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. . 15 (2006). .

76111
517.55+517.95



c 2006 .

. . , . . , .

.
. .

. , ,
.

1.

.
.
[4, 1822, 29, 32, 3644].
n [] , RN , ( ,
). , n [1 ] n [2 ], 1 2 .
.
( ) , 2 = (1 ), , . , n [(1 )] . ,
,
, . , 1 .
, . (. [57]) . [6]. ,
[3438, 40, 41, 44, 56, 59]. 4.
, 1 2 , ,
, 2 = (1 ). , ,

n [1 ] n [2 ], . [4, 1822, 29, 32, 45, 53, 54]. 3.
, , . ,
n [2 ] n [1 ] ,
. , () H1 H2 , H1
H2 ,
n [H2 ] 6 n [H1 ] + cn (H1 , H2 ),

(1.1)
c
2006

76

77

cn > 0, (H1 , H2 ) H1 H2 . ( ,
n [H] H
, .)
, (1.1), ,
[4, 19]. , ,
(1.1) n N
H1 H2 (. 3.1).

X

(1)m
D A (x)D u , x ,
||=||=m

. A . n []
.
,
. ,
(. 3.8, 3.9 3.10, [7, . 420] [33]).
, ,
.
3 ,
, (. 3.5 3.14).
. .
. cn , n > 0 ,
|n [1 ] n [2 ]| 6 cn |1 M 2 |,
|1 M 2 | < n , 1 , 2 , C 1,1 (. 3.12 3.18).
, |n [1 ] n [2 ]|
(. 3.3, 3.6 3.7, [29, 32, 53, 54]).
.

(. 3.7).
,
(. 3.13), .
3.9 3.16 : , A, cn , n > 0
,
|n [1 ] n [2 ]| 6 cn ,
(1 ) 2 (1 ) 0 < < n 1 2 , C 0, .
3.4.
n [, h] h, .
, , h .
(
). , RN , (

78

. . , . . , .

,
RN ).
, n [()] , (),
.

.
[7], 7 n [()]
(. 4.1 [27, 38, 40, 41]). , [34, 35, 56],
- .
, . , n [()] m > 2 m
(. 4.7 [4951]). (.
4.6 [35, 57, 58]) , R, ,
n [()] m, m - . ,
(. 4.1). , - .
(. 4.5). , -
, (. 4.2).
4.3 , . (. [1, 26, 39, 43, 4648, 60]).
4, ,
. .
.
, . . , (. 4.2, 4.4 4.5).
2.

2.1. . H 1
(, )H ,
H : Dom(H) H,
Dom(H) H, ,
, H , H.
, H , . . C H I H (H I)1 : H H
2 . H
, H , , H. ,

, . n [H], n N, n- (, n [H] n ). N
. N0 = N {0}.
n [H] ,
(. 4.51 [30]). L
1
2

.
, H.

79

Dom(H)

(L) := sup


(Hf, f )H
: f L, f 6= 0 .
(f, f )H

(2.1)


n [H] := inf {(L) : L Dom(H), dim L = n} ,

(2.2)

n N. , n [H] H : Dom(H) H.
2.1 ( ). H H .
n [H] = n [H],

n N.

(2.3)

, H H
H 1/2 H, . .

H 1/2 : Dom H 1/2 H , Dom(H)


Dom H 1/2 H, f Dom(H) , f Dom H 1/2

H 1/2 f Dom H 1/2 , , H 1/2 H 1/2 f = Hf f Dom(H). ,


(Hf, g)H = H 1/2 f, H 1/2 g H f Dom(H) g Dom H 1/2 (. [30, 4.3]).
H H,

. , L

1/2
Dom H

(
)

H 1/2 f, H 1/2 f H
0
(L) := sup
: f L, f 6= 0 .
(2.4)
(f, f )H

n


o
0n [H] := inf 0 (L) : L Dom H 1/2 , dim L = n ,

(2.5)

n N. (. 4.5.3 [30]).
2.2. H H.
n [H] = 0n [H],
n N.
(2.6)
2.1. H H
.
n [H] = 0n [H],

n N.

(2.7)

, n = 1 (2.3) (2.7)


(Hf, f )H
1 [H] = inf
: f Dom(H), f 6= 0 =
(f, f )H
)
(



H 1/2 f, H 1/2 f H
= inf
: f Dom H 1/2 , f 6= 0 . (2.8)
(f, f )H
1 [H] > 0, (2.8)
1/2 2
1 [H] = kH 1 k1
kHH .
HH = kH

2.2. . RN .
,


X
Lu = (1)m
D A (x)D u , x ,
(2.9)
||=||=m

80

. . , . . , .

m N W m,2 ()
L2 (), m L2 ().
W m,2 ()
X
kukW m,2 () = kukL2 () +
kD ukL2 () ,
||=m

1 +...+N u
u , || = 1 +
x1 1 . . . xNN
m,2
. . . + N = (1 , . . . , N ) NN
0 . W0 ()
m,2
W () .
|| = || = m A
, A = A
X
A (x) > ||2
(2.10)
D u =

||=||=m

x = ( )||=m , || > 0
x .
V () W m,2 (), W0m,2 (). :
Z
Z
X

A D u D vdx = uvdx
(2.11)
||=||=m

v V (); u V (), u 6 0 ( )
C ( ). (2.11) (2.9)
.
V () . , V () =
W0m,2 () , V () = W m,2 ()
.
(. 4.4.2 [30]).
2.3. m N, RN ,
N
V () L2 () , > 0. , (, ) NN
0 N0 ,
|| = || = m, A ,
A = A (2.10).

HV L2 ()


1/2
, Dom HV
= V ()
Z


X
1/2
1/2
HV u, HV v 2
=
A D u D vdx
(2.12)
L ()

||=||=m

u, v V (). , HV , u , (2.11) v V (),


.
, (V () = W0m,2 ())
(V () = W m,2 ()), HV : Dom (HV ) L2 (),
1/2
(, u Dom (HV ) , u V () HV u V ()).
, Lu = u,
.
, RN
m,2
W0 () L2 () . ,
W m,2 () L2 () (. 1.4 [52, . 17] 8 [17, . 169]).

81

2.3. . E RN > 0
E = {x E : dist(x, E) > } . .
> 0, s, s0 N, s0 6 s, {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 . , RN , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 , , ,
C(, s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 ),
s
S
(i)
(Vj ) (Vj ) 6= j = 1, . . . , s;
j=1

(ii) Vj 6= j = 1, . . . s0 Vj s0 < j 6 s;
(iii) ajl , bjl , ajl < bjl j = 1, . . . , s
l = 1, . . . , N,
rj (Vj ) = { x RN : ajl < xl < bjl , l = 1, . . . , N }
j = 1, . . . , s
rj ( Vj ) = {x RN : ajN < xN < gj (
x), x
Wj }
j = 1, . . . , s0 , x = (
x, xN ), x
= (x1 , . . . , xN 1 ), Wj = {
x RN 1 :
ajl < xl < bjl , l = 1, . . . , N 1}, gj Wj ; ,
ajN + 6 gj (
x) 6 bjN
j = 1, . . . , s0 x
Wj .
: [0, [ [0, [ , (0) = 0
inf

06a61,
0<b61

(a + b) (a)
> 0.
b

, ,
, s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 , C 0,() (M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 ), M > 0,
gj
|gj (
x) gj (
y )| 6 M (|
x y|)
x
, y Wj .
0 < 6 1 (a) = a a > 0.
C 0,() (M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 ), ; ,
C 0, (M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 ) Lip (, M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 ).
, RN C 1, (M, , s, s0 ,
{Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 ), gj




gj

gj

g
j


x) 6 M,
x)
(
y ) 6 M |
x y|
xi (
xi (
xi
x
, y Wj i = 1, . . . , N 1.
, C l (M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 ), l N, gj
,
sup sup |D gj (
x)| 6 M.
Wj
16||6l x

, C 0,() , C 0, . .,
{Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 ), C 0, (M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 ) . . M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 .

