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..

Golden Software Surfer 8


-

-

2008

25 2007 .,
2

..

- Golden Software Surfer 8.


, ,
.

, ,
.

- .

4 .

: 020302
2


.......................................................................................................... 5
.................................................................................... 6
I. SURFER ..................................................................... 9
I.1. SURFER............................................................................. 9
I.2. - .......................................................................... 9
I.3. XYZ- ......................................................................... 11
I.3.A. XYZ-................... 12
I.3.B. XYZ-.................................... 13
I.3.C. XYZ- ............................................ 15
I.4. ................................................................. 16
II. ................................................................ 18
II.1. ................................................................................... 19
II.1.A. ......................................................... 19
II.1.B. ........................................................................ 20
II.1.C. ......................................... 22
II.1.D. ..................................................... 23
II.1.E. .................................... 24
II.1.F. ......... 26
II.1.G. , .......... 28
II.1.H. ....................................................... 29
II.2. ................................................................................... 32
II.3. ..................................................................................... 35
II.4. ................................................................. 35
II.5. ................................................................................... 37
II.6. .................................................................... 38
II.7. ................................................................... 40
II.7.A. ........................................................... 40
II.7.B. ......................................................................... 40
II.7.C. ....................... 42

III. ......................................................... 43
III.1. - .............................................................. 43
III.2. - ........................................................... 44
IV. .............................................................................. 45
IV.1. .................................................... 45
IV.2. .............................................................. 46
IV.3. ............................................................................ 49
IV.3.A. .......................................................... 49
IV.3.B. ..................... 51
IV.4. ......................................................... 52
IV.5. ................................................... 53
IV.6. .......................................................... 55
IV.7. ......................................................................... 59
IV.8. .............................................................. 61
V. ............................................................................................ 63
V.1. ............................................................................................... 63
V.1.A. ........................................................ 63
V.1.B. .................................................................. 63
V.2. ........................................................................ 63
V.2.A. .......................................................... 63
V.2.B. ........................................................ 64
V.2.C. ............................................................ 64
V.3. .................................................... 65


Golden Software Surfer 8

.
, Surfer
.
Surfer ( ).

,

.

.
, ,
Surfer .
,
.
.
,
Surfer
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Surfer.
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-
(20022003
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Golden Software,
, ,
1983 .
Golden Graphics System, ,
,
z = f(y,x). Surfer. Surfer
- .
,
Golden Software ( Surfer)
, .
,
.

:
1) ;
2) ;
3) .

,
.
Surfer GRD ( ), .
:
1) ,
( ),
;
2) ,
. Surfer , , ,
;
3) , (, ,
, ,
).
, , , , ,
.
Surfer
: (Kriging), (Inverse
6

Distance to a Power), (Minimum Curvature), (Radial Basis Functions), (Polynomial Regression), (Modified
Shepards Method), (Triangulation) .
X, Y, Z , 10 000 10 000 .

. ,
,
, .
.
Surfer :
;
;

;
( );
;
;
;
.
. , , , .
Surfer :
1)
;
2) ,
;
3) , .
Surfer
.
7

1. (Contour Map). , , , , .
. ,
, X Y.
2. : Wireframe Map (
), Surface Map ( ). , , . , ,
X, Y, Z, .
3. (Post Map).

.
( )
. .
4. - (Base Map). , : AutoCAD [.DXF], Windows Metafile [.WMF], Bitmap
Graphics [.TIF], [.BMP], [.PCX], [.GIF], [.JPG] .
, , , .
,
.
,
. Surfer.

.
, Windows.
Windows- Windows.

I. SURFER
I.1. Surfer
Surfer , Surfer , .
File/Preferences.
Preferences (). 4 .
Drawing () ( I.1). Page Units (
) Centimeters ().
.

I.2. -
Surfer . I.2. Surfer
- Plot1.
- ,
,
(, , , . .).

