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UNIT I WHAT IS ESP?

a. Definition of ESP By the term English for Specific (or Special, Specified, Specifiable) Purposes is meant that type of language learning which has its focus on all aspects of language pertaining to a particular field of human activity (Wright, 1992: 3). In other words, it is a way of teaching/learning English for specialized subjects with some specific vocational and educational purposes in mind. In ESP syllabus, the teaching content is geared to the special language 'repertoire' pertaining to the specialized aims that are required of the learners. ESP is a relatively new discipline within Applied Linguistics that bids a new learner-centered approach to English language teaching whose methodology is based on the specific needs of the learner. Kennedy and Bolitho (1984: 3) point out that ESP is based on an investigation of the purposes of the learner and the set of communicative needs arising from these purposes. ESP is contrasted with EGP, or English for General Purposes. If English is taught as a second language along with other subjects for educational purposes as some useful subject to the learners in the future, then this is EGP. In this type of learning, there is generally no immediate requirement for the learners to use English for any real communicative purposes. In contrast, if English is taught for specialized learners with some specific vocational and educational purpose in mind, then this is ESP. ESP is learning and learner oriented, with a conception and preference for communicative competence. Defined to meet the specific needs of the learners, ESP makes use of methodology and the activities of the discipline it serves by focusing on the language appropriate to these activities. As a specific approach to language teaching, ESP requires that all decisions as to content and method be based on the learners reason for learning (Hutchinson and Waters, 1987: 19).

The Meaning of the Word Special in ESP One simple clarification requires to be made here about the two entirely different notions of special language and specialized aim. It has been noted that confusion arises over these two notions. Mackay and Mountford (1978) explain the idea of a special language in the following manner: The only practical way in which we can understand the notion of special language is as a restricted repertoire of words and expressions selected from the whole language because that restricted repertoire covers every requirement within a welldefined context, task, or vocation. In order to rule out the unintended interpretation of the term special to mean unique, many researchers prefer to replace it with the term specific or specifiable. The implication is that the terms special, specific, or specifiable are not intended to qualify the language, but to highlight the purpose of studying it. It specifies the focus on certain features of the language that are immediately associated with the restricted use of the target language which is required by the learner in order to achieve a particular purpose (Munby, 1978: 2). As mentioned above, a specialized aim refers to the purpose for which learners learn a language, not the nature of the language they learn. Consequently, the focus of the word special in ESP ought to be on the purpose for which learners learn and not on the specific jargon or registers they learn. The notion of a language with singular characteristics began to take root in the sixties and the early seventies, being associated with the pioneering research of Halliday, MacIntosh and Strevens (1964). Then, many distinguished linguists subscribed to the approach above, among them Widdowson (1983: 10) who states that ESP is simply a matter of describing a particular area of language and then using this description as a course specification to impart to learners the necessary restricted competence with this particular area. Hutchinson and Waters (1987: 19) second this by insisting that ESP must be seen as an approach, not a product. ESP as a Learner-Centered Approach It is obvious from above that ESP is a new, learner-centered approach. This notion requires further specification, at least in its general sense. A learner-centered approach to learning and teaching sees learning as the active construction of meaning, and teaching as the act of guiding, scaffolding and facilitating learning. This approach considers knowledge as being an everchanging process, which is built upon the learners prior experience (Hutchinson and Waters, 1987: 59f). A learner-centered approach provides opportunities for students to practice critical and creative thinking, proble m solving, and decision making. This involves recall, application, analysis, synthesis, prediction and evaluation; all of which contribute to the development and enhancement of conceptual understandings. A learner-centered approach also encourages students to demonstrate ownership of their ideas and to reflect on and monitor their thinking as they make decisions and take action. In the key learning area of EFL, learning experiences should be adjusted as required to meet the abilities, needs, and interests of individuals and groups of students. This may mean providing different amounts of time, space or materials, and offering a range of levels and types of support to students. Students may engage in experiences in different ways, or make choices from a range of options so that learning is relevant and

meaningful. This approach can involve both students and teachers in the design of learning and assessment opportunities, and requires negotiation and flexibility (Wajnryb, 1992: 124). It has been stated that ESP is an approach to language teaching in which all decisions as to syllabus content and method are based on the learners reasons for learning. Though the needs for using English are varied, all learners need to use a specific area of the English language in the shortest term possible. After identifying a target situation - the need for a specific segment at school - the learners' needs have to be identified; and their current situation and the target situation must also be analyzed. Additionally, learners potentials require to be identified, as well as the skills and knowledge needed to attain the target situation without losing sight of such constraints as aptitude, time, and technical resources. With these data in mind, a course is designed and the materials are then chosen and organized. Finally, evaluation is a very important tool so that learning strategies can be redefined and results improved b. The origin of ESP According to Hutchinson and Waters (1987: 5), there are three common reasons to the emergence of all ESP: the demands of New World, a revolution in linguistics, and focus on the learner. The co-authors note that two key historical periods breathed life into ESP. First, the end of the Second World War brought with it an "age of enormous and unprecedented expansion in scientific, technical and economic activity on an international scale for various reasons, most notably the economic power of the United States in the post-war world, the role [of international language] fell to English". Second, the Oil Crisis of the early 1970s resulted in Western money and knowledge flowing into the oil-rich countries. The language of this knowledge became English. The general effect of all this development was to exert pressure on the language teaching profession to deliver the required goods. Whereas English had previously decided its own destiny, it now became subject to the wishes, needs and demands of people other than language teachers . The other key reason cited as having a tremendous impact on the emergence of ESP was a revolution in linguistics. Whereas traditional linguists set out to describe the features of language, revolutionary pioneers in linguistics began to focus on the ways in which language is used in real communication. One significant discovery was in the ways that spoken and written English vary. In other words, given the particular context in which English is used, the variant of English will change. This idea was taken one step farther. If language in different situations varies, then tailoring language instruction to meet the needs of learners in specific contexts is also possible. Hence, in the late 1960s and the early 1970s there were many attempts to describe English for Science and Technology (EST). Hutchinson and Waters (1987), Swales (1980), and Selinker and Tarone (1981) are identified among the few of the prominent descriptive EST pioneers. The final reason Hutchinson and Waters (1987: 18-9) cite as having influenced the emergence of ESP is related to the psychology of learning. Rather than simply focusing upon the method of language delivery, more attention was given to the ways in which learners acquire language and the differences in the ways language is acquired. Learners were seen to employ different learning strategies, use different skills, enter with different learning schemata, and be motivated by different needs and interests. Therefore, focus on the learners' needs became equally paramount as the methods employed to disseminate linguistic knowledge. Designing specific courses to better meet these individual needs was a natural extension of this thinking. To this day, the catchword in ESL circles is both learner-centered and learning-centered. 3

