Integers
#
: 3, 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, 3 ........
Rational numbers Q : Numbers of the form , 0, ,
p
q p q
q
#
Real numbers $ : {Rational numbers}
{irrational numbers}
You also know that W Q " # $.
For each set in this sequence (except $), there are mathematical equations which have no solution in that
set, but do have a solution in the next higher set. For example
3 3 x + Has no solution in "
Has a solution in W {x = 0}
3 2 x +
Has no solution in W
Has a solution in # {x = 1}
3 2 x
Has no solution in #
Has a solution in Q
2
3
x
' ;
2
2 x
Has no solution in Q
Has a solution in
{ }
2 x $
Section  1 INTRODUCTION
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Therefore, we see that each successive set in this sequence is an improvement or extension over the previous set,
because it has more scope than its predecessor in terms of solvability of equations.
The question that now arises is, can $ be improved or extended? That is, are there equations which have no
solutions in $? Yes; consider the following equation:
2
1 0 x +
This has obviously no solution in $ since the LHS is always greater than or equal to 1. This means that $ is
insufficient, for there do exist equations having no solution in $. So, for example, from the equation above, there
is no real number whose square is 1.
However, being mathematicians, nothing stops us from defining a number whose square is 1. Though such a
number does not exist according to us, let us still go ahead and define such a number; we will (due to the
convention followed) call this selfdefined number as iota, written as i. And since i does not exist, let us call it
an imaginary number.
2
1 0 i +
or
2
1 i
We can now say with satisfaction that even the equation
2
1 0 x + has a solution, namely i, though it is not real
( ). i $ Now, the next question that arises is, is such a definition (which we seemed to have made out of our own
free will) justified? If yes, what significance do we attach to i ? Is it even useful? Will we be able to do useful
mathematics with i or is it just a useless mathematical construction on our part? We can associate real numbers
with geometric lengths. What do we associate i with? The answers to these questions will soon become clear. Let
us first try to give a graphical (or geometrical) significance to i.
Draw the real number line:
0
Fig  1
Since , i $ we cannot locate i anywhere on this real line. However, what we can do is draw another line
perpendicular to the real line, passing through 0, and associate i with one unit of length on this new line, which we
can term as the imaginary line:
i
1
One
imaginary
unit
One real
unit
y
x
Fig  2
0
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What representation would then be given to a point on the imaginary line 5 units above 0? Answer : 5i. What
about 2 units below 0? Answer:
2 i
.
Does this make sense? It turns out that this way of associating real numbers with the (horizontal) real line and
imaginary numbers (of the form ki, where k is itself real and represents the displacement of that number from 0,
on the vertical line) with the (vertical) imaginary line is extremely powerful and useful. A little thought will show you
that using this representation, any point on the entire plane can be assigned a unique number.
For example, the point with coordinates (2, 3) can be represented by the number 2 + 3 i.
2+3i
2
y
x
Fig  3
3
This number has both a real as well as an imaginary part.
Similarly, any other point anywhere can be represented uniquely using a single number x + iy.
(The real part, x, is nothing but the xcoordinate of the point while the imaginary part, y, is the ycoordinate of
the point).
Also, any number of the form x + iy corresponds to a unique point on the plane.
Thus, we have managed to develop a new number system, consisting of numbers of the form x + iy, where
, . x y $ We will call such numbers (again due to the convention followed) complex numbers;
!
is the set of all
complex numbers
{ }
2
; , , 1 + ! $ x iy x y i
Observe that every real numbers ! x , since x can be written as 0 x i + . Therefore, ! is a superset of $.
From all this discussion, it does seem after all that i is a valid mathematical entity (albeit with no physical significance).
Associating i with a unit length on the yaxis gives us a number system ! capable of representing the entire plane
and hence ! seems to be a valid improvement or extension over $. However it is not just sufficient to define a
number system and give it some geometrical significance ourselves. We must also show that the various operations
that we use in other number systems, like addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division can also somehow be
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applied in the set !, in a consistent manner. Apart from this, we must also show that these operations are
consistent with the geometrical significance that we have given to complex numbers.
This is the subject of the next two sections. As a conclusion to this section, you might find it satisfying to know that
any polynomial equation of degree n is solvable in !, and has n roots lying in !. For example:
2
1 0 x +
has two roots, i and i;
both are nonreal (complex)
3
1 0 x +
has three roots, one of them being 1;
the other two are nonreal (complex)
Thus, the complex number system ensures the complete solvability of any polynomial equation, which was not
possible with just the real number set.
We will first define two useful quantities related to an arbitrary complex number z = x + iy.
(a)
Modulus: z
The modulus, which can be interchangeably represented by z or r, is the distance of the point z from the
origin, so that its numerical value is given by
2 2
z r x y +
z = x + iy
x
Fig  4
y
2
2
r
x
y
=
+
x
y
(b) ( ) Argument: arg z
The argument of z, represented interchangeably by arg(z) or , is the angle that the line joining z to the
origin makes with the positive direction of the real axis. The argument of z can have infinite possible values;
this is because if
_
,
z
1 2,
4
z i
_
+
,
(b)
( ) ( )
2 2
1 2 5 z +
z=1+2i
x
Fig  7
5
y
1
2
!
1 1
2
tan tan 2
1
_
,
( )
1
arg tan 2 z
( )
1
1 5, tan 2 z zi
+
(c)
( ) ( )
2 2
3 3 3 2 z +
Fig  8
2
3
3
y
x
3
z =  3  3 i
1
3
tan
3 4
_
,
( ) arg
4
_
,
z
3
4
3
3 3 3 2,
4
z i
_
,
Example 1
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(d)
( ) ( )
2 2
3 4 5 z +
Fig  9
5
3
z = 3  4 i
4
( )
1
4
arg tan
3
z
1
4
3 4 5, tan
3
z i
_
,
(e)
distance of
2
from the origin
z
z
_
,
z = 2 i
x
Fig  10
y
!
( ) arg
2
z
2 2,
2
z i
_
,
(f) 3 z
( ) arg 0 z
z = 3
x
Fig  11
y
( ) 3 3, 0 z
(g) 4 z
x
Fig  12
y
!
z =  4
( ) arg z
( ) 4 4, z
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(h) 5 z
z =  5 i
x
Fig  13
!
( ) arg
2
z
5 5,
2
z i
_
,
Parts (f) and (g) above were included particularly so that you develop a tendency of thinking of even purely real
numbers as points on the plane, and realise the fact that the real set $ is just a subset of !.
Before moving to arithmetic operations on complex numbers, observe one more important relation between the
cartesian and polar form of a complex number. You have seen how to write the polar form from the cartesian form.
How do we do the reverse? This is quite straightforward:
z = (r, !"
x
Fig  14
!
y
r
C
B A
Observe that cos and sin AB r BC r .
Therefore, the cartesian form is simply ( ) cos , sin r r or cos sin r i r + :
( ) ( ) ( ) , cos , sin cos sin z r r r r i +
The relation
( ) cos sin z r i +
is extremely useful, as we will soon see.
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ADDITION / SUBTRACTION
Consider two numbers
1 1 1 2 2 2
and + + z x i y z x i y which we have to add/subtract.
For any complex number, since the real and imaginary components are along mutually perpendicular directions,
this suggests that to add/subtract two complex numbers, we add/subtract their real and imaginary components
separately.
That is,
( ) ( )
1 2 1 2 1 2
t + t + z z x x i y y ...(1)
This definition of addition/subtraction is intuitively appealing.
How is this definition consistent with the way we understand complex numbers graphically?
Notice that (1) simply suggests that complex numbers add/subtract like vectors. The two mutually perpendicular
components add/subtract separately. Therefore, our graphical interpretation of complex numbers is further validated
by this approach (vector approach) to addition / subtraction.
To actually carry out addition / subtraction, we simply use the parallelogram law.
( )
1 2
Addition z z +
Fig  15
x
y
x
y
z
2
z
1
x
y
z
2
z
1
z
2
+
z
1
z +z
1 2
The resultant
gives the ' vector'
z + z ; its tip
gives the point
z + z
1 2
1 2
z
2
z
1
Treat z and
1
z as vectors
2
Add the 'vectors'
z and z using the
parallelogram
law
1 2
(1) (2)
(3)
You have to
evaluate z + z
1 2
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( )
1 2
Subtraction z z
x
y
x
y
z
2
z
1
z
2
z
1
Treat z and
1
z as vectors
2
Reverse the
'vector' z
2
x
z
1
Add the 'vectors'
z and z using the
parallelogram law
1 2
z
2
z

z
1
2
z as vectors
2
x
z
1
z
2
The resultant gives
the 'vector' z z ;
its tip gives the
point z  z
1 2
1 2
Fig  16
(1) (2)
(4) (3)
y
y
Notice that we have made a distinction between, for example, the vector
1 2
z z + and the point
1 2
z z + ; similarly,
a distinction has been made between the vector
1 2
z z and the point
1 2
z z .
You must understand this distinction.
A vector is a free entity. It will remain the same as long as it is translated without rotation anywhere in the plane. So,
for example, the vector
1 2
z z + , as long as it maintains its magnitude and direction, can lie anywhere in the plane;
it will still remain the vector
1 2
z z + :
x
y
z
+
z
1
2
z
+
z
1
2
z
+
z
1
2
z
+
z
1
2
z
+
z
1
2
A z + z
1 2
0
Fig  17
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However, to determine the point
1 2
z z + in the plane, we must make the tail endpoint of the vector
1 2
z z +
coincide with the origin; the tip of this vector then gives the point
1 2
z z + . For example, the tip A of the vector OA
%%%&
in the figure above gives the point
1 2
z z + .
This distinction will mean that the triangle law when applied to the subtraction problem will give us the vector
1 2
z z and not the point
1 2
z z . To determine the point
1 2
z z , we make the tail end point of the vector
1 2
z z coincide with the origin.
x
y
z
2
z
1
The vector z  z as
obtained by the triangle
law; translate this vector
so that the tail endpoint
coincides with the origin
1 2
z