. I.1. Preferences (). Drawing ()

:
File ()

, , ;

Edit ()
View ()
Draw ()
Arrange ()
Grid ()
Map ()
Window ()
Help ()

;
,
;
, , ;
, ;
;
;
;
.

. I.2. Surfer -: 1
-; 2 ; : 3 (Main), 4
(Drawing), 5 (Map); (Rulers): 6 ,
7 ; 8 ; 9 ;
: 10 , 11 ; 12 (Status Bar);
13 (Object Manager)

10

-, Surfer
: (Main) (. 1.3), (Drawing)
(. 1.4) (Map) ( 1.5).

. I.3. Main ()

. I.4. Drawing ()

. I.5. Map ()

-
. I.2, 8). Surfer
, .
. I.2, 13).
Surfer ,
View/Object Manager
Main. - .
, (. . ) . . II.7.B (. 40).
1. Surfer. -
( 1)
Surfer. .
.

I.3. XYZ-
Surfer
, XYZ-. XYZ- , ,
, , X Y, ( ) () Z .
, . .
X Y
Z. .

11

. I.6. Surfer : 1 ; 2 ; 3 (Main); 4 ;


5 ; 6 ; : 7 , 8 ; 9 ; 10 ; : 11 , 12 ; 13 (Status Bar)

I.3.. XYZ-
Tutorws2.dat ( , Surfer) XYZ-
:
1. File/Open
Main.
Open ().
2. Tutorws2.dat
.
(. I.6).

12

3. , A X (Easting, ), B Y (Northing, ), C Z (Elevation, ). ( 1) , . , , .

. I.7. New ()
-

:
File ()
Edit ()
Format ()
Data ()
Window ()
Help ()

, ;
;
, ;
, ;
;
.

2. Surfer.
( 1)
Tutorws2.dat. .
I.3.. XYZ-
Surfer .
:
1. File/New
Main.
New () (. I.7). Worksheet (
, .
)
2. , , .
(. I.6, 9), ,
(. I.6, 5).
3. , .
, .
4. Backspace Delete.
5. Enter .
6.
. , , , Enter.

13

3.
( 5)
, . I.1. M ( ), D ( ) h ( ).
I.1
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P
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P
756
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+6
+6
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P
741
741
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P
742
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748
748
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H
80
86
86
H
74
80
86
86
86
93
93
93
93
93
93
93
86
86
80
69
86
86
86
80
93
93
93
93
93
100
93
87
93
93
87
81
87
93
93

_____________________
* t , . . .,
% ( www.gismeteo.ru).

14

. I.8. Save As ( ) XYZ-

. I.9.
Golden Software Data (*.DAT)

I.3.. XYZ-
.
1. File/Save
Main.
, Save As
( ) (. I.8).
2. Save File as Type ( ) Golden Software Data
(*.DAT).
3. File name ( ).
4.
. GSI Data Export Options ( ) (. I.9.), ,
. , ,
, ,
.
5.
Golden Software Data
(*.DAT) . .

15

4. XYZ-
( 1)

Golden Software Data (*.DAT) .

I.4.
. : (contour maps), (image
maps), (shaded relief maps),
(vector maps), (wireframe maps) - (surface maps). Grid/Data
-. -. , ,
-.
(. I.3., . 12) (. I.3..,
. 13) . -
New () (. I.7.) Plot Document ().
Grid/Data XYZ-.
.dat .

. I.10. Open () XYZ-


16

. I.11. Grid Data ( ) XYZ-


. I.12.

. I.13.
17

1. Grid/Data. Open () (. I.10.).


XYZ-,
.
2. .dat. File
,
name ( ).
Grid Data ( ) (. I.11.).
3. .
:
Data Columns ( ) , X
Y, Z ;
Grid Line Geometry ( ) X Y,
( ) ;
Gridding Method ( ) , , . . IV.1, . 45;
Output Grid File ( ) , ;
Grid Report ( ) , . ,
-
.
4.
Surfer
. ,
.grd, (. I.12)
( Surfer).
, , [.GRD].
5. Grid Report ( ) ,
Gridding Report ( ) (. I.13.).

