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Adriane Conner

3/12/2014 Enc 1102 14

Annotated Bibliography over the Benefits of Open neurosurgeries over that of other techniques which include robotic and minimally invasive/mini-open In this bibliography all the articles pertain to three different techniques that may or may not be suitable for every patient in every case when it comes to neurosurgery. The three big idea techniques are open, minimally invasive and robotics. In this field, neurosurgery, it is important to know which technique would best fit a patient that can benefit them not only short term but long term as well. This is worth researching because neurosurgery is very difficult and making the wrong decision in the techniques used for a patient can cause not only negative effects on the patient but also negative effects on the surgeon as well. If the improper technique is used a loved one or family member can lose their life because no research was done to find the best suitable technique for that patient and their respective case. The main focus of this document is on open surgeries versus minimally invasive and robotics with the use of other inputs for clarity. This document is not about anesthesia or anesthesiology but includes it for extra input and clarity on the main topic. The oldest time period of this document is 2008 because medicine and techniques discovered change very rapidly when it comes to medicine especially neurosurgeries. This document references medical journals that include visuals and charts to further show the results explaining why this research was held and the answers it provides to society, specifically medical society. Throughout this document there is a repeated dialogue using words such as neurosurgery; surgery on the brain and spinal cord (nervous system), minimally invasive; doesnt go to soft tissue, clinical; hospital environment, radiographic; x-ray images etc. which are known words in this discourse community but may not be known to anyone outside the community.

Adriane Conner Once again I will reinforce the fact that all documentation as found from medical journals online. All the authors are well educated and experienced in this subject.

Ali ZS, Lang SS, Baker D, Storm PB. Stein SC. Pediatric intracranial arachnoid cysts comparative effectiveness of surgical treatment options. Childs Nervous System. International Society of Pediatric Neurosurgery. 2014 March. Vol. 30 (3). pp. 461-9. In this Article, Ali of University of Pennsylvania in the department of Neurosurgery, explains the variety of surgical approaches and their pros and cons. The approaches are mostly open neurosurgeries. Overall there are no significant differences in any outcome among the approaches/techniques used. While each approach offers unique advantages and disadvantages, an individualized treatment strategy should be employed in the setting of surgical outcomes. This article is beneficial to my research because it compares techniques and shows that any technique used depends on the patient and the case.

Ayad M, Ulm AJ, Yao T, Eskioglu E, Mencle RA. Real-time Image Guidance for Open Vascular Neurosurgery using Digital Angiographic Road Mapping. Neurosurgery. 2007 September. Vol. 61 (3). pp. 55-61. In this article Ayad from Vanderbilt University Medical Center Department of Neurological Surgery evaluates the real time image guidance for the open vascular neurosurgery technique for the first time during surgical resection of intracranial and spinal vascular tumors. Angiographic road mapping is an effective intraoperative navigation tool for resection of vascular tumors that has not been previously described and offers many advantages. This article is beneficial because it

Adriane Conner adds other information on techniques that can be used to benefit any patient no matter the case.

Bernstein M M.D., Al anazi A M.D., Kucharczyk W M.D., Manninen P M.D., Bronskill M. Brain Tumor Surgery with the Toronto Magnetic Resonance Imaging System Patients and Analysis of Advantages, Disadvantages and Future Prospects. Neurosurgery. Vol. 46 (4). April 2000. pp. 900-909. In this article, Bernstein from Toronto Hospital Division of Neurosurgery explains how an open magnetic resonance imaging system for brain surgery was developed in Toronto to provide real time imaging assisting and ultimately improving neurosurgery for both patients and surgeons alike. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging has a great potential as an aid for intracranial surgery, but a number of logistic problems require resolution. This article is beneficial because it adds other information to techniques that can be beneficial for patients no matter the case. Bilotta, F. Pizzichetta, F. Fiorani, L. Paoloni, F P. Delfini, R. Rosa, G. Risk Index for PeriOperative Atrial Fibrillation in Patients Undergoing Open Intracranial Neurosurgical Procedures. Anaesthesia. 2009 May Vol 64 (5). pp. 503-507. In this article, Bilotta from La Sapienza University of Rome Italy Critical care and Pain Medicine Department of Anaesthesiology explains the risks of anesthesia in open neurosurgeries along with factoring in the risks of open neurosurgeries. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the prevalence of pre-operative atrial fibrillation and the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing elective or emergency intracranial neurosurgical procedures and the relation to survival and neurological outcome at 6months follow-up compared to patients with sinus rhythm. A total of 2020 patients were

Adriane Conner enrolled; 1540 patients underwent elective procedures and 480 underwent emergency procedures. Prevalence of pre-operative atrial fibrillation was 3.7% in elective and 7.2% in emergency procedures. In patients undergoing elective cerebral procedures with preoperative atrial fibrillation, compared to patients with sinus rhythm, 6-month neurological outcome and survival rate are similar. In patients undergoing emergency neurosurgical cerebral procedures, the presence of pre-operative atrial fibrillation is related to an increased risk of poor neurological outcome but with similar survival rate. This article is beneficial to my research because it adds another factor to the idea of what procedure is best beneficial to any patient in any case when it comes to neurosurgeries and the various techniques including open, minimally invasive, and robotics.

