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Samantha Kriley Dr. Hughey EDCEP 721 Course Requirement E

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is mental disorder characterized by inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (Children and Adults with AttentionDeficit/Hyperactivity Disorder 2013). At the earliest, ADHD can be discovered when children are in preschool (Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, 2013). It can be tricky to diagnose ADHD because at one time or another all children show symptoms (Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, 2013). School counselors, teachers, and other educational personnel should be educated on ADHD, the evaluation and treatment of ADHD, and different teaching strategies that will enhance students learning. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder affects a persons ability to function daily (Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, 2013). There are three types of ADHD. They are primarily inattentive, primarily hyperactivity/impulsive, and ADHD combined type. Common symptoms of primary inattentive are failure to give close attention to details, difficulty sustaining attention, struggles to follow directions, organizational difficulties and easily distracted (Learning Disability Association of America, 2011). Primarily hyperactivity/impulsive symptoms are fidgeting with hands or feet, difficulty remaining in their seat, talks excessively, and difficulty waiting or taking turns (Learning Disability Association of America, 2011). The third type, ADHD combined, has both inattentive and

hyperactivity/impulsive symptoms. These three different types of ADHD have been correlated to neurobiological events (Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, 2013). A neurobiological event refers the disorder being inherited rather than a learned problem. This can mean difficulties during pregnancy, prenatal exposure to alcohol, premature delivery, or extremely high body lead levels have been linked to children with ADHD (Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, 2013). Since this disorder can be caused from a variety of different sources the evaluation and treatment is burdensome. The evaluation and treatment of this disorder is difficult. There are no tests to diagnose ADHD. Although, if a child presents at least six of the previous symptoms listed, with some symptoms starting before the age of seven, there is a chance the child has one of the three types of ADHD (National Alliance on Mental Health, n.d). These symptoms must clearly impair the child in at least two settings (National Alliance on Mental Health, n.d). Settings refer to home, school, or work. There are many different treatments for ADHD. The most effective treatment is medication (National Alliance on Mental Health, n.d). The most common medications a student uses are one of the following; Ritalin, Dexedrine, and Adderall (National Alliance on Mental Health, n.d). These medications are used to increase activity of the brain that is normally underactive (National Alliance on Mental Health, n.d). These medications improve attention and reduce impulsiveness (National Alliance on Mental Health). Medication along with different teaching strategies can help enhance these students learning. There are a variety of different strategies for teaching students with ADHD. Teachers and other educational personnel should recognize and response to these students symptoms by engaging the students academically. Teachers can allow the student to change work sites frequently while completing homework or studying (Learning Disability Association of

America, 2011). Teachers can also use music as a tool for transitioning from activity to activity (Learning Disability Association of America, 2011). Allowing these students to have a stress ball, worry stone, or play dough in their hands while wanting them to engage in listening, can help with active involvement in the subject matter (Learning Disability Association of America, 2011). Teachers might also consider being more flexible with these students and let them do activities differently. These students tend to have a creative side. Allowing them to be creative and use imaginary thinking could allow them to be more motivated in subject matter. This could also lead to student recognition. Student recognition allows these students to build up a social security which will help decrease other barriers towards learning. One out of thirty students will be diagnosed with ADHD (Learning Disability Association of America, 2011). This disorder can create many barriers on development and learning for students. It is important for teachers and other educational professionals to be educated on ADHD, how ADHD is evaluated and treated, and different teaching strategies to engage these students academically. This will allow healthy development and learning with in the school.

Reference Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. (2013). Parents and caregivers of children with ADHD. Author. Retrieved from http://www.chadd.org/Understanding-ADHD/Parents-Caregivers-of-Children-withADHD/Symptoms-and-Causes.aspx Learning Disability Association of America. (2011). Attention deficit disorder/ attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD). Pittsburg, PA: Author. Retrieved from http://www.ldanatl.org/aboutld/teachers/understanding/adhd.asp National Alliance on Mental Health. (n.d). Mental illnesses. Arlington, VA: Author. Retrieved from http://www.nami.org/Template.cfm?Section=By_Illness&Template=/TaggedPage/TaggedPageD isplay.cfm&TPLID=54&ContentID=23047