z
1
2
z

z
1
2
The point z  z
1 2
Fig  18
Before concluding, observe that
1 2
z z will represent the length of the vector
1 2
z z or the distance between
the points z
1
and z
2
.
Evaluate the expression for
2
1 2
z z t using the polar forms for z
1
and z
2
.
Solution: Let
1 1 1 1 1
cos sin + z r i r
and
2 2 2 2 2
cos sin z r i r +
( ) ( )
1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
cos cos sin sin z z r r i r r t t + t
( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
cos cos sin sin z z r r r r t t + t
= ( )
2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
2 cos r r r r + t
Example 2
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Carry out the following operations graphically:
(a)
( ) ( ) 2 3 i i + +
(b)
( ) ( ) 2 2 2 3 i i + +
(c)
( ) ( ) 3 2 i i (d)
( ) ( ) 3 5 2i +
Solution: Observe carefully how the parallelogram law is applied to each of the four parts:
(a)
x
y
2 + i
i
2 3
5
i
3  i
Fig  19
(b)
x
i
2
2i
Fig  20
3i
2
2+3i
22i
y
Example 3
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(c)
x
i
2
i
Fig  21
2
2+i
2i
3 1
1
3i
y
(d)
x
i
i
Fig  22
5+2i
3
y
5
2 5
2i
2i
52i 22i
Prove the Triangle Inequality:
For any two arbitrary complex numbers z
1
and z
2
,
1 2 1 2 1 2
z z z z z z + +
Example 4
sds
sds
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Solution: From example2, observe that
( )
2
2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
2 cos z z r r r r + + +
Now, ( )
1 2
1 cos 1
2
2 2 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
2 2 r r r r z z r r r r + + + +
( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
r r z z r r + +
or
( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
z z z z z z + +
Taking the square root for all the three terms, we get:
1 2 1 2 1 2
z z z z z z + +
MULTIPLICATION:
Consider two numbers
1 1 1 2 2 2
and z x i y z x i y + + which we have to multiply. Intuition suggests that we should
simply apply the distributive law to accomplish this task.
( ) ( )
1 2 1 1 2 2
z z x i y x i y + +
2
1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2
x x i x y i x y i y y + + +
( ) ( )
1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1
x x y y i x y x y + + ...(2)
For example:
( )( ) 3 2 2 4 8 i i i + + +
( )( ) 5 5 26 i i + etc
The product that we have obtained in the RHS of (2) is not very illuminating graphically. It does not give us an
indication as to where z
1
z
2
will lie. To determine that, we evaluate the product in polar form.
Let
1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2
cos sin and cos sin z r ir z r i r + +
( )( )
1 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin z z z r ir r ir + +
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
cos cos cos sin r r i r r +
2
1 2 1 2 1 2
sin cos sin sin i r r i + +
( ) ( ) { }
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
cos cos sin sin sin cos cos cos r r i + +
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 1 2 1 2
cos sin r r i + + +
( ) cos sin r i +
where
1 2 1 2
and r r r +
sds
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
This result is now much more illuminating! It says that the result z obtained by multiplying z
1
and z
2
will have a
modulus equal to the product of
1 2
and z z and an argument equal to the sum of arg(z
1
) and arg (z
2
)
Multiplication of complex numbers causes multiplication of
individual moduli and addition of arguments.
For example, if z r and arg ( ) , z the complex number z zi will have z z r and
arg ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) arg arg arg z z i z i +
2
+
Geometrically interpreted, the vector z retains the same length but gets rotated anticlockwise by
2
, when multiplied
by i:
x
y
z
zi
r
r
Fig  23
DIVISION
Consider two numbers
1 1 1 2 2 2
and ; z x i y z x iy + + we want to find
1
2
z
z
:
1 1 1
2 2 2
z x i y
z x i y
+
+
How do we reduce this expression to the standard form of a complex number a + i b? For that, we need to make
the denominator real. How can this be done?
Observe the product (5 i) (5 + i) that we obtained earlier as 26; this gives us the hint; multiplication of x + iy by
x iy results in a real number
2 2
: x y +
1 1 1 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
z x iy x iy
z x iy x iy
+
+
( ) ( )
1 2 1 2 2 1 1 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2
x x y y x y x y
i
x y x y
+
+
+ +
which is in the standard form a + ib.
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As with multiplication, we now repeat the division process with polar forms for z
1
and z
2
.
( )
( )
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2
cos sin
cos sin
r i z
z
z r i
+
+
( )
( )
( )
( )
1 1 2 2 1
2 2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
cos sin cos sin
i i r
r i i
+
+
( )
1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1
1
2 2
2 2 2
cos cos sin sin sin cos sin cos
cos sin
i
r
r
+ +
+
( ) ( ) { }
1
1 2 1 2
2
cos sin
r
i
r
+
( ) cos sin r i +
where
1
1 2
2
and
r
r
r
_
,
Geometrically, the vector z retains the same length but
gets rotated clockwise by ,
2
when divided by i:
x
y
z
z
r
Fig  24
i
r
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
The entire preceding discussion shows that arithmetic operations can be applied legitimately and consistently to
complex numbers, establishing the validity of our mathematical construction of i.
In higher science and engineering courses, the reader will realise that complex numbers are indispensable.
Show the following operations graphically:
(a) ( ) ( ) 1 1 + i i (b)
( ) ( ) 2 3 4i +
(c)
3 4 12
1
13 13 5
i i
_ _
+
, ,
(d)
2
2
i
i
+
(e)
3 4
2
+ i
(f)
4 3
3 4
i
i
+
+
Solution: (a)
1
1 2 z i +
( )
1
arg
4
z
2
1 2 z i
Fig  25
2
2
#/4
2
z = z z
= 2
1 2
z = 1i
2
$#/4
z =1+i
1
y
x
( )
2
arg
4
z
1 2
2 z z z
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2
arg arg arg 0 z z z +
(b)
1
2 2 z
( )
1
arg 0 z
2
3 4 5 z i +
( )
1
2
4
arg tan
3
z
Fig  26
4i
x
tan 4/3
1
3 6
8i
Observe how a complex number (a 'vector') when
multiplied by a purely real number (a 'scalar')
retains its direction, only its length gets modified
y
1 2
10 z z z
( ) ( ) ( )
1
arg arg arg
i
z z z +
1
4
tan
3
Example 5
sds
sds
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
(c)
1
3 4 5
13 13 13
i
z
( )
1
1
3 4 4
arg arg tan
13 13 3
i
z
_ _
, ,
2
12 13
1
5 5
z i +
( )
1
2
12 12
arg arg 1 tan
5 5
i
z
_ _
+
, ,
13
5
z = 1 +
2
12 i
5
z z
1 2
1
tan
1 12
5
tan
1 4
3
tan
1 12
5
3
13
z =  i
1
4
13
5
13
tan
1 4
3
Fig  27
x
y
1 2
1 z z z
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2
arg arg arg z z z +
1 1
12 4
tan tan
5 3
(d)
1
2 5 + z i
( )
1
1
arg tan
2
z
1
2
2 5 z i
( )
1
2
1
arg tan
2
z
x
y
z
1
=2+i
z
2
=2i
i
z
1
/ z
2
i
tan
1
2 tan
1
tan
1
5
5
Fig  28
1
1
2
1
z
z
z
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2
arg arg arg z z z
1
1
2tan
2
sds
sds
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
(e)
1
3 4 5 z i +
( )
1
1
4
arg tan
3
z
2
2 z
( )
2
arg 0 z
Fig  29
4i
x
tan
1
3 6
8i
As in multiplication by a real number, notice that division
by a real number also causes just a change in the magnitude
of the vector without a change in its direction
3+4i
2
4
3
3+4i
1
2
5
2
z
z
z
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2
arg arg arg z z z
1
4
tan
3
+
Fig  30
x
y
i
z
2
=3+4i
z
1
=4+3i
z
1
z
2
CONJUGATION
Consider a complex number z x iy + . Where do you think will the number x iy lie? A little thinking will show
that it will be the exact mirror image of the point z, in the xaxis mirror.
z x iy = +
x  iy Mirror image of x+iy in the real axis ( )
Fig. 31
sds
sds
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
Such a number is given a special name. It is called the conjugate of z and represented as z . Therefore,
if , z x iy + then z x iy .
It turns out the notion of a conjugate is, though simple, very useful. We will put the conjugate to a lot of use in this
chapter.
Let us now see some of the properties of the conjugate.
(1) and arg( ) arg( ) z z z z .
The validity of these two relations should be obvious from the figure below:
Fig.32
r
z
=