In this way, teachers should follow students target situation needs and learning needs by focusing on the systems, procedures, and products that are at the heart of what the students do in English and to be able to deduce from this knowledge the language needs of each type of learners (Ellis and Johnson, 1994: 26). The discussion above is meant to clarify the fact that ESP should not be considered as a product of language analysis; rather, it should be seen as an approximation to meet the needs of the learners. In this respect, Widdowson (1983: 10) affirms that ESP is simply of matter of describing a particular area of language and then using this description as a course specification to impart to learners the necessary restricted competence with this particular area. a. The demands of a Brave New World, post WW2 1) Expansion of science, technology, and economics. 2) Historical reasons led to the dominance of English in science and business. 3) A new generation of learners of English, learning, not just to be cultured, or well educated, but learners who needed English, and knew why they needed it. 4) Particularly in business, "time and money constraints created a need for cost effective courses with clearly defined goals" (Hutchinson & Waters 1987:7). English teaching moved out of the traditional educational establishments. English teaching became big business. 5) Teachers of English became more accountable, subject to the needs, wishes, and demands of whoever was paying. English teachers started working not just in educational establishments, but in businesses, where results were expected, and paid for. b. A revolution in linguistics (see, Growth in ESP) 1) Traditionally: grammar. New emphasis: language in the real world - the so called communicative approach. 2) Language varies according to situation, therefore the distinctive features can be identified, and made the basis of the new courses. In particular, there was some discussion of the distinctive features of the language of science, and a concentration on these features in lessons. c. A focus on the learner 1) In psychology, emphasis on the learner and their attitudes. 2) Hence courses where importance was given 'relevance' to learners needs and interests ESP Course Overview and Objectives: English for Specific Purposes (ESP) is known as a learner-centered approach to teaching English as a foreign or second language. It meets the needs of (mostly) adult learners who need to learn a foreign language for use in their specific fields, such as science, technology, medicine, leisure, and academic learning. This course is recommended for graduate students and foreign and second language professionals who wish to learn how to design ESP courses and programs in an area of specialization such as English for business, for Civil Engineering, for Academic Purposes, and for health service purposes. In addition, they are introduced to ESP instructional strategies, materials adaptation and development, and evaluation. Its objectives include: To develop an understanding about the factors that led to the emergence of ESP and the forces, both theoretical and applied, that have shaped its subsequent development.

To assist students develop needs assessments and genre analyses for specific groups of learners. To provide guidelines to adapt or create authentic ESP materials in a chosen professional or occupational area and to critically evaluate currently available materials, including technology-based ones. To become knowledgeable about assessment procedures appropriate for ESP and apply this knowledge in developing course and lesson evaluation plans in their professional or occupational area. To assist students in preparing a syllabus, lesson and assessment plan based upon their needs assessments and genre analyses.

Characteristics of ESP Courses Carver (1983) states that there are three features common to ESP courses: a) authentic material, b) purpose-related orientation, and c) self-direction. If one accepts Dudley-Evans' (1997) claim that ESP should be offered at an intermediate or advanced level, then the use of authentic learning materials is entirely feasible. Indeed, the use of authentic content materials, modified or unmodified in form, is one feature of ESP, particularly in self-directed study and research tasks. Purpose-related orientation refers to the simulation of communicative tasks required of the target setting. Carver (1983: 101) cites student simulation of a conference, involving the preparation of papers, reading, note taking, and writing. At Algonquin College, English for business courses have involved students in the design and presentation of a unique business venture, including market research, pamphlets and logo creation. The students have presented all final products to invited ESL classes during a poster presentation session. For the Health Science program, students attended a seminar on improving the listening skills. They practiced listening skills, such as listening with empathy, and then employed their newly acquired skills during a fieldtrip to a local community centre where they were partnered up with English-speaking residents. A large component of the student evaluation was based on an independent study assignment in which the learners were required to investigate and present an area of interest. The students were encouraged to conduct research using a variety of different resources, including the Internet. Finally, self-direction is characteristic of ESP courses in that the ... point of including self-direction ... is that ESP is concerned with turning learners into users (Carver, 1983: 134). In order for self-direction to occur, the learners must have a certain degree of freedom to decide when, what, and how they will study. Carver (1983: ibid.) also adds that there must be a systematic attempt by teachers to teach the learners how to learn by teaching them about learning strategies. As for the question of whether or not it is necessary to teach highability learners - such as those enrolled in the health science program - about learning strategies, the answer is not. Rather, what is essential for these learners is learning how to access information in a new culture. Benefits of ESP On the basis of what has been said before, one is now in a position to state the benefits of ESP. Basically; these are threefold in that they help achieve speed, efficiency, and effectiveness 5