5.
( 1)
.grd .dat.
. .

II.
,
: , , , , . , -. ,
- , .

18

II.1.

z = f(x, y).
, ,
, .
.
II.1..

Map/Contour Map/New Contour Map.
1. Map/Contour Map/New Contour Map

Map. Open Grid ( ,


. II.1.). File name ( )
(, .grd).
2.
, , ,
(. II. 2.).
3. , . View/Fit to Window.

.grd :

. II.1. Open Grid ( )

19

. II.2. -

II.1..

Surfer ( [.SRF]). , . .
.
1. File/Save
Main.
, , Save As.
, XYZ- (. I.8) , Save as type Surfer Files.

20

2. File name .
3.
.


.
.
6.
( 1)
.grd. ,
-. .srf.

. II.3.
Map: Contours
Properties
(:
). General ()

. II.4.
Map: Contours
Properties.
Levels ()

21

II.1..

. . , I.2 (. 9) , , .
, -.

Map () (. II.2, ). : Right Axis ( ), Left Axis ( ), Top Axis ( ), Bottom Axis ( ) Contours
().

. , Map

- - .
,
, . .
, -

. II.5. Contours Levels


( )

. II.6.
Map: Contours
Properties.

Levels

22

. II.7. -

. II.8. Line Properties


( )

, 1 . Enter. ,
Map .
7.
( 1)
. Map .
II.1.D.
, , . .
1. . Map: Contours Properties (: ) (. II.3).
2. Levels () (. II.4)
. Z = 54. , Z = 104, 2.
3. .

(). Contours Levels
( ). : Minimum (), Maximum () Interval ().
4. 2 4
,
Levels (. II.6).

23

. II.9.
Map: Contours
Properties.
Levels

Z = 82

. II.10. - Z = 82
5.
Map: Contours Properties (. II.7).

8.
( 1)
4.
II.1..

.
1. , Map: Contours
Properties (. II.3).
2. Levels (
)
Z = 82. Line Properties ( ) (. II.8).

24

. II.11. Fill
()

. II.12. Color
Spectrum ( )
3. (Style), (Color) (Width)
. 0,000 (
) 0,050
Width.
4.
Line Properties.
Levels (. II.9).
5.
Map: Contours Properties Z = 82
(. II.10).

9.
( 1)
. Color
() Line Properties. ,
. II.1.

25

II.1
9
Z, % ,

1
62
0,20
Black ()
2
66
0,15
50 % Black ()
3
70
0,10
White ()
4
74
0,05
Blue ()
5
78
0,10
Cyan ()
6
82
0,15
Green ()
7
86
0,20
Yellow ()
8
90
0,15
Red ()
9
94
0,10
Magenta ()
10
98
0,05
Purple ()

II.1.F.
, , .
, ( )
.
Levels Map: Contours Properties (. II.9)
(
)
(
).
.
:
1. , Map: Contours
Properties.
2. General (. II.3) Fill Contours ( ).
3. Levels
() (. II.9).
Fill () (. II.11).
4. Foreground Color ( ).
Color Spectrum ( ) (. II.12). , Z. - Blue , - .
5.
. Color Spectrum , Foreground Color .

26

. II.13. -

. II.14. -

6.
. Map: Contours Properties . - (. II.).

10.
( 2)
.
. , , (. II.2.)
II.2
10

Z
2, %

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

74
78
82
74
78
82
74
78
82
74

Red
White
Blue
Green White Brown ()
Purple White
Cyan
Black
White
Magenta
Blue
Purple
Red
Purple
Red
Yellow
Red
Yellow
Green
Yellow Green
Cyan
Green
Cyan
Blue
Cyan
Blue
Magenta

27

. II.15.
94

. II.16. .