C 0,() (M, , s, s0 ,

82

. . , . . , .

3.
3.1.

. .

3.1.1. . H1 H2 .
H1 H1 H2 H2 H1 = H1 (H1 ) H2 = H2 (H2 )
H1 H2 .
n [H1 ] n [H2 ], n N, H1 H2 .
n [H1 ] n [H2 ] . ,
, {n [H1 ]}nN {n [H2 ]}nN . Ln [H1 ]
S
{1 [H1 ], . . . , n [H1 ]} L[H1 ] =
Ln [H1 ].
n=1

Ln [H2 ] L[H2 ].
2.1 2.1, n [H1 ] n [H2 ],
n [H1 ] n [H2 ] 0n [H1 ] 0n [H2 ]. 0n [H1 ] 0n [H2 ].
, [4, 19], H1 H2 , n [H1 ] n [H2 ].
3.1. H1 H2
B1 = {H1 (H1 ) : H1 H1 },

B2 = {H2 (H2 ) : H1 H2 },

H1 (H1 ) H2 (H2 )
H1 H2 .
: B1 B2 [0, ) ( H1 B1 H2 B2 )
0 , 00 6 m, n N.
amn , bmn , 0 6 amn , bmn < 0 < mn
mn

B
.
,
T12 : L[H1 ]
1
1
2
2


1/2
Dom H2
H1 H2 amn ,
bmn ,
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

0
00 (: H H ), :
mn
mn
1
2
0 ;
(T12 n [H1 ], T12 n [H1 ])H2 > 1 ann (H1 , H2 ), n N, (H1 , H2 ) < nn
0 ;
|(T12 m [H1 ], T12 n [H1 ])H2 | 6 amn (H1 , H2 ), m, n N, m 6= n, (H1 , H2 ) < mn
1/2
1/2
00 ;
(H2 T12 n [H1 ], H2 T12 n [H1 ])H2 6 n [H1 ] + bnn (H1 , H2 ), n N, (H1 , H2 ) < nn
1/2
1/2
00 .
|(H2 T12 m [H1 ], H2 T12 n [H1 ])H2 | 6 bmn (H1 , H2 ), m, n N, m 6= n, (H1 , H2 ) < mn

3.1.2. . [4] [19].


3.1. H1 , H2 , B1 , B2 3.1. :
(s1 ) n N 0 6 cn < 0 < n 6 ,
(3.1)

n [H2 ] 6 n [H1 ] + cn (H1 , H2 )

H1 B1 H2 B2 , (H1 , H2 ) < n ;
0 , 00 6 ,
(s2 ) m, n N 0 6 amn , bmn < 0 < mn
mn
H1 B1 H2 B2 T12 H1 H2
0
00 .
amn , bmn , mn
mn
, (s2 ), (3.1)
H1 B1 H2 B2 , (H1 , H2 ) < n ,
cn = 2(an n [H1 ] + bn ),

an =

n
X
k,l=1

1/2
a2kl

, bn =

n
X

k,l=1

n = min{n0 , n00 , (2an )1 },

(3.2)

1/2
b2kl

0
00
, n0 = min kl
, n00 = min kl
.
k,l6n

k,l6n

(3.3)

(3.1)
.

83

3.1.3. . , .
1.

 T12
1/2
Dom H1
- L[H1 ] H2 .
2. T12 : L[H1 ] Dom (H2 ) , H2 ,
(iii) (iv) 3.1
(v) (H2 T12 n [H1 ], T12 n [H1 ])H2 6 n [H1 ] + bnn (H1 , H2 ), n N,
(vi) |(H2 T12 n [H1 ], T12 n [H1 ])H2 | 6bmn (H
 1 , H2 ), m, n N, m 6= n.
1/2
T12 : L[H1 ] Dom H2



1/2
T12 , Dom H2
Dom (H2 ) . ,
3.

4.
5.

6.

7.

H 1/2 , H.
n0 = , n00 = an = 0,
min{n0 , n00 , (2an )1 } (3.2) . ,
(s2 ) n0 = n00 = an = 0, n = (3.1)
(H1 , H2 ).
(s2 ) amn = bmn = 0, m, n N, n [H2 ] 6 n [H1 ].
H1 = {H1 }, H2 = {H2 } B1 = {H1 }, B2 = {H2 }, H1 H2
, amn bmn H1 H2 . ,
, (3.1), cn (3.2),
cn (H1 , H2 ) , amn bmn .
H1 = {H1 }, H1 , H2 , B1 = {H1 } B2 = {H2 (H2 ) : H2 H2 }. amn
bmn H1 B2 ( - B2 ). cn (H1 , H2 ) (3.1), cn
(3.2), , H2 B2 H1 , (H1 , H2 ) H1 H2
.
, H1 = H2 , B1 = B2 = B, (s2 ). 3.1 ,
|n [H1 ] n [H2 ]| 6 2cn (H1 , H2 )

(3.4)

n N, (H1 , H2 ) < n . , n = sup n [H] <


HB

n N, (3.4)
|n [H1 ] n [H2 ]| 6 2
cn (H1 , H2 ),

(3.5)

cn = 2(an n + bn ), H1 , H2 B.
2
cn (H1 , H2 ) , H1 , H2 B (H1 , H2 ) .
8. (3.1) n [H2 ], , n.

1/2

1/2

X
X
a=
a2kl , b =
b2kl < , 0 = inf n0 , 00 = inf n00 > 0,
k,l=1

k,l=1

nN

nN

(3.1), cn n (3.2),
H2 . amn = 0 m, n N,
sup(n [H2 ] n [H1 ]) 6 2b(H1 , H2 )
nN

(H1 , H2 ) < min{ 0 , 00 }. n0 N , n0 [H1 ] > 0.



b
n [H2 ]
61+2 a+
(H1 , H2 )
sup
n0 [H1 ]
n>n0 n [H1 ]
(H1 , H2 ) < min{ 0 , 00 , (2a)1 }.

84

. . , . . , .

9. n
N. n
= 1 (i) (iii) n
> 1 (i)(iv)
3.1 m, n 6 n
,  (s1 )  n 6 n

1/2
(s2 ) m, n 6 n
. T12 : Ln [H1 ] Dom H2
.
10. n : B1 B2 [0, [ n N. (i) (iii) 3.1 (H1 , H2 ) n (H1 , H2 ), (ii) (iv) (H1 , H2 )
max{m (H1 , H2 ), n (H1 , H2 )}, (s2 ) (3.1)
max m (H1 , H2 ) (H1 , H2 ), max m (H1 , H2 ) < n .
16m6n

16m6n

11. 3.1 . ,
T12 T12 n [H1 ] = n [H2 ], n N,
L[H1 ], (i) (ii) 3.1
0
00 = b
00
amn = 0 mn
= , (iii) (iv) bnn = cn , nn
n
mn = 0, mn =
m 6= n.
T12 . (3.1) ,
:
n [H1 ] n [H2 ], , n [H1 ] n [H2 ].
, n [H1 ] n [H2 ],
, , , .
. 