z
!
$!
r
z
=


z
y
x
(2)
1 2 1 2
z z z z t t
These relations mean that the operation of conjugation is distributive over addition (and subtraction).
You are urged to verify this by considering two arbitrary complex numbers
1 1 1
z x iy + and
2 2 2
z x iy + .
(3)
1 1
1 2 1 2
2 2
;
z z
z z z z
z z
_
,
These relations imply that conjugation is distributive over multiplication and division too. Lets prove this
for multiplication.
Let
1 1 1
z x iy + and
2 2 2
z x iy + .
Then,
1 2 1 1 2 2
( )( ) z z x iy x iy + +
1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1
( ) ( ) x x y y i x y x y + +
1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1
( ) ( ) x x y y i x y x y +
Now,
1 2 1 1 2 2
( ) ( ) z z x iy x iy + +
1 1 2 2
( )( ) x iy x iy
1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1
( ) ( ) x x y y i x y x y +
We see that
1 2 1 2
z z z z
The proof for division is similar.
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
(4)
2
z zz
This is one of the most important relations to be used in this chapter. The proof is very straightforward. Let
. z x iy +
( )( ) zz x iy x iy +
2 2 2
x i y
2 2
x y +
2 2 2
( ) x y +
2
z
(5) 2Re( ); 2 Im( ) z z z z z i z + . Re( ) z denotes the real part of z and Im(z) denotes the imaginary part of
z.
This property is again obvious; just consider z x iy + to deduce it.
Simply the following
(a)
2
1 2
z z t
(b)
2 2
1 2 1 2
z z z z + +
Solution: (a) Let us simplify
2
1 2
z z +
2
1 2 1 2 1 2
( )( ) z z z z z z + + + (property 4)
1 2 1 2
( )( ) z z z z + + (property 2)
1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2
z z z z z z z z + + +
2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
z z z z z z + + +
Now notice that
1 2
z z can be written as
1 2
z z by virtue of property (3)
1 2 1 1 2 2
{ } z z z z z z .
Therefore,
1 2 1 2
z z z z + becomes
1 2 1 2
z z z z + which is equal to
1 2
2Re( ) z z by property (5).
Hence,
2 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
2Re( ) z z z z z z + + +
Similarly,
2 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
2Re( ) z z z z z z + sds
(b) The solution to this part is obtained by simply adding the two expressions obtained in part (a):
2 2 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
2( ) z z z z z z + + +
Example 6
sds
sds
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
If
1 2 3
, , z z z represent the vertices of an equilateral triangle, show that
1 2 2 3 3 1
1 1 1
0
z z z z z z
+ +
.
Solution:
z
1
z
2
l l
l
z
3
Fig. 33
We know that the sides of an equilateral triangle are equal. Using this for the triangle above, we get:
1 2 2 3 3 1
z z z z z z l
Now, we square this to get
2 2 2
2
1 2 2 3 3 1
z z z z z z l
or
2
1 2 1 2 2 3 2 3 3 1 3 1
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) z z z z z z z z z z z z l (properties 5 and 2)
2 3 3 1 1 2
2 2 2
1 2 2 3 3 1
1 1 1
; ;
z z z z z z
z z l z z l z z l
Adding these three, we get the desired result.
Prove that if the sum and product of two nonreal complex numbers are real, they must be the conjugates of each
other.
Solution: Let
1 1 1 2 2 2 1 2
and where , 0 z x iy z x iy y y + + .
It is given that
1 2
z z + and
1 2
z z are purely real, i.e.,
1 2 1 2
Im( ) Im( ) 0` z z z z +
1 2 1 2 2 1
0 and 0 y y x y x y + +
1 2 1 2 2 2
and 0 y y x y x y
1 2
x x
Thus,
1 1 1 2 2 2 1 1
and z x iy z x iy x iy + + or in other words,
1 2
and z z are conjugates of each other.
Example 7
Example 8
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If
2 2 2
1 2 1 2
z z z z + + for two arbitrary nonzero complex numbers, show that
1
2
z
z
is purely imaginary.
Solution: From example6,
2
1 2
z z + can be written as
2 2
1 2 1 2
2Re( ) z z z z + +
2 2 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
2Re( ) z z z z z z + + +
1 2
Re( ) 0 z z
Since the real part of
1 2
z z is 0 , it must be purely imaginary. This means that it lies on the imaginary axis
or its argument must be or
2 2
.
1 2
Arg ( )
2
z z
t
1 2
Arg ( ) Arg( ) =
2
z z
+ t [Arguments of complex numbers add
when they are multiplied]
1 2
Arg( ) Arg( )
2
z z
t [ Arg ( ) = Arg( ) z z ]
1
2
Arg =
2
z
z
_
t
,
[Argument of complex numbers subtract
when they are divided]
This shows that
1
2
z
z
lies on the imaginary axis; therefore, it is purely imaginary.
If
1 2
, ....
n
z z z are complex numbers and
1 2
... 1,
n
z z z show that
1 2
1 2
1 1 1
... ...
n
n
z z z
z z z
+ + + + + +
Solution: The information that all the moduli are 1 and the form of the expression we need to obtain hint that we
should consider the term
2
i
z :
2
1
i i i
z z z
1 1
i
i i
z
z z
_
,
1 1
1
n n
i
i i i
z
z
_
,
Example 9
Example 10
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
1
1
n
i i
z
,
[Conjugation distributes over addition]
1 1
1
n n
i
i i i
z
z
_
,
1
1
n
i i
z
,
z z 1
]
This is the result we needed to obtain.
For complex numbers z and w, prove that
2 2
z w w z z w implies that or 1 z w zw .
Solution:
2 2
z w w z z w
2
2
1
1
z
z
w
w
+
+
...(1)
z
w
is purely real.
Let,
z kw
, where k $ . Substituting for z in (1), we get
2
2
2
1
1
+
+
k w
kw
w
w
2 2
2
1 + + k k w k w
2
1 ( 1) k k w k
2
( 1)( 1) 0 k w k
2
1
1 or k k
w
2
1 1
1 or
z z
w w ww
w
or 1 z w zw
If
1 2
and z z are complex numbers such that
1 2
1 , < < z z prove that
1 2
1 2
1
1
<
z z
z z
Example 11
Example 12
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Solution: We can equivalently show that
2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
1 or 1 < < z z z z z z z z . This is convenient because
we know how to expand
2
( ) z zz
2 2
1 2 1 2
1 z z z z
=
{ } { }
2 2 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
1 2Re( ) 2Re( ) + + z z z z z z z z
=
2 2 2 2
1 2 1 2
1+ z z z z
=
2 2
1 2
(1 )(1 ) 0 < z z (because
1 2
1 < < z z )
2 2
1 2 1 2
1 < z z z z
Hence, we get the desired result.
If
4
2, z
z
find max( ) and min( ) z z .
Solution: Applying the triangle inequality on
4
, z
z
we get
4 4 4
+ z z z
z z z
4 4
2 + z z
z z
The right side of this inequality is always satisfied (verify). We therefore, use the left side of this
inequality:
4
2 z
z
4
2 2 z
z
2 2
2 4 0 and 2 4 0 + z z z z
1 5 and 1 5 + + z z
5 1 5 1 + z
These are the required maximum and minimum values.
Example 13
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If
1
1
iz
z i
, show that z is purely real.
Solution: From the given relation,
2 2
1 iz z i
2 2
1 2Re( ) 1 2Re( ) z iz z i z + +
Re( ) Re( ) iz i z
If , + z x iy this means that
Re( ( )) Re( ( )) + i x iy i x iy
y y
0 y
z is purely real.
Find all nonzero complex numbers z satisfying
2
z iz .
Solution: We let z x iy + . Using the given relation, we get
2
( ) + x iy i x iy
2 2
( 2 ) + i x y ixy
2 2
2 ( ) + xy i x y
Comparing the real and imaginary parts, we get
2 xy x
and
2 2
x y y
From the first equation, we get
(1 2 ) 0 + x y
0 or 1/ 2 x y
Now we use these two values in the second equation:
0 0 or 1 x y
1/ 2 3 / 2 t y x
Thus, we get the following solutions for x and y:
3 1 3 1
(0, 0), (0, 1), , , ,
2 2 2 2
_ _
, ,
Since we want a nonzero solution, we neglect the solution (0, 0). The valid solutions are (in the form
x + iy):
3 1
,
2 2
t i i
Example 14
Example 15
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TRY YOURSELF  I
Q. 1 Plot the following points on the complex plane and evaluate their modulii and arguments:
(a) 1 3 z i + (b)
6 7 z i
(c)
3
1
1
i
z
i
_
+
,
(d)
1 7 z i
Q. 2 Depict the following operations graphically:
(a) (2 3 ) ( 1 4 ) z i i + + (b) (6 2 ) (2 6 ) z i i + +
(c) (2 3 )
13
i
z i
_
+
,
(d)
2 5
2 5
i
z
i
+
Q. 3
1 2
and z z are two complex numbers such that
1 2
1 2
2
2
z z
z z
is unimodular, while
2
z is not unimodular.
Find
1
z .
Q. 4 Prove that if
1 2
and z z are two complex numbers and 0 > , then
2 2 2
1 2 1 2
1
(1 ) 1 z z c z z
c
_
+ + + +
,
Q.5 Find the square root(s) of 7 24i.
Q. 6 If
1 2
and z z are two complex numbers, prove that
2 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
z z z z z z + + is purely imaginary.
Q. 7 Evaluate
1 2
arg( ) arg( ) z z if
(a)
1 2 1 2
z z z z + + (b)
1 2 1 2
z z z z +
Q. 8 What is the mistake in this computation?
1 1 ( 1)( 1) 1 1 1 i i
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This section will give you more experience in dealing with complex numbers from a geometrical perspective. We
will use the knowledge gained upto this point to interpret equations and inequations involving complex numbers
geometrically. In particular, we will draw regions corresponding to equations and inequations on the complex
plane; what this means will become quite clear in the following examples.
Intrepret the equation 1 z geometrically.
Solution: z is a (variable) complex number whose modulus is 1. This means that no matter what the direction in
which z lies (i.e. no matter what its argument), the distance of z from the origin is always 1. Therefore,
what path can z possibly trace out on the complex plane or in other words, what is the locus of z?
Obviously, a circle of radius 1 centred at the origin.