II.1.G. ,
,
. . .
28

, .
1. Edit Contour
Labels ( ). Map/Contour
Map/Edit Labels. ,
(. II.14) .
2. . (. II.15).
Delete .
3. Ctrl
, .
4. , , , .
5. Esc.

11.
( 2)
, (. II.3), ; ,
(); , .
II.3
11

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

74
94
74
94
74
94
74
94
74
94

94
74
94
74
94
74
94
74
94
74

62
66
70
78
82
86
90
98
62
66

II.1..
: , ,
.
. ,
(. II.2) 5 , , .
.

29

. II.17.
: Left Axis
Properties (:

). General

. II.18.
Text Properties
( )

:
1.
. - :
Left Axis (: ). , . ,
- . (. II.16)
Left Axis.
2. . : Left Axis Properties (:
) (. II.29). .
3. Title () General ()
. .. .
4.
Title. Text Properties
( ) (. II.18). Face () Arial CYR.
.

5. Scaling () (. II.19). Major
Interval ( ) 2,5.
.

30

. II.19.
: Left Axis
Properties.
Scaling ()

. II.10. Label Format ( )


6. General
Labels (). Label Format ( ) (. II.20).
Type () Fixed (). .
Decimal Digits ( ) 1. ,
.
7.
. Label Format .
8.
. : Left Axis Properties .

31

12.
( 3)
: . .;
2,5;
; ( Axis Attributes)
0,1 ; ( Grid Lines,
Major Grid Lines, Show).
. II.4. ( ).
II.4
12

Arial CYR

12

Purple

Courier New CYR

14

Courier New CYR


Times New Roman
CYR

Black
50 %
Black

10

Magenta

16

White

Arial CYR

12

Red

18

Blue

14

Yellow

20

Cyan

Courier New CYR


Times New Roman
CYR

12

Green

18

Green

Arial CYR

10

Cyan

16

Yellow

Blue

14

Red

Courier New CYR


Times New Roman
CYR

10

White

12

Magenta

Arial CYR

12

10

Purple

Courier New CYR

10

Times New Roman


CYR
Arial CYR

Courier New CYR

Times New Roman


CYR
Arial CYR

Courier New CYR

9
10

Times New Roman


CYR
Arial CYR

50%
Black
Black

II.2.
.
-, , . (. . )
Z . X Y, , .
:
1. Map/Wireframe Map

Map. Open Grid ( , . II.1). .grd.


2.
, ,
(. II.21).

32

. II.21. .

13.
( 3)
1) - .
. .
2) (,
, , )
. : , %; 10.
3) Z (
General, Plot Lines of Constant).
4) ( General,
Base, Show Vertical Lines); . II.5.
Z, ( Base, Elevation), 60.
5) ( Color
Zones). X, Y Z
( Apply zones to lines of constant). 1 2
(. II.2, . 27). 0,000 ; ( Color
Zones,
, Line Spectrum, Maximum
33

. II.22.

Line Properties) . II.1,


. 26.
6) ( View): ( Projection); Field
of View ( ), Rotation () Tilt () . II.5.
7) ( Scale): X (1,0 cm = N
Map units) . II.5; Y 2
; Z 10 .

34

II.5
13

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10


Red
Yellow
Green
Cyan
Blue
White
50 % Black
Black
Purple
Magenta

10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

200
225
250
25
50
75
100
125
150
175

25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70

0,5
1
2
2,5
5
2,5
2
1
0,5
1

II. 3.
, .
Z .
(. IV.7 , . 59) .
Color Spectrum (. II.1.F, . 26).
(, ) Color Spectrum
files [.CLR] ( ) (. II.12,
).

Z.
.
:
1. Map/Image Map

Map. Open Grid (. II.1). .grd.


2.
, , , (. II.22).

II. 4.
, .

. Surfer
. ,
, 35

. II.23.

. .
, .
(, , ).
:
1. Map/Shaded Relief Map

Map. Open Grid (. II.1.).