1/2
1/2
T12 : Dom H1
Dom H2
, 

1/2
f, g Dom H1
0 6 a(f, g), b(f, g) <
0 < 0 (f, g), 00 (f, g) 6 , :
(i0 ) (T12 f, T12 f )H2 > (f, f )H1 a(f, f )(H1 , H2 ), (H1 , H2 ) < 0 (f, f ),
0
(ii0 ) |(T
 12 f, T12 g)H2 | 6 a(f,
 g)(H1 , H2 ), (H1 , H2 ) < (f, g),
1/2
1/2
1/2
1/2
(iii0 ) H2 T12 f, H2 T12 f
6 H1 f, H1 f
+ b(f, f )(H1 , H2 ),
H2

H1

(H1 , H2 ) < 00 (f, f ),





1/2
1/2
6 b(f, g)(H1 , H2 ), (H1 , H2 ) < 00 (f, g).
(iv0 ) H2 T12 f, H2 T12 g
H2
T12 3.1, amn = a(m [H1 ], n [H1 ]),
bmn = b(m [H1 ], n [H1 ]) . . , , , 3.1, ,
n [H1 ] n [H1 ].
3.1 T12 , (i0 )(iv0 ), (i)(iv) ,
, (3.1), n [H1 ] n [H2 ].
12. (i) and (ii) 3.1 : f Ln [H1 ] , kf kH2 = 1,
(T12 f, T12 f )H2 > 1 an (H1 , H2 ),

(3.6)

(H1 , H2 ) < n0 . (iii) (iv) 3.1


: f , ,
1/2

1/2

(H2 T12 f, H2 T12 f )L2 (2 ) 6 n [H1 ] + bn (H1 , H2 ),

(3.7)

(H1 , H2 ) < n00 . , (i)(iv) 3.1 (3.6)(3.7). 3.1


( ).
, (3.6) (iii) (iv) 3.1,
(3.1) cn n , (3.2),
an n0 (3.6), bn n00 (3.3).
(3.1) : H1
H3 , H3 H2 . .

85

3.1. Hk , k = 1, 2, 3, ,
Bk = {Hk (Hk ) : Hk Hk }, Hk (Hk ) 0 , 00 6
Hk , . 0 6 amn , bmn < 0 < mn
mn
m, n N. , K > 1, : (B1 B3 ) (B2 B3 ) [0, ) H1 B1 ,
H2 B2 H3 B3
(3.8)

(H1 , H3 ) + (H3 , H2 ) 6 K(H1 , H2 ).

H1 B1 , H2 B2 H3 B3 T13 T32 c H1 H3 H3 H2
0 , 00 .
amn , bmn , mn
mn
n N
3cn
n [H2 ] 6 n [H1 ] +
K(H1 , H2 )
(3.9)
2
(H1 , H2 ) < n /K, cn n (3.2).
H1 B1 H2 B2 T12 H1 H2 , ,
H2 H1 . B1 B2
, , (3.4), .
3.1.
3.2. Hk , Bk , k = 1, 2, 3, , 3.1, 0 6 amn , bmn <
0 , 00
0 < mn
mn 6 m, n N, K > 1. : B B [0, ),
B = B1 B2 B3 , (3.8).
, H1 B1 , H2 B2 H3 B3 T12 , T23 T31
H1 H2 , H2 H3 H3 H1
0 , 00 .
amn , bmn , mn
mn
n N
|n [H1 ] n [H2 ]| 6 3Kcn (H1 , H2 ),
(3.10)
(H1 , H2 ) < n /K, cn n (3.2).
:




H1 = L2 (1 ), 1 A1 , H2 = L2 (2 ), 2 A2 ,
A1 A2
H1 (L2 (1 )), 1 A1 , H2 (2 ) H2 (L2 (2 )), 2 A2 .

RN .

(3.11)

H1 (1 )

3.1.4. . 3.1 .
, , ,
.
3.1. 1 2 RN A1 = {1 } , A2 = {2 } .
H1 1 , H2

 2

 , (H1 , H2 ) = 0.
1/2
1/2
1,2
= W01,2 (2 ). , W01,2 (2 )
Dom H1
= W0 (1 ) Dom H2
L2 (2 ) . , W01,2 (1 ) L2 (1 ) . H1
H2 . T12 ,


f (x), x 1 ,
(T12 f )(x) =
0,
x 2 \ 1 ,
f L2 (1 ). , T12 : W01,2 (1 ) W01,2 (2 ), T12 f = T12 f
f W01,2 (1 ) 2.3


1/2
1/2
= (f, g)L2 (k ) .
Hk f, Hk g 2
L (k )

86

. . , . . , .

, T12 H1 H2 = 0 0
00 = m, n N. , [H ] 6 [H ].
amn = bmn = 0, mn
= mn
n
2
n
1
, (. [7, . VI, 2.1]) 3.1.
3.2. (1 , 1 ) (2 , 2 ), 2 2 < , A1 = {(1 , 1 )} , A2 = {(2 , 2 )} .
Hk (k , k )

1/2
1,2
, k = 1, 2, (H1 , H2 ) = 0. Dom Hk
= W (k , k ).

f (1 ), x (2 , 1 ),
f (x), x (1 , 1 ),
(T12 f )(x) =

f (1 ), x (1 , 2 ),
f W 1,2 (1 , 1 ), f (1 ) f (1 ) f 1 1 .
, T12 : W 1,2 (1 , 1 ) W 1,2 (2 , 2 ), 2.3


1/2
1/2
Hk f, Hk g 2
= (f 0 , g 0 )L2 (k ,k ) .
L (k ,k )

, T12 (3.6) an = 0 n0 = (iii)


00 = . , 3.1 12
(iv) 3.1 bmn = 0 mn
3.1.3 n N n [H2 ] 6 n [H1 ]. , , n [H1 ] n [H2 ], 3.1
- n [H1 ], n [H2 ], n [H1 ] n [H2 ].
,
(Hk u)(x) = (p(x)u0 (x))0 , x (k , k ), p , inf p(x) > 0. , p
x(2 ,2 )

n [Hk ].
3.3. 1 RN , N > 2, A1 = {1 },
A2 = {1 }0<<1 , H1 H2 1 2 A2
. , 2 = 1 A2 , n,2 = 2 n,1 n N.
, 3.1 .
2 = 1 A2 (H1 , H2 ) = 1 N
(T12 f )(y) = f (y/) ,
f W01,2 (1 ). ,
H2 n [H2 ] 6 2 n [H1 ](1+2N (1)), 2N < <

y 2 ,
T12 H1
1, n,2 = 2 n,1 ,

2 1 , . . 1.
3.4. 1 RN , (1 )
1 RN , . . , (1) .
A1 = {1 } , A2 = {(1 ) : (1 )}, H1 H2 1 2 A2
. 4 ,
(1)

T12 f = f 12

f W01,2 (1 ) f W 1,2 (1 ) , 12 (1 ) , 12 (1 ) = 2 .
3.5. 1 RN C 2 . ,
(1 ) = {x 1 : d(x, 1 ) > }
> 0. A1 = {1 }, A2 = {2 : (1 ) 2 1 }, H1 H2
1 2 A2 . [32],

0 < d(x, 1 ) 6 ,
0,
(d(x, 1 ) )/, < d(x, 1 ) 6 2,
(x) =

1,
2 < d(x, 1 ),

87

x 1
(T12 f )(x) = (x)f (x), x 2 ,
f W 1,2 (1 ).
[32] (. 3.2)
, T12 H1 H2
(H1 , H2 ) = .
3.6. 1 RN C 0, (M, , s, {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 ),
n
0 < 6 1 > 0. A1 = {1 } , A2 = 2 : (1 ) 2 1 , 2 C 0, M, , s, {Vj }sj=1 ,
o
{rj }sj=1 , A3 = {3 = (1 )} ,
(x) = x B

s
X

j j (x),

j=1
(1)

j = rj (eN ), eN = (0, . . . , 0, 1), {j }sj=1 , {Vj }sj=1 , B > 0 , 3 = (1 ) (1 ) .