z

=
1
!
z can lie anywhere on this unit circle;
z will always equal 1: In polar form,
z can be written as z= cos + i sin ! !
x
y
Fig  34
z
Plot the regions that z represents if:
(a) 1 < z (b) 2 > z (c) 1 2 < < z
Section  3 GEOMETRY OF COMPLEX NUMBERS
Example 16
Example 17
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
Solution: (a) 1 < z means that the distance of z from the origin must be less than 1. Therefore, z must lie
(anywhere) inside a circle of radius 1 centred at the origin.
z can lie anywhere
inside the shaded region
x
y
Fig  35
1
(b) 2 > z means that the distance of z from the origin must be greater than 2. Therefore, z must lie
(anywhere) outside a circle of radius 2 centred at the origin.
z can lie anywhere
inside the shaded region
x
y
Fig  36
2
(c) 1 2 < < z means geometrically that z must lie outside a circle of radius 1, but inside a circle of
radius 2, both the circles being centred at the origin.
z can lie anywhere
inside the shaded region
x
y
Fig  37
2
1
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
Plot the region represented by z if z satisfies
arg( )
6
< z
3 < z
Solution: Since, arg( )
6
+
,
Solution: We have,
1
arg
1 2
z
z
_
t
+
,
( ) ( ) arg 1 arg 1
2
z z
+ t
... (1)
z 1 is the vector drawn from the point 1 to the point z. Similarly, z + 1 is the vectron from 1 to z.
The angle between these two vectors, as (1) tells us, is
2
t
1
z
Fig  45
1
y
x
Since the angle in a semicircle is a right angle, z can lie anywhere on a circle with 1 and 1 as the
endpoints of a diameter. (1 and 1 themselves cannot lie on this circle because either z 1 or z + 1
becomes a zero vector if z = 1 or 1, and the argument of a zero vector cannot be uniquely defined)
y
Fig  46
i
x
1 1
z can lie any where
on this circle
Example 20
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TRY YOURSELF  II
Plot the locus/region represented by z:
(a) 2 2 2 2 z i z i + + + (b)
2 2
1 1 4 z z + +
(c) 1 Re( ) 2, 1 Im( ) 2, 2 z z z < < < < < (d)
Arg ( ) , 3
6 3
z z
< < <
(e) Re( ) Im( ) 1 z z + (f) 2 2 5 z z i + +
(g)
1
arg
1 6
z
z
_
+
,
(h)
3, 4 2, arg( )
2
z z i z
< < <
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
The Eulers form of a complex number is important enough to deserve a separate section. It is an extremely
convenient representation that leads to simplifications in a lot of calculations. Eulers representation tells us that we
can write cos sin as
i
i e
+
cos sin
i
e i
+
where e is the natural base introduced in the unit on Functions ( )
( )
1/
0
is actuallylim 1
x
x
e x
+
This representation might seem confusing at first. What sense does it make to raise a real number to an imaginary
number? However, you may rest assured that a valid justification for this relation exists, and we (might) encounter
it in the unit on exponential series. For the time being, you may take the truth of this relation(and the fact that Euler
was smart enough to get it right!) for granted.
Let us now use this relation.
* z = 1 can be written as e
i0
* z = i and z = i can be written as
/ 2 / 2
and
i i
e e
respectively
* z = 1 can be written as
i
e
where r is the
modulus and
the argument of z.
* Multiplication and division become a whole lot easier
Let
1 2
1 1 2 2
and
i i
z r e z r e
( )
1 2 1 2
1 2 1 1 2
.
i i i
i
z z re re r r e
+
This result is in agreement with the fact that moduli multiply and arguments add
upon multiplication
( )
1
1 2
2
1 1 1
2 2 2
i
i
i
z r e r
e
z r e r
As in multiplication the relation above confirms the corresponding property of
division of complex numbers.
From now onwards, whenever working in the polar form, we will use the Euler representation
Also, some readers might have noticed by now that addition/subtraction is more convenient in Cartesian
form (where we add/subtract the real and imaginary components separately) while multiplication/division
is generally more convenient in Polar (Euler) form where we deal simply with multiplication/division and
addition/subtraction of moduli and arguments respectively.
Section  4 EULERS FORM
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Before concluding, we would like to, for the sake of emphasis, repeat this important fact about Eulers
representation again:
i
e
, which is cos sin , i + represents a unit vector making an angle with the
positive xaxis;
i
re
. Our purpose is to write down an expression that relates all the four quantities
1 2 3
, , z z z
and .
Consider the vector
3 2
. z z Let its argument be
1
. Similarly, let the argument of the vector
1 2
z z be
2
.
Now, a little thought will show you that is simply
1 2
.
!
Fig  49
z
1
z
2
z
3
!
1
real direction
!
2
Section  5 ROTATION
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
Now we write
3 2
z z and
1 2
z z in Eulers form
1
3 2 3 2
i
z z z z e
... (1)
2
1 2 1 2
i
z z z z e
... (2)
Since we know
1 2
, we divide (1) by (2) to get
3 2 3 2
1 2 1 2
i
z z z z
e
z z z z
... (2)
This is the relation we were looking for. It relates all the four terms
1 2 3
, , and z z z .
You might have wondered why this method is called rotation. Well, you can think of this method in this way:
!
Fig  50
z
1
z
2
z
3
We need to rotate z z
vector by angle
to make it into z z
1 2
3 2
!
You are given the vector
1 2
z z . You need to modify it into the vector
3 2
. z z How can you do it? Obviously,
there will be a change in modulus. Apart from that, you need to rotate the vector
1 2
z z anticlockwise by angle
too. This is where the term rotation comes from. Viewing the process in this way we obtain the relation (3) as
follows
* Write down the unit vector in the direction of the original vector, the one that you need to rotate. In our
case, it will be
1 2
1 2
z z
z z
), we multiply it by
i
e
. For the current case, this turns the unit vector into a new unit vector along the direction of the
vector
3 2
: z z
1 2
1 2
i
z z
e
z z
* Finally, to turn this unit vector into the final vector that we need to obtain after rotation, we multiply the
unit vector by the appropriate magnitude. Thus we obtain the required final vector after rotation
1 2
3 2 3 2
1 2
i
z z
z z z z e
z z
4 3
z z direction :
(Initial unit vector)
Unit vector along
1 2
1 2
z z
z z
1 2
z z direction :
(Final unit vector)
Angle between the two :
4 3 1 2
1 2 4 3
i
z z z z
e
z z z z
This is the relation we wished to obtain.
Prove that if the complex numbers
1 2
, z z and the origin form an equilateral triangle, then
2 2
1 2 1 2
0 z z z z + .
Solution:
Origin
l
z
2
z
1
l
l
60
Fig  52
Example 21
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
We can assume the configuration drawn above for
1
z and
2
. z Observe that the vector
1
z can be
obtained from the vector
2
z through rotation.
/ 3 1 2 i
z z
e
l l
/ 3 1
2
cos sin
3 3
i
z
e i
z
+
1 3
2 2
i +
2
1
2
2
1 3 1
3
4 4 2
z
i
z
+
1 3
2 2
i +
1 3
1
2 2
i
_
+ +
,
1
2
1
z
z
+
2 2
1 2 1 2
z z z z +
2 2
1 2 1 2
0 z z z z +
Find the vertices of a regular polygon of n sides if its centre is at the origin and one of its vertices is known to
be z
1
.
Solution:
z
1
z
2
z
3
z
4
2 /n #
Fig  53
Example 22
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
From the figure, it should be clear that all the vertices of the polygon (other than z
1
) can be obtained from
z
1
through successive rotations, each of angle 2 / n .
2 /
2 1
i n
z z e
2 / 4 /
3 2 1
i n i n
z z e z e
2 / 2( 1) /
1 1
i n i n n
n n
z z e z e
If we let
2 / i n
e
be , then
2 1
2 1 3 1 1
, ........., .
n
n
z z z z z z
Thus, all the vertices become known.
Let
1
z and
2
z be roots of the equation
2
0, z pz q + + where the coefficients p and q may be complex. Let A
and B represent z
1
and z
2
in the complex plane. If 0 and , AOB OA OB where O is the origin, prove
that
2 2
4 cos / 2 p q .
Solution: The situation described in the question is graphically sketched below:
B ( z )
2
A ( z )
1
%
Fig  54
0
y
x
Using rotation
( ), OA OB we get:
2
1
cos sin
i i
z OB
e e i
z OA
+
... (1)
Adding 1 to both sides of (1) (it will soon become clear why), we get
2
1
1 1 cos sin
z
i
z
+ + +
2
2cos 2 sin cos
2
2 2
i
+
2cos cos sin
2 2 2
i
_
+
,
/ 2
2cos
2
i
e
... (2)
Example 23
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
Since
1
z and
2
z are the roots of
2
0, z pz q + +
1 2
z z p + ... (3)
1 2
z z q ... (4)
Substituting (3) in (2) and then squaring, we get
2
2
2
1
4cos
2
i
p
e
z
2 2
1
4cos
2
z
z
(From (1))
2 2
1 2
4cos
2
p z z
2
4 cos / 2 q (From (4))
If 1, z show that
( ) ( ) 1 arg
tan
1 2
i z z
z
_
+
,
Solution: We will solve this using both an analytical and a geometrical approach.
ANALYTICAL APPROACH
Let ( ) since 1
i i
z re e r
( ) ( )
1
1
1 1
i
i
i e
i z
z e
+ +
( ) 1 cos sin
1 cos sin
i i
i
+ +
( ) sin 1 cos
1 cos sin
i
i
+
+ +
2sin
2 2cos
+
(Rationalization; verify this step)
tan
2
( ) arg
tan
2
z _
,
Example 24
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GEOMETRICAL APPROACH
Let z lie anywhere on a unit circle centred at the origin
y
Fig  55
x
A
1
!
&
= arg (z)
Also, = 2 (Why?) !
B(z)
C
1
&
!
Applying rotation
( ), AB BC
/ 2
1
tan
1
i
z BC BC
e i i
z AB AB
+
( ) 1
1 1
tan
1 1
i z
z
i z z
_
+ +
,
Since ,
2
we get
( ) 1
tan
2 1
i z
z
+
which is the desired result
Let
1 2
, ....
n
A A A be the vertices of an nsided regular polygon such that
1 2 1 3 1 4
1 1 1
A A A A A A
+
Find the value of n.
Example 25
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
Solution: Referring to Fig  53 we let the vertices be represented by
1 2
, ...... .
n
z z z As in example 22,
2 /
2 1
i n
z z e
4 /
3 1
i n
z z e
6 /
4 1
i n
z z e
2 / 2 /
1 2 1 1 1
1
i n i n
A A z z e z e
1
2 2
1 cos sin z i
n n
_
,
2
1
2sin 2 sin cos z i
n n n
_
,
1
2 sin z
n
Similarly,
4 /
1 3 1 1 1
2
2 sin
i n
A A z z e z
n
6 /
1 4 1 1 1
3
2 sin
i n
A A z z e z
n
Substituting for
1 2 1 3 1 4
, and A A A A A A in the relation given in the question, we get
1 1 1
2 3
sin sin sin
n n n
+
2 3 2 3
sin sin sin sin sin sin
n n n n n n
+
Writing
2
sin
n
as 2sin cos
n n
and cancelling out
sin
n
i
z re
Suppose n is an integer. Then
n
z is straightforward to evaluate
( )
n i n
z re
n in
r e
Now, consider the case when n is a noninteger rational number. Let us take
1
, n
k
where k is an integer. You
might wonder, what is the problem in following the same approach for
1
n
k
as we did when n was an integer:
1/ n k
z z
1/
( )
i k
re
1/
i
k
k
r e
...(1)
The problem is that the value that we have obtained in (1) is just one of the values for
n
z ; there are other values
too. To be precise, in this case, for example, the
th
n power of z, which is actually the
th
k root of z, will have k
different values, the value in (1) being just one of those k values.
How? Consider
i
z e
and
1
4
n . How many values does
1/ 4 1/ 4
( )
i
z e
have?
/ 4 i
e
as:
(2 ) i i p
e e p
+
#
This is justified since
(2 )
1
i p
e
. Now,
1/ 4 (2 ) 1/ 4
( ) { }
i i p
e e
+
2
4
p
i
e
+ _
,
1/ 4 2 4
1
1
i
p z e
_
+
,
1/ 4 4
2
2
i
p z e
_
+
,
3
1/ 4 2 4
3
3
i
p z e
_
+
,
( ) 2 / 4 1/ 4 2 / 4
4
4
i i i
p z e e e
+
/ 4 i
e
1/ 4
0
z
and so on
Section  6 POWERS OF COMPLEX NUMBERS ROOTS OF UNITY
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
Now we give negative integer values to p
3
2
1/ 4 2 4 2 4
1
1
i i
p z e e
_ _
+ + +
, ,
3
2 2 4
i
i
e e
_
+
1/ 4
3
z
Similarly,
1/ 4 1/ 4
2 2
2 p z z
'
and so on
We see that there are precisely 4 unique values of
1/ 4
z , given by any four consecutive integer values of p. For
example, we could take p from {0, 1, 2, 3} or {7, 8, 9,10} or whatever you wish. The important thing to
remember is that the four values of p should be consecutive (the value of the root follows a cycle of 4, p and p+4
will give the same value for the root). Also, this discussion shows that the fourth root of a complex number has four
unique values. What about the
th
n root? n different values.
Before proceeding to the
th
n roots of a complex number, let us encounter DeMoivres theorem, which is a formal
statement of what weve studied upto this point in the current section.
DE  MOIVRES THEOREM
Let
i
z re
(a) If n is an integer, ( )
n i n n in
z re r e
(cos sin )
n
r n i n +
(b) If n is a noninteger rational number, say of the form
p
q
,
( )
p
n i q
z re
/ /
(cos sin )
ip
p q p q q
p p
r e r i
q q
+
is one of the values of
n
z . There will be actually multiple values of
n
z
. (How to obtain those multiple
values will be discussed subsequently).
We will now discuss how to evaluate the
th
n roots of an arbitrary complex number in the manner described
above.
Let
(2 ) i i p
z re re
+
1 1
(2 )
{ }
i p
n n
z re
+
2
1/
p
i
n n
r e
+ _
,
This will have n unique values given by n successive integral values of p. We take p from the set{0, 1, 2...(n1)}.
L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS 47
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The n values that we obtain are listed out below:
2 4 2 2( 1)
1/ 1/ 1/ 1/ 1/
, , ..., ...
p n
i
i i i i
n n n n n n n n n n n n n
n
r e r e r e r e r e
_ _ _ _
+ + + +
, , , ,
These n values of
1/ n
z
are termed the
th
n
roots of z. How will they lie on a plane? Notice that the angle between
any two successive roots
1
2
and is
i i
z z
n
+
. Thus, the
th
n roots will lie on a circle of radius
1/ n
r and will be
evenly spaced out; the angle between any two successive roots being
2
n
.