.grd.
2.
, , , (. II.23).

36

II.5.
Z.
. () .

. II.24.

1- :
1. Map/Vector Map/New 1-Grid Vector Map
Map. Open Grid (. II.1). .grd.
2.
, , , (. II.24).

37

II.6.
. Z .
.

. II.25.

:
1. Map/Surface

Map.

Open Grid (. II.1). .grd.


2.
, , , (. II.27).

14.
( 3)
(Image Map), (Shaded Relief Map), (1-Grid Vector Map) (3D Surface).
38

; ( ) .

. II.26.
: Post Properties ( ).
General

. II.27.

39

II.7.
. . ,
.
, X Y . ( ), .
II.7. .
1. - .srf.
2. Map/Post Map/New Post Map

3.

4.
5.
6.
7.

Map. Open (. I.10). XYZ .dat.


, ,

-, (. II.27).
. Map: Post Properties
(: ) (. II.26).
( General, Default Symbol).
.
.
0,1 ( Symbol Size, Fixed Size).

. Map: Post Properties -

II.7..
,
.
. . ,
, .
:
1. . Shift.
.
2. Map/Overlay Maps.
(. II.28).

40

. II.28.

15.
( 2)
1) . II.6.
2) .
3) . .
II.6
15

,

1
50% Black
0,05

2
Black
0,1

3
Purple
0,15

4
Magenta
0,2

5
Red
0,25
!
6
Yellow
0,3
$
7
Green
0,35
&
8
Cyan
0,4
*
9
Blue
0,45
2
10
White
0,5

41

II.7..
. :
1. Post .
2. Map: Post Properties.

. II.29.
: Post
Properties ( ).
Labels
3. Labels (. II.29). Worksheet Column for Labels ( ) . .dat.
4. Column C: H
5.

Label Format (. II.20).

Fixed, 0.
. Label Format .
. Map: Post Properties .

6.
7.

16.
( 1)
. .

42

III.
Surfer X Y , .
(Digitizing). .
-.

III.1. -
- - , .
- , .
, .
- .
- :
1. -. .srf.
2. Map/Base Map

Map. Open (. I.10). BlackSea.jpg.
3.
, , , -, (. III.1).

. III.1.
:



4. -.

43

. III.2.
-

III. 2. -
- . :
1. .
2. Map/Digitize. . X Y .
3. . (. III.2).
X Y. ,
, , ( , )
.
4. .
5. .
File/Save As. Save As ( )
(. I.8). Save as Type ( ) Data Files (*.DAT).
( ) .
6. .
7. Esc.

17.
( 10)
1) - . BlackSea.jpg.
.
2)

.
.
-.
3)
. .dat.
4) .grd .dat.
5) .grd. .
44

6) . . 4 5.

IV.
IV.1.

Z- (X, Y, Z)-
.
, X, Y .
(Contour)
(Surface) .
.
Surfer .
, ,
,
.
(Kriging) , .
, . , ,
.
(Radial Basis Functions) , .
(Triangulation with Linear Interpolation) . .
,
. . . , , , .
Inverse Distance to a Power ( ) , Z45

.
, , (power) . - ,
. ,
, . , , , , .
Minimum Curvature ( ) . ,
, , . , , .
, , , .
Polynomial Regression ( ) . ,
, , .
(Modified Shepard's Method)
(Inverse Distance to a Power).
,
Z- . ,
. .

IV.2.
,
;
, . , .
: .
(Grid Line Geometry)
(Grid Limits) (Grid Density).
46

X
Y . Surfer X
Y XYZ .
,
.
X Y . , .
Surfer (X Y), ,
100 .
; .
, . .
, , .
. , ,
, ,
. ,
.
. ,
,
, 1 . , 1:50 000 50 . , . ,
.
18.
( 5)
1) , .
2) , (Moving Average, Data
Metrics, Local Polynomial). 3 (Simple planar
surface, Quadratic surface, Cubic surface). 47

,
(, (IDP).grd,
(Kriging).grd, (MinCurv).grd . .).
3) ,
. ,
X Y
0 (. IV.1). 0.
.

