedatll ofexerdsc 5.5, ira circular arc camber linc for the b\t\dc is assumed, ,md abn th\'
Fig, 5.13. determine:
(al the blade camhcr angle,
the deviutioll.
Ihe blade stagger,
the tout! dmg coefficient of the blade,
blade row efficiency and stage efficicncy.
'Hage sIalic pressure ralio and
the stage lolal pressure rllHo.
t.cro incidence und n normal stage (C I "'" C)
Illllal flow has constant axial velocity throughout the compressor of 16() Ill:''', a
speed of 244 mls lind delivers a pressure riltio of 5: 1. Each stagc is of 50 1'('1' (,'I\t
Ill! ilnd thc relative outlet nir angles are the same (30') for cueh stage. If a polytl "pi,
llCy of 88 per cent is assumed, determine the number of stages in the compressor,
II compressor delivers a totul pressure ratio of 6. the total head pl(':,')II11' lIud
'l(III!rc at entry being 0.408 MPa and 300 K rcspcclively and the o\lcra1l1,cntropll' dt"''''I\<I
Ii;' percent. TI,,:dcgrcc ofrclIction is 50 percent und all stages contribute an eqllal allllll''''
At II pllrticular /llage the blude speed at the meun height is 203m/s 1I11l1lhe aXlalvri"'I!\
If the ilhsolute air angle entering the rotor at this slagcis 15' alld the work tlm\" 1,1',10 >! h 1'I(IK
,n
OJ,,
0.7"
12K
25 kg.s
150revil'
1571\1/s
0.95
200111/\
50 p',r \:\:1\1
.1
.'XX l\
lnlltl',.
EXERCISES
Iflhe stage is normal. whal I'; the stagualiotl rise in lhe firsl stage of thl' nllll'" 1"",'",,1'"
5.3 An axial flow compressor stage is to be designed for a stagnatiotltcmpcrat lIrc rise ul ,'ll h
work done factor i> 0,92 amI the blade vclt,citics at the root, mean radius and tip ;m: 1'\ I:"
262.5 Illis respectively. Thc .udal velocity is cOllstant from root to tip and bi 15'1." III"
reaction r'llio at the mean radius is 0.5. what un: the ialet and outlet air and htn<k dll,+"
root, mean radius aad tip for a free vortex design') Calculate also till: I'Ci\(;liOll ilf Ih.. I,I<!!
5.4 An alternative de,ign proposal to that in exercise 5.3 is to !wvc 50 pcrn'lli I('adi""
whole hladc, V'ihat, thcn, willthc air and blade angles be?
5,5 The design of the fir,! stage of un axial flow compl'cssor calls for thl' 1'"I!"Wi'II'. h"I.'1!
Stage stagnation t,'mlxraWre rise
Muss flow of air
Rotational specd
Axial velocity through stage
Work dOlle f<ldOl'
Mean blude speed
Rcat:llon at thc lI\Ciln radius
Rolor bhulc :.18PCC[ l'atio
Inlet stagnation tcmperatur,'
Inlel stagnation pressure
5.1 Using lht: notation given in the text, show that ill lin axial now cumpressor Slag.:
Air inlel st.lgnation temperature
Rdutivc flow angle at rotor oullel measured from Ihe axial dircction
Flow coefficient
Rehllivc inlet \<facn number Ollto the rotor
Unless otherwise stated, the work done factor is unity and inlet stagmlllntl
conditions are 101.3 kPa and 288 K. For air Cp = 1005 J/kg K: R "" 287
j' -= lA,
increases until sonic conditions and choking of the fiow in the rear SIal""
occurs.
When the design speed is exceeded (point 3), the characteristic cv(:ntll:lI1>
becomes almost vertical. The increased speed allows more air to be passed III
higher density and pressure ratio. But at the inlet, the mass flow increases fa',1I'1
than the density and choking of the inlet is usually the first to occur. All 01
limiting conditions discussed above lead to unstable or inefficient <""'\""",'1,,,;,
and should be avoided at all times,
I ',Il(. rn/s
lUi the l'akllialcd vahws
AXIAL I'LOW COMl'lUiSSOns AND IANS 209
2R
tan Ii 1""'-- - tan {12
(II
2 x 0.5
="'-- --- -- tan {i,
0.55 -
"'" 1.19
PI = 50 deg
WI =C,)cos 50" =C
n
/O.643
Ill( WI and (;1
(
C2 )
C,: 'l;n - cos
2
50'
1,4 x 287 x 0.5625 (290 - c; )0.643
2
1.44 x 1005
271 .:>; 10" O.OMC,;
170
(
('2 )
W
2
="RM
2
T. - !
1 J ,I 01 2C
III
C,.leos III and CI = Co/cos also fJ 2 =!X
J
, Thus
C1 =C,,/cos 32" = C,.l0.848
, c,;
Cp (lo2- 1 0I}""' (p (tanIJ
1
,-tan{i
2
)
ur(lblem resolves itself into finding PI and Ca'
Eq. (5,! I)
"
()
pHi;
P02'c1 =P2 + :1
and
pWf
POlrcl == PI + 2
Therefore
Along I 2s
I
dh= dp
p
Hence
I
'I'd" =dh - ,- tip "" 0
II
or
SOLUTIONS
- lv'f
III ,- 17, ""
2
Across the stage the fluid may be assumed incompressible. Tlwrdotl'
Now from Fig. 5A along an isclltrope
Exercise 5.1 From Eg. (5.6), in the rotor of a turbine or
quantity I is constant from inlet and hOI'"' =h
02
,el' Therefore
wi W;
ill +.,::::112 +-,,-
- ..
208 HYDRAULIC ANn COMPI\I'SSlIlLr FI.OW
(I
C',.tl /Iii 1 I II
flo 1lL'1 fill,'" I
""",-
Thus
Exercise 5.2 Since Ihe slngc is 1101'11\;11 ;1IIi! 11'01111"11 "lJ
triangle is symmetriGd ilS ill Fig. \1
From Eq. (5.4) IF/ill C')'('I;,-, I;'! l ;1< In\', Ilw
Ian 15.21"
al all radii
II I, \
=54,37'
Ii",
tan I'/lm
f1
,
AXIAL. FL.OW C(J.\lI'RESSORS AND "AN" 21 t

{i
lt
=40.9'"
(X2t =38.45"
il
ll
:::: 15.21"
-_.._.".
tun //z! =1.66 - tan :::(21
=1.66 0.794
"C:<;z =: COllsI
tan ,x21:= 0.8 Ian ':x 2",
::: 0.8 Ian 44.8"
=0,794
outlet air angle
lIulkt blade angle
l\ll!villl'. now to lhe ")(1/, the sume equations apply. At inlet
lall :'Xl +lun {JI =I
lip, inlet air angle
tip, blade air angle
tan 112 "'" 1.333 -- 0.993