z

=
r
1
/n
x
y
Fig  56
z
z
1
z
2 z
3
z
4
Circle of radius r
1/n
Now we consider a special case, the
th
n roots of unity (1). In other words, we want the solutions to the equation:
1
n
z
The Eulers form of 1 is
0 i
e
. Therefore,
(2 0) p
i
n
z e
+
2 i p
n
e
+ + + +
( 1)
2
n n
Since
2 ( 1)
2 / ( 1) 2
,
i n n
i n i n n
e P e e
,
.
Now observe that if n is odd, P is 1 while if n is even, P is 1:
1 if is odd
1 if is even
n
P
n
' ;
Lets apply this discussion to some particular values of n:
(i)
2 n
We want the square roots of unity, or, the solutions to
2
1 z
.
One of the roots is 1. Where can we symmetrically place the other root? Obviously, at 1.
x
y
Fig  58
Solutions to z = 1.
2
1 1
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
(ii)
3 n
We want to solve
3
1 z
One of the roots is 1. The other roots can be placed symmetrically if they are at angles
2 4
and
3 3
, as
shown below:
x
y
Fig  59
The roots apart from 1 are
e
i2 /3 #
and e labelled as and
i4 /3 2 #
* *
1
120
120
120
*
*
2
The two other roots are:
2 / 3 2 4 / 3
1 3 1 3
,
2 2 2 2
i i
i i
e e
+
Notice that and
2
are conjugates of each other. Also,
2
1 0 + + and
2 3
1 1
(iii)
4 n
We want to solve
4
1 z
The four roots can be symmetrically placed as shown below:
x
y
Fig  60
The fourth roots
of unity.
1 1
i i
i
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
Note that 1 ( 1) ( ) 0 and 1 ( ) ( 1) ( ) 1 i i i i + + + .
Higher order roots can be similarly evaluated. You must understand carefully the geometrically significance
of the
th
n roots. Let us take one of the cube roots of unity for this purpose, say
2
.
x
y
Fig  61
*
2
240
If you cube
2
, you are essentially rotating this vector. The argument of
2
is 240; when you cube
2
,
you will rotate
2
by 240
2 2
(for ) another +
2 2 2
240 (for )
. Hence,
2
, when cubed,
will become the vector 1.
x
y
Fig  62
*
2
240
*
2 2
*
(2 position)
nd
(Initial)
(Final position)
* * *
2
=1
2 2
Thus,
2 3
( ) 1
Similarly, observe one of the fourth roots of unity, say i. The argument of i is 90. When you raise i to
power 4, you are essentially rotating the vector i by 90(for i i) + 90(for i i i) + 90(for iiii).
Therefore, i when raised to power four will become the vector 1.
L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS 51
Maths / CompIex Numbers
x
y
Fig  63
(Final position)
i i i i=1
i (initial position)
i i
(2 position)
nd
i i i
(3 position)
rd
Thus,
4
1 i
This discussion should make you realise that when looking for the
th
n roots of unity, you are looking for
vectors which when rotated by a certain fixed angle (2 ) n a particular number (n 1) of times, give the
vector 1.
Find the square roots and the cube roots of i.
Solution: First write i in its Eulers form.
2
i
i e
Square roots:
2
2 / 2 2
i p
i
z e e
_
+
,
4
i p
z e
_
+
,
The two roots are given by two consecutive values of p, say p = 0, 1
/ 4 5 / 4
1 2
,
i i
z e z e
Cube roots:
2
3 2
i p
z e
_
+
,
2
3 6
p
i
z e
_
+
,
There are three roots; take 0,1, 2 p
/ 6 5 / 6 3 / 2
1 2 3
, ,
i i i
z e z e z e
You are urged to plot the square roots and the cube roots obtained above graphically on a plane.
Example 26
s sdsaasds
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
If
1 2 1
1, , ...,
n
are the
th
n roots of unity, find the value of
1 2 1
(1 )(1 )...(1 )
n
+ + + .
Solution: Since 1 0
n
x has n roots (that have been specified in the question), we can write
(by factor theorem):
1 1
1 ( 1)( )...( )
n
n
x x x x
1 2 1
1
( )( )...( )
1
n
n
x
x x x
x
...(1)
The form of the expression whose value we need to obtain hints that we should substitute 1 x
in (1):
1 2 1
( 1) 1
( 1 )( 1 )...( 1 )
( 1) 1
n
n
1
1 2 1
( 1) (1 )(1 )...(1 )
n
n
+ + +
If n is even the left hand side is 0 so that the value of the expression becomes 0. If n is odd, the
expression becomes
1
1 2 1
2
( 1) (1 )(1 )...(1 )
2
n
n
+ + +
1 2 1
(1 )(1 )...(1 ) 1
n
+ + +
Thus, the expression takes the value 0 or 1 depending on whether n is even or odd respectively.
Let
2
, be the complex cube roots of unity. Let
1, 2 3
, z z z be complex numbers such that
1 2 3
z z z A + +
2
1 2 3
z z z B + +
2
1 2 3
z z z C + +
Evaluate
1 2 3
, and z z z in terms of A, B, and C.
Solution: We know that
2
1 0 + +
We have to use this to somehow express each of
1 2 3
, and z z z independently in terms of A, B and C.
Label the three equations as (I), (II) and (III).
(I) + (II) + (III) gives
1
3z A B C + +
Example 27
Example 28
s sdsaasds
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
1
3
A B C
z
+ +
(I) +
2
(II) + (III) gives
2
2
3z A B C + +
2
2
3
A B C
z
+ +
Finally, (I) + (II) +
2
(III) gives
2
3
3z A B C + +
2
3
3
A B C
z
+ +
These were the values we were looking for.
Let a complex number , 1 be a root of 1 0,
p q p q
z z z
+
+ where p and q are distinct primes. Show that
either
2 1
1 ... 0
p
+ + + +
or
2 1
1 ... 0
q
+ + + +
, but not both together.
Solution: The given equation can be written as
( 1)( 1) 0
p q
z z
Therefore, is a root of either 1 0 or 1 0
p q
z z . In other words, is either a
th
p or a
th
q
root of unity.
Now,
1 2
1 ( 1)( .... 1)
+ + + +
p p p
z z z z z
Substituting z gives
1 2
0 ( 1)( ..... 1)
+ + + +
p p
Since 1, we get
2 1
1 .... 0
+ + + +
p
...(1)
Similarly, if
1 0,
q
z
we get
2 1
1 ..... 0
+ + + +
q
...(2)
We now need to show that (1) and (2) cannot hold simultaneously. In other words, cannot be a p
th
and a q
th
root of unity at the same time (given the condition that p and q are distinct primes). This is
easy to prove:
Example 29
s sdsaasds
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
If is a p
th
root of unity,
2
m
i
p
e
...(3)
If is a q
th
root of unity,
2
n
i
q
e
...(4)
Observe the right hand sides of (3) and (4) carefully. The terms in the exponents,
m
p
(where m < p)
and
n
q
(where n < q) can never be equal. Why? Lets assume they are equal
m n
p q
pn mq
Since p is a prime, different from q, it cannot have m and q and factors. Since n < q, n cannot have q
as a factor. Thus pn cannot have m or q as factors which is a contradiction.
(3) and (4) cannot be equal
(1) and (2) cannot be simultaneously satisfied.
Find all the roots of the equation
12 6
56 512 0 z z whose imaginary parts are nonnegative
Solution: We let
6
z x so that the given equation reduces to a quadratic.
2
56 512 0 x x
( 64)( 8) 0 + x x
64, 8 x
6
64, 8 z
(a)
6
64 z
6 6 (2 0)
64 2
+
i p
z e
2 0
6
2
+ _
,
p
i
z e
Verify that for p = 0, 1, 2, 3, we get nonnegative imaginary parts for z:
/3 2 /3
2, 2 , 2 , 2
i i i
z e e e
Example 30
s sdsaasds
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
TRY YOURSELF  III
(b)
6
8 z
6 3 3 (2 )
8 2 2
+
i i p
z e e
2
1/2 6
2
+ _
,
p
i
z e
Verify that for p = 0, 1, 2, we get nonnegative imaginary parts for z:
/6 /2 5 /6
2 , 2 , 2
i i i
z e e e
Thus we get seven values of z that satisfy the given condition.
Q. 1 Prove that the following factorizations hold true:
(a)
2 2
1 ( )( ) x x x x + +
(b)
2 2
1 ( )( ) x x x x + + +
(c)
2 2 2
( )( ) x xy y x y x y + +
(d)
3 3 2
( )( )( ) x y x y x y x y + + + +
(e)
3 3 2
( )( )( ) x y x y x y x y
(f)
2 2 2 2 2
( )( ) x y z xy yz zx x y z x y z + + + + + +
using part (f), write down the factors of
3 3 3
3 x y z xyz + + .
Q. 2 Redo Example7 using rotation.
Q. 3 If ABC is an equilateral triangle having vertices
1 2 3
, and z z z (in the anticlockwise direction), prove that
2
1 2 3
+ 0 z z z +
Q. 4 Find the value of
2 3 1
( 1)( )( )...( )
n
where
2 / i n
e
.
Q. 5 Prove (geometrically or analytically) that
(a)
1 arg( )
z
z
z
(b) 1 1 arg( ) z z z z +
s sdsaasds
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In this section, well put complex numbers to more geometrical use. We will write down equations of straight lines
and circles, among other things, in the complex plane. Readers who are familiar with coordinate geometry an
vectors will find this section very easy. Before proceeding, pay attention to the following facts necessary to do
geometry with complex numbers.
*
1 2
  z z
should be interpreted as the distance between the points z
1
and z
2
, or equivalently, the
length of the vector z
1
z
2
.
* You must know the difference between the point z and the vector z. Suppose we talk about the
point 1 + i. This has a fixed location in the plane, as you know, in the first quadrant. Theres also
the vector 1 + i, which has an xcomponent of 1 and a ycomponent of 1, but this vector is not
fixed. It is free vector. We can move the vector 1 + i anywhere around the plane as we wish, as
long as we dont change its magnitude and direction
* If z is purely real, then z z . If z is purely imaginary, then
0 z z +
.
* Suppose z
1
and z
2
are fixed in the plane.
z
1
z
2
z
Fig  64
We want to find a point z on the line segment joining z
1
and z
2
such that this point divides the line
segment in the ratio m : n. z will be given by
2 1
+
+
mz nz
z
m n
How?
Section  7 MORE GEOMETRY WITH COMPLEX NUMBERS
L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS 57
Maths / CompIex Numbers
Lets consider
1 2
, z z and z with respect to a reference axis
z
1
z
2
z
m
z
n
y
x
Fig . 65
Now, from the figure, it should be clear that
1 2 1
( )
+
m
z z z z
m n
(verify this)
2 1
+
+
mz nz
z
m n
Such a point z is said to divide the line segment joining z
1
and z
2
internally in the ratio m:n. We
could also have an external division as follows.
(z )
1
(z )
2
A
B
(z)
C
Fig  66
Here, z divides the line segment joining z
1
and z
2
externally in the ratio m : n, i.e.,
AC m
CB n
Verify that z in this case is given by
2 1
mz nz
z
m n
Now we apply our knowledge of complex numbers along with these facts to actual geometric problems,
in the following examples.
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(a) Write the equation of a circle of radius 1 centred at 1 + i.
(b) What relation should z satisfy so that it is closer to 1 than to i?
Solution: (a) Let z be a variable complex number representing the required locus (circle). We want that the
distance of z from 1 + i must always equal 1.
 (1 )  1 + z i
(b) The required condition can be easily translated into a mathematical form:
(Distance of z from 1) < (Distance of z from i)
 1   z z i <
If z
1
, z
2
and z
3
represent the vertices of an arbitrary triangle, find its centroid.
Solution: Let ABC be the triangle, and let G be its centroid. Let D be the mid point of BC.
A(z )
1
C(z )
3
B(z )
2 D
G(z)
Fig. 67
Since D is the midpoint of BC (D divides BC in the ratio 1 : 1), D is given by
2 3
2
+ z z
. From plane
geometry, we also know that the centroid divides any median in the ratio 2 : 1. Thus,
AG : GD = 2 : 1
This implies that G is given by
( )
2 3
1
2 1
2
2 1
z z
z
z
+ _
+
,
+
=
1 2 3
3
+ + z z z
Thus, the centroid is given by
1 2 3
.
3
+ + z z z
Example 31
Example 32
s sdsaasds
s sdsaasds
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Find the equation of the straight line joining the points A(z
1
) and B(z
2
).
Solution: The situation is sketched in the figure below:
(z )
1
(z )
2
A
B
z
Fig  68
z is an arbitrary point
on the line; we need to
determine the relation
that z must satisfy .
Observe from the figure that the vectors z z
1
and z z
2
are either in the same direction (wherever z
lies out side the line segment AB) or they are antiparallel (whenever z lies between A and B). Thus, the
vector z z
1
can be obtained by multiplying the vector z z
2
with a scalar (a real number) in all cases:
1 2
( ) z z s z z ; s !
1 2
z sz z sz
1 2
1
1 1
s
z z z
s s
1 2
(1 ) + tz t z , where
1
1
$ t
s
.
Thus, we vary t over all real numbers in the relation above and well therefore obtain all the corresponding
points on the required line.
This is the equation of the straight line in parametric form.
We can also write the required equation without involving any parameter. Since
2
z z is a scalar
(real) multiple of z
1
z
2
,
2
1 2
z z
z z
is purely real
2 2
1 2 1 2
z z z z
z z z z
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
( ) ( ) 0 + z z z z z z z z z z ...(1)
This is the required equation in nonparametric form. How do we measure the slope of this line from
the expression in (1)? Observe that the required slope is ( )
1 2
tan tan arg( ) . z z
Example 33
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If we evaluate
1 2
1 2
z z
z z
, which is actually ,
2 1 2
1 2
 