. IV.1.
Grid Data

.
X Y
0

4) -.
5)
. .
6)
, (, ,
().grd). .
7) . ,
- . , .
, .

48

IV.3.
,
, .
IV.3..
Grid/Spline Smooth
.
( XX ),
()
.
.
. ,
. Z , .
: .

. , , .
, . , .

. ,
.

. , 10 10
, , .
Grid/Spline Smooth 50 50

, 10 10.

49

. IV.2.
Spline Smooth
(
)

:
1. - ( -).
2. Grid/Spline Smooth. Open Grid (
, . II.1). .
Spline Smooth ( ) (. IV.2).
3. Method () Insert Nodes ( ).
Number Nodes to Insert ( ).
4. Between Rows ( )
( Y)
. 4.
5. Between Cols ( ) ( X) . 4.
6. . Output Grid File
. Save Grid As ( ), ,
(. I.8). ,
.
1.grd,
7. Spline Smooth
.

:
1.
.
2.
3. Method () Recalc Grid ( ).
Final Grid Size ( ).
4. # Rows ( ) . , 100.
5. # Cols ( )
. , 50.
6. . , 2.grd,
.

7. Spline Smooth
.

50

19.
( 2)
1) -.
2)

(Kriging).grd.
3) .
4)
.

. IV.3. Digital Filtering ( )

IV.3..
Grid/Filter
.
() ; , ;
, ; , ().

. :
1. Grid/Filter. Open Grid (
, . II.1). . Digital Filtering ( ) (. IV.3).
2. Linear Convolution Filters/Predefined

51

Filters/Low-pass Filters/Gaussian (3 3) ( /
/ / (33)).
3. Digital Filtering
.

. IV.4. Grid
Function ( )

20.
( 1)
1) (Kriging).grd.
().grd.
2) .
3) .

IV.4.
Grid/Function ()
z = f(y,x).
(. . VI.1..
, . 63) , Surfer (. .V.2. , . 62). .
:
1. Grid/Function. Grid Function (
) (. IV.4).
2. .
3. (Minimum) (Maximum) X Y,
(Increment) .
4. .
. .

52

21.
( 2)
1)
. IV.1. X Y 100,
+100, 1.
2) .
IV.1
21

5
6
7

10

(
)
) cos ( x ) cos ( y )
2

cos x + y

1
2

(x

+ y2

sin ( x ) sin ( y )

cos ( x ) cos ( y )

( x +y )

y
cos ( x + y ) cos 16arctan
x

y
+ y 3 cos 4 arctan
x

y
sin 4 arctan
x

y
sin 8arctan
x

y
sin 16arctan
x

2x 2 + y 2

sin x 2 + y 2

cos

(x

sin

y
cos 4 arctan
x

y
cos 8arctan
x

y
cos 16arctan
x

cos x 2 + y 2

(x

+ y 2 sin ( x ) sin ( y )

( x +y )

y
sin ( x + y ) sin 16arctan
x

sin

(x

y
+ y 3 sin 4 arctan
x

IV.5.
Grid/Math , Z-
. , ,
X-, Y- .
53

. IV.5.
Grid Math ( )

C = f(A,B), A B , C . X-, Y,
X-, Y-.
Grid/Math .
. ,
, . C = log10(A).
. , C = A 100,
, 100
.
:
1. Grid/Math. Open Grid (
, . II.1). .
2. Grid Math ( ) (. IV.5). Input Grid
File A ( A) ,
. , .
3. Input Grid File B ( B) , .