in learning. As far as learning speed is concerned, ESP results in faster acquisition of required linguistic items. This is because it follows the pattern of the native speakers acquisition of language for specific purposes, in which speakers learn what they need, when they need it, in authentic, content-based contexts. ESP does not only follow this pattern, but also improves upon it by providing an opportunity to learn in an accelerated, intensive context (Wright, 1992: 5). As for learning efficiency, on an ESP course, the trainees make the maximal use of their learning resources, all of which are brought to bear on acquiring specific, pre-identified linguistic items and skills. Obviously, the needs analysis is of vital importance here since it enables trainers to determine the specific requirements of trainees (ibid.). Thirdly, there is learning effectiveness. On completion of an ESP course, the trainees are ready to use language appropriately and correctly in job related tasks, which have been identified prior to the course by means of a needs analysis. Accordingly, English becomes usable immediately in the employment context. In addition, the trainees are prepared for further job-related training in English. Such preparation will result in greater academic performance since no time is wasted in acquiring the necessary language (ibid.). The benefits of ESP can be brought out further by contrasting ESP courses with General English courses. Such courses deal with many different topics, necessarily at a superficial level. In addition, they deal with many different skills, usually attempting to give equal treatment to each. Due to the general nature of these courses, they can be extremely useful, which is why they comprise the vast majority of English courses. However, for students with specific learning needs, they are seriously lacking because their scope is too wide. The trainees learn many irrelevant things. Relevant material, if it is included at all, is treated in insufficient depth. These deficiencies cause the acquisition of the required linguistic items to be slow and minimal, and upon the completion of the course, the trainees are not prepared to function effectively in the required employment contexts.

UNIT II TYPES OF ESP

Different taxonomies of ESP are offered by different educationalists. For example, David Carver (1983: 20f) identifies three types of ESP : 1. English as a restricted language; 7

The language used by air traffic controllers or by waiters are examples of English as a restricted language. Mackay and Mountford (1978: 4-5) clearly illustrate the difference between restricted language and language with this statement: ... The language of international air-traffic control could be regarded as 'special', in the sense that the repertoire required by the controller is strictly limited and can be accurately determined situationally, as might be the linguistic needs of a dining-room waiter or air-hostess. However, such restricted repertoires are not languages, just as a tourist phrase book is not grammar. Knowing a restricted 'language' would not allow the speaker to communicate effectively in novel situation, or in contexts outside the vocational environment. 2. English for academic and occupational purposes; The language used by air traffic controllers or by waiters are examples of English as a restricted language. Mackay and Mountford (1978: 4-5) clearly illustrate the difference between restricted language and language with this statement: ... The language of international air-traffic control could be regarded as 'special', in the sense that the repertoire required by the controller is strictly limited and can be accurately determined situationally, as might be the linguistic needs of a dining-room waiter or air-hostess. However, such restricted repertoires are not languages, just as a tourist phrase book is not grammar. Knowing a restricted 'language' would not allow the speaker to communicate effectively in novel situation, or in contexts outside the vocational environment. 3. English with specific topics . The third and final type of ESP identified by Carver (1983) is English with specific topics. Carver notes that it is only here where emphasis shifts from purpose to topic. This type of ESP is uniquely concerned with anticipated future English needs of, for example, scientists requiring English for postgraduate reading studies, attending conferences or working in foreign institutions. However, one can argue that this is not a separate type of ESP. Rather it is an integral component of ESP courses or programs which focus on situational language. This situational language has been determined based on the interpretation of results from needs analysis of authentic language used in target workplace settings.

UNIT III COURSE DESIGN

PROCESS OF DESIGNING A LANGUAGE COURSE Designing a language course has several components. These components comprise setting objectives based on some form of assessment, determining content, materials, method and evaluation.

1. NEED ANALYSIS a. Definition of need analysis Needs analysis involves the assessment of the needs for which a learner or group of learners may require language. As a research area, it started in the early 1970s along with the development of the communicative approach, and has gone through substantial developments in the 1970s and 1980s owing much to the work done by Richterich (1972) and Munby (1978). Proponents of the communicative approach argued that the selection of instructional materials should be based on a systematic analysis of the learners needs for the target language. All authors seem to agree that it is essential to distinguish between needs, wants and lacks. Needs are those skills which a learner perceives as being relevant to him; wants are a subset of needs, those which a learner puts at a high priority given the time available; and the lack is the difference a learner perceives between his present competence in a particular skill and the competence he wishes to achieve (Dickinson, 1991: 91).

Some authors distinguish between the terms needs analysis and needs assessment which are often used interchangeably - claiming that assessment involves obtaining data, whereas analysis involves assigning value to those data (Graves, 1996: 12). The rationale behind needs analysis is pretty straightforward: people learn a foreign language for different purposes and need it to do different things. The type of language varies along with the learners needs for the language. So, to design an effective language course, it is critical to know why a learner decides to study a second language and under what circumstances she or he is going to use it. Needs analysis involves compiling information both on the individual or groups of individuals who are to learn a language and on the use which they are expected to make of it when they have learned it (Richterich, 1983: 2). A variety of data collecting methods are used in needs analysis such as questionnaires, interviews, and observations. Berwick (1989), borrowing some insights from the field of adult education, defines "need" as " the gap between what is and what should be" (p.65). The "what is" could be equated to the current state of learner's knowledge and skills and the "what should be" could be interpreted as the target situation requirements. Robinson (1991) notes that the needs that are established for a particular group of students... will be influenced by the ideological preconceptions of the analyst. A different group of analysts working with the same group of students but with different views on teaching and learning would be highly likely to produce a different set of needs. b. Types of needs Types of needs are differentiated with reference to the purpose of learning the language, individual differences or the social roles of language in a wider context. Alderson (1980) differentiates four types of needs. First, formal needs which refer to the need to meet the institution requirements such as to pass an exam. Second, actual or obligation need which refers to what a student has to do with the language once he has learned it. Third, hypothetical future need which refers to the need to become a better professional in the future, and forth, want, which refers to what a student feels want to do or to learn. The first and the forth are types of needs during the process of learning or "processoriented" type, while the second and third are types of needs that are "futureoriented". Altman (1980) explains types of learner needs based on individual differences within the framework of learner-centered language teaching. According to Altman (1980), learners should be placed properly based on their age, level of language proficiency, maturity, time available. This requires the institution to make flexible educational arrangements to allow all learners access to learning that is appropriate to the types of needs they have. In this way, the content and mode of learning will be influenced by the options available at their disposal. The types of modifications of learning resources are made accordingly to meet the kinds of individual differences with regard to time, goals, mode, or expectations of learning (p.9). Berwick (1989) makes a distinction between felt needs or expressed needs; needs that learners have, and perceived needs; judgment about the educational gaps in other people's experience (p.5). Brindley (1989) identifies two types of needs. First, objective need, which is derivable from factual information about the learner, use of language in daily communication, current language proficiency and language difficulties. Second, subjective need. referring to cognitive and affective needs in learning such as personality, confidence, atitude, wants and expectations 10