;;;;;; 1.666
tan tt
2
+ tan #2 =1,66
0.5 x 2 x 210
tan III +tan/J2 =-1"57.5
= 1.333
1'11\ C."" ::= 1'1 C.<t
I',lnn
f
1'I
21U HYDRAULIC AND CO.\1PRESSlllLE FLOW 't'LRllOMACHINI'S
C". I'} If )
R= 2U-(tun J I +tun, 2
..
Eliminating tan P2 gives
2tan II l =1.99
{J,l
20 x 1005
lanlJ
I
-lan/J! ='" o.92xIiOx-157S
=0.66
Exercise 5.3 Solution begins at the meat! radius f
m
and from Eq. (5.9)
0, AUmCu
T, - T. I = ... ,.. -..,.., (tan If I - tun fl,)
(1,\ 0 C f' fl.
r
Also from Eq. (5.11)
whence
:XI = {J2 and tt2 =III since R=0.5 at the mean radius,
At the tip, from the velocity triangle of Fig. 5.3 at inlct
tan ttl +tan{J\ =u/e"
262.5
..-Ts'fs
Thus
Thcn
Similarly ut outlet
For free vortex design rC-"1 =const at all radii and tlwrd'olt' lw(wc"n
mean radius and the tip
Since ell is a constant
At the lip using Eg. (5.! I)
20 x 1005
tan fL := .__._._- .......
0.92 x 157.5 x 157.5
=0.881
ian {I 0').\
I!! \ ,11 ,J I
:'. tall Ii I I.XX I
{11,1\ '1:,
AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS .,\"in F,\NIl 213
=0.528
tan /J
2
= Ian 47.64 - 0.528
"" 1.097 - 0.528
f12 := 29.64" =a
l
tall{f,
20 x 1005
tan III - tan /1
2
=0.92 x 157.5 x 262.5
oLltlet angle
AlIIII' root \Ising lhe same equations
0.5 x 2>< 157.5
Ian {J, +tan If2 "" .' "-15"7.'5-
=1
using Eq. (5.
1
))
<Slllvllll' simultaneously for tan/I,
2 tan Ii 1 := 1.666 +0.528
tan II I := J.097
tip, blade angle and air nngics arc equal:
{l, =47.64" ,; ''X2
tan IJ2-' = I Ian i'Y.
z
,
:= I 1.324
= - 0.324
157.5
:= (tan 54.37' + Ian 40,9' l
262.5 x 2
=0.68
=I.Tn tan 44K
210
tan rJ., =-_.'. tan !x,
., 157.5 III
At the root. reaction
157.5
R
r
=----- .. ". (tan 28.6X" I lalll 11')';))
2 x 157.5
:;IUI2
{1
2t
= 17.95'
'X
2
, =52.94"
/1
1
, == 28.68"
tan{1
1
,= I tan 24.38'
=24.3K'
At the tip, reaction
At root, outlet air angle
Exercise 5.4 I!qnariollS ('" III and' \'110110' u:,,,11 al .i11 1,1.1" I lie lIllg" , ,Ii ,
mean radii will olconc:(' p'llla'" litH ILlIlI',-d
At root, inlet blade angle
At root, outlet blade angle
At inlet, air angle
and {l
z
, is given by
212 HYDRAULIC AND COMPRfSSIBI,F FLOW TURUOMACIIINrS
0,146
=2n ";("0.212
=(Ul In
PI
PI
86.1 x 10
3
=28i'X 274.88
= 1.09kg/m.l
1:+ III II ..
,1\11.' r( HI
III
(
274.9);1.5
PI = 101.3 2Sle
=86.1 kPa
AXIAL !'LOW COMI'RESSOItS ANIl IANS 215
the continuity equation
A= .25 ..__
1.09 x 157
=O.146m
2
\'anatiollofuir angle across the annulus is determined us in cl(crcises
and will llol hI: here. Suffice it to say that they will be
ti-ik"IPI,ol lljl(lll t.l1\' t Yilt: ,.1' flow chosen, i.e. free vortex, contant reaction. etc.
Ilw llotllillal ddkdi(lll tUl'vt (Fig. 5.14) for a number of blade
;It"".<I "'" 11Ii\\' 1I0W lit' used In find the pilch and chord. At the mean rudius,
IIl!,- lhill hind",., Ii. illl t'quivakllt to . .x,
cf
T1 =Ttl 1
2ei'
=2SS _ 162.4
2
2 x 1005
== 274.88 K
i!\HSllIllIflg isentropic flow at inlet we may use isentropic relationships at a point
Pt = (?\ )11<1' II
POI . 101
U
r =
III 2rrN
214 HYDRAULIC AND COMJ>RESSIIlLE FLOW TURUOMACHI:-;ES
tanfJz= 1.27-tan45.16
/1
2
=14.81" =al
I Yl
ILl', '1 HI
cos (II
2tan III "'" 2.(HI
/1
1
= 45.IC,' =eL2
c,.
200
=
2rr x ISO
=O.212m
I
,) ) 0.5 x 2 x 200
tan JI + tan I/.> =
- 157
= 1.27
(b) Mean radius
Exercise 5.5 (al Using Eq. (5.9) at the mean radius
and hence
0.95 x 200 x 157
22= .. _.. 1005 (tan/II tan/J
2
)
tan{J , -tan{J
2
=O.741
Using Eg. (5.11)
Solving simultaneously for /1
1
and #2
Now
(since diagram is symmetrical) and
(c) The hladc height is found from the annulus arca of flow !lsi'll III I
continuity equation
AXIAL FLOW ANI) fANS 217
(b) Camber angle
0.012 ilnd substituting this
nOI'
t. 1
from Eq. (5.29) the annulus losses arc given by
('1)>\ 0.02(slll) (span = blade height)
0.02X3
",,0.02 x
0,11
O.OOS 145
, , I ,I {"
tI';jllg I'll''> 1.1 :II /\'10 ellCl\ /lq/d' ;
"q. t', ,'11) I'IVi'\ I;" thl' "tlilighl c:I:;cadc
39.57
=45.16 --_.;:;--
'-
Stagger angle =25.4'
0= 45.16 - 14.81+ 0.2330
Camber angleO = 39.57'
All information is now available for construction of a chosen profile blmlc
Ihe circular arc camber line at the angles calculated.
(<I) The cascade lift coefficient for (sic) =0.8 is given from Fig. 5.17 as
0.9 at 11.
1
"" 14.81'. From Eq. (5.30) the secondary losses arc
CDS =om SCt.
=: 0.018 x (0.9)2
=O.{)I4 58
() = :x'\
= :z'\ -:X
2
+<>
=:z'l - :X2 +0.2330
The cascade air inlet angle:Zl = compressor relative air inlet angle {J \ =45.16.
lind since there is no incidence on the blade. cascade blade inlet anglc:x'! equals
air inlet angle :Xl'
(0) From the geometry of Fig. 5.11 the blade stugger for a circular arc
caSC(lCle is gi ven by
() 1/1(/(8/1'11/ J
O)I,(!llqI' tl
(
2(1)2 (''X
m=0.23 -;.- +0, I 50
(
14.81 ,.)
== 0.23 x (I) +0.1 '\
.0 ,
I );-\'1<111011 ,I II .' Ill/
=0.26
s= 0.8 x 0.0366
=0.0293 m
Blade pitch
216 Il'iDl{AUL1C A"D HDW n:RnOM!lCHlNFS
0.11
c=
3
Blade chord =0.0366 rn
Circumference at mean nldius
(e)Number of blades =;.. ---- .
Pitch at mean radiUS
and hence from Fig. 5.14 at the air outlet angle {J
2
of 14.81", the solidity is fOlllld
sic = 0.8
. Span
Blade aspect ratio = .
Chord
2n x 0.212
0.0293
=45.46
Blade numbers ure usuHlly chosen to avoid those with common multipks
is to avoid the chances of resonant frequencies being set up between the
and moving blades. In this exercise a choice of 45 is divisible by 5 and I)
thereforc a prime under such as 43 or 47 blades would be choscn. This ;111<'1
the calculations slightly and so if we choose 47 blades
s =O.02lS3 ro, c == ill and ratin""' J, I
Exercise 5.6 (a) The deviation angle (5 =!1.2 as !'ihoWIl ill Fig. ), II ;lIld
given by Eq. (5.19). In Eq. (5.20) for m, (2aM is unity (for circular ale (';1
and at the mean radius, 11.1. for the caseadc equals {J
2
for the moving hl:llh',
= 14,81. Therefore
and
AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS AND b\NS 219
10'
'ib = I
c:. 1.27
o.on)
0.468
=0.931
Blade ro\V efficiency := n.931
[ (
">2 )J.1.5
1'0.1 = t +0.931 ,. .
1'02" .88
TOil! '1'11I I NATtl
T"I '1'''1
IIII' ';(,lpo;1111I1l It'mpetaluH' list' is
I . ,
= 0.931
1'3 =[1 + 0.93\ (. 22 )-1
3
.
5
PI 274.88 _
"'" 1.29
,f) The stage static pressure ratio is found from Eq. (5.35)
T ( T- T) ( ),r-ll!l'
= 1+'1. I =
CI C.
I
for a normal shlge and therefore the stage static temperature
i'tllIals the stage stagnation temperature rise
The stator bladl.: row efficiency will be almost identical for 50 per cent
\;Iion (at the mean diameter). Dilfercnces in the height and blndc pitch
tween rotor and stator rows can affect C
DA
but, as shown in (d), this drug
lIlilitutcs only a small part of the total drag audits clreet therefore is
uligible.
The stage efficiency for 50 per cent reaction is found from Eq. (5.36) to
the same as the blade efficiency,
Sinn' we 50 per cellt reaction the velocity diagrams arc
nn", " ... "01 as ill Fig. 5.7:1. ilnd ,",( I {1
2
'Y. 2 = Ill' The number of stages may be
ItOlll t'q.
218 HYDRAUI.IC A:-;j> COMI'RESSIlILI, l'LOW TlJRBOMAClII:-;I"'i
Blade drag coefficient == 0.0313
c =0.8 x 0.012 x cos] 32.41
-I) 45.16
=0.0116
Therefore substituting for the losses into Eq. (5.31) the total drag co\?lli
dent is
jio 0.0313 x cos
2
45.16
I/lc'y ='0.8cos'
J
32.4C-
=, 0.0323
IX", "'" 32.41'
tan 45.16 + tan 14.81
2
Now
CUT =CD +CDA +Cns
=0.0116 +0.005145 + 0.01458
Then
(e) Using Eq. (5.26) again to lind the pressure loss coeffi.cient in the IUm/Ol'
blades sincc the same equations and urguments will apply to circular cHsl'adl':.
as well a" straight cascades
( )
- 1
, s Po COS" :x,.
em =
and
Dividing Eq. (5.33) by pCi/2 we get
2 (tan
2
:X J tan
2
a2 1
=COS
2
[(t(lan
2
(Y.l taw'", .. )
CO".' 45. Ill(I;IlI!.I\U, lilll! II,HII
(l.lhK
Now the theoretical pressure rise through the row of blades is gl\l'H
Eg. (5033) when Po is zero and this leads to the blade efficiency of Iq, t '.
HJade efficiency
Cxl =CIJ tan a1
",,17IxtaI\15
Ij
Irotll Jiq.15.9)
LIII I
IfI I ,;Ii (Iallli I Ia u/l.,
tfl in \{tilIl4.'./1
Slltl'.lllltltlll 1t'lI1pnature rise in the stage
,\ I"
AXIAL FLOW COMPRESSORS AND FANS 221
= 1.82 K
'f. . (p )O'2Rli/O'859
011 = '011
Till 1'01
/ I" \ I"
II" =0.859
cllicicncy
ilibhlitull' IlIto Fq,(5.46) to lind the number of stages
'fOil Till + Nb. To
'1'01 Tor
for from Eg. (5.45) and ("I'oll.rrOI )' using isentropic
relationships we gel
[
"'(pon),,-
1l
IY Jl[-(polJ.)(j' ..
11,,:= - 1 1-'
POI i POI
0.82 = __ - 1)
=( + 1
=1.816
0.286 1
log6 = og 1.816
11"
lan/I\ =0.919
/J
I
=42.6" = :X2 for 50 per cent reaction
ll.nglc
(b) The overall isentropic dTicicncy is obtained by working between the
C(HlrnrC:SS(}f inlet and outlet conditions.
. . . Isentropic work done
Overall IsentropIC effiCiency =- done-'
=13.3
Nlimber of full stages = 14
(1.68 x 288) - 288
N = ".
14.37
== 1.68
Equation (5.44) gives the overall temperature ratio as
1
011
=
TOl POI
"" 5{).4iIO.lHI x 1.4)
=5(1.;\247
244 x 160
ATo = IOOS (tan 43.45" - tan 30')
=14,37 K
III
''''' 45.8 Ill/s
U <'.1
('II
-W'1 = CIJ tan /J 2
= 160tan 30'
=92.38 m/s
WI =C
1
= [(U _.- W'2)2 + C;]1/2
= [(244 - 92.38)2 +160
2
]1/2
=220.4m/s
cosfJ
1
CjW
I
160
=
220.4
{J l =43.45'"
..'(11 .IS.H
Thus
Now
220 HYDRAULIC A:"l.J COMI'IH'Smll.E fl.OWI U!{/JOMA< :HI:"I\S
Therefore
Exercise 5.8 (a) The velocity diagrams of Fig. 5J are nnce ngalll ':\11111",';/,
=15" = fl2'
Therefore
AXIAl, FLO\V COMV'WSSORS AND FANS 223
Ih}',
ip:, 1\'
ell
,x I
11>('.11
.'''' 502K
('
t
Tm+10 x
= 288 + I0 x 21 497
1005
=162.501/s
200
C = ,.... "",
" tan 45' + tan 13"
JI (' T., -lJ
'11= II
PI Ii
To find the overall static pressure ratio, we mHy usc Eq. (5.44):
Work done in the first slage is given by Eq. (5.9) as
C/,(To \ 1;JI)=I/JC"U(tan{1. tan/Jz)
=0.86 x 1625 x 200(tan 45" - tan 13")
=21497 Jjkg
the first stage, the pressure ratio is given byEq. (5.7):
=( 1+ tl" n
=( 1+
= 1.24
Exercise 5.9 (a) The axial velocity is first found from the velocity triangles
and since they arc symmetrical for 50 per t."Cl1t reaction from Fig. 5.7a. ':1.
1
=#2
and C(2 ={I,. Thl.:rcforc
U -. C"tun'J.l
. "" tan II,
ell
Cf
2e"
'/', =30n .
2 x 1005
=300 IS.S!'
=284.4K
(/1 =
=(1.4 x 287 x
= 338 mls
212.3
= 177
cos 15'
=
171
C
I
= CIl
I:OSC(I
=(U +C,;
=(203 .. 45.lW + 171
=53953
= 232.3 mis
1-,.- [(1.R2 x 3(X - 300J .
.II, ". 20.lH x Hl"' 100)
= IloR
= 12 stages
.__.-._---,_._, .
(d) The rotor relative inlet Mach numher is given by
M
I
,,,,,, Hi
l
/
III
(e) At entry to rotor
NUll1her of stages
222 HYDRAl.:U(' AND COMI'RESSlllI.I,: FLO\V TUltllOMM'HINFS
where
Also
Now
Therefore
Therefore suhstituting
IX
1
= 13.1
U=C,,(lanrt.\ +lall/i,)
tall 1\.1
I
II I I '.
Ii
(
0.4 \ i
tan Ill'" 0.65 - ...... ) / 0.55
1.0/ "
11
2
=37.87'
,\Xl;\L I LOW COMI'RI!SSORS "I'll IANS 225
41 ()j5 x 0.93
OJ ( I')
::t
z
=46.14"
taolX\ "" I -tan 57.76"
0.55
I
tan ex, = . - tan 37.87
0,55
U =C,,(lan liz +Lan :Xz)
(
O.4);i.
Lan {1
1
= 0.65 + ..... ,(1.)5
1.8 I
II, = 57.76
the velocity triangles
EqlJallon (5.11) gives the reactioll ratio
eJl
R =2 (tan{i\ + tan 11 2 )
Nnllvl/'W simultaneously for III and IJ2
t'm 11= (R +if
l
.) / III
'1 ') 1 !
.o-it /
tLlnlJ
2
=(Rr
J
;) /ljJ
~ .. !
'flllcn:I'Ol'c under the initial flow conditions
I
"
I!I! "" (488,1)0.86 x 1.4jO.4
PI 274.\
Overall static pressure ratio = 5.91
ii
c
2
111 = 7011 ~
2(1'
= 502 _ 166.8
2
2 x 1005
=488.\ K
= 288 ... 166.8
2
2 X 1005
= 274.1 K
c
2
l
' 'I' 1
1= 011- 2('
I'
Exercise 5.10 The velocity diagrams at both conditions arc sketched hdD\\'
(Fig. 5,23\ and it will be noted thut they arc no longer symmetricaL When 1Ili'
mllSS 110w is reduced. axial velocity C
u
is also reduced, and noting that it h
angles #2 and 0:
1
that remain constant, the dotted lines give the new vdodt)'
triangles. The angle OIl is constant as this is the exit angle of the air fwnl the
previous stator.
Equation (5.14) gives the stage loading
l/J =),ljI(tan C(2 - tan:x tl
= Alp(tan {I I - tan flz)
Thus
224 IIHJRAULIC AI'D COMPRESSIIlU; FLOW TLJIlIJOMACHINJ;S
and
Therdore
226 IIYDRI\lJlIC ASl> COMPRESSIBLE FLOW TUIWOM,I,CIll:-:ES
Also
., I
tan:x, =------ - tan 37.87'
- 0.5115
New stage loading
tjI =0,9 x 0.5115 (tan 59.86'," tan 37.87')
= 0.435
New reaction
0.5115 "9 ) - 37 "7')
R = (tan,) .86 +. tan. .0 '
2
=0.64
CHAPTER
SIX
AXIAL FLOW STEAM AND GAS TURBINES
INTRODUCTION
section, steam and gas turbines will be considered together, with the
that the same theory applies to both types of machines, This
llulIlilalily is valid providing the steam is in the superheated state and
Id'orc behaves approximately as a perfeCll::!<ls. Care should be taken. when
Ctllldition oftne steam falls below the saluration line on the Mol1icr chart
'llw thellry and equations developed in later sections arc not applied in
I This would most likely oceur at the low-pressure end of the steam
hille
\illl lIow lurbim:s were lirst built and used successfully by Sir Charles
whclI he instalkd a reaction steam turbine in a small marine vessel for
'.HHIl', 1011. Sinn' t hell development of the steam turbine has bccn rapid and
tile power output at the prescnt time ranging from a few
III MO MW. The (kvclopmcllt of the high outputs is duc in part to
I v,-Iv easy maHer of superheating steam in a boiler and superhcater,
palldllll' it through the turbine to bdow atmospheric.: pressure in the
It'w,n III ('\11 al'l Ille Illllximlltn energy from the stearn.
Ik\',+lnplIll'lI! nllhe il\ial flow turhine was hindered by the necd to
III it It it 1111'11 (,1100/",11 llnw tal<' alid ra tin from a compressor
ill !Ill' ,til ll''!lIllnnl'ltl 101 IIII' (,olllhu:;tioll pru('css and subsequent
of tile nlt,i\l:,l hUlI"ll\' till' all Was hy
il!ld lillir HlI ,r,,,11 ,1<1\\ '''tJipn':,-''"IIl':I'. di'\'C!OPId. which. in the
,in.llwlnilflll '1',", IIH' 1'1111'1'1 dn.'l''lwd hy lhc '1IIhll":
tlli \ wwd ill 10..11'''1\''1'1 'd ;i!lillh ;\lld
l
(b)
Slator casing '" Ld

Rolor
AXIAL FLOW ASf) GAS TL:RlIIl'ES 229
, Oullet
(,:2 and velocity through alld rcaction axial now lurhines: (Ill impulsc;
Fixed nozzle rings
"/1
,/,./' I
/,,/ Stalor
....... casing
ur!lii!t' ';I<ll'e alld velocity triatlgks arc iIIustl'Htcd in Figs 6.3 and 6.4
I hi' mil'l (II lite statnr hindI'S is d.. section 0, inlet to the
ia'ilioll I lUll! Illltld Irol1l Ill\' rolor 2. This numbering system
'iub'lnpl" "I the ,;irlithk:, nu' ';;lIIlC ils In Ihe 1:;lSC of the axiall10w
;\11 lIu\.\' IUll,I;'i !HI' "Wihlllt'd holll fill' ;I\Ial direction and care
wlll.n !!ildllW Ilil ,,"cIllerilllll" IIi whlth It customary
IHi'!P,!IIH 1I,,\\lh';\Wt lOti ..1 hlHIt. Ii1nll<lll
filhlinns through the stage will be examined in detail. The following
,llnptiolls will be made:
tdow conditions will be evaluated at the melln radius unless otherwise