Hk k Ak , k = 1, 2, 3,
, .
[18] (. 3.16)
3.2 :
T12 H1 H2 1 2 , . .



1/2
T12 f = f 2 , f Dom H1
= W 1,2 (1 );
T23 H2 H3 2 3 , . .



1/2
T23 f = f 3 , f Dom H2
= W 1,2 (2 );
T31 H3 H1 ,


1/2
T31 f = f , f Dom H3
= W 1,2 (3 ).
[22]
(. 3.4).
3.7.
m (. 3.3 )
.
n
N, > 0 us C0 (1 ), s = 1, . . . , n
, ,
ks [H1 ] us kW m,2 (1 ) < .
, G ,
n

supp us G 1 .

s=1

2 , G 2 1 ,
T12 s [H1 ] = us ,

s = 1, . . . , n
,

T12 , Ln [H1 ] (. 9 3.1.3).

88

. . , . . , .

3.2. .
, (2.9)
RN (. 2.2).
, , A , . ,
. H[], n [], n [], L[] HV ,
n [HV ], n [HV ], L[HV ] , V () = W0m,2 ().
3.2.1. . 3.1
.
3.2. m N, > 0 1 RN ,
W0m,2 (1 ) L2 (1 ) . , A
1 2.3. n N
2 1
n [1 ] 6 n [2 ].
(3.12)
3.1. , ,
2 1 2 1 - , , |2 \ 1 | 0.
,
,
n [2 ] = n [1 ] 2 1 , |1 \ 2 | = 0, .
, cn , n > 0,
n [2 ] 6 cn n [1 ]
2 1 , |2 \ 1 | < n , .
.
k i (r 1) r h
S
,
, k N. 3.8. N = 1, k =
k
k
r=1
k .
 
h n 1 i2
n [k ] = k 1 +
, n N,
k
hn 1i
n1


. , k > 2, k 1 , |1 \ k | = 0
k
k
n N
lim n [k ] = .
(3.13)
k

2 1 2 1 ,
. .
3.3. 3.2. k , 1 k N, k > 2, ,

[
k k+1 ,
k = 1 .
(3.14)
k=2

lim n [k ] = n [1 ].

(3.15)

2 1 2 1 , ,
.
3.4. k RN ,

\
k k+1 , k > 2,
k = 1 .
k=2

89

, A 2 2.3. , , G 1
kG , k G k > kG ,

W0m,2 (k ) = W0m,2 (1 ).

(3.16)

k=2

(3.15).
3.3 3.4 . [14, 15]. [14] ,
(3.16) (3.16).
1 RN .
2 1 ,
(1 ) 2 (1 )


> 0, (1 ) = x RN : dist(x, 1 ) < .

(3.17)

3.5. M > 0, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 , 2.3.


N
m N > 0. , (, ) NN
0 N0 , || = || = m,
s
S
A ,
Vj s
j=1
S
A = A (2.10) x
Vj .
j=1

f, [0, [ , ,
f (0) = 0 n N cn , n > 0,
|n [1 ] n [2 ]| 6 cn f ()

(3.18)

RN

]0, n [ 1 , 2



C 0,() M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 ,
(3.17).
3.5 [21].
3.2.2. .
. , m = 1.
1 |n [1 ] n [2 ]|.
3.6. 1 R2 .
n N cn , n > 0 ,

n [1 ] 6 n [2 ] 6 n [1 ] + cn 1/2

(3.19)

]0, n [ 2 ,
(1 ) 2 1 .

(3.20)

n = 1 [54], n N
[29, 32].
3.7. 1 (. .
) RN , c, a > 0
:
Z
Z
Z
|f (x)|2
2
2
dx
6
c
|f
(x)|
dx
+
a
|f (x)|2 dx
(3.21)
d(x)2
1

W01,2 (1 ),

d(x) = dist(x, 1 )

90

. . , . . , .

n N cn , n > 0 ,

n [1 ] 6 n [2 ] 6 n [1 ] + cn 2/c

(3.22)

]0, n [ 2 , (3.20).
3.2. 1 R2 , (3.21) c = 4 a = 0 (. [13] 1.5.10 [28]). ,
3.7 3.6. RN ,
(3.21) c = 2 a = 0 (. [31]). , 1
C 2 , (3.21) c = 2 0 6 a < (. [16]); , 2/c (3.22) 1,
.
3.8. 1 RN C 2 , 0 < < 1 < .
n N cn , n > 0 ,

1

(3.23)
n [1 ] 6 n [2 ] 6 n [1 ] + cn /1
]0, n [ 2 , (3.20).

p [32], ,
/1 . , ,

(3.23),
/1 .
3.9. M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 {rj }sj=1 , 2.3,
> 0 0 < 6 1. , A
3.5.
n N cn , n > 0 ,
|n [1 ] n [2 ]| 6 cn

(3.24)

[0, n [ 1 , 2 RN

C 0, M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 ,
(3.17).
3.10. M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 {rj }sj=1 , 2.3,
> 0, 2 < p 6 . 1 RN

C 0,1 M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 .

, A

Vj -

j=1

2.3,
n [1 ] W 1,p (1 )

(3.25)

n N.
n N cn , n > 0 ,
n [1 ] 6 n [2 ] 6 n [1 ] + cn |1 \ 2 |12/p
2 1

C 0,1 M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 ,
|1 \ 2 | < n .

(3.26)

91

3.3. 1 C 1, (M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 ), A C 0, (1 ) 0 < 6 1, p =


(3.25), 1 2/p = 1 (3.26).
1 2 |n [1 ] n [2 ]|
|1 M 2 |.
3.11. M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 {rj }sj=1 , 2.3,
> 0, 2 < p 6 . , A
,
s
S
x
Vj .

s
S

Vj A = A (2.10)

j=1

j=1

, , A
C 0,1 (M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 ) ,
sup kn []kW 1,p () <

(3.27)

n N.
n N cn , n > 0 ,
|n [1 ] n [2 ]| 6 cn |1 M 2 |12/p

(3.28)

1 , 2 A, |1 M 2 | < n .
3.12. M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 {rj }sj=1 , 2.3,
> 0. , A 3.5.
n N cn , n > 0 ,
|n [1 ] n [2 ]| 6 cn |1 M 2 |
1 , 2
|1 M 2 | < n .

RN

C 1,1 (M, , s, s0 , {V

(3.29)
s
s
j }j=1 , {rj }j=1 ),

3.93.12 [19].
3.3. .

, (2.9) RN (. 2.2).
, , A ,
. ,
. H[], n [], n [], L[] HV , n [HV ],
n [HV ], L[HV ] , V () = W m,2 ().
3.3.1. .
, (. 3.2).
3.13. m N, > 0, 1
RN , W m,2 (1 ) L2 (1 ) . , A 1 2.3.
n N > 0 > 0 , 2 1 , W m,2 (2 ) L2 (2 )
|1 \ 2 | < ,
n [2 ] 6 n [1 ] + .
3.4. , [18], , 2 1 |1 \ 2 | 0.
.