in learning. Brindley states that while objective needs are accessible through data collection such as tests, identifying subjective needs is difficult because of the "elusive nature of the variables". Kharma (1980) discusses societal needs and educational needs. The societal need refers to the need of the community as a whole to acquire and use English for international communication, for trade, technology, cultural purposes etc. The educational need is the need of an individual to use English in the community. In an EFL setting, this need can be differentiated into general and specific educational needs. The first is related to the cultural, intellectual and affective development of the individual learner. The second is related to specific skills that learners are expected to master such as listening, speaking, reading or writing, or to skill which can be described in terms of language functions (pp.51-53). The conceptions of target needs and learning needs have been widely used in the literature. Target needs are understood as what the learner needs to do in the target situation; whereas learning needs are what the learner needs to do in order to learn. The analysis of target needs involves identifying the linguistic features of the target situation or learners necessities (what is English needed for), lacks (what learner does not know), and wants (what learner feels s/he needs) (Hutchinson & Waters, 1987: 55). Obviously, the analysis of target situation needs is concerned with the important area of language use, while learning needs cover circumstances of language learning, i.e. why learners take course optional or compulsory, what they seek to achieve, what their attitude towards the course, etc. (ibid. 62). Contemporary attitudes to needs analysis pose the requirements that it must be interrelated with course design, materials, teaching/learning, assessment /evaluation and on-going (Dudley-Evans & St. John, 1998: 121). Dudley-Evans & St. John (1998: 125) offer a comprehensive description of needs analysis as presented in the following areas: A. target situation analysis & objective needs B. wants, means, subjective needs C. present situation analysis D. learners lacks E. learning needs F. linguistic and discourse analysis G. what is wanted from the course H. means analysis According to Dudley-Evans & St. John, the interpretation of these points can be outlined as follows: A includes professional information about learners: what they will be using English for; B includes personal information about learners: attitude to English, previous experiences. C includes English language information about learners: their current skills and experiences in language use; D defines the gap between C and A; E includes language learning information: effective ways of learning the skills and the language; H includes information about the environment in which the course will be run. (Dudley-Evans & St. John, 1998: 125) The main data collection methods for needs analysis are questionnaires, discussions, interviews, observations, and assessments. In other words, the main sources for needs analysis are the learners themselves. However, relevant documentation and information received from colleagues are also important. 11

Questionnaires are thought to be the least consuming ways of collecting information, and this is why learners needs are usually specified through questionnaires which enable researchers to determine long-term aims and short-term objectives. Questionnaires can generally be used for quantitative presentation of collected data. Small amount of data may be easily analyzed by a simple tally system, while large scale needs analysis requires statistical approach and use of computer software. Another important aspect of needs analysis is concerned with learning styles and strategies. A learner-centered approach is considered to be a cornerstone for successful learning. The current trend in teaching is to take into account learners wants: they might want or need to carry out a variety of communicative tasks in the target language. For this reason, information on the ways in which learners prefer to learn must be obtained through the needs analysis. Initially obtained data on needs analysis allow researchers to set course objectives and determine scientific approach to teaching. Ongoing needs analysis allows to revise objectives and to modify teaching techniques and materials. In ongoing needs analysis the conclusions drawn in the initial analysis have to be constantly checked and re-assessed (ibid. 140). Consequently, a final evaluation allows the placing of future activities. At this stage, learners must be given feedback which is good for Public Relations and for the quantity and quality of future cooperation c. Why is NA important? The discussions of the importance of needs analysis focus on its roles as a starting point or a guide for course design, syllabus design, materials selection, assessment or even classroom activities. Berwick (1989) says that needs assessment is important for decision planners to design the course. Assessment of a course needs involvement of learners Changes concerning learner needs may have to be made during the course with consultation of the learners. Hawkey (1980) says that needs analysis is a tool for course designer. This presupposes a "language training situation with reasonably specific occupational or educational objectives involving a reasonably homogeneous group of learners". Given the information about learner needs a course designer will be able to produce a specification of language skills, functions, and forms as required in the learner needs profile. McDonough (1984) states that the language needs of the learner should be the bases for course development. He says, "information on his or her language needs will help in drawing up a profile to establish coherent objectives, and take subsequent decisions on course content " Riddell (1991) points to the crucial role that needs analysis plays in syllabus and course design. As he puts it, "...through it [needs analysis] the course designer becomes equipped to match up the content of the program with the requirements of the student body [what learners need]" (p.75). With reference to the third world context, he considers teaching materials as an important factor. Teachers can use published materials, adapt or write in house materials. Whatever option is taken, the assessment of student needs has to be taken into consideration. Bowers (1980) notes the importance of needs as a guide in syllabus development, materials and examination. The importance of needs is quoted in Clark (1978), who says that, "The first step in any language teaching project must surely be to design a syllabus that will reflect the language needs and wishes of the learner concerned, and that will accord with a responsible theory of language learning". According to Jordan (1997), needs analysis should be the starting point for devising syllabus, course materials and classroom activities (p.22). In Shutz and Derwing (1981), needs 12