Hinde In:ight/mc:m radius is small, allowing two-dimensional now theory
In he
velodties arc :1''':1'0,
"\11,11I1-/01 '1",\
,."'" I,", \' "I I "I" 1 II I", I h! I
228 BYDRAUUC ASD FLOW TURHOMM'HISES
for steam-driven propulsion in ships, although gas turbine propulsion \lllll;
arc often titted in the smaller class of naval vessel. Gas turbines an.: universally
used as the pow'cr unit for Jargejet aircraft propulsion, their advantage
thal they have a high power-to-weight ratio.
The principle of energy extraction from the gus is one of v,r;lldllaIlY
reducing the high-pressure energy by converting it into kinetic energy, Thill
accomplished by passing the gas alternately through rows of fixed and
blades. The kinetic energy or the gas is reduced in the moving hlades, whidi
attm:hcd to the turhine hub. and recovered in the fixed stationary
to the casing. This necessitates a gradual density decrease as th,'
moves through the turbine and the blade height therefore increuscs 11\\"lIlh",
the low-pressure cnd, if a constant axial flow velocity is to be m.;"I ...."'1
through the turhine. The stator row is often termed the nozzle row aud
ccrtuin types of steam turbine the nozzle row consists of a set of '-"'"VI'.Illlilli
nozzles spaced around the drum.
Figure 6.1 shows a steam turbine rotor in the bottom half of its
will be noted that the blade height increases in the direction of gas now
two important types of axial flow turbines are the reaction and impuhc
and combinations of each lype may be found in a single turbine. Blade j
arc discussed in Sec. 6.6 hut Fig. 6.2 describes how the velocity alld
vary through impulse and reaction stnges. The overall trend is it ,b'll'''',!
pressure with velocity recovery in the stator row or nozzle ring. Arow
blades followed by a set of rotor bhules is considered to be a :,1;\1,(
230 lIYDRAl:L1(' AND COMI'HFSSIllUi Fl.OW HJRIlOMAClllNFS
(6.1)
(6.2)
(6.7)
AXIAL !'LOW STbAM AND (J,\S Tl.JRlllNJiS 231
I" II
Ey = lV/ill = U(C'l +
=U(W.
d
+ W
.o.2
)
other as shown in Fig. 6A, from which the energy transfer is given by
t: = U(C
xt
- C.dl/o
sincc C...
2
is in the ncgative x direction, the w(lfk done per unit mass flow is
HI/m =C,,(T
o
1 _. T
(2
)
for II'/m from Eq. (6.4),
<',,('1'01- T(2)= UC,,(tan/f
l
+lan/Ill (6.8)
be Iloll,d that the work done factor ). is not lIsed in Eq, (6,8). This
ill a gas 01' steam turbine, !low through the blade passages is
lllirlllS('d to dcu:lcrating. Flow III the compressor and the cried
,UII.lIl'l'\l hIP,. grOWl It in I he fonner arc therefore negligible. For a normal
wltkh (" Co. Ihe slat it lcmpera (lin, drop across the stage equals the
IFI.ll.,'I,.III1,' drup.
Iwl"III' "Ia)',(' IlltalllHnLtl dliciency 11'1l' II is defined us
AdHal Wilik dnnc hy Iht' gas
Il u, II I I
1>;1'11111'1'1\' WOI" 1011('
If C,II : C
1I2
there will be un axial thrust in the flow direction. Hov,.'cver, we
assume that C is constant and therefore
W/m= UCII(tancx, (6.3)
.".,UC
II
(tan/J
j
+tan/J
2
1 (6.4)
(6.4) is often referred to as the diagram work per unit mass /low and
with this is the diagram efficiency defined as
. . . Diagram work done per unit mass now
Omgram CfflC1C1H:Y = .. _;-_........, ........
Work available per uml mass flow
=U{W.dl (6.5)
thermodynamic conditions or the gas through the stage arc shown in
6.5. where the inlet conditions to the stator arc at lotal pressure POll and
llmlhalpy 11
00
, For adiabatic flow through the stator row or nozzle ring,
'hoI' bUI, owing to irrcvcrsibililics, the Iota1 pressure drops to {Inl at
\11 olltlel (rotor inlet). Expansion 10 P02 and lotal enthalpy II
n2
takes place
rotor rowand, as shown in Eq. (5.6), h
Olrel
;::: h
o2ro
" The work done
mass flow by the gas is given by
W/m = Iroo fr
02
= hOI - Ito:'.. (6.6)
Figure 6.3 Velocity triangle, '''I
;lxial now l!HS (or steaml I'll
S\:lge

I
"I
s
Work dOlle
Fillure 6.4 Superimposed vclodty 'ri,lngles
II,
The gas leaves the stator blades wilh absolu(c vl'lo\i!v ( I ill iillph
by subtracting Ihe blade velocity vector lI, the rt'!;III\'I' vcliwil\ 1'\'( lfli
to Ihe rolor WI is determined. In movinj' anil,,', Ihe 1010' hl:uti
direction is changed, and Ihe presslIl'C' reduced willII' th..
decreased and the relative wllwity iIIC/I':!';"', IIII' P.W, kinT',
tangentially at angle fl.! with rclatlVl' velolitv II \'",IOll.lIh
blade speed results in lht: absllllllc I'dodt\' ('! fill'; h ilUIV tllf' Inln
the next stator row at angle rx,_ which In, H 1If1111\:1I Hjllllh
rcspcctivl'ly. 11\'0 vdocil VII ia 111(11'\ ill!' cPIlVnH
r
(6.14)
(6.15)
(6.11 )
I
' '/.,'/'. . . " J
1,,11
1
\ 'II! 11:/ Ik"./ji ..
I i I lilt /I" II . t I: I
th" rotor
hI!' both I he stator (nozzle) <lnd hlade rows, dimensionless los!'> cocm-
llIay be defined in two ways. For the nozzle
'N (IJ
I
11,,)iO.5Cf or YN=(Poo-POtl/(P'11 pd (6.16)
l'xaminatiol1 of Fig. 6.5 show!'>
(Sl< - "" (SI slsI
IWI'dl.m: into Eg, (6.14) gives
(11
2
, -11
2
.,) ;;;;; ('1'1/'1'I)(1t 1 "\
(/'" or YIt=(Plllrd-P02rd)/(P02l<t-P2) (6.17)
\,lIu,' III r or ,:; ill I.he slator and rotor represents the percentage drop of
dlH' t., hil'lll\ll ill the blades. which results in a total pressure and static
Ip\ dI' 'I' a.'I. ,.... 11\l' 1,,," ks, Typkallllsses arc of Ih\.: order of 10, 15 per
\tIll 1;111 tn' low." I", \TI Ii Illw v;lllIt,,; of Ilow cot:flkknl.
;,ltll',!illllillV lilt III' 'd",1t- I",." ,IwIIIlWIII:, intn Eq, (6.12l, we gel
,'}iI"t FI ow AI'D GAS" LRIllNrs 233
to the work oul put. It is defined as
'11(1 ,) = (11
00
-/io::! )!(Jloo - 1t
2
,,)
Considering the totaI-to-total elliciency of a normal stage,
JI
'tf
Ii '--" (/roo- h(2 )i(l'o{l II02"}
=(lr
o
.. - !l2)/(h
o
11
2
,J
For a normal stage Co =C
2
and \to = ell' and upon rcarranging
'1
l11
"'
11
== (h
o
-/1
2
)/[ (h
o
-- "2) +(11
2
--Itl..)1 (1l2' - 11
2
,.1] (6.12)
Hut consider now the slope of a constant-pressure line on the MollieI' chart
(Fig. 6.S}. Since d/l "" T ds then the slope along a constant-pressure line is given
by
(?h/i's)" =7' (6.13)
therefore for a finite change of enthalpy /\11 at constant pressure

l'illure 6.5 Mollkr dmr. f(lI !'
through un axial flnw SkHl1I "!
lurhinc shll,lt
P."
,,,.' (I""

, ..
-I
......... ... (I;
2
'I;)(),.. "" '/1<1 II T
oo
(1
'/;H) .... '1;\2 "'" Il
llt
... {P01/POO I)iiJ
Is 1,.-."""'"

t
02s
U2ss .. ..'
25
..-.-'
232 IIYDRi\ULI( A>':l) COMl'ltESSIIIl.E II.OW TURllOMAClIINrs
Thlls
6.3 STATOR (NOZZLE) AND ROTOR LOSSI(S
Before considering the 108s(;$ in the rotor ilnd stiltll[ I cow'., II \\111
worth while distinguishing bctween two iscllt ropie dlidcncll':; ,(\IIHlIlll\l\
in axiall10w turbine work. The first has already ddil1nlul hi ((I \)1
the temperature limits arc taken between lntal h:lllp'.;l;11 III I,,;, "lid
dcl1ned in this way, the eflicicncy is thl: [olat'(llIolal dll.wm \ I Ill',
used whcn the kinetic cnergy at the nulkt or (he stal',I' i'. ilillt/td f'" t!1
work. Such a case would hi' the propdlill/., lI11llk nl a IiHhl'It'I I'
inll:rlllcdiatc stagc(,f<llllllltJ'hlagt Itllhw" wlttll'lhe kil\lllP I Ii
lIsed in Ihe following st:""" TI" ..1IWI ,Ill, I< II' \' I'. II,, I.. tilll .. '.HI" "nil
\vhich is lIsed whell til(' 1,.;1\ 111/', I, Ilh'[1I .nl' \ \\';1'.11". IlIw 1l!'1
234 HYDRAULIC ANn C:OMJ>RESS1llLli FLOW TlJRBOMACIIINES
(6.25)
(6.26)
AXiAl. FLOW Slb\:\'1 AND GAS TURlIlNUl 235
from Eq. (6.4) may also he written as
= (,,(tan {II +- tun/J
2
)/U
=(tan{l, +tilnP:>J
4' is t he flow coefficient.
Illr llllpikation of a low flow coefficient is that frictional losses arc
III 111\, sInge since e'l is low, but for a given mass t10w rate the annulus
W<aH'a Wlltlld be Low values of VI imply a small amount of work done
. lind t he t't'fo!'c for a required overall power output, <llarge number of
i', I("tjllll'("d.
'.!'llioIliIlV mdH'.lflill power plants where the specific fuel consumption
ll\lpoll'llllC. :1 blll'.l'di'IlIll'il"l', rclativdy long turbine, of low now
".lIi,I"", <lnd Il,\\, hLIlI,.loil.llllg. gl\'lIIg a hi,dl rrllcicncy, would probably be
IIp\\'!' IIllIHIH". H'",d III ;111'1'11111 IHIlplihioll hav..: minimum
all.l I! 'null nO!lI'11 jl',lil il"" luO"adn.ltH'n'. 11IC,IllS using
made Loading Coefficient
work capacity of the stage is expressed in terms of a temperature drop
(If blade loading coefficient
If = W/mU
2
=(,,(1'01 - T(2 )/U
2
rand r are the loss coefficients at the new aspc'ct ratio and at an
..... 1
ratio of 3 respectively.
Also, in Eqs (6.21) and (6.22) I is the blade length. while a Reynolds number
is slill assumed. Should the Reynolds number not be 10-\ it further
may be made as follows. The Reynolds number for the now is given
Re:::::(2P1sIC1cOiHt:d/[/t(sCOSC(1 + I)] (6.23)
if'l is the loss coefficient at a Reynold:> number of lOS, then at the new
UI:VI1101<is number, the corrected loss coefficient is given by
(2 = (l05/l<e)0.25'1 (6.24)
This empirical method or loss prediction is based on the
11\)rJ'c:latiorl" and is derived from the analysis of a large number of turblOC
The cl-ror over a wide range of Reynolds numbers is as low as 3
Nozzle loss coefficients obtained from a largc tIllmber of turbine lests
typically 0.09 and 0.05 for the rotor and stator rows respectively. The total-
efficiency is in the region of 90 per cent, the variation with blade
l!Hldllllgund now'coefficient being plotted in Fig. 6.7, where it is seen that low VI
1/' give high stage cflicicncies.
, ,
I '"' length of blade
If the exit velocity is not utilized, then following a similar procedure for tht'
analysis, the tolal-tcHitalic cmciency becomes
rl!H-s) =: 1+ [(R W; + CNq(T:dT
1
) + QJ![2(h
o
-112)]} -I (6. Jill
As a starting point for a calculation, since '1'2 and 1\ are not very ditlcrenL I he
ratio (T2/'T1) is often taken as unity. Typical values of ( are given hy
where the deflection angle (; is I: =::1:
0
+ (Xt for the stator (nozzle) and
I: ={;l + fl2 for the rotor.
Equation (6.20) applies only fl.)r a Reynolds number of 10'\ based 011 11\l'
characteristic velocity C't at the stator outlet and the characteristic hvdra1l1"
diameter d
ll
defined as -
d
ll
=: area at ...
Welled perimeter at stator outlet
With reference to Fig. 6.6,
dll "'" (481 cos (Xl cos Gil + I)]
=(2slcosxd/(scOSGi
1
+I)
The ratio of maximum blade thickness to chord ((",:lX/ C) is 0.2 and lhe hLIlli'
aspect ratio (span/chord) based on the axiul chord {I.e. ccos Cl.J is \ 1'li
conditions other than the above, for instance if the aspect ratio is
the following empirical cq uutiollS may be used:
For rotors
( =<>.04 + 0.06(1:/100)2
f'or stators (nozz!t:s)
1+ '1 =(I + ("0",)[0.933 +(O.02Iccos t.(,,)/II
.1 cos !ll-_..
236 HYDRAULIC A]\;l) COMPIHiSSlIILE I'LO\V TIJ1UlOMACHlt'ES AXIAL I'LOW STEAM AND (.AS Tl)ItBlNlOS '237
6.4 REACnON RATIO
(6.30)
(6.28)

Ii
. PI
]
02,d
f,lI
If it is assumed that the axial velocity is constant through the stage then
R =(1'V;2 + W.d + W'2 - Un
=(W
x2
W\I)(I-V,2 + W
x
d/[2U(I-f'.<1 + Wx2 )]
=C.,(tan/l! -tan/ld/2U
=(jl(tan/J
2
- tan lid/2 (6.29)
Equalion (6.29) can be rearranged into a second form,
H= (C"tan/J
2
)/2U [(C"tan:z
1
)/2U- U/2U]
=0.5 + C,,(tan 112'- Ian Ct.,)/2 U
and substituting for (Ill 11
2
) in Eq. (6.27),
R;=; (W; -. h
n2
)]
= - Wf)/[2U(C,! +C.d )]
a third form is given by subslituting for
tan fi2 =(U +C.'2)/C" =(tan 11.
2
-I- [JIC,,)
Eq. (6.30), giving
R = 0.5 +C,,(tan '1.2 1 VjC" tan (Xd/2U
= I +C,,(tan0:
2
- tan<xdj2U (6.31)
of Eq. (6,29) reveals that for zero reaction, 1/2::= PI and
W
2
. The gas conditions through the stage, and the accompanying
triangles, are shown in Fig. 6.8, where the velocity triangles arc
to the left. Ideally, for reversible adiab<ltic flow, the points I, 2 and
the MoUier chart should coincide, and in th,lt case no pressure drop
in the rotor. Now consider a pure impulse stage where, by definition,
is no pressure drop in the rotor. Figure 6.9 shows the MoUier chart
the pure impulse stage where, for reversible adiabatic now, the points L
2s will coincide, and therefore with isentropic flow conditions prevailing
1I
oI--L-.......L-..L-..L_-LI.......L_J.---J.----..I_.Lt-L-J.---J.---l_LI-L...-...-.
0.5 1.0 1.5
r/> '" C.lt!
l'illure 6.7 made loadinll cm:fTidcnl versus flow cocllkiclll
0.5
"