92

. . , . . , .

W m,2 (k ) L2 (k ) k N, k > 2, k 1
lim |1 \ k | = 0,

(3.30)

3.13 n N
lim n [k ] 6 n [1 ].

k
n [1 ] 6 cn lim n [k ]
k

(3.31)

cn > 0 .
.
k i (r 1) r h
S
,
, k N, 3.8.
k
k
r=1
k .
 h n 1 i2
n [k ] = k
, n N.
k

3.9. N = 1 k =

, k > 2 k 1 (3.30) , n > 1


n [1 ] > 0,

lim n [k ] = 0.

(3.32)

(3.14). , , (3.31) .
(. [7, . 420]).
3.10. N = 2, 1 =]0, 1[]0, 1[, k N, k > 2,
k = k,1 k,2 k,3 ,

k,1 =]0, 1[ ]0, 1 2k [,

k,2 =]21 24k , 21 + 24k [ [1 2k , 1 3 2k2 ],

k,3 =]0, 1[ ]1 3 2k2 , 1 2k1 [.


k . (3.14), 2 [1 ] > 0 lim 2 [k ] = 0. , k
k

(. [23, 25]) k ; lim 2 [k ] > 0.


k

1 2
, 1 2 ,
m, n N.
.
3.14. M > 0, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 , 2.3. m N > 0. , A
3.5.
f, [0, [
, , f (0) = 0 n N cn , n > 0,
(3.18) ]0, n [ 1 , 2 RN
C 0,() (M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 ), (3.17).
3.14 [20].

93

3.3.2. .
. , m = 1.
n [1 ] n [1 ] n [2 ].
3.15. > 0, 2 < p 6 , 1 RN , W 1,2 (1 ) L2 (1 ) . , A 3.11. , ,
n [1 ] Lp (1 )
n N. n N cn , n > 0 ,
n [2 ] 6 n [1 ] + cn |1 \ 2 |12/p
2 1 , W 1,2 (2 ) L2 (2 )
|1 \2 | < n .
3.16. M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 {rj }sj=1 , 2.3,
0 < 6 1. , A 3.11.
n N cn , n > 0 , (3.24) ]0, n [ 1 , 2 RN

C 0, M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 ,
(3.17).
2 1 3.16 [18].
1 2
|n [1 ] n [2 ]| |1 M 2 |.
3.17. M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 {rj }sj=1 , 2.3,
> 0, 2 < p 6 . , A
,
s
S
x
Vj .

s
S

Vj A = A (2.10)

j=1

j=1

, , A
C 0,1 (M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 ) , (3.27) n N.
n N cn , n > 0 , (3.28) 1 , 2 A, |1 M 2 | < n .
3.18. M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 {rj }sj=1 , 2.3,
> 0. , A 3.14.
n N cn , n > 0 , (3.29) 1 , 2 RN C 1,1 (M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 ),
|1 M 2 | < n .
3.15, 3.17 3.18 [19].
3.5. 3.10, 3.11, 3.15 3.17 , ,
. [5, 1012, 19, 45, 53, 54], .
3.4. .

C 0,1 . h L2 (),

R
( R
|f |2 dx + h| tr f |2 d, f W 1,2 (),
Q,h [f ] =

+,
f L2 () \ W 1,2 (),

94

. . , . . , .

d , tr f f W 1,2 (). h H,h ,


L2 () Q,h .
:
H,h [u] = u.
(3.33)
, (3.33) :
u
+ hu = 0 ,

.
(3.33)
h. , h 1 , 2 , 2 1 , h1 , h2
(3.33), 1 h1 , , 2 h2 . h = 0, ,
3.3.
.
1 2 ,
1 2 h1 h2 .
.
u = u

3.19. RN C 0,1 . h , h LN 1 () N > 3 h Lp () p > 1


N = 2.

 H,h
1/2

, L2 () , Dom H,h = W 1,2 ()


Z
Z


1/2
1/2
H,h u, H,h v 2
= u
v dx + h(tr u)(tr v) d
(3.34)
L ()

u, v

W 1,2 ().

H,h h.
n [, h], n [, h] n [H,h ], n [H,h ] .
1 , 2 h1 , h2 .
3.2. M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 {rj }sj=1 , 2.3.


1 , 2 RN C 0,1 M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 0

{g1,j }sj=1 , {g2,j }sj=1 , (iii) 2.3.


h1 L1 (1 ) h2 L1 (2 ).

s0 Z
X


|g1,j (x)| |g2,j (x)| dx,
G(1 , 2 )


j=1W
j
0

s Z
X


h1 rjt (x, g1,j (x)) h2 rjt (x, g2,j (x)) dx.
L(h1 , h2 )
j=1W
j

h1 L (1 ), h2 L (2 ),
n
o
a(h1 , h2 ) max kh1 kL (1 ) , kh2 kL (2 ) , kh1 k2L (1 ) , kh2 k2L (2 ) .
, k1 , k2 > 0 ,
k1 kh1 h2 kL1 () 6 L(h1 , h2 ) 6 k2 kh1 h2 kL1 ()

(3.35)

95

= 1 = 2 , 3.2
h1 , h2 L1 ().
n [2 , h2 ] n [1 , h1 ]
.
3.20. M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 {rj }sj=1 , 2.3.
n N cn > 0 n > 0 ,


n [2 , h2 ] < n [1 , h1 ] + cn |1 \ 2 | + a(h1 , h2 ) (|1 \ 2 | + G(1 , 2 )) + L(h1 , h2 )
(3.36)
RN

C 0,1

M, , s, s0 , {V

1 , 2

2 1 , |1 \ 2 | 6 n ,
h1 L (1 ) h2 L (2 ).

s
j }j=1 ,

{rj }sj=1

,
(3.37)

1 = 2 , 3.20 h1 h2 , (3.35) n [, h2 ] n [, h1 ]
kh1 h2 kL1 () h1 , h2 L ().
.
3.21. M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 {rj }sj=1 , 2.3.
n N cn > 0 ,
n [, h1 ] cn kh1 h2 kL1 () 6 n [, h2 ] 6 n [, h1 ] + cn kh1 h2 kL1 ()
(3.38)


RN C 0,1 M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1 h1 h2 , 3.19.
n [2 , h2 ] n [1 , h1 ],
1 ,
.
3.22. M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 {rj }sj=1 , 2.3.
> 0 0 < 6 1. n N cn > 0 n > 0
,
n [1 , h1 ] cn 6 n [2 , h2 ] 6 n [1 , h1 ] + cn
(3.39)
0 < < n , 1 RN

C 1, M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1
h1 L (1 ) , kh1 kL (1 ) 6


|h1 (x) h1 (y)|
: x, y , x 6= y 6 ,
sup
|x y|


2 RN C 0,1 M, , s, s0 , {Vj }sj=1 , {rj }sj=1
,
(1 ) 2 1 ,
G(1 , 2 ) 6 ,

h2 L (2 ) ,
kh2 kL (2 ) 6 ,

L(h1 , h2 ) 6 .

[22].
3.5. . , 3.1,
,
.
, 3.3.
[21].

96

. . , . . , .