analysis is considered as the first step that any course planner should take. They quote Palmer and McKay (1978:3) who say that, "Many well-intentioned language programs ... have foundered because either no consideration was given to the actual use the learner intended to make of the language or because the list of uses drawn up by the course designer was based on imagination rather than an objective assessment of the learner's situation, and proved to be inaccurate and in many cases entirely inappropriate to his real needs. Recognizing that language problems can also be traced through sociological context, Schutz and Derwing agree that, "...a detailed analysis of the situations of language use is a prerequisite even to the selection of the particular linguistic forms or structures that ought to be taught". Brindley (1980) argues that objective needs should be used as a starting point in course design. He says, "If instruction is to be centered on the learners and relevant to their purposes, then information about their current and desired interaction patterns and their perceived difficulties is clearly helpful in establishing program goals which in turn can be translated into learning objectives" (p.64). He further states that needs analysis is essential in two different ways; (I ) as a guide in setting broad goals, and (2) as a guide in the learning process. The importance of needs is also recognized in the learner-centered language teaching. In this system. the learner and the teacher need to continuously share information as to what the learner wants or needs to study during the course. Needs analysis should be carried out throughout the course in order to adjust the learning objectives as the need arises. In other words, feedback from the learner can be used as bases for modifying learning objectives. Savage and Storer (1992) discusses the role that learners can have in the process of needs assessment. Learners can contribute substantially to the course if they are actively involved at all stages of the course design; at the initial, during, and final stages of course evaluation. Questionnaires and interviews are two commonly used instruments for needs analysis. Ciiiistisou and Krahnke (1986) bel icvc that students' own experience can be used as a basis for planning teaching program and curriculum design. They observe that much of what is taught is based on the teacher's beliefs rather than facts. Christison and Krahnke use structured questionnaire to find out the students' language learning experience during the pro-gram. The questionnaire covers language skills area, out-ofclass language experience. aspects of the language program and opinions about their language teachers. Clowes (1994) analyzes language needs of industry. He interviewed people working in the industry to find out their perception of needs (what is the need and what are the reasons for it) and language use (which people in business will be using languages and for what purposes). Howell's (1995) study on students' needs and expectations of Chinese language learning reveals some interesting results. His study uses questionnaire and interview techniques to find out what the students need during the program, what aspects of the program that need improvements and views on how well the program prepares the students to enter business or employment in general. He assumes that "students' views can provide valuable information for reviewing of developing effective strategies for learning and teaching ..." Jordan (1993) studies language learning difficulties experienced by over-seas students in Britain. He uses questionnaire which covers students' language learning experience in their own countries, expectations during the language course in Britain and difficulties they experience during the course.' Schutz and Derwing (1981) use questionnaire to find out students' 13

characteristics, previous English language learning experience, motivations, attitudes and relevance of the program to future job The approaches to needs analysis and the ideas discussed int the previous sections can be used as the basis to form a model as a framework for an ESP syllabus design. The model is presented below.

The present situation analysis is an analysis of the present condition of teaching and learning situation covering aspects related to students' characteristics, staffing, materials, syllabus and academic records containing data about students' language learning. The target situation analysis is an analysis of the work-place where the students will work or use the language. This will produce an analysis of language use, functions and types of activities or events which involve the use of English. The results of both analyses can be used as bases for English language syllabus design. As can be seen in the figure, needs-analysis is the starting point in the process of syllabus design in ESP. Although `needs' are defined differently and the types of needs as well as its approaches vary, the purposes of needs-analysis is to form a basis on which a language syllabus can be designed.

2. CONCEPTUALIZING THE CONTENT Example Conceptualizing Content According to Language, Learner, and Social Context. Focus on Language 14

Linguistic Skills Pronounciation, grammar, vocabulary e.g intonation, verb tenses, prefixes and suffixes. Topics / themes What the language is used to talk about e.g. healthy relations, medical terminology.

Situations The contexts in which language is used e.g at the hospital, at the clinic.

Communicative Functions What the language is used for e.g expressing preference, asking for directions. Competencies Tasks Language and behavior to perform tasks What you accomplish with the Language e.g receive patient, e.g , speak english well, for work Content Speaking Subject matter other than language Oral skills e.g Listening for patient e.g dialog, producing fluent stretches of discourse Listening Reading Aural comprehension skills Understanding written texts and learning e.g listening for gist, reading subskills e.g predicting content, understanding the main idea, interpreting the text Writing Genre Producing written texts and learning writing Spoken and written texts that accomplish sub skills a purpose within a social context e.g using appropriate rhetorical structure, e.g analyzing a text, in terms of its purpose and how it achleves the purpose within the social context producting texts. Focus on Learning and the Learner Affective Goals Interpersonal Skills Learning Strategies e.g self monitoring,

Attitudes toward learning, language, How one interacts with How one learns and culture from ones mistakes others to promote learning learning to

e.g developing confidence. Learning e.g

work memory techniques, and practice.

effectively in groups

Focus on Social Context Sociolinguistic Skills Sociocultural Skills Sociopolitical Skills

Choosing and using appropriate Understanding language

cultural Learning to antique and

norms and their relation take action for effective 15

e.g levels of politeness. Body to ones own language

change

e.g expectations of men e.g navigating systems, and women, gift - giving critical interpretation of text.

3. FORMULATING GOAL AND OBJECTIVE After performing needs assessment and learner analysis, the goal and objectives of the instructional unit must be established. Normally the instructional objectives and the task analysis are completed simultaneously. The following are several reasons for developing objectives (Hannafin & Peck, 1988): 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Objectives guide the development of the lesson. Objectives help potential users determine lesson appropriateness. Objectives allot the learner to focus on important learning tasks. Objectives define the evaluation of learner performance. Objectives can be used to evaluate the success of the lesson.

Establishing The Instructional Goal Begin by writing an overall instructional goal for the instructional unit. Tell the overall purpose of instruction. Describe the problem/need to be addressed and how it will be accomplished through instruction, what components will be covered, and/or what the learner will be able to perform. Caution: Do not write goal statements for which you cannot write objectives (e.g., appreciating, sensing, having an awareness of). Writing Performance Objectives Much of the time objectives are written in brief behavioral terms, such as: Use acronyms. OR Use acronyms properly in a document. By writing sound instructional objectives (also known as teaching points), designers know what the lesson must achieve, developers know what to build, and evaluators can determine whether or not the lesson was successful. Well-written objectives should contain the following elements: Audience Behavior Condition Degree Who is the learner? (Focus on the individual learner.) What specific observable, measurable behavior will be performed? Under what specific conditions will the behavior will be performed? What percentage/degree of accuracy will the behavior be performed? (Sometimes by the nature of the task this is self-evident.)