B.
4. Enter a function of the form
C = f(A,B) ( C = f(A,B)). A B , , C .
5. Output Grid File ( )
, . .
6.
. .

54

22.
( 3)
1) ,
, Radial Basis Functions, Inverse
Distance to a Power Minimum Curvature ( A C = A B),
Kriging ( B ).
(, RBF-Kriging.grd).
2) ,
, Kriging ( A
C = A B), Polynomial Regression, ( B ).

(, Kriging-Polynom1.grd).
3) , , (Kriging).grd.
4)
( . 1 ) ( . 2 ).

IV.6.
Grid/Calculus . ,
, .
Grid Calculus ( ) (. IV.6)
.
1. Directional Derivatives ( )
( ). .
: First Derivative ( ),
Second Derivative ( ) Curvature ().
.
1. First Derivative.
.
, ,
. , , , .
2. Second Derivative.
. , , .
3. Curvature

, . .

55

2. Terrain Modeling ( )
. , ,
. ( ), , .
: Terrain Slope (
), Terrain Aspect ( ), Profile Curvature ( ), Plan
Curvature ( ) Tangential Curvature ( ).
Threshold ().
, ( ),
(. . ).
. Threshold ,
. , Threshold ,
(. IV.7 , . 59). Threshold
.
1. Terrain Slope
. , , 0 ( ) 90
().
( ).
, , . . .
2. Terrain Aspect
(. . ) . . , 0 , 90 .
3. Profile Curvature
(
) .
, , . .
.
, .
.
4. Plan Curvature

. , .
5. Tangential Curvature
, . , , .
3. Differential and Integral Operators ( )
Gradient Operator ( ), Laplacian Operator ( ), Biharmonic Operator ( ) Integrated Volume ( ).
1. Gradient Operator
(. . ) . , , , . ,
.
.

56

2. Laplacian Operator
, .
, .
, (, , , ).
3. Biharmonic Operator
,
, , .
4. Integrated Volume
( ) -
- .
4. Fourier and Spectral Analysis ( )
(Correlogram) (Periodogram) , : , , , ,
, .
1. Correlogram
.
, .
.
: Z(x, y) = Z(-x, -y). , ,
.
2. Periodogram
. ,
. Surfer . : Z(x, y) = Z(-x, -y). , ,
, .

Grid/Calculus . , . ,
.
.

57

. IV.6.
Grid Calculus
(
)

:
1. Grid/Calculus. Open Grid ( .
, . II.1.). .
Grid Calculus ( ) (. IV.6).
2. Directional Derivative/First Derivative ( / ).
3. 90.
4. Output Grid File
.
6.
. .

23.
( 4)
1)
(Kriging).grd: ) First
Derivative ( ) 0 90; ) Second
Derivative ( ) 0 90; ) Terrain
Slope ( ); ) Terrain Aspect ( ) ) Profile
Curvature ( ).
2)
, (Kriging).grd.
3) . , .

58

IV.7.
() -
. , -
. .
.
, Z .
Grid/Blank , ,
, 1,70141e+038.
Grid/Blank, [.BLN]
(Golden Software blanking [.BLN] file).
Map/Digitize -.
, X, Y .
Golden Software Data (*.DAT), XYZ, , . : N
C. N , .
, N+1.
C : 1 ,
, ; 1 , .

. IV.7. Open
()

, , , , , 59

. .
() .
, ,
:
1. - .srf, - BlackSea (. III.1, . 43).
2. - Map/Digitize. . ( ),
. . III.2, . 44.
3. Golden Software blanking [.BLN] file .bln.
4. Grid/Blank. Open Grid (
, . II.1.). , .
5.
, Open () Boundary Files (*.bln) ( ) (. IV.7).
.bln.
6. Save Grid As,
. .grd.
.
7. .
8. Map: Contours Properties
(. II.3, . 21) General, Blanked Regions ( ) .

24.
( 2)
1) : ,
. .bln.
2)
(Kriging).grd.
3) -. .
. IV.1. Fill Pattern .
IV.1
24

Yellow
50% Black
1
Green
Black
2
Cyan
Purple
3
Blue
Magenta
4
White
Red
5
50 % Black
Yellow
6
Black
Green
7
Purple
Cyan
8
Magenta
Blue
9
Red
White
10

60

IV.8.

