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Handled By Mr.V.KALIMUTHU Lecturer / ECE

EE54 COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING AIM To introduce the concepts of communication systems engineering using wire and wireless medium OBJECTIVES To introduce different methods of analog communication and their significance To introduce Digital Communication methods for high bit rate transmission To introduce the concepts of source and line coding techniques for enhancing rating of transmission of minimizing the errors in transmission. To introduce MAC used in communication systems for enhancing the number of users. To introduce various media for digital communication 1. ANALOG COMMUNICATION AM Frequency spectrum vector representation power relations generation of AM DSB, DSB/SC, SSB, VSB AM Transmitter & Receiver; FM and PM frequency spectrum power relations : NBFM & WBFM, Generation of FM and DM, Amstrong method & Reactance modulations : FM & PM frequency. 2. DIGITAL COMMUNICATION Pulse modulations concepts of sampling and sampling theormes, PAM, PWM, PPM, PTM, quantization and coding : DCM, DM, slope overload error. ADM, DPCM, OOK systems ASK, FSK, PSK, BSK, QPSK, QAM, MSK, GMSK, applications of Data communication. 3. SOURCE CODES, LINE CODES & ERROR CONTROL (Qualitative only) 9 Primary communication entropy, properties, BSC, BEC, source coding : Shaum, Fao, Huffman coding : noiseless coding theorum, BW SNR trade off codes: NRZ, RZ, AMI, HDBP, ABQ, MBnB codes : Efficiency of transmissions, error control codes and applications: convolutions & block codes. 4. MULTIPLE ACCESS TECHNIQUES SS&MA techniques : FDMA, TDMA, CDMA, SDMA application in wire and wireless communication : Advantages (merits) :

LTPC 3003

5. SATELLITE, OPTICAL FIBER POWERLINE, SCADA Orbits : types of satellites : frequency used link establishment, MA techniques used in satellite communication, earth station; aperture actuators used in satellite Intelsat and Insat: fibers types: sources, detectors used, digital filters, optical link: power line carrier communications: SCADA

TOTAL : 45 PERIODS TEXT BOOKS 1.Taub & Schiling Principles of communication systems Tata McGraw hill 2007 2.J.Das Principles of digital communication New Age International, 1986 REFERENCES 1. Kennedy and Davis Electronic communication systems Tata McGraw hill, 4th edition, 1993. 2. Sklar Digital communication fundamentals and applications Pearson Education, 2001 3. Bary le, Memuschmidt, digital Communication, Kluwer Publication, 2004. 4. B.P.Lathi Modern digital and analog communication systems Oxford University Press, 1998.

S.NO 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29.


T/ R BOOK NO UNIT I ANALOG COMMUNICATION Introduction About the subject T1 TOPIC

AM Frequency spectrum vector representation power relations generation of AM DSB, DSB/SC SSB VSB AM Transmitter AM Receiver FM and PM frequency spectrum power relations NBFM WBFM Generation of FM and PM Amstrong Method and Reactance modulations FM & PM frequency and all type problem

PAGE.NO 1 to 10 144 to 147 147 to 163 163 to 171 171 to 175 178 to 182 182 to 185 195 to 207 209 to 210 210 to 213 213 to 215 215 to 217 217 to 227 237 to 242 242 to 245 247 to 257 257 to 260 260 to 284 284 to 289 289 to 292 292 to 297 284 to 289 310,314 to 316 346 to 381 321 to 346 381 to 390


T1 T1 T1 T1 T1 T1 T1 T1 T1 T1 T1

Yes Yes




T1 UNIT II - DIGITAL COMMUNICATION Pulse modulations concepts of sampling T1 sampling theormes T1 PAM T1
PWM, PPM, PTM quantization and coding DCM DM, slope overload error ADM DPCM OOK systems ASK, FSK PSK, BSK, QPSK, QAM, MSK, GMSK applications of Data communication

T1 T1 T1 T1 T1 T1 R3 T1 T1 T1

Yes Yes


Yes Yes Yes

UNIT III - SOURCE CODES, LINE CODES & ERROR CONTROL (Qualitative only) Primary communication entropy, properties T1 627 to 632 BSC, BEC VI T1 650 to 661 source coding : Shaum, Fao T1 632 to 634

30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49.