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In general, ensure that the objectives specify observable behaviors. State what the learner will do to demonstrate learning, not what the instructor will do to provide the instruction. When describing behavior in objectives, avoid the use of verbs such as: understand, know, appreciate, believe, feel. Instead, use verbs such as: adjust, assemble, build, calculate, categorize, choose, circle, count, demonstrate, describe, discuss, explain, identify, label, list, match, operate, provide, sort, state, summarize, write.

Example: Given a one page document to edit that uses three different acronyms, the 8th grade student will demonstrate the proper use of acronyms by spelling out the acronyms the first time they are used in a technical document with 100% accuracy.

Who is the audience? the 8th grade student What is the behavior? will demonstrate the proper use of acronyms by spelling out the acronyms the first time they are used in a technical document

What is the condition? Given a one page document to edit that uses three different acronyms. What is the degree of acceptable performance? with 100% accuracy

Levels Of Performance Objectives According to Bloom (1956), cognitive tasks are classified into six different levels. These levels are hierarchical: achievement of higher level objectives presumes achievement at lower levels. While most instruction (including computer-based instruction) tends to focus on attainment of lower-level objectives, important behaviors are usually described by higher-level objectives. Information acquired for its own sake is seldom important; information becomes important when it is understood and applied. After you complete the list of objectives for an instructional unit, examine each objective to determine its position on the hierarchy. For each knowledge and comprehension level objective, attempt to write a higher level objective (if it is a terminal objective), unless the objective provides prerequisite skills/information for an upcoming lesson (enabling objective). Level knowledge LOW comprehension Expectation Learner acquires information and recalls it. Learner paraphrases or summarizes information rather than merely repeats it.

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application analysis

Learner is asked to generalize what they have learned to new situations. At this level, learner can analyze new information into its components and understand and describe the organization of the information. Learner can assemble pieces into cohesive, functional units. Learner is asked to make judgment about the value or importance of information.

synthesis evaluation HIGH

4. ORGANIZING THE COURSE After selecting the main ideas and the content you want to cover in your course, you are faced with the challenge of organizing it into a coherent pattern. It is important to have a sense of how the term will go: what are the major holidays and breaks that will influence your plans? How many classes will you actually have to cover the material? You can then begin to structure the content within the allotted time, including several possible ways to organize the content: 1. Chronologically 2. Topically/Categorically 3. Theory to application (or vice versa) 4. Easy to difficult 5. Broad ideas to narrow examples (or vice versa) 18

As you chart the semester, you will have to decide just how much time to give individual topics (complex ones require more time), and should plan time to catch-up. 5. DEVELOPING MATERIAL To develop these learning materials, a teacher has to follow the correct procedure of developing learning materials. First, a teacher has to learn the learners needs and especially the syllabus, choose the item by one item from the syllabus one by one and then develop the materials. Second, s/he has to develop the learning materials according to the nature of the learning materials and the principles as well as the procedure of developing the learning materials. Concerning the nature of the learning materials, a teacher has to be able to differentiate the materials for the content and language. For listening and content materials, for example, a teacher can select the existing materials in the form of a cassette, CD-ROM, video, or any other audio materials that can help the learners to achieve the basic needs that the teacher has formulated. In case the materials do not exactly help the learners to achieve the expected competence, the teacher can add or modify the existing materials or even the teacher can develop his/her own materials. In dealing with the principles of developing learning materials, in addition to the nature of the learning materials that a teacher has to consider when s/he develops learning materials, a teacher can apply any one or more principles of developing materials stated previously. Principle number 1 suggested by Tomlinson (1998:7-21), for example, that materials should achieve impact. He explains further The impact is achieved when materials have a noticeable effect on learners, that is, when the learners curiosity, interest, and attention are attracted. These materials can achieve impact through novelty of, for example, unusual topics, illustrations, and activities; through variety of, for example, using a number of different instructor voices on a cassette; through attractive presentation, for example, using attractive colors; and through appealing content, for example, topics of interest to the target learners, new topics, universal themes, etc. Therefore, even only by referring to one principle of developing learning materials --- impact --- a teacher can develop various materials. The procedure of developing learning materials which consists of the design, implementation, and evaluation has to be implemented as well in order to produce more accurate learning materials. The design steps include the formulation of the first draft of the learning materials which have considered the syllabus, the target needs, the choice of the suitable nature of learning materials, and the principles of developing learning materials. Having the complete draft of the learning materials, a teacher has to implement the materials to the target learners in the real teaching-learning situation. Any weaknesses found in the try-out or in the implementation of the materials have to be considered to revise the learning materials. This is what is called the evaluation step in the materials development. Developing teaching/learning materials for ESP is more demanded than that for general English because the availability of the ESP learning materials in public is very rare. Because of this, it is suggested that teachers of ESP develop their own specific materials for their own target language learners. In developing the ESP learning materials, every teacher can follow any approach he/she is familiar with and he/she can develop his/her teaching materials by applying the principles and procedures of language teaching materials including formulating their teaching objectives and syllabus, adapting and or supplementing the existing materials, and or creating their own materials . 19

6. DESIGNING AN ASSESSMENT PLAN Design an assessment plan to monitor student progress toward learning goal (s). Use multiple assessment modes and approaches aligned with learning goals to assess student learning before, during, and after instruction. These assessments should authentically measure student learning and may include performance based tasks, paper-and-pencil tasks, or personal communication. Describe why your assessments are appropriate for measuring learning. Provide an overview of the assessment plan. For each learning goal include: assessments used to judge student performance, format of each assessment, and adaptations of the assessments for the individual needs of students based on pre-assessment and contextual factors. The purpose of this overview is to depict the alignment between learning goals and assessments and to show adaptations to meet the individual needs of students or contextual factors. You may use a visual organizer such as a table, outline or other means to make your plan clear. Describe the pre- and post-assessments that are aligned with your learning goals. Clearly explain how you will evaluate or score pre- and post-assessments, including criteria you will use to determine if the students' performance meets the learning goals. Include copies of assessments, prompts, and/or student directions and criteria for judging student performance (e.g., scoring rubrics, observation checklist, rating scales, item weights, test blueprint, answer key). Discuss your plan for formative assessment that will help you determine student progress during the unit. Describe the assessments you plan to use to check on student progress and comment on the importance of collecting that particular evidence. Although formative assessment may change as you are teaching the unit, your task here is to predict at what points in your teaching it will be important to assess students' progress toward learning goals.