-
..
.
1.5
f:-,'if
:Co. 1.0 _
2.5
2.0 -
higher values of flow coefficient and blade loading factor to give ;1 slllli
compact turbine but also, as a consequence, accepting a lower
(Fig. 6.7).
R 0= Stati,:_cnthalpx drop across rotor
Static enthalpy drop across stage
=(hi - h
2
)/lh
o
- 11
2
)
=(Ill h
2
l/[(h
oo
- C6/2)- (li
o
) (':;/211
But for a normal stage C
o
::= ('2 and since h
oo
::= II,n jn t IIlil/le, !IltH
R =(Ill II} )/(11
0
I h
oJ
)
Remembering that h
o1rd
::::: h
021d
then
The reaction ratio has more meaning in the CHse of an axiall10w lurhiw
for un axial flow compressor where it is usu'llly set at 50 pOl' cenl for the
The turbine reaction ratio ean vary widely from 100 per cellt 10 II,
implications of which are described in this section.
The reaction mtio is
AXIAL FLOW STEAM AND GAS TURIlINI:S 239
/p"
o
u
6.13 Stage expansion with reaction more than
100 per cenl
P"
:. {l,
Is '" 1".,;;:::::::-
I
J
i i :".""..-
.J.-" t-
2s
Hr.wltllll and IIlltH/lse hlad ing find usc in dilTcrent types of machines. (n steam
IIII hOH", \\ here, III Ihe high-pressmc end. pressure ratios across a stage would
Iiii'll, bludillf' univnsally IIsed sincc there is no
dlHP in 11ll' -itill'\' ,lIld 111\"ICllll(' 110 lip Ii':ikagr of till' steam from
..re 6.12 A 100 per cent reaction stage
,.5 .<... FE( RATIO ON STAGE EFFICIENCY
FIJ,:urc 6.1 t A 50 per cent reaclioll stage
II
P.
Is
Figure 6.9 Pure impulse stagc
23H tlYDRAUUC A!'Ll COMI'RESSlllLE !'LOW TURIIOMAOllNI,S
Is 2s
the zero reaclion stage is exactly the same as an impulse stage. However,
when the flow is irreversible, the zero reaction and impulse stages arc IIU!
the same undin fact an increase in enthalpy occurs in the rotor of the impubl'
stage. the implication being that the reaction is negative. For a negallv!'
reaction stage. the tendency will be for W
z
< WI' thereby causing dilTusioli
of the relative velocity vector in the rotor and a subsequent rise in prcsstlll'
This should be avoided since adverse pressure gradients causing flow
separation on the blade surfaces can then occur. Figure 6.10 illustrates I ht'
Mollier chart for negative reaction.
With 50 per cent reaction. Eq. (6.30) requires that 11
2
"" (;(1.//1 AI:,II
C1 "" W2 and C2 == WI' resulting in the symmelrical velocity diagram 01
Fig, 6.11 with equal enthalpy drops in the stator and rotor.
For JOO per cent reaction. Eq, (6.31) gives (XI == (X2 and C, =C
1
Wilh Iltl'
velocity diagram skewed to the right as illustrated in Fig. 6.12. Ihe
reaction ratio lO greater than I gives rise to diffusion in the stator passage:, ot
nozzles with C
1
< Co. This situation should also be avoided because IIf fhr
likelihood of How separation on the stator blade surfaces (Fig. 6.lil,
Ii
240 lIYDRAULl(: AND ('OMJ'IU,SSIllLl, I'LOW TlIRIlOMACIIl1"FS
one blade I'OW to the next. At the low-pressure end of steam turbines and
in gas turbines where the pressure ratios arc more modest. reaction blading
is employed. A choice of 50 per \.:cnt reliction means a sharing of the lolal
expansion between the stator and rotor rows.
It was seen in Fig. 6.7 that, for a high lotal-t[).[otal efficiency. tbe blatk
loading factor should be as low as possible, which implies as high a blade
speed as possible. consistent with allowable blade strcsses. lIowever. the
variation in total-t<Hotal efficiency with slight variation in the blade loading
coefficient is very small. this being true for a wide choice of reaction ratio.
[n contrast, the totalto-static efficiency is heavily dependent upon the
reaction ratio and it can be shown that the total-to-static efficiency at a given
blade loading may bc optimizcd by choosing a suitable value of reaction,
6.6 BLADE TYPES
It has been noted in the previous section that steam turbines urc usualh
impulse or a mixture of impulse and reaction stages whereas gas tlll'hIIH".
tend to be always of the reaction type, The pressure ralio of steam tlll'hiIH".
can be of the order or 1000: t but for a gas turbine it is usually no more I haII
10:!. It is obvious that II very long steam turbine with many reaction stap(",
would be required to reduce I he pressurc by a ratio of 1000: I, and even II
the prcssure drop per stage were made large to reduce the number of
blade tip leakage loss would stilllcad to very inefficient operation. Thcrdnl "
reaction stages arc used where the pressure drop per stage is low alld ;Ihll
where the overall pressure ratio of the turbine is relatively low. as would
the case in an aero-engine. which may typically have only three or 101\1
reaction stages of or near 50 per cent reaction at the mean radIII';
The requiremenl of different types of stages has led to differing design', III
blades for each type. and this section describes some of the pertinent plIlllh
relevant to each design.
6.6. J Reaction Blading
As described in Fig. 6.2, the pressure reduces through succccding slalol
rotor rows, the vclocity being recovered as the prcsslll'c ;Ind
necessitates a bladc passage that is convergent towards the uUIlt-I,
Fig,6.14.
For 50 per cent reaction tbe stutor Hnd rotor hlade'; Will Ill' 1111'
whereas zero reaction implies impulse rolor hbdt" Wllh I !l1l,UIl!
cross-sedional area passages and no change in now \'('I"llt\, 1{1';IIIHln
100 pCI' cent implies that the stator blades arc of the "011'.1,1111 ;lIlil 11111
type. It will be noted that the inlet angk III for the r,'acllpJl hl:Hh' 1';
zero while the prorik of lIw back (II flit' hlade h allno',l ItIlC:11 Iht lililli
AXIAL FLOW STEAM AND GAS TURlUNES 24]
-----,.,-__ Aimosl straight
Irailing cdge
6.]4 Reactioll blading
Figure 6,15 Shrouded gas turhine reactioll
blades
blade cvolved I:;mpirically in steam turbine practice. and comparisons
I"., "",'l'n hlades designed in the laIc nineteenth century for the first steam
till hun' and those designed by the later aerodynamic theory showed only
a 4 per cent illcrcasc in maximum efficiency. However. efficiency
of only 0.5 pel' cent or less arc noW very import<mt when fuel costs are
lnt II aCCOllllt. Reaclion blading is often shrouded at the tips, especially if
hilldcs arc long, This aids in preventing excessive vibration by tying the
together ami thus changing them from cantilevers to blades fixed at
['Ill h (hg, ldS).
IVpf III l,h,di!lv 11i\'1 ,kvdopnllll',tnllndly hOIll :;h'alll llll"billc practice,
/11111'11111 I, I IIi'" v.IUllIV II iiI 111'11':, wen' drawn al lhl' lI\ean radius
242 HY1>RAUI-W AND COMPRESSIlILl:: HOW TURllOMACIIINf$
of the blades. Because of the tip speed variation along the length of the blade.
inddcl1(.'C angles should ch.l'ngc from root to tip, resulting in a twisted blade.
However, it has been customary to ignore the twisted blade requirement and
to have an untapcrcd, untwisted blade of either 50 per cent or zenl
reaction (impulse). The loss of efficiency of the straight blades is very sm:i11
for the short blades that are used at the high,pressure end of the turbim:,
But for the much longer blades at the low-pressure end, larger losses call
occur, and blades in this region arc now designed on the frce vortex principiI'
instead of constant reaction ratio. For revcrsible flow through the rotor.
impulse llnd zero reaction blading arc the same.
Impulse blading is employed succcssfully at the high-pressure end III
steam turbincs. The velocity of the steam is increased in the convergent nO/Ill':
row to perhaps 800 m/s before entering the rotor blades and passing throltf!,h
them at constant pressure as in Fig. 6.2b. From Eq. (6.S), we can rcarranpr
+ as
W..,l +W"2 = Wt sin {it +W2sin liz
and putting PI =fl. for impulse or zero reaction,
W.. } + W..,2::= W
t
sin/ll(l -+- W
R
)
,",,(f'. sinex
l
- UHf + W
R
)
where W
R
is the relative velocity ratio W
u
l
\1ll' Substituting Eq. (6JJl illln
Eq, (6.5)
Diagram elliciency =2U(C 1 sin XI U)(l +WR)/C:
;;;; 2[( V/Cdsin:x, - (U/C t>2]( 1+ H",d
For maximum diagram cnldcncy. differcntiatc Bq. (6.34) with l'l:spnl
(ti/ed lind equate to zero. Then
0= sin:X
1
- 2U/C
1
or
UIe! ;;;; (sin ad/2
Equation (6.35) indicates that the nozzle angle CI.
1
shnultl \11' iI', 1111'11
possiblc. the ideal being 90, However, Ct.! is limited by C'", tlw
aI' the smaller ell becomes and thercCore the longer is Ihl' bhHk kn,'.11I
accommodate the rcquired mass now rak. Typical nOllk allgll'" all' IWI
65' and 78". The rotor blade passages art: 1l."lI.dly 01 ('lIp.lillll
symmetrical cross scction, with inlet and outkt ilngles (II ,I" 1/11 mHI
being typical (Fig. 6.16). The centres of l;urvill 1m' l)f IIll' I' '11\\'\ .111,1 , I!!!'
surfaces of adjacent blades arc tht:n localed ill t lie san", p"llll In r. 'lilt 1',11.;.''''''
passages. Another design of impulse hluding I h:11 II"" Iwell d,,',I"Wd
convergent divcrgt:nt IYpt', This llesh'lI IHI'; kell Iplilld IIwhtl III
AXIAl. FLOW STEAM AND GAS TU/UHNES 243
..........,.--/-__
-_. area passage
6,16 Impulse turbine blades
thc chances of flow separation on the convex surface of the blade are
by decreasing the radius of curvature or the convex surface. Thc
tilightly convergcnt pllssage aids in prcserving uniform now as the fluid flows
into the bend, lIud although the diverging section causes difl'usion of the
flow, the net effect is beneficial when the turning angles arc large and radii
Ill' blade curvature are small.
(1.(.,3 Free Vortex and Constant-Nozzle-Angie Design
was pointed out in Sec. 6.6.2 that free vortex and other design criteria
IIHIY be cmployed for the dcsign of long blades. where constant-angle design
lead to low efficiencies.
As shown in Eq. (5.40), for constant stagnation enthalpy across the
IIf\tWItIS (dho/dr =0) and constant axial velocity (dC,Jdr = m, then the whirl
VOlnpOIlI.:nt of velocity C., is inversely proportional to the I'mlius and radial
r(Jllllihlillln is achieved, Now if we know conditions at the mean diamctcr
II ';lIhscripl 111 denotes the mean diameter', then at any nozzle hlade
1',.
(free vortex condition)
('IpIIH'!fIJ'dh IiH
In 'Vlr;!,.f illl\\' llpldHt
II
I
1U -
II !
AXIAL n.ow STEM. AND GAS TURUINES 245
6.8 MULTI-STAGE GAS TURBINES
When the multi-stage compressor was discussed in Sec. 5.3, the polytropic or
small-stage efficiency was made eq ual to the stage isentropic efficiency, and
an initial estimat.e of the expected overall pressure ratio was obtained. In
multi-stage gas turbines a similar procedure could be followed, but since
there are probably only three or four stages at the most, little extra work is
necessary to carry out a calculation stage by stage to determine the
temperatures and pressures through the turbine, the outlet conditions of the
preceding stage becoming the inlet conditions for the following stage. Once
the overall temperature and pressure drops have been established, t1w
isentropic efficiency can be calculated,
The performance characteristics arc usually drawn in terms of the mass
now parameter IIlT/f/po, and efficiency //
1
versus overall pressure ratio POI/PIIII
at differing speeds given by the parameter N,/1)k
l
. All speed curves arc seen
to be grouped closely together, merging into a single line at a maximum
I 111'11 radills '.) I
lip radills
Hence for the turbine
6.7 AERODYNAMIC BLADE DESIGN
eDT = ep (from cascade lIat:l} I ('," I ('Ii';
Further informatinl\ on blade ik!,ip,lI 111;1\' hI' ultliliwd It","
texts. detailed design pl'Ot'l't!lln", hClllg "11"'1\1<' Oil' ""'lW .. ( till" tHll,h
Cascade data similar to that discussed in Sec. 5.1 arc used for modern tlll'hll'"
rotor blade design where the lift and drag coefficients are obtained fWIll lhl'
cascade data curves. Pressure losses can then be determined and an estlll1all\ III
of the efficiency The drag coefficient must again be modified dul' '"
the blades actually bcing.in annular form. Real boundaries exist at the llllh
and tip ,vhilc the ideall10w pattern is disturbed by preceding and follnwlIW
blades. The drag cocllicient is modil1ed by tip clearance loss ('II' aud
secondary f1O\v loss ellS given by7
CDC :=
and at the stage outlet when there is a whirl Gomponelll
244 IIYDI\AUl.lC ANIl ('OMI'I{JlSSIIlI.I' FLOW TURtlOMAClUNES
tan '';(2 =(1'2I1JI'2) tan Cf.
2m
Another design criterion is that of constant-nozzle-angle design where the
nOl,zle angle Ct.l is constant as well as d110/dl' =0 and dCjdr =O. This
to the axial velocity distribution given by
Hcre k is the clearance between the casing ami blade tip whik II is takl'll;Pi
for unshrouded blades and 0.25 for tip-shrouded hlades. The par;lIl1clt'l
estimated from a functional relationship of lhe form
" .' [" ( Blade outlet area normal to flow ")2 i (
J. = f I I
, Blade inlet area normallo flow, / ",
and
In many cases the change in vortex design has only u marginal cl1ccl on
the performance of the blade while secondary losses Illay actually increase
It is left to Ihe experience of the designer and the results of cascade test daLI
to settle on a purticular type of vortex now.
and since Ct.! is constant, then Cal is proportional to C, I as well as dl1
0
/dl' 0,
Therefore
(6,39)
400kPa
.'190 kI'll
200 kI'a
IXX kI'a
linnI. ('nl I y. ,tap-nation pressure
IIlI II Itl ('\II, ';I prl'ssure
Il\INk nil, .\lill il' pfllS'Olnc
f\LHlfnl f'll. ')liltie
where k is a constant
turbine closely follows the ellipse law
mTb;2!P()I =k[ I -- {Pon/POI)2] 1i2
EXERC[SES
"""'''''''''111,,1 IIii' 11'''1'1111'''\' ",IlI.lnnll<lll ..r \'\'1''1',11,,>, at entr yand exit dthe silige ;\I'C the same,
<11'11'111/1111" ,I ... ,,\;11" ",I;.! f" 'nlid ,ilkit'll, \
AXIAL FLOW STEAM A)oo;D GAS TURUlNES 247
The following constants should be used, except where otherwise stated:
Specific heat of turbine gas at constant pressure, C
p
= I 148 JjkgK
Ratio of specilic heats, "I =1.333, gas constant R =287 J/kg K
6.1 An impulsc stage (11' a steam turbinc is designed for a nozzle isentropic enthalpy drop of
:'i8 kJ/kg with a mass now rotc of 0,3 kg/so The steam leaving the nozzle enters the rotor blnde
passage at an angle of 75" measured from the axial now direction and has its relative velocity
by 5 rer in the blade passage. If the blade speed is Inm!s and the velocity
coefficient of the nozzle is 0.98, determine:
(al the blnde inlet angle,
(b) the power dcvclopcd,
(c) the tangential thrust on the blades nnd
(d) the sInge diagram efficiency,
Assume that the binding is symmetrical.
6.2 Asingle-whecl impulsc stcarn turbinc has cquiangular rotor blndes thut develop 3,75 kWand
!lwduce a torquc in the disc of 1.62 Nm at a mean radius of 132.5 mm. The rotor receives 0.014 kg/s
stcam fwm nozzlcs inclined at 70 10 the axial direction and the stealll discharges from the
,vhccl ehambcr in an axial direction. Find:
(a) the blade anglcs,
(Ill the diagram efficiency,
te) the end thrust on the shaft and
(ill the langcntial thrust on the blades,
II 50 pel' cent reaelion stcam turbine running al 450rpm develops 5MW and hilS a steam
IlllW rate of 6,5 kg/kWh. At a particular siage ill the l'xpansioll the absolute pressure is
at a stearn dryness fraction of 0.94, If the exil angle or lhc blades is 7()', measured f!"Om
lIxmt now direction, and the outlet relalive velocity of the I\team is 1J times the mean blade
filHI the blade height if the ratio of f\ltnr hub diumeter to blade height is 14,
In a tel'll reaction turbine, the bl:ldc speed at the mean diameter is 290 m/s. Gas lellyeS the
rillg al an angle of 65" to the axial direction while the stage inlel stagnatiolliempt:raturc is
K, The li.llowil1g were measured at the various locatiOnS:
3,0
One-stage
1.5 2.0 2.5
Overall pressure ratio. P'll/POII
O'--__.l....__.J-__--l.__-..l__
1.0
Figure 6.18 Multi-st'lgC characteristics of an axial flow gas turbine
0,2
Illass nOw value (Fig, 6.17), This is the choked condition and is causee! hI
velocities in the nozzle or at exit from the rotor becoming sonic.
Since the mass now characteristics arc grouped so closely together, C\LIl
towards the lower pressure ratios. a mean curve through all the speed \;mVC, h
often drawn and taken to be representative of that turbine. The isenll
efliciency remains within a narrow baJ1d for a wide range of prCSSllll: L\t I' Pi
(once choking has occurred) and speed, implying that the gas lurhillC ,;
very l1exiblc machine as far as matching to u compresscr is conccflwd, th'
compressor as we have seen in Sec. 5.9 being very sensil iVl: In 011
conditions. Therefore, if the compressor design speed is differellt from i
turbine design speed. the turbine efficiency will be litlle challged h,,"!
maximum value when running at the off-design specd. This Ilolhilll\
operation is duc to a wide range of im:ic.lence lingle heilll',
without incurring high rotor blade pressure loss codficicnls .Ilhl
observed from cascade data.
Finally for this section, Fig, 6.18 shows t he of il\CIC;dl1j' till'
of stagcs. The limiting mass flow for the sillgle-st.II',I' I mhllH' Ih'lil".
pressure mtio just in excess of 2. and is to choking ill lhe !.Iallll ",'"n"
The choking pressure ratio increases. however, wilh an 1111'11""';1' lilliit' flllllll".'f
of stages, but 1'01' a givcn prcsslire rail ... lhe 'malluwllIl' ':lI'I\('lt\ {ntH"l
decreases as the number of stage', 111111'.1'.(',1 he illl VI' till lh,
246 HYDRi\UUC A:-;n COMPRESSIBLE t'LOW TURIJOMAOUNES
248 HYDRAUliC AND COMI'RE.'iSJIlLl! !'LOW TURUOMACHlN(S AXIAL l'LO\V STEAM AND GAS TL'Rm:-';ES 249
6.10 The data below apply t.. 'I sifl",k-"l,W<' ,1\1;11 lI .. w I'll\ I"floilll
theory. The oullct vdodty ie; ilxial ilild lh,' lullllli<' I', ,jhllUlo'd willr
through Ih" stagt',
Calculate:
(al the rotor blade gas angles,
(bj thc degree ,,1' reacHon, blade loading coefficient and power output and
(c) the (owl nozzle throat area required if the thrmlt is situah,:d at the nozzle oulkt ;tml
nonlc loss coefficient is 0.05.
6.7 Asingle-stage ax.ial flow gas turbine with eonvcrgent nozzles Ims the following d:lI<1
Ieallcs the stator bhuJcs at all angle of 65' to the axial direction. Calculate:
I.IJ the blade loading c1.1dlident, .'
(b) the rotor blade rclativc flow angles,
(e) the degree of reaction and
(tlJ the tot;d-t,Hotal and total-to-stark efficiencies.
6.6 A smul! axial flow gas turbine with equal stage inlet and outlet velocities has the
design data bascd on the mean diamcter:
30kg/s
1225K
800kPa
160K
0.9
330mis
I5O()Orprn
390m/s
I.' '
('" CI cos IX
I
ll1Xcos75
X6A I\l/s
1/ I 11'" (',
\ \ \ H',Ill /'\
C
t
=(58 x 10
3
X 2)
112
0.98
=333.8 m/s
Jhe diagrams of Figs 6.3 and 6.4
ci = 2(h
1
- h
2
)
ideal nO:lzlc velocity will be when the l10w through the nozzle is isentropic,
is when (110 lid:;;: (hl) - "to) Thus ideal Ci == 2(h
o
hls)' Actual nozzle
Mass tlow, m
Inlet st;lgnationlempcllllurc. 'J;w
Inlet stagnatioll pressure, roo
'l\:mpcraturc drop, - 'I;,,)
Iscntropic cfficicnl,:Y, Jl
w
tI
Mean bladespced. V.,
Rotational speed. N
Outlet velocity, C
1
Calculate:
(a) t he blade height lind radius ratio of the anllulus,
(b) the llxial velocity al nozzle exit if Ilow in the nozzle is iscntropic and
(.:j the ink:1 rellUivc Milch number lit the rotor hh,,!c root radius.
Exercise 6.1 (a) A nozzle velocity cocOleicnt was defined in Eq. (3.7) and in
terms or enthalpy mny be redefined as
C, ""
Ideal nozzle velocity
across the nozzle, /roo == hOI' and since no work is done in the nozzle,
C
2
C
2
11
0
<I_II =III + <<> !
2 2
in the steam chest at entry to the nozzle, Co is negligibly small compared
(' I' and therefore
SOLUTIONS
1150K
420kPa
1.9
150K
25 kg/s
340m!s
15000rpm
0.75
12"
11001<
350kPa
260m/.
I R
350m!s
6W
12'
Inlet stagniltion temperature, 1;)0
Tnlel stagnation pressure, P""
Pressure ratio.lloo/P02
Stage stagnation tempcraturc drop. (Tno - Ttd
Mussfiow./Il
Mean blade speed, (J
Roliitiollul speed, N
Flow cocllicient, <p
Angle ofgas leaving stage. (ll
Inlel slugnlllion tcmperature, Too
Inlet stagnation pressure, Poo
Axial How vc!tldty (collstant through stage), C
Mass flow, m
Blade spt.'Cd, V
NllZzle effiux. IIngli:. Cl
J
Gas stage exit ungle, Clz
If the axial velol,:ily remains eunMant and the gas velocities at inlet aIII I IJlll1\'1 all
determine at tin: meun radius:
(a) the blade loading coefficient and degrec of rcaction.
(b) the gas angles.
(0::) thc rcquireLl noule throat area,
(d) the annulus area at nozzle inlet and outlet amI at rotOI IIUI"'! \' 0.11:, ,u,,1
(el the height and radius ratio of the illltlulus at the ;dlOW lotil tiln,',
6.11 Usitlg the duta ofexercise 6.7, if the turbine is offn'e VoIlC\ dr;oIl'Il,llll,1 t)"
and {II at the root and tip of the rotor blades and the relativt'lvfadl 111111I1"'1 iii
tip and rool.
6.9 Once again using the dilla of cxerds.:s 6,7 and lithe tl,""!'" I'. 11">,,,1 "h ,I
llllgle, cillculate the ;lIlgle fil at the blndc '001 alltl tip. Mid 11111 pall' th"H' \\11 Ii
=---
at the mean radius
fi, WT
873.3
3.75 X 10
3
U=_..
0,()[4 x 873.3
== 306.7m/s
566.6
=:
317.9
til = 60.7"
c = Wd + W'l
til tan 70
10
J6.3 x I0.
1
X 2
= - ")
333,8 x 0.3
= 0.975
tan 70'
= 317.9 m/s
W
xl
=873.29 - 306.7
=566.6 m/s
or, ,I W... l" ! C.:
1
Ii/l\' I Il/.j)'
II t \ III
AXIAL FLOW STEAM AND (JAS TURlllNES 251
Torque = mr(W,'2 +W"d
W w:= 1.62
x2 + .< 1 0.1325)(""0.. -.0-1-4
=873.3 m/s
(hi r\ 1:;0 IIPIll tilt' vdndt v illS
From Eg, (6.2)
whence
Now
Exercise 6.2 {al rn the velocity diagram of Fig. 6.4. e
il
=C2 since dischl.lrge
from the wheel chamber is axial. Then W
x2
=U at the mean radius.
Work done per unillll;tss lIow
Work available per 111\11111;10;'; flow
IV/m
("
cos 60'
:= I72.8 m/s
H'7m =U(W'2 +W'll
W =OJ x 173 (142.1 + 172.8)
"" 16.3 kW
(b) Relative inlet velocity
11'1 =Ca(cOs{J
t
86.4
W
2
=0.95 x 172.8
= 164.1 m/s
=1+'2 sin {II since {J
l
=/32
= 164.1 sin 60'"
= 142.1 m/s
11'-'1'= 322.4 - 173
= 149.4m/s
tanfJ, =WXt/C
il
149.4
86.4
111 == 60
1
(c) Tangential thrust :::::. + W
x1
)
:::::. O.3( 142.1 +- In.X)
;= 94.47 N
Whence
250 HYDRAULIC A:-;D COMI'RF$SIBUi FLOW n:RROMACHlNES
Therefore
From Eg. (6.2)
Therefore
Power developed
From Elj. (6.5)
(d) Diagram efficiency
from Eq. (5.6)
from Eq. (6.27)
where tl is specillc volume
3600
== 9.03 kg/s
C"ll
/11=
l!
h
J
= 2.254 X 10-
3
II =0.131 m
height =0.1
3
_157.311 x 15nl1
2
9.0 -
1.85
whence
II I II,
5 X 10
3
X 6.5
111""
,'\1>.0 in Ihe rolor
, 0.445 x 2n x 450(1411 +Il)
C = --...---.".-,.,,,-,
" 2x60
Now mass flow ratc
6.4 The condition of the gas through the stage is shown in Fig. 6.8 for
reaction where it is noted that there is no temperature (or enthalpy) drop
through the rotor.
hlf' zero reaction
AXIAL FLOW STEAM AND liM, TUR81NES 253
Therefore
"" 157.3 II mJs
But the area of the annulus of now == nll(])h +11), i.e.
A == 15nIJ
2
Now lise steam tables, at a pressure of 85 kPa. At saturation the specific
volume of the steam is 1.972 m
3
/kg. At a dryness frat:tion of 0.94, then
Specific volume of sleam =J.972 x 0.94
=1.85 mJ/kg
Substituting
(Eq. (LDII
at Ihe IllC;1l1 dlallH'h'1
reND
U==
60
C.,:: W
z
cOs {1
2
== 1.3 Ucos 70"
==0,445U m/s
=0.62
2rrNU)" +iI)
(,0 .'
(d) Tangential thrust on blades m(W
x2
+W"I)
= 0.014 x 873.3
= 12.23N
306.7 x 873.3 x 2
= 0 _
863700
(c) If there is an axial thrust C,O i: Cal
C.
_ W'\'2
'.,2 -
tan {12
U
= (U =- since C
2
is axial)
tan {J2
306.7
=
tan60.T
=172.1 mls
Axial thrust =m(C"1 .- C
a2
) (Eq. (1.23) in axial direction)
=0.014(317.9-- In.l}
=2.04 N
Exercise 6.3 From the velocity diagram (Fig. 6.4)
W
2
= UU
Now
Now
Equation (6.5) gives the diagram efficiency as
. . U(W,l2 + Wd)
DIagram efficIency"" ,.,.,--_._,..-
e
21')
"11-
252 llYl>RAULlC AND COMI'RlOSSlIILE FLOW TlJRIlOMACHlSES
254 HYDHAlJUC AND COMPRESSmU: FLOW TtJRIIOMACHlNES
m,Ly be rearranged in terms of temperature differences
T
o
- T
2
11th Il = (To ..- T
2
) +(7
1
-- 1'2)
and so the problem resolves itself into all evaluation of the above temperature
differences.
Through the nozzle row T
OJ
and at a poinl
(
PI )()'-lln,
T
l
= T
nl
.
POI
(
200)(1.:\3.\ -1)/1 ..\3.\
=1100 ....
)90
=931 K
Then
T
1
)
=2x 1148(1100-931)
= 388024
CI "" 622.9 m/s
Now
Cal =C1casal
=622.9cos65"
=263.25 m,is
and
C
xt
=C,
=622.9 sin 65'
=564.5 m!s
Therefore
W
X1
=C
XI
.- U
=564.5 _e 290
=274.5 m/s
Now
C,,2:= W"2 - U
and since we have zero reaction then W,. = 1'1",). So
('.. 2 =274.5 290
15.5 lll/S
The negative sign indicates that Ihere a wlml v<'I ",II v III nli' llbl'ddh'
direction [0 blade motion.
Since the stage is normal. I'., ( '" ,Illd ;1'\,,\11111111' 1"1"\>1111 /
,\XIAL FLOW STliAM AND GAS rUJUlINES 255
stage
q= c; +
= 263.25
2
+ 15.5
2
= 69540m
1
/s
l
Thus
T. T l
'
(I - = 00 - .... - T
2C 1
'p
::=: 1100 - -931 since '1'1 = T2
= 138.7K
Using isentropic relationships
i:: =
(
188)0.25
=1100 --
400
=910.8 K
Therefore
'1'2 '1'2", =931 910.8
= 20.2 K
Substituting for these lcmpcmlure difTercnccs gives
138.7
t}1(t I) =138.7+ 20.2
::=: O.lP3
Exercise 6.5 (a) From Eq. (6.26), the blade loading coefllcient is
1/1 =<jJ(tan If I +tan /J
2
)
=ql(tanal +tana2)
bUI ill (hi:-; case '12 =0 since at outlet the flow is axial. Therefore
l/J =0.05 tan 65"
",,1.394
(hI hOIll tlw velocity ldangles
lilO/I.. I iii
tanS?"
(since Co =(
2
)
(no whirl at exit)
H"I e" U
4',oJ ISO
100 I IIIi'.
I kiln'
AXIAL ROW SlEAM AND GAS TUJUlI:-I'S 257
Cx2 =C" lan(X2
=260 tan 12"
:'" 55.26m/s
=0.799
Equation (6. t9) gives the total-to-static efficiency with Co = C
II
(
' lu2 + \. ('2( 'J' "/' ) .1. C2) -I
n 2 (,N .. , 21 1 '0
'Il(t'sl'= 1+------2(11
0
_ "1) ._',
=(t + I) I
2tan (Xt/q)
=(1 + 5?"_+ +1) I
2tan 65'/0.65
Cxl =C"talHil
=260tan 60'
=450.3m/s
tlt(HJ "'" 0.909
=
(':xcrcisc 6.6 (a) From the velocity triangles (Fig. 6.4)
Therefore upon substiluting
'I = (' I + 57" .. sec
l
65'(:!il I'll) -1
1(111 2tan 65"/0.65
Putting 1'2/1'1 = I,
and from Eq. (6.6)
Iro - h2 =U(C.<1 +C'2)
=UC.
d
=:: ue" tan C(l
and
I:
N
=(;(0 +r:t,
=0"+65'
=65"
(
88
CR =0.04 +0.06 '
=0.0867
IV'; ( ',,' M't 1/1 .
I:R ={II +{12
= 31.2" +51'
=: R8.2"
(
61 )}
(N =0.04 +()'(l6, . ,
rOil
:.=, 0.0654
R "" 0.5 +O.5ql(tun {1
2
tan Cl:d
;:: 0.5 + 0.5 x O.65(tan 57" -- tall 65)
Degree of reaction = 0.303