Huffman coding : noiseless coding theorum




BW SNR trade off codes: BW SNR trade off codes: NRZ, RZ, AMI, R3 277 to 281 HDBP, ABQ, MBnB codes Efficiency of transmissions T1 640 to 647 Error control codes and T1 647 to 697 applications: convolutions & block codes. UNIT IV - MULTIPLE ACCESS TECHNIQUES SS&MA techniques R3 767 to 768 FDMA R3 788 to 790 TDMA R3 772 to 777 CDMA R3 790 to 793 SDMA application in wire R3 793 to 795 Wireless communication : Advantages R3 812 to 815 (merits) : UNIT V SATELLITE, OPTICAL FIBER POWERLINE, SCADA Orbits : types of satellites T1 815 to 816
frequency used link establishment, MA techniques used in satellite communication

T1 T1 T1 T1

634 to 639 639 to 640 639 to 640 274 to 278



Yes Yes


T1 T1 R1 R1 R1 R1

816 to 818 816 to 817 709 to 716 717 to 719 719 to 721 722 to 731


Earth station; aperture actuators used in satellite Intelsat and Insat: fibers Types: sources, detectors used, digital filters Optical link: Power line carrier communications: SCADA

Yes Yes

Assignment 1
1. Explain about the problems encountered at the receiver when two radio stations are transmitting different signals at same frequency. 2. Explain about the different types of modulation (draw that chart). 3. Write how frequency translation takes place & show the two sidebands? 4. Write and explain the need/advantage of modulation. 5. Explain about generation of DSBSC signal by balanced modulator. 6. Find out the Carrier power, sideband power and total power of an AM Signal. 7. An audio frequency signal 10Sin(2 * 500)t is used to amplitude modulate a carrier of 50Sin(2 * 105)t. Calculate.1. Modulation index 2. Sideband frequencies 3.Amplitude of each sideband frequency 4. Bandwidth required 5. Transmission efficiency. 8. A 1000 Khz carrier signal is simultaneously modulated with 300Hz, 800Hz, 1Khz audio sine wave. What will be frequencies present in the output? 9. Define modulation index and percentage of modulation. 10. Compare Continuous wave and pulse modulation techniques.

Assignment 2
11. Discuss with suitable diagram the demodulation of AM wave. 12. List an advantage that a double sideband, suppressed carrier communication system has over a double sideband, full carrier communication system. 13. List an advantage that a double sideband, full carrier communication system has over a double sideband suppressed carrier communication system. 14. Explain how SSB signal is generated and draw the waveform of SSB signal. 15. Explain about the detection of SSB signal and discuss briefly about effect of phase and frequency error in the locally generated carrier at the receiver. 16. Compare the transmission efficiency, Bandwidth of SSB, DSBFC, DSBSC signal.

Assignment 3
1. Explain frequency modulation. Derive the expression for NBFM & extend it for tone modulation. 2. Draw the block dig of NBFM generation & Explain.

3. Derive the expression for wideband fm signal & plot its spectrum. 4. What is Carsons rule? explain briefly. 5. Show that equation given below is a combination of AM & FM signal. n(t) = cos( 2106 ) + 0.2 cos [ 2 ( 106 +103 ) ] 6. A angle modulated signal with carrier frequency ( 2 * 105 ) is described by the equation S(t) = 10 cos ( wct + 5 sin 3000t + 10 sin 2000t ) . Find the frequency deviation. Find the deviation ratio. Find the bandwidth. 7. Explain Armstrong method of FM generation. 8. Explain capture effect. 9. Explain FM generation by Parameter variation method. 10. Differentiate between Narrowband FM & Wideband FM; FM & PM;AM & FM.

Assignment 4
11. What is the need for premphasis & Demphasis in FM? 12. In FM as the modulation index increases the required bandwidh also increases why? 13. A 20 Mhz carrier is frequency modulated by a sinusoidal signal such that the peak frequency deviation is 100khz.Determine the modulation Index & approximate the BW of FM signal if modulationg signal frequency is 50 KHz. 14. Draw the Phasor dig of NBFM signal. 15. Define BPSK,BFSK & draw BPSK,BFSK waveform for the data 10110. 16. Draw the Signal space representation of BPSK & BFSK signals. 17. Differentiate between BPSK & BFSK. 18. Write the expression for BPSK & BFSK & draw the spectrun for both. 19. For a BPSK system in which the input data rate is 20 Mbps & the carrier frequency is 100MHz,Draw the frequency spectrum & Calculate the BW of BPSK signal. 20. Explain the Generation & Detection of BPSK & BFSK signaling system.