 
i
i
i
z z e
e
z z e
, we do get a measure of . Thus, we
can use
1 2
1 2
z z
z z
as some form of slope. Lets call it the complex slope of the line given by (1).
Now, (1) can be simplified further. Notice that
1 2 1 2
z z z z can be written as
1 2 1 2
z z z z
which is
equal to
1 2
2 Im( ). i z z
Therefore, (1) becomes
1 2 1 2 1 2
( ) ( ) 2 Im( ) 0 z z z z z z i z z +
Multiplying both sides by i, we get
( ) ( )
1 2 1 2 1 2
( ) ( ) 2Im( ) 0 z i z z z i z z z z
1 2
1 2
where ( )
0 so that ( )
and is real
a i z z
az a z b a i z z
b
+ +
' ;
The complex slope of this line
a
a
coefficient
coefficient
of z
of z
_
,
. This is the equation of a straight line in its
most general (complex form). From this equation try to write down the condition for the collinearity
of three points in determinant form
If s
1
and s
2
be the complex slopes of two lines, find the condition on them so that the lines are
(a) parallel (b) perpendicular
Solution: Let the actual slopes be
1
tan and
2
tan
The complex slopes are
1
2
1
i
s e
and
2
2
2
i
s e
(a) For parallel lines,
1 2
. Therefore,
1 2
s s
Example 34
s sdsaasds
s sdsaasds
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(b) For perpendicular lines,
1 2
2
1 2
2( )
1 2
2( )
1
i i
e e
1
1 2
1
s s
1 2
0 + s s
Find the equation of a line perpendicular to the line 0, az a z b + + passing through
1
z .
Solution: The complex slope of the original line is
1
a
s
a
The complex slope of the perpendicular line will be
1
2
1
z z
s
z z
z z a
z z a
1 1
( ) ( ) 0 a z z a z z
1 1
( ) 0 az a z az a z
1
2 Im( ) 0 az a z i az
Let
1
( ) A z and
2
( ) B z be arbitrary points in the complex plane. Find the equation of the circle having AB as a
diameter.
Solution: Let P(z)be an arbitrary point lying on the required circle as shown in the figure below
Example 35
Example 36
s sdsaasds
s sdsaasds
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
B(z )
2
A(z )
1
Fig  69
P(z)
We can now take two approaches:
(i) We know that the angle in a semicircle is a right angle. Therefore,
2 2 2
+ AP PB AB
:
2 2 2
1 2 1 2
      + z z z z z z
This is a possible equation of the required circle. All points lying on the circle will satisfy this
equation
(ii) Applying rotation
( ),
%%%& %%%&
PA PB
we get
/ 2 2 2
1 1
 
,
 
$
i
z z z z
e ik k
z z z z
2
1
z z
z z
is purely imaginary
2 2
1 1
0
z z z z
z z z z
+
1 2 1 2
( )( ) ( )( ) 0 + z z z z z z z z
This is another possible equation of the required circle.
Find the general equation of a circle in complex form
Solution: Let us consider an arbitrary circle with centre z
0
and radius r.
0
  z z r
Example 37
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
2 2
0
  z z r
2
0 0
( )( ) z z z z r
2
0 0 0 0
0 + zz zz zz z z r
2
  0 + + + z a z a z k
where
0
a z and
2 2
0
  k z r
This is the general equation that we required. Given this form, we can easily deduce that the centre will
be
a
and the radius will be
2
0
  z k .
If z
1
and z
2
are fixed and z satisfies
2 2
1 2
    , + z z z z k
find the possible values of k so that this equation represents a circle.
Solution: Let us try to reduce (simplify) this equation
2 2
1 2
    + z z z z k
2 2 2
1 2 1 2
2   2Re( )     + + + z zz zz z z k
( )
( )
2 2 2
1 2 1 2
1
  Re ( )    
2
z z z z k z z +
Careful thinking will show that the left hand side can be transformed into a perfect square with the
following manipulation.
( )
2 2
2 2 2 1 2 1 2
1 2 1 2
1
+ + ( ) + + + +
2 2 2
, ,
$ , ,  $ $ ,
z z z z
z Re z z z k z z
introduction of
a new term
( )
2
1 2
2
+
z z
z
=
2
1 2
1  
2 2
z z
k
_
,
{verify this step}
= ( )
2
1 2
1
2  
4
k z z
Example 38
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
Thus, the centre is
1 2
0
2
+
z z
z and the radius is
2
1 2
1
2   .
2
k z z For the radius to be defined
the condition that k must satisfy is
2
1 2
1
 
2
> k z z
These are the possible values of k.
Let , 1 bz bz c b + be a line in the complex plane. If a point z
1
is the reflection of a point z
2
through the line,
show that
1 2
, c z b z b +
Solution:
bz + bz = c
Fig  70
A( z )
1
B( z )
2
From the figure, it is obvious that the midpoint of AB must lie on the given line, i.e,
1 2
2
z z +
should
satisfy the equation of the line. Also, AB must be perpendicular to the given line, i.e the complex
slopes of AB and the given line must add to 0.
1 2 1 2
2 2
z z z z
b b c
+ + _ _
+
, ,
... (1)
and
1 2
1 2
0
z z b
z z b
_
+
,
( ) ( )
1 2 1 2
0 b z z b z z ... (2)
( ) ( ) 2 1 2 gives us the required relation.
Example 39
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Find the circumcentre of the triangle whose vertices are given by the complex numbers z
1
, z
2
and z
3
.
Solution:
R(z )
3
P(z )
1
Q(z )
2
O(z)
Fig  71
We have to find z, the circumcentre O of triangle PQR. By virtue of being the circumcentre, z is
equidistant from z
1
, z
2
and z
3
. Therefore,
1 2 3
z z z z z z
1 1 2 2 3 3
EqualityA Equality B
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) z z z z z z z z z z z z
()*)+ ()*)+
From the first two terms in the equality above (Equality A) we get:
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
z z zz z z z z z z zz z z z z + +
2 2
2 1 1 2 2 1
( ) ( ) z z z z z z z z + ...(1)
Similarly, from equality B, we get
2 2
3 2 2 3 3 2
( ) ( ) z z z z z z z z + ...(2)
Dividing (1) by (2), we get :
2 2
1 2 2 1
2 1
2 2
3 2
2 3 3 2
( )
( )
z z z z z
z z
z z
z z z z z
+
+
Solving for z, we get
2 2 2
1 2 3 2 3 1 3 1 2
1 2 3 2 3 1 3 1 2
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
z z z z z z z z z
z
z z z z z z z z z
+ +
+ +
Example 40
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TRY YOURSELF  IV
Q. 1 C is the centre of a circle z c r . A is a point represented by the complex number a inside the circle
and B is a point represented by the complex number b outside the circle, such that C, A, B lie in a straight
line and CA
.
CB = r
2
. Show that
2
r
b c
a c
+
Q. 2 A is a point given by 8 + 4i. If 0 is the origin and P is the perpendicular bisector of OA, such that
120 OPA
, find P.
Q. 3 Points
1 2 3
( ), ( ) and ( ) D z E z F z lie on a circle centred at the origin 0. The tangents to the circle at D, E
and F intersect at A, B and C; A, B, C are opposite to D, E, F respectively. Show that A is given
by
2 3
2 3
2z z
z z +
. Also show that the point of intersection X of AO and DE is given by
( )
1 2 3
1 3
z z z
z z
+
+
.
Q. 4 A square whose one vertex is 2 3 i + circumscribes the circle 1 2 z . Find the other three vertices.
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Show that if
1 2 3
1 2 2 3 3 1
1 1 1
0, , and z z z
z z z z z z
+ +
represent the vertices of an equilateral triangle.
Solution: Let
1 2 3
, and z z z represent the vertices A, B and C of the triangle ABC. We need to show that ABC
is equilateral.
A(z )
1
C(z )
3
B(z )
2
Fig  72
We multiply the given relation by
3 1
z z on both sides to obtain:
3 1 3 1
1 2 2 3
combine
1 0
z z z z
z z z z
+ +
()*)+
3 1 2 1
1 2 2 3
0
z z z z
z z z z
+
3 1 1 2
2 1 3 2
z z z z
z z z z
3 1 1 2
2 1 3 2
Arg Arg
z z z z
z z z z
_ _
, ,
A B
Similarly, we can prove that B C and therefore,
A B C
. Thus, ABC is equilateral
If 1 and 1, z w show that
(i)
( ) ( )
2 2 2
arg( ) arg( ) z w z w z w + (ii)
( ) ( )
2 2 2
arg( ) arg( ) z w z w z w + +
SOLVED EXAMPLES
Example 1
Example 2
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Solution: Assume some arbitrary values for z and w, and plot them on the plane (both z and w will lie inside the
unit circle)
Fig  73
0
A(z)
B(w)
!
Note that:
OA = z
OB = w
AB = z w
AOB = = arg(z) arg(w) !
Applying the cosine rule on triangle OAB above, we obtain :
2 2 2
2 cos AB OA OB OA OB +
2 2 2
2 cos z w z w z w +
( )
2
2 2 cos z w z w z w +
( )
2
2 (1 cos ) z w z w +
( )
2
2
4 sin
2
z w z w
+
( )
2
2
z w +
2
2
because 1, 1 and
sin so that sin
2 2 2 4
z w
_
,
This proves the first part.
To prove the second part, we apply the cosine rule again as shown below:
Fig  74
Note that:
OA = BC = z
OB = w
OC = z + w
AOB = !
C
B(w)
A(z)