tan III = tanf!2
4)
1.394
0.65
Blade inlet angle fJ, = 31.2"
Blade outlet angle II2 =57"
(c) From Eq. (6.30)
2S(i I-IYORAlII,1C ,\ND COMPRESSIULL !'LOW TURllIlMAClIll'ES
_ (' 1 CR wi + (NCf(12/'I'd) .1
tlt(t.t) - + 2(h
o
-11
2
)
Using the Soderberg correlation of Sec. 6.3, for lhe stator (noZl.le) row
(d) Equation (6.lt'O gives the total-lo-total efficiency in terms of the nO'//h'
and I'Otor loss coefficients:
For the rotor row
and nozzle loss coefficient
Therefore from Eg. (6.20), rotor loss coefficient
Also
AXIAL FLOW STEAM AND GAS 'nJRIHNFS 25
'
)
Therefore
T T. 0.05 x 0.5 x 520
2
1 - [. = 1148
=5.89 K
[100 =(TOO))'!ll' 1)
PI ./\",
=( 1100)'1
976.1
:::: 1.61
350
1.61
W =mU(C
xI
+('x2)
= 18 x 350(450.3 + 55.26)
=3185kW
(e) From velocity triangles
Now in the nozzle T
OI
= That is, if the flow in the nozzle is adiaballl,
then the stagnation temperature is constant. Now
Ci
T1 =TOI - 2C
p
520
2
=1100 --.-----
2 x 1148
=982 K
"'" 982 - 5.89
=976.1 K
C
1
= C"sec:>:l
=260 sec 60"
=520m/s
To find the area of the nozzle throat we must find the density (II' Jl\
Eq. (6.16) the nozzle enthalpy loss coefficient is
" C/l'l- 'T\ ..l
<ON = lel
2 'I
Thus
Power output
or
111 =tan 1cr:I )
=tan 1
=21.1"
=0.435