Example of Assessment Plan Table: Kindergarten Learning Goals Learning Goal 1 Assessments Pre-Assessment Format of Assessment Checklist: game with animal masks & centers representing habitats (tree, lake, burrow, cave) Adaptations Repeat and modify instructions, as needed. Demonstrate and assist with cutting, gluing, etc. Provide model of a mask and model how to move to habitat centers. Keep all activities high-interest and brief. Provide concrete models and assistance with fine motor tasks, as needed. Provide multiple explanations and model performances. Process writing (i.e., dictations) when needed. Provide verbal cues and plenty

Example: The student will link wild animals with their habitats.

Formative Assessment

animal puppets and habitats (e.g., bird and nest) anecdotal records RE Q&A picture journals 20

of wait time for Q & A. Checklist: game with animal masks & centers representing habitats Post-Assessment

UNIT IV ESP IN VOCATIONAL SCHOOL 1. KTSP SMK

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MATA PELAJARAN BAHASA INGGRIS UNTUK SEKOLAH MENENGAH KEJURUAN (SMK)/ M ADRASAH ALIYAH KEJURUAN (MAK) A. Latar Belakang Bahasa memiliki peran sentral dalam perkembangan intelektual, sosial, dan emosional peserta didik dan merupakan penunjang keberhasilan dalam mempelajari semua bidang studi. Pembelajaran bahasa diharapkan membantu peserta didik mengenal dirinya, budayanya, dan budaya orang lain. Selain itu, pembelajaran bahasa juga membantu peserta didik mampu mengemukakan gagasan dan perasaan, berpartisipasi dalam masyarakat, dan bahkan menemukan serta menggunakan kemampuan analitis dan imaginatif yang ada dalam dirinya. Bahasa merupakan alat berkomunikasi secara lisan dan tulis, untuk memahami dan mengungkapkan informasi, pikiran, perasaan, serta sebagai sarana pengembangan ilmu pengetahuan, teknologi, seni dan budaya. Kemampuan berkomunikasi adalah kemampuan berwacana, yakni kemampuan memahami atau menghasilkan kalimat lisan dan tulis. Keterampilan berbahasa meliputi mendengarkan, berbicara, membaca dan menulis yang dapat digunakan untuk menanggapi atau menciptakan wacana dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat. Mata pelajaran Bahasa Inggris merupakan mata pelajaran adaptif, yang bertujuan membekali peserta didik kemampuan berkomunikasi bahasa Inggris dalam konteks material komunikasi yang diperlukan bagi program keahliannya, baik yang bersifat lisan maupun tulis. Di samping itu mata pelajaran Bahasa Inggris membekali peserta didik kemampuan berkomunikasi dalam kehidupan sehari-hari sesuai dengan tuntutan global, serta membekali peserta didik untuk mengembangkan komunikasi ke taraf yang lebih tinggi. B. Tujuan Mata pelajaran Bahasa Inggris bertujuan agar peserta didik memiliki kemampuan sebagai berikut. 1. Menguasai pengetahuan dan keterampilan dasar Bahasa Inggris untuk mendukung pencapaian kompetensi program keahlian 2. Menerapkan penguasaan kemampuan dan keterampilan Bahasa Inggris untuk berkomunikasi baik lisan maupun tertulis pada level intermediate.

C. Ruang Lingkup Ruang lingkup mata pelajaran Bahasa Inggris meliputi aspek-aspek sebagai berikut. 1. Dasar komunikasi Bahasa Inggris level novice 2. Dasar komunikasi Bahasa Inggris level elementary 22

3. Dasar komunikasi Bahasa Inggris level intermediate. D. Standar Kompetensi dan Kompetensi Dasar SK : 1. Berkomunikasi dengan Bahasa Inggris setara Level Novice Kompetensi Dasar: 1. 1 Memahami ungkapan-ungkapan dasar pada interaksi sosial untuk kepentingan kehidupan 1. 2 Menyebutkan benda-benda, orang, ciri-ciri,waktu, hari, bulan, dan tahun 1. 3 Mendeskripsikan benda-benda, orang, ciri-ciri, waktu, hari, bulan, dan tahun 1. 4 Menghasilkan tuturan sederhana yang cukup untuk fungsi-fungsi dasar 1. 5 Menjelaskan secara sederhana kegiatan yang sedang terjadi 1. 6 Memahami memo dan menu sederhana, jadwal perjalanan kendaraan umum, dan ramburambu lalu lintas 1. 7 Memahami kata-kata dan istilah asing serta kalimat sederhana berdasarkan rumus 1. 8 Menuliskan undangan sederhana SK: 2. Berkomunikasi dengan Bahasa Inggris setara Level Elementary Kompetensi Dasar: 2. 1 Memahami percakapan sederhana sehari-hari baik dalam konteks profesional maupun pribadi dengan orang bukan penutur asli 2. 2 Mencatat pesan-pesan sederhana baik dalam interaksi langsung maupun melalui alat 2. 3 Merinci tugas pekerjaan dan latar belakang pendidikan yang dimilikinya secara lisan dan tulisan 2. 4 Menceritakan pekerjaan di masa lalu dan rencana kerja yang akan datang 2. 5 Mengungkapkan berbagai macam maksud hati 2. 6 Memahami instruksi-instruksi sederhana 2. 7 Membuat pesan-pesan pendek, petunjuk dan daftar dengan pilihan kata, ejaan dan tata tulis yang berterima SK : 3. Berkomunikasi dengan Bahasa Inggris setara Level Intermediate Kompetensi Dasar: 3. 1 Memahami monolog yang muncul pada situasi kerja tertentu 3. 2 Memahami percakapan terbatas dengan penutur asli 3. 3 Menyajikan laporan 3. 4 Memahami manual penggunaan peralatan 3. 5 Memahami surat-surat bisnis sederhana 3. 6 Memahami dokumen-dokumen teknis 3. 7 Menulis surat bisnis dan laporan sederhana