z
+
w

0
OBC = # !
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Applying the cosine rule on triangle OBC, we obtain
2 2 2
2 cos ( ) OC OB BC OB BC +
2 2 2
2 cos z w z w z w + + +
( )
2
2 (1 cos ) z w z w +
( )
( )
2
2
2
2
4 sin
2
z w z w
z w
+
+
2 2
because, as in the previous
part, 4 sin
2
z w
,
Two different nonparallel lines meet the circle z r in the points a, b and c, d respectively. Prove that these lines
meet in the point z given by
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
a b c d
z
a b c d
+
.
Solution: The situation given in the question is sketched in the figure below:
a
c
d
b
z
z = r
Fig  75
Since a, b, c, d lie on the circle z r , we have
a b c d r
2
aa bb cc dd r ...(1)
Now, a, b and z are collinear ( ) z b b a
z b
b a
is purely real
z b z b
b a b a
( ) ( ) 0 b a z b a z ab ab +
Example 3
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
( ) b a z ab ab
z
b a
+
...(2)
Similarly, since c, d and z are collinear,
( ) d c z cd cd
z
d c
+
...(3)
From (2) and (3)
( ) ( )
b a z ab ab d c z cd cd
b a d c
+ +
...(4)
Using (1) in (4), we obtain
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
r r r b r a r r r d r c
z z
b a a b d c c d
b a d c
_ _
+ +
, ,
z b a z d c
ab ab cd cd
+ +
+ +
1 1 b a d c
z
ab cd ab cd
+ + _
,
1 1 1 1
a b c d
+
1 1 1 1
a b c d
+
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
a b c d
z
a b c d
+
If
1 2 3
, and z z z represent the complex numbers A, B, C respectively and ( )
1
,
2
ABC ACB
prove that
2 2
2 3 3 1 1 2
( ) 4( )( ) sin / 2 z z z z z z .
Solution: Since , ABC ACB the triangle ABC is isosceles
A(z )
1
C(z )
3
B(z )
2
Fig  76
( ) # $ %
1
2
( ) # $ %
1
2
A = # $ # $ %" 2 (
.
1
2
 %
AB = AC
Example 4
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Applying rotation about
1
( ) z AB AC
%%%& %%%&
:
3 1
2 1
cos sin
i
z z
e i
z z
...(1)
Since the final result we would like to obtain contains
/ 2
, we subtract 1 from both sides of (1)
3 1
2 1
1 1 cos sin
z z
i
z z
+ +
2 3 2
2 1
2sin 2 sin cos
2 2 2
z z
i
z z
+
2sin sin cos
2 2 2
i
_
,
2 sin cos sin
2 2 2
i i
_
+
,
/ 2
2 sin
2
i
i e
2 3 1
2 1
4sin
2
z z
z z
_
,
Crossmultiplying by
( )
2
2 1
z z gives us the desired result.
Prove that if p # the sum of the p
th
powers of the n
th
roots of unity is 0, unless p is a multiple of n. What is the
sum in that case?
Solution: Let the n
th
roots of unity be
2 1
1, , ..........
n
where
2 / i n
e
The sum of the p
th
powers of these roots is
2 1
(1) ( ) ( ) ....... ( )
p p p n p
p
S
+ + + +
2 1
1 ( ) ....... ( )
p p p n
+ + + +
...(1)
Example 5
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This is a G.P. with common ratio
p
( ) 1
1
p n
p
p
S
... (2)
If p is not a multiple of n,
1
p
so that the expression for
p
S is defined in (2). The numerator of
p
S
is
( ) 1 ( ) 1 1 1 0.
p n n p p
Thus, 0.
p
S
Suppose now that p is a multiple of n. In that case,
1,
p
so that
p
S is directly obtainable from (1).
1 1 1 ....... 1 ( times)
p
S n + + + +
n
Thus,
{ }
0, if is not a multiple of
, if is a multiple of
p
p n
S
n p n
If
1/3 2 1/3
1
arg( ) arg( ),
2
z z zz + find  z . (z is a non real complex number).
Solution: Since the given relation contains only arguments, we can use the properties that arguments satisfy, to
simplify this relation:
1/3 2 1/3
2arg( ) arg( ) z z zz +
2/3 2 1/3
arg( ) arg( ) z z zz +
2 1/3 2/3
arg( ) arg( ) 0 z zz z +
2 1/3
2/3
arg 0
z zz
z
_
+
4/3
1/3
arg 0
z
z
z
_
+
,
4/3 4/3
1/3 1/3
because if arg ( ) = 0,
is purely real =
z
z z
z z
z z z z z
_
+ +
4/3 4/3
. z z
Therefore,
2/3
1 z
  1. z s sdsaasds
If  25  15, z i find max(arg( )) z and min(arg( )). z
Solution: From the given relation, it is clear that z must lie inside (or on) a circle of radius 15 centred at 25i. To
obtain max(arg( )) z and min(arg(( )), z what we can do is draw two tangents to the circle from the
origin:
P 25i
A(z )
1
B(z )
2
0
It is clear that of all
the points satisfying the given
relation, A will have the minimum
argument while B will have the
maximum argument
x
y
Fig. 77
Now, 25, 15 OP AP
1 1
15 3
sin sin
25 5
POA POB
_ _
, ,
Therefore,
1
1
3
arg( ) sin
2 5
z
and
1
2
3
arg( ) sin
2 5
z
+
These are the minimum and maximum values respectively.
Example 7
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
If sin 2sin 3sin 0 + + and cos 2cos 3cos 0, + + find:
(a) cos 3 8cos 3 27cos 3 + +
(b) sin( ) 2sin( ) 3sin( ) + + + + +
Solution: Construct three complex number
1 2
, z z and
3
, z such that
1 2 3
cos sin ; cos sin ; cos sin z i z i z i + + +
Note that
1 2 3
      1 z z z
Also, from the given relations,
1 2 3
2 3 0 z z z + + ... (1)
and
1 2 3
1 2 3
0
z z z
+ + ...(2)
1
because ; 1, 2, 3
i
i
z i
z
_
,
(a) From (1), since
1 2 3
2 3 0, we have z z z + +
3 3 3
1 2 3 1 2 3
8 27 3 2 3 z z z z z z + +
3 3 3 ( )
8 27 18
i i i i
e e e e
+ +
+ +
cos 3 8cos 3 27cos 3 18cos( ) + + + +
(By comparing the real parts)
(b) From (2),
2 3 1 3 1 2
2 3 0 z z z z z z + +
( ) ( ) ( )
2 3 0
i i i
e e e
+ + +
+ +
Comparing the imaginary parts on both sides,
sin( ) 2sin( ) 3sin( ) 0 + + + + +
Example 8
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Find the orthocentre of the triangle whose vertices are
1 2
, z z and
3
z
Solution: Let z be the required orthocentre
z
1
z
3 z
2
Fig 78
z
From the figure, it is clear that:
1
3 2
arg
2
z z
z z
_
1
3 2
z z
z z
is purely imaginary
1 1
3 2 3 2
0
z z z z
z z z z
+
3 2 1
1
3 2
( )( ) z z z z
z z
z z
...(1)
Similarly,
2
1 3
arg
2
z z
z z
_
1 3 2
2
1 3
( )( ) z z z z
z z
z z
...(2)
Subtracting (2) from (1), we obtain
3 2 1 1 3 2
2 1
3 2 1 3
( )( ) ( )( ) z z z z z z z z
z z
z z z z
...(3)
A sequence of (lengthy and tedious !) manipulations to separate z in terms of the other constants in (3)
will give
2
2 2
1 2 3 2 3 1 3 1 2 1 2 3 2 3 1 3 1 2
1 2 1 2 2 3 2 3 3 1 3 1
  ( )   ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z
z
z z z z z z z z z z z z
+ + + + +
+ +
Example 9
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L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS 76
Maths / CompIex Numbers
If is the n
th
roots of unity given by
2 / i n
e
and
1
z and
2
z are any two complex numbers, show that
( )
1
2
2 2
1 2 1 2
0
   
n
p
p
z z n z z
+ +
Solution:
( )( )
2
1 2 1 2 1 2
 
p p p
z z z z z z + + +
2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
   
p p
z z z z z z + + +
Now,
1
0
0
n
p
p
(sum of the n
th
roots is 0)
1
0
0
n
p
p
Thus,
( )
1 1 1
2 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
1 0 0
     
n n n
p p p
p p p
z z n z z z z z z
+ + + +
( )
2 2
1 2
    n z z +
If both and
2
(nonreal cube roots of unity) satisfy the equation
1 1 1 1 2
a x b x c x d x x
+ + +
+ + + +
show that x = 1 also satisfies this equation.
Solution: The given equation can be rewritten as (upon rearranging into the standard form)
4 3
2 ( ) ( ) 2 0 x a b c d x abc acd abd bcd x abcd + + + + + + +
and
2
are roots of this equation. Let and be the other two roots.
2
( )
2
a b c d
+ + +
+ + +
Since
2
1, +
this reduces to
( )
1
2
a b c d
+ + +
+
...(1)
Example 10
Example 11
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
Also, the coefficient of
2
x is 0
2 2 3
0 + + + + +
1 0 +
( 1)( 1) 0
1
or 1
If
1
, can be determined from (1) and viceversa
Thus, x = 1 is a root of the given equation s sdsaasds
If   2
n
a < for 1 , n k show that the equation
2
1 2
1 ...... 0
k
k
a z a z a z + + + +
cannot be satisfied by any z whose modulus is less than
1
3
Solution: Assume that
1
  .
3
z <
We will use this assumption to arrive at a contradiction, proving the assumption
wrong.
Let
2
1 2
....
k
k
p a z a z a z + + +
2
1 2
   .... 
k
k
p a z a z a z + + +
2
1 2
    .....  
k
k
a z a z a z + + + (Triangle inequality)
( )
2
2     ......  
k
z z z < + + + (
,
  2
n
a < V n )
2
1 1 1
2 ......
3 3 3
k
_
< + + +
,
=
1
1
1
3
2
1
3
1
3
k
_
,
=
1
1
3
k
< 1
Thus,   1 p < or 1 1 p < <
1 + p can never be 0, or the given equation can never
be satisfied if
1
 