Assignment 5
1. Derive Quantization noise power for uniform Quantization and extend the Derivation to Find out Maximum signal to Quantization noise ratio. 2. Write notes on DPCM,DM,ADM 3. What is companding ? explain. 4. Describe the necessity of nonuniform quantization. 5. Write down the advantage & limitation of Digital communication system. 6. Why shape of cell is hexagonal. 7. Explain the frequency reuse concept.If the cluster size is 7 what is frequency reuse factor? 8. Is frequency reuse is essential in mobile telephony? How it differ from frequency assignment. 9. Explain why downlink frequency is less than uplink frequency. 10. In what respect the transponder & Earth station of a satellite communication system differ? 11. Explain the different types of antennas mounted in Satellite. 12. Explain different types of services available through satellite. 13. Draw the block dig & Explain the Operation of Fibre optic communication system. 14. How Fibre optic communication system differs from Other communication systems. 15. Advantages of Fibre optic communication system.

MAXIMUM POSSIBLE QUESTIONS 1. ANALOG COMMUNICATION PART A 1. Define amplitude Modulation. 2. Define Modulation index and percent modulation for an AM wave. 3. Define Low level Modulation. 4. Define High level Modulation. 5. What is the advantage of low level modulation? 6. Distinguish between low level and high level modulation. 7. Define image frequency. 8. Define Local Oscillator tracking. 9. Define High side injection tracking. 10. Define Low side injection tracking. 11. Define tracking error.How it is reduced. 12. Define image frequency rejection ratio. 13. Define Heterodyning. 14. What are the disadvantages of conventional (or) double side band full carrier system? 15. Define Single sideband suppressed carrier AM. 16. Define AM Vestigial sideband. 17. What are the advantages of single sideband transmission? 18. What are the disadvantages of single side band transmission? 22. Define frequency deviation. 23. State Carson rule. PART-B 1. Derive the expression for AM & its Power and Efficiency calculation: 2. Describe the generation of AM wave by Non-Linear modulators 3.Write short notes on De Modulation of AM wave: 4. Compare Phase shift method and modified Phase shift method 5. Explain the Narrow Band Frequency Modulation 6. Explain in detail about super heterodyne receiver.

7. Explain in detail about AM modulator circuits. 8.Explain the modulation and demodulation process of AM wave . 9.Describe the operation of frequency division multiplexing. 10.With the help of neat block diagram , explain the functioning of a superheterodyne receiver. State its significance over the TRF receivers.


1. What are the advantages of digital transmission? 2. Define maximum usable frequency ? 3. What are the disadvantages of digital transmission? 4. Define pulse code modulation. 5. What is the purpose of the sample and hold circuit? 6. What is the Nyquist sampling rate? 7. Define and state the causes of fold over distortion. 8. Define overload distortion. 9. Define quantization. 10. Define dynamic range. 11. Define coding efficiency. 12. Define companding. 13. Define slope overload. How it is reduced. 14. Define granular noise.How it is reduced. 15. Define adaptive delta modulation. 16. Define peak frequency deviation for FSK. 17. Define modulation index for FSK. 18. Define bit rate. 19. Define Baud rate. 20. Define QAM.

Part B
1. What is companding ? What it is used ? Why it is preferable to quantize with tapered steps ? 2. Explain in details about pulse position modulation. 3. Discuss in detail , the principle , reception , geometrical representation and spectrum of BPSK modulation .? 4. With a neat diagram , explain in detail about Frequency Shift keying . 5. Explain in detail about BPSK. State merits and demerits of BPSK. 6. Explain in detail about QPSK. 7. Explain in detail about FSK. 8. Explain in detail about 8 phase PSK. 9. Explain the operation of PCM transmission system with neat block diagram. 10. Explain the operation of binary phase shift keying.