, .
Grid/Slice () ,
MS Excel.
Golden Software blanking [.BLN] file.

Golden Software Data [*.DAT]
Golden Software blanking [.BLN] file.
.
.
DAT- .
:
1) A:
2) B:
3) C:
4) D:
5) E:

X- ;
Y- ;
Z- ;
( );
(,
).

BLN- 3
.

Grid/Slice C
Y- . X- A, B D.

X- A,
XZ- Surfer.
X- B,

YZ- Surfer.
X- D,

,
, .
1. Slice Grid. Open Grid ( ). , OK.
2. Open File ( ) blanking [.BLN] , . OK, Grid Slice ( ).
3. , Slice,
[.BLN], Change () Output BLN File
( BLN ) [.BLN] .
Output BLN File.
4. , Slice,
ASCII , Change () Output DAT File
( DAT ) ASCII .
Output DAT File.

61

Clip outside grid ( ) . [.BLN] , , , , Clip


outside grid , .
Clip blanked areas ( ) , , Slice. - (
1,70141e+038), , Clip blanked areas , , , .
5. OK, ( [.BLN] , ),
. GRAPHER
GRAPHER for Windows Golden Software
.

25.
( 2)
1) .bln, - - .
2) (Kriging).grd.
3) .

62

V.
V.1.

Grid/Function, Grid/Math, Grid/Data, Grid/Variogram Data/Transform,
() . ,
, ().
V.1..

:
+
*
/

V.1..

:
=
<>
<
>
<=
>=
OR
XOR
AND
NOT

V.2.
aCos(x)
aSin(x)
aTan(x)

V.2..
. x 1 1
. x 1 1

.
. .
aTan2(y,x)
x ( ) y ( ) 0
Cos(x)

63

CosH(x)
Exp(x)
Ln(x)
Log10(x)
Pow(x,y)
Sin(x)
SinH(x)
Tan(x)
TanH(x)

e x + e x
ch ( x ) =
2
x
e
. x 0
. x 0
xy. , x = 0 y 0, , x < 0 y

e x e x
sh ( x ) =
2
. x
sh ( x )
th ( x ) =
ch ( x )

/2

V.2..
Ceil(x)
D2R(x)
Fabs(x)
Floor(x)

, x

FMod(x,y)

x/y. y = 0, 0

Max(x,y)

Min(x,y)
R2D(x)

y
x y

. , sin(d2r(30)) 30, sin(30) 30 (~1719)


, ()
RandN(x,y)
( ) x () y
RandU(x)
, , [0, x]
Row()

SqRt(x)
. x 0

V.2..
a..z

a..z
RowMax(a..z)

a..z
RowMin(a..z)

() Std(a..z)
a..z
a..z
Sum(a..z)

Avg(a..z)

a..z , , C..H W..AC. .

64

V.3.
, Surfer. Data/Transform
X, Y Z .

pow(x,2)

x
ln ( x )

ln(x)

log10 ( x )

log10(x)

1 e x

(1-exp(-x))
2

1 e x
sin ( x )
1
x
2
x
1 + x2
2x x 2
x 3 + y 3 sin (8arctan ( xy ) )

)(

(1-exp(-x*x))
1-(sin(x)/x)
pow(x,2)/(1+(pow(x,2)))

(2*x)-pow(x,2)
(pow(x,3)+pow(y,3))*(sin(8*atan(x*y)))

65


Golden Software Surfer 8

..

16.04.08. 6084/16. . . . 3,8.


50 . 353.
-
.
394000, . , . . , 10. . 208-298, 598-026 ()
http://www.ppc.vsu.ru; e-mail: pp_center@ppc.vsu.ru
-
.
394000, . , . , 3. . 204-133.
66

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