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2003

51(09)
22.1
46


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, 30 1999
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1999 .


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ISBN 5-94057-110-7

. ., 2003.
, 2003.

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01335 24/III 2000 . 8/VIII 2003 .


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13. x, 2x11, y, 2y11, xy 13 1.
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13 1, , 12! 13 12, (
13) .
: p=4n+1,
n , ((2n)!)2 +1 p. , , (4n)!+1 p,
:
(4n)!+1=(2n)! (2n+1)(2n+2)...(4n)+1=(2n)! (p2n)(p2n+1)...
...(p1)+1=(2n)! (1)2n (2np)(2n1p)...(1p)+1
((2n)!)2 +1 (mod p).
(2n)! N. , N2 1 (mod p).
.
(m, s), 0m[
p],

0s[ p], [ p]

, p.

2
([ p]+1) >p. ,
(m1 , s1 ) (m2 , s2 ) m1 +Ns1 m2 +Ns2 p
, . . a+Nb,
a=m1 m
2 , b=s1 s2 ,
p. |a|[ p], |b|[ p].
a2 N2 b2 =(a+Nb)(aNb) p, , ,
N2 1 (mod p), , a2 +b2 p, . .
a2 +b2 =rp, r (r= 0,
(m1 ,
s1 ) (m2 , s2 ) ). , a2 +b2
2[ p]2 <2p, . . r=1, , a2 +b2 =p. 2 .

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, 4k+3
(. [3, . 45]).
, n+mi,
n, m (. [4, . 2829]).
ei =1
[] .
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(e=2,718281828...). ,



1 n
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3.1.
( ):
(a+b)n =an +C1n an1 b+C2n an2 b2 +...+Cn2
a2 bn2 +Cnn1 abn1 +bn ,
n
n!

n , Ckn =
.
 k! (nk)!
n

1
3.2. , e= lim 1+  .
n

:
n



1+ 1  =1+ n 1 + n(n1) 12 + n(n1)(n2) 13 +...
n
1! n
2!
3!
n
n
( ).
n :
e=1+

1
1
1
+ + +...
1!
2!
3!

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X

x n
x2
x3
xk
ex = lim 1+  =1+x+ + +...=
.
n
2!
3!
k!
n
k=0

,
e : e
Euler.
ex .
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10

3.3. 0
f(x)=f(0)+

f (0)
f (0) 2 f (0) 3
x+
x +
x +...,
1!
2!
3!

sin x cos x.
(sin x) =cos x, (cos x) = sin x, ,
sin x=x

x3
x5
x2
x4
+ ..., cos x=1 + ...
3!
5!
2!
4!

3.4. , ex
, :
ez =1+z+

z2
z3
z4
z5
+ + + +...,
2!
3!
4!
5!

z .
z=i ( i , . .
i2 =1):
(i)2

(i)3

(i)4

(i)5

+
+
+
+...=1+i i+ +
ei =1+i+
2!
3!
4!
5!
2!
3!
4!




2
4
3
5

 

5

+ i...=1 + ...+i  + ...=cos +i sin =1.


5!

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3!

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4.1. . ,
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(n21 +n22 +n23 +n24 )(m21 +m22 +m23 +m24 )=
=(n1 m1 +n2 m2 +n3 m3 +n4 m4 )2 +(n1 m2 +n2 m1 n3 m4 +n4 m3 )2 +
+(n1 m3 +n3 m1 n4 m2 +n2 m4 )2 +(n1 m4 +n4 m1 n2 m3 +n3 m2 )2 .
4.1 .
4.2. . p>2
m, m<p, mp=a2 +b2 +c2 , a, b, c.
.

 




 p1 2








: K= 
0,
1,
4,
...,
,
L=


 2  


(
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2

 p1  

 
..., 1 

). 2  
p. , k21 = k22 K
(, , 1k21 = 1k22 L),
0k1

p1
p1
, 0k2
. k21 k22 (mod p), (k1 +k2 )
2
2

(k1 k2 )0 (mod p). 0<k1 +k2 <p 0<|k1 k2 |<p, k1 <p/2, k2 <p/2 k1 = k2 . .
p+1 , ,
p, . . 2 12 , 2 12 (mod p).
2 +2 +1=mp m.
, <p/2 <p/2, mp=2 +2 +
+1<p2 /4+p2 /4+1<p2, , m<p. 4.2 .
4.3. , . p=2 2=12 +12 +
+02 +02 . p>2, , m<p,
12

mp mp=n21 +n22 +n23 +n24 (n4 0). m, . , 1.