1. Define Signal. 2. Define entropy. 3. Define mutual information. 4. Give the relation between the different entropies. 5. Define information rate. 6. What is data compaction? 7. State the property of entropy. 8. What is differential entropy? 9. What is the channel capacity of a discrete signal? 10. What is source coding and entropy coding? 11. Define transmission line. 12. Define balanced transmission line. 13. Define unbalanced transmission line.

14. Define reflection coefficient. 15. Define matched line. 16. Define unmatched line. 17. Define standing wave. 18. Define standing wave ratio. 19. Define Huffman Coding algorithm 20. State and prove the properties of mutual information. 21. what is the vertical redundancy checking ? 22. Differentiate error detection from error correction ? 23. What is the channel capacity of a BSC and BEC? PART B 1. List three kinds of errors detection codes and explain in details how they detect data errors. 2. Explain the procedure for decoding liner block codes with and examples. 3. How is the efficiency of the coding technique measured? 4. Find the channel capacity of binary erasure channel P (x1 ) = a 5. Calculate the capacity of a gaussian channel. 6. Explain the different types of channel. 7. State and prove the properties of mutual information. 8. Explain the procedure of Shannon Fano Coding Algorithm and Huffman 4. MULTIPLE ACCESS TECHNIQUES PART A 1. What is CDMA digital cellar standard (IS 95)? 2. State certain access technologies used in mobile satellite communication systems. 3. Write some features of TDMA? 4. Write some features of CDMA? 5. What is near-far effect in wireless network? 6. Define FDMA 7. Define CDMA 8. Define SDMA

9. Define FDMA 10. Define multiple access 11. What is the difference between Multiple access and multiplexing 12. Compare CDMA and FDMA 13. compare CDMA and SDMA 14. What is cellular radio 15. Define Frequency hand off 16. Define multi path propagation 17. Define Doppler shift 18. Define GSM and IS-95 19. Draw the frame structure of GSM 20. Draw the block diagram of RAKE receiver 21. What is source coding of speech? List the types of Predictive coding PART-B 1. Discuss the multiplexing techniques. 2. What are the characteristics of speech that enable speech coding? 3. Discuss the criteria used for choosing speech codecs for a mobile communication system. 4. Differentiate between waveform coders and vocoders with examples. 5. List the difference between SDMA/TDMA/FDMA/CDMA 6. Draw the block diagram of a LPC coding system and explain the different types of LPC used for wireless systems 7. Explain spread spectrum with its types. 8. Explain about the TDMA. 9. Why CDMA is needed and explain it with an example? 10. Discuss the salient features of FDMA and TDMA techniques. 11. If a normal GSM time slot consists of 6 trailing bits, 8.25 guard bits, 26 training bits and 2 traffic bursts of 58 bits of data, find the frame efficiency. 12. Explain the concept of CDMA. What are its merits and demerits? 13. Explain the TDMA frame structure and derive the efficiency of a TDMA system.

5. SATELLITE, OPTICAL FIBER POWERLINE, SCADA PART - A 1. Define satellite. 2. State Keplers first law. 3. State Keplers second law. 4. State Keplers third law. 5. Define orbital satellite. 6. Define prograde orbit. 7. Define retrograde orbit. 8. Define Geo synchronous satellite. 9. Define apogee and perigee. 10. Define angle of inclination. 11. Define Decending node. 12. Define ascending node. 13. Define line of nodes. 14. Define angle of elevation. 15. Define Azimuth angle. 16. What are the advantages of optical fiber communication? 17. Define a fiber optic system. 18. Define refractive index. 19. Define single mode and multi mode propagation. 20. Define acceptance angle. 21. Define numerical aperture. 22. Define modal dispersion. 23. What are the advantages of heterojunction LEDs? 24. What are the disadvantages of injection laser diode?


1. Explain in detail about geosynchronous satellite. State its advantages and disadvantages. 2. Explain the fiber splicing techniques with necessary diagrams 3. Briefly describe the operation of a light emitting diode. 4. Explain different satellite orbits with suitable diagrams. 5. Explain operation of common satellite with satellite block diagrams 6. Explain the function of satellite earth station with suitable block diagrams. 7. Describe the applications of satellite. 8. Explain different types of optical fiber cables. 9. Explain different optical transmitters and receivers. 10. Explain different fiber optic data communication system.