{J
2
= tan--
e,l
(
405.3)
=tan 1 260
=57.3"
260
I/J =350 (t1ln ::1.I"j Ian 57,1')
1.44
W..,2 == u+C.<l
=350 +55.26
== 405.3 m/s
(b) From Eq. (6.29), reaction
R =; (tan{l2'- tan/Jd
260 5'7 r ?'
=., 150(tal1 . -tao_1.I)
_ x.
258 HYDRM:UC AND COMPIWSSlHl.E FLOW TURaOMACHISl!S
Therefore
Also
Therefore
Blade loading coefficient is given by Eq. (6.26)
[Note: Another dctinitioll for blade leading cocllkktll Ihal is u"cd
=Cp(Too which has a numerical valli\.' twin' l!l,,( ..,
Eq. (6.26).J
Thus
260 HYORAUUC ANi) COMI'RES.... IJlLE FLOW nJRUOMACIIlJ'ES
Then
PI
Pl=RT;
217x 10
3
-
287 x 982
=0.77 kg/m
3
Mass now rate
m=pjAjC
1
AI == 18
0.77 x 520
Nozzle outlet area;: 0.045 m
2
Exercise 6.7 (a) Substituting the data into Eq. (6.25) for the blade loading
coefficient
I/J __ 1i)2)
V"
1148 x ISO
=-3402 -
=1.49
From the turbine velocity di<lgrams
Vie" = tan {1
2
-- tan '::x 2
or
1
tan/J 2 = + tanal
1
= 0.75 +tan 12"
fJ 2 =57.1"
From Eqs (6.26) and (6.29),
1/J=(tanIJ
1
+tan!JI}
and
IP
R =2 (tan P
2
- tan II.)
from which
AXIAL FLOW STEAM Al'D GAS TURlllSES 261
Therefore
tan 57.1 c = (1.49 + 2R)
whence reaction
R == 0.414
(b) Solving the above simultaneous equations for tan P. gives
1
tan II. =2Ip('" - 2R)
I
- 1.49 - 2 x 0.414)
2 x 0.75
Then
1
tan IX I = tan PI +-
4>
=tan 23.8') + I
0.75
= 60.6"
(el The nozzle throat area requires the density at the nozzle throat and tbe
absolute velocity at that location. Since we have a simple convergent nozzle,
the nozzle throat is at plane I in our notation.
From the velocity diagrnm
ell! = V(P
=340 x 0.75
=255m/s
and
255
60.6'
') 1'1 ')
262 HYDRAULIC ANO ROW TlJRROMACIIINI;:S
AXIAL ROW STEAM AND GAS TURUlNES 2fl3
Po
U'/;l
l/Il ,I Ill'
1\'0
f'n
q 260,7
2
:::::'h
2C
p
2 x 1148
""" 1150- 29.6
== 1120K
25
:::::::
0.9 x 519.5
== O.0534m
2
=29.6K
T T.
0= 00 ,;;-c
-'1'
(
lt20)4
1'0=4")0 _.,
- 1150
== 377.9kPa
25

0.9 x 255
Annulus Al =
(d) Annulus area at plane I is
A similar procedure is followed for locations 0 and 2. Now
255
Co == C
2
=----."..
cos 12
== 260.7mjs
and
III
T
1
== 1150 - 117.6
;:::; 1032.4 K
1'1.= 1032.4- 5.87
== 1026.5 K
O,9kg/m
'
== 5.87 K
Ci
T
1
=. .
2el'
519.5
2
2 X 1148
= 117.6K
CC
2
T - T _,'1'1,1
I Is - 2C
p
0,05 X 519.5
2
==
2 x 1148
T
Ul
NllZl.k throat area
== 420(
PI 1150
=266.6kPa
272.X X 10'
2}{7 x IO.UA
From isentropic relations between two points
P
(T.
)
i'IIY 1)
00 00
:::. """.'.0 .'
PI T"
therefore
Now
From Eq. (6,16)
and hence
But
and
Thus density
264 IIY[)I\AllUC Ai'lD (,OMf'I\I'SSIHLI' FLOW TliR!iOMACHll'ES
Annulus area
25
1.1 77 x 255
=0.0838 m
Z
At the stage outlet
'1(J2 =1 ~ - (Too - TId
=: 1150 - 150
= 1000K
and
l
' 'r. q
2 = 02 -2(;
'p
= 1000 - 29.6
=970,4 K
Then
But
(
1'02)
P02 =POo ---
POO,
420
=
1.9
= 211.1 kPa
Then
P2 =221.1 G ; ~ ; J r
=:: 196.1 kPL\
Hence
196.1 X /0.1
II, = .,---,.".",
~ 2S7 x 970.4
=0.704 kg/m.l
Therefore annulus area
1/1
1"( '"
AXI,\L FLOW STl'I\M ANI> GAS Tl1RIIlNI,S 265
25
=0.704-;-255
=: O.139m
2
(e) If 11 is denoted as the blade height and, is the huh radius while Ris the
tip radius, then if the mean radius condition is denoted by subscript III
rrND
m
U :=-...... _..
'm 60
340 x 60
D = ..-
In 'It x 150{)0
=0.433 m
Now annulus Ufea
Then
AN
h=--,
60U
m
=0.735 A
and so
Also
and so
Excrdsc 6.8 At the root
r =: 'm - (hI2)
AI t1w tip
N"'" 'fl' +(11/2)
Thl'Il'lIlI'C
tUII
61.2'
52.3'
57.\"
().w'
ISS
12,0'
-4.0'
48.0"
23.!!"
:XI
56.4'
65.5"
60.6'
U
m
I I 'm 1 CIt
W. ("fif.c/l l
tan 12 0.764
tan fJ2 =---+-_.. _-
r 0.764 0.75
{12r =52.3';
=48"
AXIAL JiLOW STEAM ANO GAS TURUlNIJS 267
Lan IJ 1 = _ 0.81
r 0.81 0.75
(
R) Um (r
m
)
tan/l
21l
= rm 2 Ca' + R 2 tan ::x 2'"
1.236 tan 12'
=--+--
0.75 1.236
tan 60.6" 1.181
Lan {IIR ='''-''-,-- ---
U81 0.75
{/l R =:..=- 4.0
0
Summarizing the results:
At tip
AI !'I."I
AI II1Cilll radius
At the root
At the lip
and
and
Bbde ;ulltk-, at ..II Ii' I pllints can be calculated to give the blade geometry
111'1'1 tlh' whlll\'
Iflill! 1".. 0'1 to !
I'
il'l
u
tan ,:t,21l =0.809 tun 12'
'''1.2R =
tan IXIR =O.847lan 60.6'

tan:X2r =(r; )2 tan 1;(211\
=1.31 tan 12'
:>'.2r == 15.5"
(Xlr =65.5
0
= 1.23 tan
(
R) ;;;;: 1.185
r
m
I

=0.764
'm

=1.236
1m 2
At the tip
To lind the relative gas lIngles. from the velocity triungles. at :IIIV !HllltP;
U
tun {to"'" tan 1;(, +
- C"
and
tunfll = tan "1.1
But
tan fl., (';." .Ialll:", (,"
and
and
For free vortex design Sec. 6.6.3 shows that at the root
Therefore substituting fol' U and t;\ n it.
266 HYDRAULIC AND COMPRESSIBl.E ROW TURDOMACIII:"ES
(see Sec. 6.6.3)
7,97.77
AXIAL FLOW STEAM ASD GAS 269
Thus
de"l dCxl
_..... = cot:Xl
dr dl'
Equation (5.37) therefore becomes
C;l . 2 dCl
0= +C_- + C col (Xl ' ......
r xl dr
d
ell'
f + cot
2
a. =sin
1
'a
1
dC
xl
. 2 . dr
-"C' := -8111
C.'l I'
loge Cd = - log"r +const
At the mean radius C"m "" 255 m/s and rim =0,2165 m. a
l
= 60.6". Therefore
const :: 255 x O.216S,ilt'b(),(;'
\,10 IUi1
10K
At the root
"'" 79,83mjs
79.83
:= (0.2165-
=297,77m/s
Now if IX. is constant and tana
l
= C.<I/e" then e
Xl
is proportional to C,,;
therefore
Integrating
or
BUl
Then
\,
ill
I all 'I,
W'l =255.7 m/s
('Ill =460.8 mis
Till =1057.4 K
=985K
Mach number at root"", 0,664
CI' = C" S(.'C (Xl'
== 255 sec 65.5'
==615m/s
615
2
= 1150-
2 x 1148
Hi
(M Lfol), == (-.RT,tr\.,
i' . I rIO,
255 sec fllr
"'" 255 sec 48'
== 381 mls
31.\1
=--".. "....,.-, ... :..._..
(1.33 x 287 X
At the tip
Thus Mach number
At the root
Also
268 llY()Ri\UI.lC ANl) COMI'RI.S51lHF FLOW n;RIIO.\lACl!INES
Thus
Al tip, Mach number
It witl be noled thal the higher Mach number occurs al the hl'H.le I."o(
f:xcrcisc 6.9 The radial equilibrium equation is giwli by hi j;'\ 1\
dll o C; I- C de't cdC"
dl' r ., dl' " til'
In plane 1, cillo/elI' "" 0 as bdorc and al:-;(\ if 'x, u,n"tilll! 11,.n
I III (,0
11110 'If
= ..!.)4
1065
:= 330kPa
AI radills
390
2
=(1225 _. 160)-
2 x 1148
=998.7K
'['-1' q
2 - ()2 -"C

AXIAL FLOW SUAM AND GAS 271
P2
P2= wr;
330 x 10
3
=-"....
287 x 998.7
= 1.153 kg/mol
30
1.153 x 390
0.0667 m!
Fm!ll continuity
From isentropic relationships
(
T02",)Y/IY"ll
P02 = Poo ..-.
Too
=800(1047.2)4
1225
= 427.3kPa
and
Now
Then
(Itt R =(Xl In := cOllsl)
= =const)
1
= tan 60.6 -
1.08
177.771\.
A. =224.2 ("
m
)
'l'R 340 R
I
224.2( 1 )
=--340 U8
=0.559
79.83
:::: ..., ..
(0.2165 +0.08/2)0.7S9
=224.2m/s
..., In
"H'!/K
{i., = 40';'
At the root {J I, = 40'
(C ) _ 79.83
, "al R - ( h 12)0' B9
r trn + II
1
:= tan 60.6 -.--.
0.559
160
--
0.9
11tH = - 0.81"
At the /1
1
= -- 0.81'
1
I,m /1.,= tan ai' - T
.. ti',
1
tan fJ I R = tan Ct. R - --
<I'R
At the tip
So
Exercise 6.JO (u) From Eq. (6.9)
Therefore
270 HYDRAULIC AND COMPIU'$SIBLE FLOW TURBOMACIlINES
1
(, 7 5
since Poo =Po I
4
1.42 1.42
316.7
60.34
640
10464
426
1.42
=800(
1225
=470,9kPa
(
T, ))'/h II
PI =Poo -,-

