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, , , , ,

1 .
,
.2

I.

:
.
1. f (x)
F (x), F 0 (x) = f (x) f .
.
2. f (x)
x :
Z
f (x) dx
. , (C)0 = 0,
3 .
, :
R
.
1. f (x) dx f (x).
, :
R
1. f (x) dx f (x):
Z
Z
dx
dx
= ln|x| + c,
= ln x + c
(1)
x
x

2.

f (x) dx f (x).
:
(
Z
Z (
1, x < 21
x + C1 , x < 12
F (x) = min{1; 2x} dx =
dx =
2x, x > 21
x2 + C2 , x > 21
(2)
x = 12 ,
, ..:
 
1
lim
F
(x)
=
lim
F
(x)
=
F
(3)
2
x 12 0
x 12 +0
, :
1
+ C1 =
2

 2
1
1
+ C2 = C2 = + C1
2
4

, ,
a.s.savostyanov@gmail.com
3

(4)

( ) sgn
( ).
,
, ,
.
:

.
, ,
. , (, , )
, 4 . ( ,
, ?), .
( ) ,
5 . :
Z
Z
Z
Z
Z

sin x
dx
x2
2
,
dx,
x cos x dx
(5)
e
cos x dx,
dx,
lnx
x

, .
, , :
Z
2
2
ex dx,
(6)
erf x =

R sin x 
dx
.

x

R cos
x
dx
,

x
, , ,
, , .

II.

, - , ,
, , , , (
, 100 ). , , : . ,
, ! ,
, .
:
Z
Z
Z
dx
dx
dx
=
=
=
x6 + x
x(x5 + 1)
x(x + 1)(x4 x3 + x2 x + 1)
Z
dx

=
, (7)
2 + 51 x + 1)
x
+
1)(x
x(x + 1)(x2 5+1
2
2
4

, 155 .

5
, , ,

. ( :
, x5 + 1 ,
,
).
:
Z

dx
=
+x

x6

t
=
+
1
5
dx
1
1
ln|t|
x
=
=
dt =
+C =
1
6
dx
5
t
5
x (1 + x5 )
dt = 5

x6

1
1
= ln 1 + 5 + C (8)
5
x

, , .

. ,
(x a), a ,
, . , ,
.
- ( ,
,
). -,
, .. (, , ).
pq , p , q ( ).

. ,
.
, , , , .
.
, ,
. ,
, .

III.

,
, , , ( ,

; , ). ,
.
,
:
1. .
,
3

. , ,
. , , :
)
(
Z
Z
2
t
=
1

x
1
t6
2 5
=
(9)
x(1 x ) dx =
t5 dt = + C
2
12
dt = 2x dx
2. x2 + px + q.
( 6 ,
, ):
2
2
(a) t = x + p2 : x2 + px + q = x + p2 p4 + q.
:
Z

dx

= ln| x2 a2 + x| + C
(10)
x 2 a2
p
(b) t = x2 + px + q. dt = 2x+p
dx. (a),
2 x2 +px+q
:
Z
Ax + B
p
dx
(11)
x2 + px + q
3. . , .
, ,
. ,
sin(cos x), ,
.
4. .
, ,
.
.
t = tg x = dt =

dx
= dx(1 + tg2 x) = dx(1 + t2 )
2
cos x

,
1
= 1 + tg2 x
cos2 x
:
Z
Z
cos4 x
cos4 x
dx
=
dx =
sin x cos5 x(1 + tg5 x)
sin x(cos5 x + sin5 x)
Z
Z
1
1
=
dx = 2
dx =
5
sin x cos x(1 + tg x)
sin 2x(1 + tg5 x)

Z
Z
1
dt
1
1
=2
dx =
= ln 1 + 5 + C (12)
2 tg x
t(1 + t5 )
5
tg x
(1 + tg5 x)
1+tg2 x
6

IV.

( ). :

du = x3 dx

x
Z
Z
x4
u=
1
x4
3
4
arctan x
x arctan x dx =
=
dx =

4
4
1 + x2
v
=
arctan
x

dv =

dx
2
1+x

Z 
1
1
x4
2
arctan x
x 1+
dx =
=
4
4
1 + x2


x4
1 x3
=
arctan x
x + arctan x + C (13)
4
4 3
, .

V.

( )
.
!
!

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