Finley, David et al. Thorascopic Resection of an Apical Paraspinal Schwannoma using the Davinci Surgical System. Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery. 75.1 (2014): 58-63. Medline. Web. 6March 2014. In this article Finley from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center Department of surgery explains the advantages of the open method called DaVinci surgical system using video assistance. This alternative technique allows for improved morbidity with decreased blood loss etc. The technique introduces robotic system accuracy and preludes the need for open surgery. Overall this approach shows the ability of the Da Vinci system to safely dissect tumors with no error. This article is beneficial to my research because it adds another factor to consider in neurosurgery and what technique could be better for any respective patient depending on the case.

Adriane Conner Fourney DR M.D. et al. Does Minimal Access Tubular Assisted Spine Surgery Increase or Decrease Complications in Spinal Decompression or Fusion. Spine. 2010. Vol. 35. pp. S57-S65. In this article Fourney from University of Saskatchewan Royal University Hospital Division of Neurosurgery attempts to answer the question of the article along with the question What strategies to reduce the risk of complications of minimally invasive technique have been shown to be effective? which are good questions considering the research must answer them so that others know that this technique is usable by all neurosurgeons and will be leaned if answered positively by all neurosurgeons. The purpose of minimal access spine surgery is to decrease damage to surrounding tissue while still accomplishing the same goals as conventional (full open) surgery. Overall the large randomized study showed less favorable results for the minimal access spinal surgery but had no significant difference in complications. This article is beneficial to my research because it answers the questions if minimally invasive techniques are really beneficial overall even in cases that are complicated and/or simple. And based of the results it brings me back to the idea that no matter what case or surgery that must be performed it all depends on the patient and hat is best for the patient.

Iplikcloglu AC, Hatibuglu MA, Ozek E, Dinc C, Erdal M. Surgical Removal of Spinal Mass Lesions with Open Door Laminoplasty. Central European Neurosurgery. 2010 Nov. Vol 71 (4). pp. 213-218. In this article Iplikcloglu of Okmeydani Training and Research Hospital Neurosurgery Department adapts the open door laminoplasty technique to remove spinal tumors along the spinal axis. All tumors exposed using the open door technique were successfully removed in all cases. Overall open door laminoplasty is a

Adriane Conner simple procedure and has many advantages over the classical procedure. The two main advantages that are really focused on are the fact that this technique has no neurological deficits and no epidural scar tissue. This procedure can be used in all spinal cases with inner spinal tumors. This article is beneficial to my research because it shows how open spinal surgery still has major benefits and can be used in many cases while minimally invasive surgeries can only be used in certain cases. Karikari IO M.D., Isaacs RE M.D. Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion: A Review of Techniques. Spine. 2010. Vol. 35. pp. S294-S301. In this Article Karikari from Duke University Medical Center Division of neurosurgery department of Surgery reviews literature about minimally invasive neurosurgeries and their benefits overall. Minimally invasive techniques do have their benefits of less blood loss and less pain etc. but at this time there were not enough published data for this conclusion to be one hundred percent accurate. The few reports that were published do show that the technique has clinical benefits but there arent enough for Karikari to believe that these results are completely true in all cases when it comes to spinal surgeries. Overall there are more studies that needed to be conducted at this time to further solidify the results viewed by Karikari. This article is helpful to my research because it shows that even though it is believed that minimally invasive surgeries are better for the patient one cannot be completely sure until it is proven that it is one hundred percent effective no matter who the patient is and what surgery need to be performed on them.

Karikan IO. Spine [Spine (Phila Pa 1976)] 2010. Dec 15. Vol 35 (26). pp. 5294-5301. In this article Karikan from Duke University Medical Center Division of Neurosurgery reviews

Adriane Conner results of minimally invasive neurosurgery on the lower back and evaluates the effectiveness of the procedure. Minimally invasive spine techniques aim to reduce approach relative morbidity without compromising operative and clinical outcomes. This procedure is being used more often than before to control degenerative diseases. The benefits of this procedure include less blood loss, less need for blood transfusions, shorter hospital stay, and less back pain overall. The reports of the procedure show improved clinical outcomes when compared to other techniques. This article is helpful to my research because it shows how open neurosurgery is beneficial compared to other techniques.

Mannion RJ, Nowitzke AM, Efendy J, Wood MJ. Safety and Efficacy of Intradural Extremedollary Spinal Tumor Remol using and Minimally Invasive Approach. Neurosurgery. 2011 March. Vol 68. pp. 208-216. In this article Mannion et al from Princess Alexandria Hospital of the Department of Neurosurgery explains that there can be benefits to minimally open/invasive surgery but there can be concerns. Although the mini-open surgery offers many benefits such as less pain, quick recovery, and less instability postop there are concerns over safety and effectiveness of tumor removal in the spine compared to fully open techniques and whether the advantages are clinically significant. Overall tumors can be safely and effectively removed using mini-open techniques but there remains pros and cons for both mini-open and fully open techniques. This article is beneficial to my research because it explains the pros and cons of both techniques being compared in my research.