= 1073 K
==
AXIAL FLOW STEAM AND GAS TUIUlIl'ES 273
COS 70.4'
=590.4I11/s
198
PI
PI
470.9 x 1()3
=
287 x 1073
=1.529 kg/m
3
., Cf
It =Too ._;'
2(1'
590.4
2
=
2 x I t48
3
1.53 144
2')4 312.:1
62.1 60.67
62H.:1 637,6
1053 1047,8
436.6 428,2
1.44 1,42
2.27
200.2
70.2
590.4
1073
470,9
1.5;\
Then
111'r<llillll
Using isentropic relations
Now
Thus
This value is now used in a new ilcration until Cui and PI do not change. A
table in set up below.
) _Poo
II -
800 x 10
3
=287 x 1225
=2.27kg!m
3
30
CII! =---- ,
2.27 x 0.0667
=198m/s
Al =const and C
n
, =const
R r
m
+ hl2
r = 11/2
1148 >.: Ifill
110, I'IH
'1 lOA'
., AI.
Ir=,--
lnr",
0.21 +0,0253
=0.2i=- 0.0253
=1.27
1148 x 160= 330 x 1981"n')'1
0.0667
=211" x ().Il
=O.0506m
Then
m=PICuIA\
As a first guess let
Now remembering that ("'2 == 0,
from which
(b) An iterative procedure must be followed to determine C,,\, This is set out
below. The continuity equation must be satislied; therefore at the nozzle oulkt
station 1,
Radius ratio
Blade height
272 IIYORAVLlC AND COMI'RFSSlRLE FLOW TURDOMACUlNF.S
274 IIYDRAlILlC\NO COMI'RESSIBJ.I' FLOW TlJRIIOMACJII:\ES
The inward flow radial gas turbine is used for applications where the flow nile
is very low, for example turbochargers for commercial (diesel) engines and ftt c
pumps. They arc very compact, the maximum diameter being about 0..' III
Speeds arc high, ranging from 40000 to 1800000 rpm. They arc usually of fill'
90 type, the blades being perpendicular to the tangent at the rotor ollkr illkl
periphery, and the gas after entering in the radial direction exits axi;t1ly ;11
outlet.
The turbine and its parts are shown in Fig. 7, I, when' II',
similarity to the centrifugal compressor is noted, the difference being Ihal Ihr
gus flow is in the opposite direction. Figure 7.1 shows that gas enters the :;CII ill
casing, the cross-sectional area of the scroll decreasing as the gas pil'."\'"
through it. This keeps the velocity at entry to the nozzle vanes (:on51"nl ;1: 11h'
gas is gradually drawn ofT on its circumferential path. The nozzle v;\lle:, ,11\
converging to increase the kinetic energy of the gas and they sct the gil', ;lllgic
for lmlry into the rotor. This angle is usulllly about 70'" (measurcd fnllli fill'
radial dircction) but the vanes can be pivoted to allow for adjustnwIII olfhl'
now allgle as the load changes. In some designs, there may he no valles al ,Ill.
hilt II passage similar to that of the V<lllelcss diffuser of Fig. 2.17 is filled
(Fig, 7.2). A vanell'ss space exists betwccn the outlct tip of the and the
fOlol', this space being. utilized by the gas for further now adjustllll'1l1 ;llld
,lidillg ill the rcdudioll of vibratory disturbances within the 1mbilll'.
fhl' loin!, which is usually lllallUfacturcd of cast nickel alloy, Ita', hl;ilk.
Jllll! ;lIe 1'111 \'('d II' dlallgl' thl' flow ("'lin the radial to lhe aKial din'cltllli Ill('
SEVEN
7.1 INTRODUCTION
RADIAL FLOW GAS TURBINI:S
CHAPT!'I,
u
466.6
='
632.7
r
m
=290.2 m/s
r
=1148 x 160 ._ 290.2
290,2
=342.7mjs
(/1 == (j'RT1)W
"" (1.333 x 287 x 1046.4)112
=632.7
= 316.7
2
+342.7
2
I,V
l
= 466.6 m/s
0.21 - 0.0253
U =330 x
r 0.21
Relative Mach number at rool -::;, 0.74
(e) To find (1\.'1
1
,<1),- where subscript /' refers to the root radius,
Acoustic velocity
Then
At the root
At nozzle outlct axial velocity
C". =316.7m/s
RADIAL FLOW GAS TlJIUlI:-:1 S 17'
Figure 7.l Elements or a 90" inward flow radial gas turbine with inlet no:r.zlc rillg
(71 )
'.I J
'II,'
W/IIl=(U
1
C.
d
UzCd (J/sl/(kgjs)
If the whirl velocity is zero at exit then
W/m"" U1Cxl
and for radial relative velocity at entry
W/m"'" uf
The work dOlle per unit mass flow in the rotor is given by Eulcr's 1llrhifll'
equation (Eq. (1.24
shrouding for the blades is formed by the casing, and a diO'uscr can be fll Inf ;11
the outlet, to reduce further the high kinetic energy at that point and therehy t,l
increase the enthalpy drop across the rotor,
The velocity triangles for this turbine arc drawn in Fig, 7.3. The
numbering system of 1 to 2 across the rotor will be used and thereforc 0
indicates the point ofentry to the nozzle vanes and 3the diffuser outlet scclioll
The thermodynamic path followed by rhe gas is shown on the Mollier challll!
Fig. 7.4. In the noule no work is done, therefore 11
00
=: hOI although the lolal
pressure drops from floo to flo I because of irrevcrsibilitics, Thus
7.2 VELOCITY DIAGRAMS AND THERMODYNAMICS
OF FLOW
In more general terms, substituting for Wjm
hUt .- 11(12::::: U I C.d - U2Cx2
nul it was shown in Sec 4.1.2 that the quantity I for a centrifugal compressor 1\
SCT(lll
casing
Flow inl()
inlet noules
Diffuser
Figure 7.2 A l)(}" inward nnw 1,,,1;;11 Illthim' II'llh""1 lIouk nllH ('Ijll1!" I \ < L" Ii
176
278 IlYDRAUllC ANI) COMPRFSSlllU FLOW
RADIAL FLO\\-' GAS 'I L"RIlINI':S!.7'1
, lil
1/):)
(/1)
'I ! if I,' 1'1' Ii I
c; = (/roo /r,\,,)/2
C;' (11,,\1 -1',,,),/2
I' Hi '\1.1/( j' I) ;md hi ( Ul) 111"'01111':'
Ill! ,,,' I I (I, 1.1 lilt: II: LJ,liT,
Total-tn-total
C? (11"0 IIO-hJ!2
C; '" (11,,,. 11 0 ".1/2
UdC.= 0.707
In practice U l IC, lies in the range 0,68 to 0.7.
With diffuser
Wilhon) ditrw,cr
or
7.4 TURBINE EFFICIENCY
Nil\\' Ih, It ,I I ,.t Ii
1,
Table 7.1 \'c1ocitics
if a diffuser is fitted. This energy change may be related to a kinetic
where the associated velocity term is known as the spollting velocity C" Tillb
four spouting velocilies may bc dcfincd, as in Table 7.1, with and withll\tl d
diffuser and for total-lo-tolal or total-to-static conditions,
The appropriate definition would be llsed depending upon the cJ'liciclIcy
being determined. It will be noted that for isenlropic flow throughout
W/m =Ui == C;/2
The method or determining the elIicicm:y of an inward flow radial turbine Is 10
determine the total-to-static efiiciency in terms of loss cocflidcnts fur Iltt'
nozzle and rotor, and then obtain a relationship for the totalto-total dlkil'llcy
in terms of known turbine dimensions and the previously determined tota I-ttl
static ellicicncy. However, before doing that, a number of relatiollships thai
will be needed in the derivation of 11,(,.) arc disclIsscd. From Fig_ 7,3
W
1
=U1 cot:I
1
C}= UzcotlJ}
and substituting for WI and ('2 into Eq. (7.4) yields
hI Ii: Un, e<1l2Ytl(U!/lll)!rot2/11Ii.)
lind putting (! ,,11 I' ,ir I
1" h, Uilt 0.',.1 'XI Ilf.-it'd'!'o!:/I,,!.)
(7.4)
(1(.)
where / is a constanl
1= h
or
_
I
-- Vz/2
FJIlllrc 7,4 Mollier chart for expansion in a 9()" inward flow radial g;18 turbine
,,",,'" ,--,,-------,----,---
Is
l
given by
Therefore
If lhe losses in the diffuser arc neglected, lhen '/;13" ""' 1;)2" alld lhl' total III
total isentropic elliciency is given by
7.3 SPOUTING VELOCITV
hi - liz = [(Ui - - (Wi IVi)]/2
If C'1 =0, then - Vi) == and
h,-hz=(Uf-
In the diffuser 11
0
2 =11
03
, Thus
It . - It
z
= -
rr the gas passes through lhe tmhilu' bl'l\lrllpk:tllv. Ih"11 lhe tulid
enl halpy drop ,oiVCIl by Olil" II" )If flO' Illlll'.!'l 1'.111 tnl d lid Iiv/h
l'
"
'II(H) == (Too - Toz)/O;w 'J;12")
efficiencies being in the region of 80-90 per cenl.
280 IIYDRAlJL({' A:\() COMI'RESSIBLE FLOW TUIUIOMACIIINES
RAOlAL FLOW GAS TUIWINIS lHI
(1.'01
0,063 ::;; eN :s:; 0.235
0,384 IS; (R ,,;; 0.777
(l (I 1,)(11' ,11/(' fit
I I . 1.1111 ,Ill I ,111 ( Jl
I\lultlplYl/lV IIii' 1I11!JIIli,I'" dlld delllllllill;llor by .1,. Fq, /1.'01 l!Iil\, Ill'
HllillW,'d ,I',
7.5 DIMENSIONLESS SPECIFIC SPEED
N, "" (U lrrD
I
N)0.5(U I(C; /2)0.75]
:::::: O.302(Qz/NDt)O.5(U (l.1 X)
Equation (7.7) showed that for an ideal turhinc the ratio U ,/(', was equill
100.707. Therefore substituting for this into Eq. (7,18) gives
N, "" O.18(QliN (/.1 ill
Ifa uniform ilxia( velocity at exit is assumed, thell Ql" /I)C}. Also writing tilt'
area of the rotor as II, "" nD7/4, thell
The inward flow radial gas turbine can he shown to have its lI1:lxirnlHl1
efficiency in a very narrow range of dimensionless specific speeds. Ilowt'vn,
whereas the volume now ratc through hydraulic machines remains \'Oll';';lnl,
that through the radial flow gas turbine changes significantly, and this
must be taken into account. One suggested volume now ratc to usc is that it!
the outlet Q2' Therefore referring to Eq. (1.16) and writing (y11) in terllJs of I Ill'
enthalpy,
h
02
,JJ.75 Ol/}
Now N =UlinD1 and h
oo
"02., = (';/2 and, upon subslituting, r':q.O/I)
becomes
However, substituting typical values of the variHbles into Eq, (7.9) yield.
('1'2ITd approximately equal to I and so il is often ignored an;' til\"
approximate cquatiQtl for lOlal-lo-stalic elTiciency is given by
'11(1 .,={l + [(I" c05ec
2
(,(1 +(rz"jrIl2((Rcosec2fl2.v+cot2/J2.,)]/2} 1
The totalta-tolal efficiency may be found from the following equatioll
(1/'1t(II)) =(lfr/1(t ,j) - [(r2.Irycoe Pz"J/2 (7.1(.)
Loss coefficients usually lie in the following rHnges l{)r 90" inward !low
turbinos
H
(7.12)
(7.11)
(since U =W1m)
h
oo
=Ur +11 0 2
or
III - hls =(TdT2 )(h2, - hz",)
and substituting into Eq. (7.11) and rearranging gives
hz, li
h
, =(T,,/Tj KNcr/2
Similarly
11
2
- 11
2
, ='RWV2 (7, III
Now substituting Eqs (7.12) and (7.13) into Eq. (7.10)
(
12/IV" ['C2 U12'" ("T' /'[' )]/"1
t1W-ol = . 1 l 1 + Z + H 2 + 'I 2 1., - j
= + Il2 +(Uieoscc
t
/1].)(1\
+(Ui cosec
Z
ex I )( T
2
rr,)(N]/2 :
= (I + ['N(TzIT
j
)cosec2 (Xl +(rdrl Cllseci./I)
+cot
2
f}2)]/2l 1 (I I,ll
At the outlet section 2, two radii arc possihle, viz, at lhe slnond Hlld ;,1111,
hub. It is usual to lake Lhe average radius
The [otaJ-to-slatic efficiency (without lhe diffuser) is given by
rlt(H}= (h
oo
..- II
02
J/(h()() - 1I z,,)
= (h
oo
lI,d/(li
oo
11
2
,) +(h
z
h2 ,,)]
while lhe t,;mpcralllll' ralio('J' .. /l'j) I', ohl,IlI\l,t! IIii II I 1'1 t I 'II
from which
and
'N =(Ill - h
1
,)/(O,5Ci)
But from inspection of lhe Mollicr chart
hi -- his;::::; "ft(SI - Sl.)
t1t(H) "'" UT!rUr +n/2 +(IT" -l1z,)+ -lIZ,.)] (1. to)
Defining a nozzle and rotor loss coefficient in terms of the enthalpy loss in
each divided by the kinetic energy al outlet from each,
But
Therefore
282 HYDRAUI.1C AND COMI'RESSIRU FI.OW TliRUDMACUlJ"I!S
KADlAL 1'1.01,',' GAS T1lltlllJ-;IS un
7.2 A small inward flow radial gas turbinc has the following dcsign data:
tOO
HO
ti' 60-
e
40
w
turbine
__AKial
flow
\10' wdial now
gas turbine
Rotor inlet tip dimlleter
Rotor outlet tip diameter
Rotor outlet hub diameter
Ratio (',ie,
Ratio U,!e (ideal)
Blade speed
Density at impeller exit
90mm
621111n
25mm
0.447
0.707
JO 000 rpm
1.8kgim
il
20
()
om
1
0.1 1.0
Dimensionles. specific speed. lV; (rad)
10.0
Delcfll1ine:
(al the dimcnsionh:ss spccilic speed of the turbine,
(bl the volume flow rate at Impeller outlet lind
re) the power developed by tile turbine.
7.3 llle desif.tn datu of a proposed inward radial now exhaust
. _._--'.
turbine arc as follow":
EXERCISES
7()OkPa
1075K
5l0kPa
lJ95K
350 kPa
91R K
920K
O.S
2(>000 rpm
Stagnation pressure al inlet to 1l00,zlcs, I'll"
Stagnation at inlet to l1ozzh:s, T()11
Stalic pressure at cxit from nozzles, 1'1
Slatic temperature at exit from uou.les, '1'1
Static at exit from rotor, 1'2
St,ltic tempcnlturc at cxit fnlm rotor. T,
Stagnation temperature at exit hom rotor.
Ratio rl,,/r I
RotatimUlI speed. N
The flow lIlto the rotor is purely radial aud at exit the flow is axial at all radii. CalcuLllc
(al the tola!-to-static elTicieney Ilf the turbme.
(b) the outer di.. metcr oj' the rotor,
(c) thc cnthalpy Joss coelTidenl for the nozzle and rotc)r rows,
(d) the nInde outlet angle at the mean diameter /I
J
and
(e) the total-to-l"tal efficiency of thu turbine.
... Hfd",' "I II h!
dillll''''1 1\
7.4 Using datl! ofCMlfClse 7,3. tlte mass !low ofcxh,lUs( glls llvailab1c Inlhe huhuH' " ,'.1,1, " .. ,
Calculate:
(a) the volurre !low rate III rotor exit,
(hI the huh lind lip diameters or the rotor at cxit.
Ic) the power developed by thc turhinc.
(d) the rol<lr exit blade angles al the huh and tip,
(c) the nozzle exit angle and
(f) the ratio of rotOl' widlll at illiet to inlet tip (lilllJlctcr.
7.5 An inwmd flow radial turbinc is fitted wilh 1\ diffuser. which elll hi' ""IIIIIn! tt. It.,,,, itU
of 100 pcr cent. If the tlll'oine chokes wllcn the ahsolult' vdontv ,It "\11 It "Ill I hi' Itllld",
leHell"s the sp,:cd of ,ollnd (M, I). show tll:,l the limitillg toLd pl,,,.:,un lillh' j,. 1'11111 "\
1/(1 WI W,il',)':11 +051'/ 1),\/'11 11/"",
(7.21)
(7.22)
In the following exercises, unless otherwise stated, use the following values
Specific heat at constant pressure, C
p
=1.147 Jjkg K
Ratio of specific heats, i' = 1.333, gas constant R 2'1'.7 Jjkg K
7.1 An inw;lrd fl,)\\' radial !.las with 1I (otal-loI,llal dfi,:w,'ty (fllHlllIllllk 1111..'1 hi
oUllet) of 0.9. Al cntry to til.; and (('II IJ 1<' r.III", "I IIi< I'd'-
are 300 kPa and II SO K respectively. At outlet from Ihe Ihr plr',\lllC .'. Ilkl t 1'" ill"lih'
velocity of now is negligible at Ihut point. Fillli the' impdkr lip :,prT.l 'till Itill' lI'h' iilil'.I,. ,,' IIi<
l10llk outlet if thc gas cnters Ill'; impellel rat!i,dlv ;tIlt! tlt"ll' i', II" \\ hili . 1 flw Illll'diu ,,,1 II..
!'v1tlch n\lmber ,It fn'lIl tht lIf1uks h II.')
0.3 < N, < Ll md
Thus the dimensionless specific speed range is very small and the variation of
eflicicncy with N, is shown in Fig. 7.5, where it is seen to match the axial now
g.as turbine over the limited range of iV,.
Then
In practice
0.04 < (C1/CY < OJ
O. t < (A
2
IA
r
) < 0.5
Thus substituting for Q2/NDi in Eq. (7.19) gives
IV, "" 2/Ai,5 rev
=2.11(C
2
/C,)o.5(A
1
/A,lo.s md
Figure 7.5 Varilltiol1 of efficiency with dimcnsionless specilie speed
284 IlYDRAI:IJC ANI) ('OMI'RESSIRI.E FLOW TURUOMA('HINF$ R"'''AL FLOW (JAS TlJRfllNI'S
=1'01
since
=l.333 x 287 x ll50
;: 439956 m
2
Js
2
a
l
VI
:.::;::; __
Go 1 MI a
o
Lsin :x 1
(
UI )2(1' - 1 1)
1= alII "'2" + Alt
. , 533.7
2
(0.3,33 , 1 )
sm"IX = +
1 439956 2 0.9
2
,,,0.9071
Nozzle angle al 12.25
But
and
and substituting for C" we get
'['I U - 1)
= 1- ,,-------,
'1'00 2yRToosinl.=t\
Uib' -.. 1)
=1- .... y-.-2'--
2u
o
\ sm :x I
Therefore
Therefore
But
and
i' ... I
0'
I
T UJ.
I =1- ,t.
'I' 'c '1' ':2
, 00 .. ' p 00 sm IX 1
ll\sinC<l
Across the nozzle the now is udiabatk; therefore
., "q
1
00
=1'01 =1 I + ...
2C"
U
l
=1' +_.1_.
I ')('" 2.
_'pSIn (XI
1 R
1--=---
i' Cp
M, =C'/a\
lI\
Now from Eq. (7.3)
=
when C,<2 "'" O. Also
(
' T) l" ( )(Y-
I - =Too , I _ 1'0.1
Too ,1'00
Now
=0.9 x 1147 x
Impeller tiJl V
The Mach number of the absolute flow velocity at exit from the nozzle is
given by
or
or
Therefore
and
2H6 HYDltAlJLlC AND CO,MPRFSSlRLF FLOW RADIAL "LOW (lAS TlJRIIIN.I:S 2K7
60 .'< 421.6
II :!6000
o. \1 III
I -
1/1(1 ,SI =
1- (920/1075)
= i ....:-(3SCi,l7C)6j(l.I4.i8
=0.144/0.159
= 0.906
vi = 1147(1075 -- 920)
= \77 785 m
2
/s
2
VI =42L6m/s
Exercise 7.3 (a) The total-to-static efficiency is given by
h
oo
-Ir
02
" . - -_.-- ..._-.. _...-
IH.) - h
oo
11
2
",
From isentropic relationships
Therefore
Thcn
and
(b) From Eq. (7.3) the specific work done is
W/m= vi
since C
xl
=0 and C>;! = U1 for radial inlet flow. Therefore
Cp(T
on
- T
02
) = Vr
(I\P) )'