3.5.1. . 1 , 2 RN , R1 R2 1 2 .
, H1 H2 ,
.
3.3. k RN , Hk
L2 (k ), k = 1, 2. , H2 H1 1 2 ,
1/2

1/2

kH2 R2 f kL2 (1 2 ) 6 kH1 R1 f kL2 (1 )

(3.40)

1/2
f, 1 2 R1 f Dom H1



1/2
R2 f Dom H2
. H2 4 H1 .


2 1 , (3.40)
1/2

1/2

kH2 R2 f kL2 (2 ) 6 kH1 f kL2 (1 )




1/2

(3.41)


1/2

f Dom H1
, R2 f Dom H2
.
, 1 = 2 , H2 4 H1
(3.42)

(H2 f, f )L2 (1 ) 6 (H1 f, f )L2 (1 )

f Dom (H1 ) Dom (H2 ) . (: H2 6 H1 , Dom (H2 )


Dom (H1 ) (3.42) f Dom (H2 ) .)
3.3, .
3.23. 1 RN , H1
L2 (1 ) .
, A2 2 , 1 , 2 A2 H2 = H2 (2 )
, L2 (2 ) ,


1/2
H2 4 H1 ,
R2 : L[H1 ] Dom H2
.
(3.43)
n N > 0 > 0 ,
2 A2 , |1 \2 | < ,
(3.44)

n [H2 ] 6 n [H1 ] + .

3.5.2. . , ,
3.23, H1 .
|1 \2 | ,
H1 Lp (1 ) p, 2 < p 6 .
3.24. 2 < p 6 . 2 1 RN ,
H1 H2 , L2 (1 )
L2 (2 ) , . , (3.43)
L[H1 ] Lp (1 ).
n N

n [H2 ] 6 n [H1 ] + cn |1 \ 2 |12/p ,

(3.45)

|1 \ 2 | < n ,
cn = 2n [H1 ]

n
X
k=1

kk [H1 ]k2Lp (1 \2 ) ,

n =

n
X

!p/(2p)
kk [H1 ]k2Lp (1 \2 )

(3.46)

k=1

3.23 3.24 1 , 2 RN ,
2 1 . 1 2 ,
.

97

3.4. 1 6 p 6 . RN , H
, L2 ().
n


o
Z p () = f Dom H 1/2 : kf kZ p () < ,
(3.47)

kf kZ p () =

kf k2Lp ()

+ kH

1/2

f k2Lp ()

1/2

(3.48)

, Z p () p , H.
, 1 , 2 RN ( ,
) Z(1 ) Z(2 ) , 1 2
, E12 , Z(1 ) Z(2 ), , f Z(1 ) f E12 (f ) 1 2 . 2 1 ,
E12 (f ) = R2 (f ) f Z(1 ).
3.25. 2 < p 6 . 1 2 RN ,
H1 H2 , L2 (1 )
L2 (2 ) , .
,
L[H1 ] Z p (1 ), H2 4 H1

E12 : L[H1 ] Z p (2 ),

(3.49)

L[H1 ] k kZ p (1 ) .
n N
n [H2 ] 6 n [H1 ] + cn |1 M 2 |12/p ,

(3.50)

|1 M 2 | < n ,
2

cn = 2(n [H1 ] + kE12 k )

n
X

kk [H1 ]k2Z p (1 ) ,

 X
p/(2p)
n
2
n = 2
kk [H1 ]kZ p (1 )

k=1

(3.51)

k=1

kE12 k E12 .
3.6. 1 2 , (3.50)
n [H2 ] 6 n [H1 ] + cn |2 \ 1 |12/p ,

cn = 2kE12 k2

n
X

kk [H1 ]k2Z p (1 ) ,

k=1

- |2 \ 1 |.
n [H2 ] , 3.25 1 , 2
2 , 1 . .
3.5. k RN , Hk
, L2 (k ), k = 1, 2. ,
H1 H2 1 2 , H2 4 H1 H1 4 H2 .
3.26. 2 < p 6 , > 0 Mn , n > 0 n N. A RN . A H()
, L2 (),
, n N
n [H()] 6 n ,

(3.52)

kn [H()]kZ p () 6 Mn .

(3.53)

98

. . , . . , .

, 1 , 2 A H1 H(1 ) H2 H(2 )
1 2
E12 : L[H1 ] Z p (2 )

(3.54)

, kE12 k 6 , L[H1 ] k kZ p (1 ) .
n N
|n [H1 ] n [H2 ]| 6 cn |1 M 2 |12/p

(3.55)

1 , 2 A, |1 M 2 | < n ,
 X
p/(2p)
n
n
X
2
2
2
cn = 2(n + )
Mk ,
n = 2
Mk
.
k=1

(3.56)

k=1

3.26 , Z p (). , 3.3


, .
X q () , , 2 6 q 6 , RN .
:
(A) 2 1 f X q (1 ), R2 f X q (2 ) kR2 f kX q (2 ) 6 kf kX q (1 ) ;
1

(B) || < , 2 6 q < r 6 f X r (), f X q () kf kX q () 6 || q


, ,
W m,q ().

Lq ()

r1

kf kX r () .

3.27. X q () ,
(A) (B), 2 6 q 6 .
2 < p 6 c > 0. 1 2 RN , H1
H2 , L2 (1 ) L2 (2 ) . ,
Y (1 )
L[H1 ] Lp (1 ) Y (1 ).
,
1/2

1/2

kH2 R2 f k2L2 (2 ) 6 kH1 R1 f k2L2 (1 ) + ckR21 f k2X 2 (2 \1 )


(3.57)




1/2
1/2
f, 1 2 , , R1 f Dom H1
, R2 f Dom H2
R21 f f 2 \ 1 X 2 (2 \ 1 ).
,


1/2
E12 : L[H1 ] X p (2 ) Dom H2
,

(3.58)


1/2
L[H1 ] k kY (1 ) , X p (2 ) Dom H2

k kX p (2 ) .
n N
n [H2 ] 6 n [H1 ] + cn |1 M 2 |12/p ,
|1 M 2 | < n ,


n
n
X
X
2
2
2
kk [H1 ]kY (1 ) ,
cn = 2 n [H1 ]
kk [H1 ]kLp (1 \2 ) + ckE12 k

(3.59)

(3.60)

k=1

k=1

 X
p/(2p)
n
2
n = 2
kk [H1 ]kLp (1 \2 )
.
k=1

(3.61)

99

3.28. X q () ,
(A) (B), 2 6 q 6 .
2 < p 6 , , c > 0 Mn , n > 0 n N. A RN . A Y () ,
H() , L2 (),
, n N (3.52)
kn [H()]kLp () , kn [H()]kY () 6 Mn .
(3.62)
, 1 , 2 A H1 H(1 ) H2 H(2 ) (3.57)


1/2
E12 : L[H1 ] X p (2 ) Dom H2
(3.63)
, kE12 k 6 , L[H1 ] k kY (1 ) ,


1/2
X p (2 ) Dom H2
k kX p (2 ) .
n N
|n [H1 ] n [H2 ]| 6 cn |1 M 2 |12/p
1 , 2 A, |1 M 2 | < n ,
 X
p/(2p)
n
n
X
cn = 2(n + c 2 )
Mk2 , n = 2
Mk2
.
k=1

4.

(3.64)

(3.65)

k=1

, . , RN
(). , . ,
. , [37, 40]
.
4.1
, 4.2
.
.
4.1. . RN
RN .
n
o
N
loc () = L1, () : 1 , ess inf | det | > 0 ,

L1, () L1loc (),


L ().
loc (), .
() , ().
, () .
L2 () L2 (()), u 7 u (1) , L2 () L2 (()).
W 1,2 () W 1,2 (()) W01,2 () W01,2 (()), .
1

, .