Adriane Conner Ntoukas V, Muller A. Minimally Invasive Neurosurgery Minimally Invasive Approach versus Traditional Open Approach for one Level Posterior Lumbar Interbody Fusion. 2010 Feb. Vol 53 (1). pp. 21-24. In this article Ntoukas from Germany Department of Neurosurgery compares mini-open spine surgery and its clinical benefits compared to that of traditional fully open approach. The study was conducted comparing both approaches. After the surgery no significant difference between the two groups with regard to clinical outcomes. Overall the mini-open had the same benefits as usual but had a longer radiation time than the open group. This study confirmed the results of previous studies but in the long run both techniques showed no difference with regard to clinical outcomes. This article is beneficial to my research because it compares the techniques side by side over time affirming the idea that either technique can be used but depending on the patient some techniques will not be suitable.

Mannion R, Guilfoyle M, Efendy J, Nowitzke A, Laing R, Wood M. Minimally Invasive Lumbar Decompression: Long-Term Outcome, Morbidity, and the Learning Curve from the First 50 Cases. Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques. Volume 25 (1). 2012 Feb. pp. 4751. In this article Mannion from Princess Alexandria Hospital Department of Neurosurgery describes a minimally invasive spinal surgery in terms of patient outcome up to 2 years, learning curve incurred, and complications when compared with their most recent cases. Lumbar canal stenosis is a common condition in the elderly population. A minimally invasive approach offers potential short and long term benefits but this technique is equivalent to full open surgery regarding efficacy and complications. Minimally invasive spine surgery offers patients a clinical benefit comparable to that

Adriane Conner observed in open series with advantages of less pain after surgery and less recovery time. But long-term effects are not yet known. This article is beneficial to my research because it goes over the short term and long term effects of mini-open neurosurgeries showing that there are benefits in short term but the long term benefits and effects can be the same as an open neurosurgery regardless. Perez-Cruet MJ, Welsh RJ, Hussain NS, Begun EM, Lin J, Park P. Use of the da Vinci Minimally Invasive Robotic System for Resection of a Complicated Paraspinal Schwannoma with Thoracic Extension : Case Report. Neurosurgery. 2012 September. Vol. 71. pp. 209-214. In this article Perez-Cruet from Oakland University, William Beaumont Hospital Department of Neurosurgery reviews two patients with large spinal tumors that extend into the chest cavity while using video and images combined with minimally invasive robotics to remove the tumors with no complications or errors. The use of robotics in minimally invasive spine surgery have many benefits while sparing patients the technicalities and mistakes that can happen with full open surgery. As said in previous articles in this bibliography the minimally invasive technique has quite a few advantages such as less blood loss, less pain etc. Now they are adapting the robotics system to help with neurosurgeries such as these complicated spinal tumor removals. This article details the use of a front approach and back approach both using a robotics system. Overall this report describes a novel neurosurgical application of the known technique of minimally invasive robotic surgical system. This article is beneficial to my research because it gives another detailed description of a minimally open technique that can be helpful to even the most complicated spinal surgeries. With this technique being

Adriane Conner successful that shows that even minimally invasive techniques with robotics may have more benefits than fully open surgeries even in the long run.

Tangviriyapaiboon T. Journal of Medical Association of Thailand=Chotmaihel Thangphaet [J Medical Association Thai] 2008 September. Vol. 91 (9). pp. 1368-1376. In this article Tangviriyapaiboon from the department of neurosurgery at Prasat Neurological Institute in Bangkok, demonstrates surgical techniques and advantages of the mini open approach for spine surgery combined with screw fixation. Clinical and radiographic results were assessed to determine the clinical outcomes. After surgery all patients tested (12) were able to walk within range 1-2 days. The hospital stay was around 4-7days long. Overall the mini-open technique provided excellent clinical results. This article is helpful and beneficial to my research about open techniques for neurosurgery and how they can be better for patients. Wang MY, William S, Mummaneni PV, Sherman JD. Minimally Invasive Percutaneous Iliac Screws: Initial 24 Case Experience with CT Confirmation. Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques. 2012 September 25. In this Article Wang from the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine Department of Neurological Surgery ascertains the safety of small screws implanted placement using fluoroscopic guidance. Percutaneous pedicle screws, small screws, have been accepted as an effective method for fixation in many different cases and most cases had great success with this minimally invasive approach. Overall a minimally invasive technique can be done safely with little to no bony

Adriane Conner violation. This technique gets the job done without soft tissue exposure which was needed for safe hardware insertion. This technique relies heavily on fluoroscopic imaging. This article is beneficial to my research because it adds another concept to the idea that the procedure done depends on the case and the patient.