=P2Q2
U
i
n (nNDI)J
=1.8xlL_7x
, 60 .
(
J! .\0 001l
"" 1.8 x 0.227 x __
(,0
Power Ikvdoped KI()() kW
(e) From Eq. (7.3)
Dimensionless specific speed
Q
2
=0.227 m"is
= 0.142 rev
(
0.447 X 2.53)112
N =0 ... <---.----
> 6.36
:= 0.89 rad
A2 :::: h"b)
4
n(O.062
2
- 0.025
2
)
4
'"" 2.53 x 10- J m
2
nJ)2
At = ..
4
O.09
2
jT
-
4
Now
If this value is compared with Fig. 7.5 it is sccn that a reasonable overall
efliciency is achieved.
(b) The flow ra Ic at outlet for the ideal turbine is given by Bq. (7.19)
(
Q ) til
N =0.18 -_!... rev
> ND-\
l.
(
Q2 X60 )1
1
'2
0.142 = 0.18-- "
30000 x 0.09-
whence
RADI,.\!. ROW GAS TlIlUllNJ'S 2!l"
11'/
q "" 2C/,('1'()2'" '1'2)
'"" 2 x 1147(920- 9181
=4588 m
2
/s
2
4588 +210.8
2
=49025 Jl12,is2
,. 14108
----- .
. 0.5 x 49025
=0.58
I
, (' '('
cot J2nv ='2/ ) l
(458R)1i2
210.X
==(U21
11 2 ,- h2,;::: cl,l' '1'2 - 'I'll
[ (
p, )('i-llh ]
'-'= ell ... T
2
,- '1'1
= 1147(918 - 905.7)
=14108 Jjkg (or m
2
/s!)
(d) The totaltototal elTicicl1cy is found from Eq. (7. J6).
I 1 1(r"IV )2
== -"', ,.. cot IJ 2a\'
'Itjt.n '11(1 ,) 2 r,
Now
Therefore
Also
and fol' the numerator
Therefore
(since '1'01 ;::: Too)
(
T )
1i'J.
'1'1'= T 100
00
(
PI ,
= . x 1
00
Poo
Now
(

=.. x 1075
700
=993.2 K
The rotor loss coefficient is given by Eq. (7.13)
C - 11 2 -
.R-
f tlli
Nozzle loss coe!1icicnt =0.0225
_ 995 - 993.2
i,,,, =-fois::':ij95
W
' C" ("
i =3: + Ji:
and using the mean diameter for the calculation of condit inns at tlll.' tllIpdhl
outlet
Substituting
We may write
2M8 UYI1RAUUC COMI'RtSSIULE fLOW TURIIO!>1ACHINES
Now
inlo an equation involving only pressures and temperatures:
hi - II
h
'N = 0.5
Therefore
1
290 HYDRAULIC A:"D COMl'RESSlIlLE fLOW TURHOMI\CHINFS
Exercise 7.4 The dimensionless specific speed based on the total-to-total
enthalpy drop in the turbl'ne is given by Eq. (7.17).
NQli2
N
,2
= (h
oo
-/1
02
,,)3/4
But
Now
Therefore
(
920)4
P02 =350 918
"'" 353.06kPa
and
(hoo h02,,) = 1147 x 107s[
;:= 193.78 kJ/kg
Rotational speed
2nN
In=
60
2n x 26000
60
::::: 2722.7 rad!s
and
III
P2 = Wf
2
350 X 10\
287 x 91H
RADIAL FLOW GAS llIlWINJ'S 2')1
Therefore
2.66
Q2 = 1.328
=.1,Q[11.3/8
This gives
N = 2722.7 X{2.0)112
, (193.78 X 10
3
).'1
4
=0.416 rad
Since it was not stated in the problem which was Lhe clTicicm.:y of impOl'lalln',
the dimcmionbs specific speed could equally have been hased Oil the lotalh,
static enthalpy drop (h
oo
- 112,,) Lo correspond to the total-to-static clTici"flcy
The error is small however:

( 1'2)1'" -I.I,';'J
1
1'00
=196035J/kg
and
(b) Volume flow raLe
where " is the height of the blade betwccn hub and tip and 1'1",
(rHn.h +1"
2Ii
l')/2. Now
q =: 2C/,('I'o2 'l'J
,,,,,2 x 1147(920 91:-(1
(, (, r Illl;\
lIlid
(I 'j U.I:,',
292 IlYDRAIJI.IC AND COMPRESSIBLE FLOW 'IURIJOMAClIlNES
Therefore
2.0
11 =---,',
2n x 0.0775 x 67.7
== 0.061 m
Ii
f2hub == flay - 2
0.061
=(0.5 X 0.155) - 2
={).047 m
Hub diameter =0.094 m
11
f 2111' ='2uv +2
0.061
== (0.5 x 0.155) +
2
::= O.108m
Tip 0.2 t6
(c) From Eq. (7.3)
W=mVi
=2.66 x 421.6
2

(d) From the outlet triangle, since C
2
is axial and uniform
the exit annulus,
At the tip
== 421.6(.108)
0.155
=293.8 m/s
293.8
tan flo =
67.7
At exit tip III 7'1'
RAmAl, FLOW GA!; Tl1I0IlNESl'),1
At the hub
v =
2buh 0.155
= 127.8mjs
tan n =127.8
1'2 67.7
exit #2,= 62"
(e) Across the nozzle 11
00
= h
01
and
Cf = 2C
p
(T
Il
l) Ttl
=2 x 1147(1075 -995)
=183 520kJjkg
Nozzle exit velocity
CI =428.4 mls
The inlet velocity triangle shows
sin (Xl =UIIC
I
421.6
=
428.4
Nozzle angle == 79.7'"
(0 From the continuily equation at impeller inlet,
m==P1AIC,1
=p,nD1Wlb
l
where hi is the depth of the impeller blades at inkt
m
-
llPI J)f WI
But
294 IIYDR,\lJUC ,\NO COMPRESSIllLE FLOW TUIUlOMACllINI,S
RADIAL I'LOW GAS TUlUIINFS
and Now
(v)
(iv)
(iii)
T02 (y -1) ,
.. = 1+ -- j\l/-
T
1
2 ..
I til dlll',ell villlu"i "I II", " and At., ((,/( './ um 1)(' vari,t1 nwl (1"lI/P",,)
lie f\'llllllll'tI
and hence
Thus

:::: (. t ... 11 )(_J(f' - ..... )


C, 1-R" I(tt)
But
I (C2)2( I +!(i' -
I R" = C, ..... t()' _ 1)M + /hu t)
Therefore
and r\.:amlllging
and
16' -
2C
p
T
02
=1+1(}' -=Tj'Mf (vi)
Substituting from Eq. (vi) into Eq. (ii) and writing W =(P02/POO){V-
1
l/r
!:. = C
p
- C" = I _ 1=
e'l Cp Y Y
Substituting for C
p
in Eq. (iii)
I +(y - IlEI.
T
2
2 )'RT
2
or
(i)
III )
( .;
!( ',.1 \I'
2T C (C.
2
)2
02 P C
'.:"1.
\" II',
1/'"
From Table 7.1 the spouting velocity is
c
2
, T 'J'
?(' = 00 - 02
-p
"" 0.0642
Blade depth =0.02 m
Exercise 7.5 Since the now is isentropic in the diffuser. T
oz
" = T
03
'"
=1
0
.\ and P02 = 1'03' With the diffuser the total-to-tota1 efficiency is
hI 2.66
fj.; = Tr x 1.79 x05j
2
776.62
PI
PI ::= 1< T,
510
=:
287 x 995
= 1.786 kg/m
3
1 2T
o2
C/J
'luH} =-1-(T IT--) - -C-T -
(U..I 00 ."
Using isentropic relationships
Substituting
Therefore !>ubstitllting
Substituting for th\.: temperature ratio and multiplying both sides by ('3 we gd
or