m . ni ,
(
, n1 n2 (mod 2), n3 n4 (mod 2)).

n1 +n2 n1 n2 n3 +n4 n3 n4
,
,
,

2
2
2
2

. :




 n1 +n2 2  n1 n2 2  n3 +n4 2  n3 n4 2 n21 +n22 +n23 +n24 mp

 + 



+

=
,
 2 
 2  +  2  =
2 
2
2
, mp/2 . m/2<m, m, , . .
m . ni
ni =qi m+mi (qi , mi ), |mi |<m/2.
mp=n21 +n22 +n23 +n24 =sm+m21 +m22 +m23 +m24 ,
s . , m21 +m22 +m23 +m24 =
=nm, n . n=0, mi =0,
ni =qi m i, mp=n21 +n22 +n23 +n24 =m2 k, k
, . . p=mk, m<p, , m=1. , n1.
4.1 :
(n21 +n22 +n23 +n24 )(m21 +m22 +m23 +m24 )=s21 +s22 +s23 +s24 ,

s1 = n1 m1 +n2 m2 +n3 m3 +n4 m4 , s3 =n1 m3 +n3 m1 n4 m2 +n2 m4 ,


s2 =n1 m2 +n2 m1 n3 m4 +n4 m3 , s4 =n1 m4 +n4 m1 n2 m3 +n3 m2 .
mi ni (mod m), . . s1 m21 +m22 +m23 +m24
0 (mod m), , s1 /m. ,
si /m i=2, 3, 4. ( |mi |<m/2) : nm=m21 +m22 +m23 +m24 <m2, . . n<m,
mpnm=s21 +s22 +s23 +s24 ,
 s 2  s 2  s 2  s 2
 
 
 
 
np=  1  +  2  +  3  +  4  ,
m

m.
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+02 +02 . 4 .
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5.1. , 1,
cos 2/17 (. 2). *) , .
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14

.

.
5.2. :

17
2
2
+i sin
.
= 1=e2i/17 =cos
17

{
1
}|
z
2/17
|
{z
}
cos 2/17

17

: z1 =+1 , z2 =
4
= +4 , 1 =2 +2 , 2 =8 +8 , y1 =
=z1 +z2 , y3 =z1 z2 , y2 =1 +2 , y4 =1 2 , x1 =
. 2
=y1 +y2 , x2 =y3 +y4 . ,
. ,

 


2k
2k  
2k
2k 
2k
k +k = cos
+i sin
+
cos
+i
sin
=2 cos
.
17
17  
17
17 
17
z1 =2 cos

2
, z1 .
17

5.3. . k =17+k k.
. ,
2(17+k)
2(17+k)
+i sin
=
17
17






2k 
2k 
2k
2k
+i sin 2+
=cos
+i sin
=k .
=cos 2+

17
17 
17
17

17+k =cos

16

5.4. . k =0.
k=0

. (, ,
16

17 1

=0.
) : k =
1
k=0
16

. k =1.
k=1

.

 16
16


k =  k  0 =01=1.
k=1

k=0

. (k +k )=1.
k=1

5.5. . y1 y2 =y3 y4 =1.


. y1 y2 =(+1 +4 +4 )
2
( +2 +8 +8 )=3 +1 +9 +7 +1 +3 +7 +9 +6 +
8

+2 +12 +4 +2 +6 +4 +12 = (k +k )=1.


k=1

, y3 y4 =1.
15

5.6. . x1 +x2 =1, x1 x2 =4.


5.7. , 1, |p|, |q|,
,
x2 +px+q=0 ( ).
x1 +x2 =1, x1 x2 =4, x1
x2 x2 +x4=0, , |x1 | |x2 |.
, y1 +y2 =x1 y1 y2 =1,
|y1 | |y2 |. y3 +y4 =x2 y3 y4 =1 |y3 | |y4 |. ,
z1 +z2 =y1 z1 z2 =y3 , z1 ,
, .
, cos
cos

2
:
17

2
1 
= 1+ 17+ 342 17+
17
16
+

r
q
p


68+12 1716 34+2 172(1 17) 342 17.

, n- ,
s
n=2l F1 F2 ...Fk, Fi 22 +1 (
s
2
). , 2 +1 5
. , , 22 +1=
=4 294 967 297 641.
, ,
3, 5, 17, 257 65 537, .

[1] . . XIX .
.: , 1989.
[2] . . . // . 1991. 10.
[3] . .
. .: , 1974.
[4] . . . . .: , 1940.