3
z <
.
Our assumption
1
 
3
z <
is wrong. Thus,
1
  
3
z <
Example 12
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L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS 78
Maths / CompIex Numbers
s sdsaasds
Prove these identities for an arbitrary complex number z:
(a)
( )
z z
e e
(b)
(ln ) ln z z
(c)
(cos ) cos z z
(d)
2 2
1 1
( )
z z
z z
.
Solution: Let
i
z x iy re
+
(a)
( ) ( )
z x iy x iy x iy
e e e e e e
+
x iy
e
z
e
s sdsaasds
You might find the operation of raising a real number to an arbitrary complex number sort of
strange. But with time, you will realise that what we are doing is mathematically consistent and
therefore makes sense. For example, we can even determine sines and cosines of complex
numbers! (as in part c below)
(b)
(ln ) ln( ) (ln ln )
i i
z re r e
+
ln r i +
ln r i
ln ln
i
r e
+
ln
i
re
ln z
(c) We can write cos z as
2
iz iz
e e
+
cos
2 2
iz iz iz iz
e e e e
z
_ + +
,
(From part (a))
cos z
(d)
2
1
z
z can be written as
2 1
ln z z
e
( ) ( )
2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
ln ln (ln ) ln
1 1
z z z z z z z z z z
z e e e e z
Example 13
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L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS L OCUS 79
Maths / CompIex Numbers
Find the largest and the smallest value of z if z satisfies
1
z a
z
+
Solution: We apply the triangle inequality on
1
z
z
+ :
1 1
a z z
z z
+
Ineq A
Ineq B
1
a z a
z
./
(*+
Ineq A :
2
1 0 z a z +
The roots of the quadratic expression are
2
1
4
a a t +
Since z > 0, we have the solution as
2
1
4
a a
z
+ +
Ineq B :
2
1 0 z z
The roots of this quadratic expression are
2
1
4
a a t +
2
1
4
a a
z
+ +
Thus,
2 2
1 1
4 4
a a a a
z
+ + + +
These are the required largest and smallest values, between which z can lie.
Example 14
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
Assume that ( 1, 2... )
i
A i n are the vertices of a regular polygon inscribed in a circle of radius unity. Find the value
of
2 2 2
1 2 1 3 1
...
n
A A A A A A + + +
Solution : There is no loss of generality in assuming that one of the vertex, say A
l
, lies at the point 1.
A = e
3
i4 /n #
A = e
2
i2 /n #
A = 1
1
A = e
n
i2(n1) /n #
A
4
2 /n #
y
x
Fig  79
Thus,
2 /
1 2
2 2
1 1 cos sin
i n
A A e i
n n
2
2sin 2 sin cos i
n n n
2sin sin cos i
n n n
2sin / n
Similarly,
2( 1) /
1
( 1)
1 2sin
i r n
r
r
A A e
n
Now,
2 2 2
1 2 1 3 1
...
n
A A A A A A + + +
2 2 2
2 ( 1)
4sin 4sin ... 4sin
n
n n n
+ + +
2 4 2( 1)
2 1 cos 1 cos ... 1 cos
n
n n n
_ _ _
+ + +
' ;
, , ,
Example 15
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
2 4 2 ( 1)
2 ( 1) cos cos ...cos
n
n
n n n
_
+ +
' ;
,
{ } 2 ( 1) ( 1) n
1
2 /
0
1
2 /
1
1
2 /
1
Why? Because 0
1
Re 1
n
i r n
r
n
i r n
r
n
i r n
r
e
e
e
_
, ,
= 2n
If n is a positive integer, prove that
1
Im( ) Im( )
n
n
z n z z
.
Solution: Im( )
2 2
n n n n
n
z z z z
z
i i
Similarly, Im( )
2
z z
z
i
Im( )
Im( )
n n n
z z z
z z z
1
1
1
n
n
z
z
z
z
z
,
( )
1
1 2
1 1
2
...1
... 1
n
n n
n n
n
z
z
+ +
+ + +
we let
z
z
,
Triangle inequality
1 n
z n
( )
1
1
Im( ) Im( )
n
n
z n z z
Example 16
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
Show that the triangles whose vertices are
1 2 3 1 2 3
, , and , , z z z Z Z Z are directly similar if
1 1
2 2
3 3
1
1 0
1
z Z
z Z
z Z
Solution:
z
1
z
2
z
3
z
1
z
2
z
3
Fig . 80
Since the triangles are directly similar, the vector
1 2
z z will be a scalar multiple of
1 2
; Z Z the
vector
2 3
z z will be the (same) scalar multiple of
2 3
Z Z and so on:
1 2 1 2
( ) z z Z Z
2 3 2 3
( ) z z Z Z
1 2 1 2
2 3 2 3
z z Z Z
z z Z Z
1 2 3 2 3 1 3 1 2
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 z Z Z z Z Z z Z Z + +
1 1
2 2
3 3
1
1 0
1
z Z
z Z
z Z
Show that the perpendicular distance of a point z
0
from the line 0 az az b + + ( ) b$ is
0 0
2
az az b
a
+ +
Example 17
Example 18
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
Solution:
z
0
az + az + b = 0
Fig  81
z
1
Let
1
z be the foot of the perpendicular dropped from
0
z onto the given line. We need to evaluate
0 1
z z .
Now, since
1
z lies on the given line, we have
1 1
0 az az b + + ...(1)
Also, the complex slopes of the given line and the perpendicular must add to 0:
0 1
0 1
0
z z a
a z z
+
0 1 0 1
( ) ( ) 0 a z z a z z +
0 0 1 1
0 az az az az + + ...(2)
From (1) + (2),
0 0 1
2 0 az az az b + + +
0 0
1
2
az az b
z
a
0 0
1 0
2
az az b
z z
a
0 0
1 0
2
az az b
z z
a
+ +
Find all a$if these exists one z which satisfies 3, ( (1 ) ) 3 z z a i i + and 2 ( 1) 3 z a a i + + >
simultaneously.
Solution: Since 3, z z must lie on a circle of radius 3 centred at the origin. Now, the distance of z from
a(1 + i) i must not be greater than 3, i.e., z must lie inside a circle of radius 3 centred at
a(1 + i) i. Thus, the z = 3 circle and the latter circle must intersect (or at least touch) in order that
both the relations z = 3 and ( (1 ) 1) 3 z a i + are satisfied. This means that the distance between
the centres of the two circles must be less than the sum of the radii, i.e., 6
Example 19
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
(1 ) 1 6 a i +
( 1) 6 a ai +
2 2
( 1) 36 a a +
2
2 2 35 0 a a
1 71 1 71
2 2
a
+
...(1)
By an analogous argument, for the relation 2 ( 1) 3 z a a i + + > to be satisfied simultaneously, z must
lie outside a circle of radius 3 centred at 2 ( 1) a a i + . Thus, the distance between the two centres of
the two circles 3 z and this circle must be greater than the sum of the radii.
2 ( 1) 6 a a i + >
2
5 2 1 36 a a + + >
1 4 11 1 4 11
or
5 5
a a
+
< > ...(2)
The intersection of (1) and (2) gives
1 71 1 4 11 1 4 11 1 71
, ,
2 5 5 2
_ 1
+ +
1
, ]
Plot the fifth roots of 16( 3 ) i + on the plane
Solution: We first write 16( 3 ) z i + in its Euler form.
5 / 6
16( 3 ) 32
i
z i e
+
5
2
6
32 ,
i p
e p
_
+
,
#
2
1/ 5 5 6
2 ,
p
i
z e p
_
+
,
#
To obtain the roots , we let p take on five consecutive integral values, say p = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4. The roots
obtained are:
/ 6 / 6 2 / 5 / 6 4 / 5 / 6 6 / 5 / 6 8 / 5
2 , 2 , 2 , 2 , 2
i i i i i i i i i
e e e e e e e e e
Example 20
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
These five roots will lie evenly spaced out at angles of 72 between any two consecutive roots. The
first root is at an angle of 30.
2e
i /6 #
e
i2 /5 #
2e
i /6 #
e
i4 /5 #
2e
i#(.
2e
i /6 #
e
i8 /5 #
2e
i /6 #
e
i6 /5 #
!
!
!
&
!
!
! 
2#
5
r  '
& 
#
6
r
Fig . 82
Prove that
1
2
z z
k
z z
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
        z z zz zz k z k z k zz k zz + +
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 1 2 1 2 1
( 1)   ( ) ( )     0 k z z k z z z k z z k z z +
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 1 2 1 2 1
2 2 2
( ) ( )    
  0
1 1 1
k z z k z z k z z
z z z
k k k
+
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
Introduction of a new term
( ) ( )        
 
1 1 ( 1) ( 1) 1
z k z z z k z z k z z k z z k z z
z
k k k k k
+
0 1
2
2 2 2 2
2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2
2 2 2
(    )
1 ( 1)
k z z k z z z z z z
z
k k
+
2 2
1 2
2 2
 
( 1)
k z z
k
2
2 1 1 2
2 2
 
1 1
k z z k z z
z
k k
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
This is the equation of a circle with centre at
2
2 1
2
1
k z z
k
and radius
1 2
2
 
1
k z z
k
Thus, the centre of this circle is actually the midpoint of IE and the radius is
2
1
k
k
times the original
linesegment AB.
Find the complex numbers which simultaneously satisfy
12 5
8 3
z
z i
and
4
1
8
z
z
Solution: Readers whove followed the previous example will realise that the first equation is that of a circle
while the second is that of a straight line which is the perpendicular bisector of 4 and 8, i.e., from the
second equation, we know that z is of the form z = 6 + xi.
Using this in the first equation, we get
6 5
6 ( 8) 3
xi
x i
+
( )
2 2 2 2 2
9(6 ) 25 6 ( 8) 25(100 16 ) x x x x + + +
2
16 400 2176 0 x x +
2
25 136 0 x x +
( 8)( 17) 0 x x
8 or 17 x
Thus, 6 8 or 6 17 z i i + +
If the points
1 2
, ,.........
n
z z z all lie on the same side of a line passing through the origin, show that the points
1 2
1 1 1
, ,......,
n
z z z
also lie on the same side of another line passing through the origin.
Example 22
Example 23
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
Solution: Let the given line be
0 az a z +
All the points
i
z lie on the same side of this line, i.e.,
0
i i
az a z + > V or 0 i < V i
Dividing by
2
 
i i i
z z z on both sides of the inequality, we obtain
0
i i
a a
z z
+ >
V or 0 i < V i
1 1
0
i i
a a
z z
_ _
+ >
, ,
V or 0 i < V i
All the '
i
z s lie on the same side of the line
0 az az +
Evaluate
32 10
1 1
2 2
(3 2) sin cos
11 11
p
p q
q q
p i
_
_
+
,
,
Solution: Although the expression is enormous, the alert reader will quickly realise that this expression can be
expressed in terms of the eleventh roots of unity.
2 2 2 2
sin cos cos sin
11 11 11 11
q q q q
i i i
_ _
+
, ,
2 2
where cos sin
11 11
q
i i
+
2 /11 i
e
Thus,
10 10
1 1
2 2
sin cos ( )
11 11
q
q q
q q
i i
_
,
10
1
q
q
i
1 i ( )
10
1 ... 0 + +
= i
Example 24
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Maths / CompIex Numbers
The given expression reduces to
32
1
(3 2)
p
p
S p i
32 32
1 1
3 2
P P
P P
pi i
+
32
1
P
P
i
is obviously 0. Therefore
3[( 2 3 4) (5 6 7 8) ... 31 32] S i i i i i + + + + +
3[( 2 2) ( 2 2) ...( 2 2] i i i + + + + +
3 8 2(1 ) i
48(1 ) i
If
8
,
11
.
The roots can also be expressed in terms of
8 /11 i k
e
, i. e., if we let
8 /11 i k
e
and take 11 consecutive
values of k, we will still be able to list down all the roots (Think about why this should happen carefully.
Take
2 /11 i k
e
and take 11 consecutive values of k; and then take
8 /11 i k
e
and again take 11
consecutive values of k. You will get the same set of 11 (eleventh roots of unity) values).
Thus, we let
8 /11 i k
e
and let k take the values 5, 4, ... 4, 5 (eleven consecutive values)
5
8 /11
5
0
i k
k
e
5
8 /11
5
0
1
i k
k
k
e
+ ,
1
The required sum is
2
Example 25
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