100

. . , . . , .

W 1,2 () L2 () ( W01,2 () L2 ()) , W 1,2 (()) L2 (()) ( W01,2 (())


L2 (())).
() .
.
0 loc (),
n
(1 , 2 ) k |det1 | |det2 | kL () +
o


+ (1 )1 (1 )t |det1 | (2 )1 (2 )t |det2 | L () ,
0 (1 , 2 ) k |1 2 | kL ()

(4.1)

1 , 2 loc ().
.
, (1 , 2 ) 0 (1 , 2 ) .
[40, 41].
4.1.1. . RN
, W01,2 () L2 () . W01,2 (()) L2 (())
() . , n [()] .

n [()] .
, W01,2 () L2 () ,
R
1/2

|u| dx

1,2
cD [] = sup R
:
u

W
()
\
{0}

0
2

|u| dx

.
(. [27]).
4.1. N > 2. 0 , ]0, +[2 [0, +[3 [0, +[,
, ,
1

n [1 ()] 1

n [2 ()] 6


6 ess inf |det1 | , ess inf |det2 | , k |1 | kL () , k |2 | kL () , cD [] (1 , 2 ) 6



6 0 ess inf |det1 | , ess inf |det2 | , k |1 | kL () , k |2 | kL () , cD [] 0 (1 , 2 ) (4.2)

n N, RN , W01,2 () L2 ()
, 1 , 2 loc (). 0 N,
(4.2) n N.
4.1. 2 = R1 + c, R N N, c RN ,
(1 , 2 ) = 0 , (4.2), n [1 ()] = n [2 ()] ( ).
() .
, , , .
(, . [55]) . ,
, (), ;

101

. , W01,2 (()), , W01,2 (). , W01,2 (())



Z
v1
v2 dy
v1 , v2 W01,2 (()),
()

W01,2 ()
Z
Q [u1 , u2 ] =
(u1 (1) )(
u2 (1) )dy
u1 , u2 W01,2 ().

(4.3)

()

: . , . ,
,
, .
, . [6].
F N
loc,D (, F ) = { loc () : m [()]
/ {n [()] : n F } m N \ F }

(4.4)

, F .
loc,D (, F ). ED [, F ],
o
n
u W01,2 () : [u (1) ] = n [()]u (1) n F .
, ED [, F ] , - () , F. PF,D [] W01,2 () ED [, F ],
Q ,
PF,D [] L(W01,2 (), W01,2 ()) loc,D (, F ),
L(W01,2 (), W01,2 ()) , W01,2 ().
,
1
dD [] = min{|1
n [()] m [()]| : n F, m N \ F }.

(4.5)

.
4.2. N > 2. F N. 0 , ]0, +[4 [0, +[3 [0, +[, , ,

kPF,D [1 ] PF,D [2 ]kL(W 1,2 (),W 1,2 ()) 6


0
0


6 ess inf |det1 | , ess inf |det2 | , dD [1 ], dD [2 ], k|1 |kL () , k|2 |kL () , cD [] (1 , 2 ) 6



0
6 ess inf |det1 | , ess inf |det2 | , dD [1 ], dD [2 ], k|1 |kL () , k|2 |kL () , cD [] 0 (1 , 2 )

(4.6)
RN , W01,2 () L2 () ,
1 , 2 loc,D (, F ).
4.1 4.2 . ,

102

. . , . . , .

, H , W01,2 () ,
() . H
Q , (4.3). , (4.2) ,
H Q . (4.6) ,
(. [58] . 3, 6 . 276, 277 [6]).
,
Z
1
(H I)1 d,
(4.7)
PF,D [] =
2i

I , , H F.
(4.7)
(4.6).
4.1.2. . RN , W 1,2 () L2 () . ()
, W 1,2 (()) L2 (()) , () . ,
n [()] .
, W 1,2 () L2 () ,
R
1/2

Z
|u| dx

1,2
R
cN [] = sup
: u W () \ {0},
udx = 0
2 dx

|u|

.
4.3. N > 2. 0 , ]0, +[2 [0, +[3 [0, +[,
, , (4.2) ( cD []
cN []) n > 2 RN
, W 1,2 () L2 () .
,
. , ()
W 1,2 (()).
W 1,2 (())
Z
(v1 v2 + v1
v2 )dy
v1 , v2 W 1,2 (()),
()

W 1,2 ()
Z
[u1 , u2 ] =
Q
u1 (1) u
2 (1) dy + Q [u1 , u2 ]
u1 , u2 W 1,2 ().
()

F N. loc,N (, F ), , (4.4). loc,N (, F ) PF,N [] W 1,2 () EN [, F ] , EN [, F ] , u W 1,2 () ,


Q
u (1) ()
, n [()] n F.
, dN [] (4.5).

103

4.4. N > 2. F N \ {1}.


0 , ]0, +[4 [0, +[3 [0, +[,
,
,
kPF,N [1 ] PF,N [2 ]kL(W 1,2 (),W 1,2 ()) 6


6 ess inf |det1 |, ess inf |det2 |, dN [1 ], dN [2 ], k|1 |kL () , k|2 |kL () , cN [] (1 , 2 ) 6



0
6 ess inf |det1 | , ess inf |det2 | , dN [1 ], dN [2 ], k|1 |kL () , k|2 |kL () , cN [] 0 (1 , 2 )

RN , W 1,2 () L2 ()
, 1 , 2 loc,N (, F ).
4.2. . RN (), ().

|(x) (y)|
() = (Lip())N : inf
>0 ,
(4.8)

x,y,
|x y|
x6=y

Lip() .
Lip() , Lip() ,
(Lip(), ||1 ), |f |1
f Lip().
.
() (Lip())N , () loc ().
(), 1 (()).

()
.
, , [37, 44].
4.2.1. . ,
, . , , F = {n} , n N, () loc,D (, F ) 3 7 n [()] -. , () 3 7 1 [()] -, 1 [()] ()
() loc,D (, {1}) = ().
|F | > 1, ,
. , PF,D []
F .
.
4.5. RN , W01,2 () L2 () .
F N,
D (, F ) = () loc,D (, F ).
.
(i)
D (, 
F ) (Lip())N . D (, F )

L W01,2 (), W01,2 () , D (, F ) 3 7 PF,D [], -.
(ii) s {1, . . . , |F |} . , D (, F ) R D (, F )

X
F,s [] =
n1 [()] ns [()],
(4.9)
n1 ,...,ns F,
n1 <...<ns

104

. . , . . , .

-.
(i) (4.7), , ,
PF,D []. , H PF,D []
, .
H
. (ii).
,
, .
D (, F ) = { D (, F ) : n [()] F [()] n F } .
, -
!1/s

1
|F |
F,s []
,
s

(4.10)

s = 1, . . . , |F |,

D (, F ) R, D (, F ) 7 F [()].
, .
4.1. 4.5. ,
D (, F ) F [()] R, -.
D (, F )\D (, F ), n [()] n F
. - ,
, . .

Z


[, v1 , v2 , , ] =
(v1
v2 v1 v2 ) div (1) dy
()

 


t 
(1)
(1)
v1
+

v2t dy (4.11)

()

(Lip())N ,

(),
v1 , v2 W 1,2 (()) R.
(. 1, . 33, [57]) ,
H , (. [35]).
4.6. RN , W01,2 () L2 () = n [()]

. m, n N () ,
= . . . = n+m1 [()]

m. I R, , { }I - (),

0 = .
m - 1 , . . . , m , I (, , I) R, ,
{n+h [ ()] : h = 0, . . . , m 1} = {1 (), . . . , m ()} .

(4.12)

1 , . . . , m


n+h , n+k , ,
0 ]
,
(4.13)
[,
h,k=0,...,m1

d

0 =
, n , . . . , n+m1
d =0

L2 (()),
.

105

4.2. n+h W 2,2 (())


h = 0, . . . , m 1 0 (L () Lip ())N ,

Z
h
i


div n+h tn+k 0 (1) dy.


[, n+h , n+k , , 0 ] =
(4.14)

()

4.6 > 0, , I
n+h [ ()], - I [0, [ I ] , 0].
- . , |F | = 2
(4.13) , 7 n+h [ ()], h = 0, 1,
, .
, ,
, ,
.
4.1.


1 + 1 + 3 2
A(1 , 2 , 3 ) =
(4.15)
2
1 1 + 3
p
1 + 3 21 + 22 (1 , 2 , 3 ) R3 .
A(0, 0, 0) = 1,
. , (4.15) ,
p (1 , 3 , 3 ).
, , 21 + 22 , 21 + 22 = 0.
A() 3 , 1 = 2 = 0, A(0, 0, 3 )
1 + 3 , 3 . ,
3 ,
, , 3 = 0 = 1
(. 4.1).
4.2.2. . T 4.5 4.6 4.1
. , RN , W 1,2 () L2 () , F,s ,
(4.9), N (, F ) = () loc,N (, F ) -. , F [()] N [, F ],
(4.10). , () ,
= n [()]


= . . . = n+m1 [()]
m,
- { }I (), 0 = ,
- n+h [ ()], = 0 ,
, 4.6. ,
4.6. , n+h
W 2,2 (())
0 (L () Lip())N ,
(4.13)
Z
h

i

n+h n+k 0 (1) dy.


(4.16)
div n+h tn+k
[, n+h , n+k , , 0 ] =

()

4.2.3. . 4.5, .
, ,
,
RN , . .

(. [24, 34]).

106

. . , . . , .

RN . () ()

Z
V[] = |det|dx.
(4.17)

, V -.

|| = constant, I
, () 1 [()] { () : V[] = ||} V. , c R
( ) ,
d|=I 1 [()] = c d|=I V[].
4.5, 4.6 4.2,
(4.14) (4.17),

Z
Z
1 2

0 d = c 0 d

0 (Lip() L ())N , . 1
, 1 > 0 . ,
.

, 1 :

u = u ,
u=0
,
(4.18)
u

, (4.18),
(. [34]). ,

. , , ,

. ,

uj = F uj ,

uj = 0
,
2

(4.19)


P
uj



jF
. uj , j F, ,
F . , (4.19) (
. [42]).
.
4.3. .
4.3.1. . , n [] .
[49] , RN C 3 : RN , C 3 (, RN ), ,
()
.

107

4.7. RN C 3 .
> 0 () (C 3 ())N ,

sup sup |D ((x) x)| < ,


06||63 x

, ()
.
[50, 51].
, , , ,
(. [1, 26, 43, 4648]).
, (. [43, 4648, 60]).
4.8. RN W01,2 ()
L2 () . m, n N F = {n, n + 1, . . . , n + m 1}. D (, F ),
n , . . . , n+m1
, F [()],
2

L (()).
m m,


n+h , n+k , F [()],

n , n , F [()],

[,
] hk [,
]
:
h,k=0,...,m1

N
(Lip()) . (4.20)
m(m + 1)
1 () V
2
, D (, F ) V - m(m + 1)
(Lip())N . , =
1,
2

V , D (, F ) V -
m(m + 1)

1 (Lip())N ,
2


(Lip())N :



n+h , n+k , F [()],

n , n , F [()],

[,
] hk [,
]
= 0 . (4.21)
0 6 6

h,k=0,...,m1

4.3. =
[26] (. [1]).

m(m + 1)
1
2

()
.

RN W 1,1 () u W 1,1 () ,

u RN W 1,1 (RN ). , W01,1 () W 1,1 ()


, C. ( ,
. [3],
o 1,1

, W01,p () =W

() p > n.)

4.9. 4.8. , ()

2,2

N - n+h W (()) h = 0, . . . , m 1.

q W 1,1 (())
-
1,1
1,1

W (())/W (()).

108

. . , . . , .

W 1,1 (())/
W 1,1 (()),

{q [Dn+h Dn+k hk Dn Dn ] : h, k = 0, . . . , m 1} .

(4.22)

4.10.
4.9. , ()




C 0,1 n+h C 1 ()
h = 0, . . . , m 1.

L1 ( ()),



n n
n+h n+k
hk
: h, k = 0, . . . , m 1 .


, 4.10, (. [46, 48]).
4.2. RN C 1,1 , m(m + 1)
m = 2. =
1. , ,
2
, , = 2.
4.3. N = 3, , .
, m
m . ,
m(m + 1)
m = 3 =
1. , 2
R3 , , ,
= 5.
4.3.2. . 4.84.10
. (. [39]).
4.11. RN
L2 () . m, n N, n > 2 F = {n, n + 1, . . . , n + m 1}.
N (, F ), n , . . . , n+m1
, F [()],

L (()).
m m,


n+h , n+k , F [()],

n , n , F [()],

[,
] hk [,
]
:
h,k=0,...,m1

(Lip())N . (4.23)
W 1,2 ()

m(m + 1)
1 () V
2
, N (, F ) V - m(m + 1)
(Lip())N . , =
1,
2
V , N (, F ) V -
m(m + 1)

1 (Lip())N ,
2


(Lip())N :




[, n+h , n+k , F [()], ] hk [, n , n , F [()], ]


= 0 . (4.24)
0 6 6

h,k=0,...,m1

109

4.12. 4.11. , ()
2,2

N - n+h W (())
h = 0, . . . , m 1.

W 1,1 (())/
W 1,1 (()),

{q [Mhk hk M00 ] : h, k = 0, . . . , m 1} ,
(4.25)

Mhk Dn+h Dn+k F [()]


(4.26)
n+h n+k
h, k = 0, . . . , m 1.

4.13. 4.12. , ()

0,1
1

C n+h C () h = 0, . . . , m 1.

L1 ( ()),

{Mhk hk M00 : h, k = 0, . . . , m 1} .
4.4. N = 2, = ]0, []0, [ .
, 2 [] = 1 v1 (y1 , y2 ) = cos y1 v2 (y1 , y2 ) = cos y2 (.,
m(m + 1)
, 5 4, . 5, [7]). 4.13 =
1. 2
, , 2 [],
= 2.
. . ( 05-01-01050) INTAS ( 05-1000008-8157).

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Cardiff School of Mathematics, Cardiff University,
Senghennydd Road, Cardiff, CF24 4AG, United Kingdom
E-mail: burenkov@cardiff.ac.uk
Pier Domenico Lamberti
Dipartimento di Matematica Pura ed Applicata, Universit`a degli Studi di Padova,
Via Belzoni 7, 35131 Padova, Italy
E-mail: lamberti@math.unipd.it
Massimo Lanza de Cristoforis
Dipartimento di Matematica Pura ed Applicata, Universit`a degli Studi di Padova,
Via Belzoni 7, 35131 Padova, Italy
E-mail: mldc@math.unipd.it