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E. Arah Pengembangan Standar kompetensi dan kompetensi dasar menjadi arah dan landasan untuk mengembangkan materi pokok, kegiatan pembelajaran, dan indikator pencapaian kompetensi untuk penilaian. Dalam merancang kegiatan pembelajaran dan penilaian perlu memperhatikan Standar Proses dan Standar Penilaian.

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2. Syllabus of SMK (Example)


NAMA SEKOLAH : MATA PELAJARAN : Bahasa Inggris KELAS/SEMESTER : X / 1 - 2 STANDAR KOMPETENSI : Berkomunikasi dengan Bahasa Inggris setara Level Novice KODE KOMPETENSI : ALOKASI WAKTU : 148 X 45 menit MATERI PEMBELAJARA N KEGIATAN PEMBELAJARA N ALOKASI WAKTU INDIKATOR PENILAIAN SUMBER BELAJAR

KOMPETENSI DASAR

T M

PS

PI

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KOMPETENSI DASAR

MATERI PEMBELAJARA N
Greetings and leave takings Good morning. How are you? Im fine, thanks See you later. Introducing May I introduce myself. I am Budi. Ani, this is Ida. Nice to meet you. Thanking Thank you very much. You are welcome. Apologizing I am sorry for ... Please forgive me ..

KEGIATAN PEMBELAJARA N
Listening About greetings, introducing, thanking, leave takings, and apologizing Listening for information Dictation Speaking Saying greetings, introducing, thanking, leave takings, and apologizing Role playing, dialogues, introducing, thanking, leave takings, and apologizing Telling ones self

ALOKASI WAKTU INDIKATOR PENILAIAN

T M
Tes lisan: Memperagakan dialog secara berpasang an Tes tertulis: Melengkapi dialog 9

SUMBER BELAJAR

PS

PI
Global Access to the World of Work English for Hotel Services Grammar in Use

1. 1 Memahami ungkapanungkapan dasar pada interaksi sosial untuk kepentingan kehidupan

Ucapan salam (greetings) pada saat bertemu dan berpisah digunakan secara tepat Memperkenalkan diri sendiri dan orang lain diperagakan dengan tepat Berbagai ungkapan terima kasih dan responnya digunakan secara tepat Berbagai ungkapan penyesalan dan permintaan maaf serta responnya diperagakan secara tepat

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1.2 Menyebutkan benda-benda, orang, ciriciri, waktu, hari, bulan, dan tahun

12 Adjectives showing colours, quality, size, shape, age, origin, material - green, good, big, old, Indonesian, wooden, dsb. Profession, nationality Adjectives showing physical (appearance), non-physical (characteristic ) - beautiful, humorous dsb Nouns showing time, day, date, month, year - six oclock, Sunday, 1st of May, July, 2006 Grammar review: Singular plural Listening Matching pictures with words Dictation Listening for information Speaking: Naming objects, quality of objects and persons, professions, nationalities, and time of the day. Reading: Reading for information Writing: Completing passages with suitable words Nama-nama benda dan kata yang mendeskripsika n benda yang terkait dengan warna, bentuk, asal (origin), ukuran, bahan, jumlah dan kualitas disebutkan dengan tepat. Kata-kata yang mendeskripsika n orang yang terkait dengan profesi, kebangsaan, ciri-ciri fisik, kualitas, dan aktifitasnya disebutkan dengan tepat. Waktu (time of the day), namanama hari/tanggal, bulan, tahun disebutkan dengan tepat. Tes lisan Mendeskripsik an gambar secara lisan Breakthrou gh Global Access to the World of Work Person to Person Grammar in Use

Tes tertulis Melengka pi kalimat Pilihan Ganda Memberi label pada gambar Menjawab pertanyaan cerita.

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3. Lesson plan of SMK RENCANA PELAKSANAAN PEMBELAJARAN Nama Sekolah Mata Pelajaran Program Keahlian Kelas/Semester Alokasi Waktu Standar Kompetensi Kompetensi dasar : SMK ..................................................... : Bahasa Inggris : TAV, TLP, TKJ : X/ 1 : 2 x 45 menit

: Berkomunikasi dengan Bahasa Inggris setara level Novice : 1.2 Menyebutkan benda-benda, orang, ciri-ciri, waktu, hari, bulan, dan tahun. Indikator : Mendeskripsikan benda yang terkait dengan warna, bentuk, asal (origin), ukuran, bahan, jumlah dan kualitas dengan tepat. Mendeskripsikan orang yang terkait dengan profesi, kebangsaan, ciri-ciri fisik, kualitas, dan aktifitasnya dengan tepat. A. Tujuan Pembelajaran Setelah proses belajar mengajar, siswa mampu: 1. mendeskripsikan benda yang terkait dengan warna, bentuk, asal (origin), ukuran, bahan, jumlah dan kualitas dengan tepat. 2. mendeskripsikan orang yang terkait dengan profesi, kebangsaan, ciri-ciri fisik, kualitas, dan aktifitasnya dengan tepat. B. Materi Ajar Adjectives showing colours, quality, size, shape, age, origin, material - green, good, big, old, Indonesian, wooden, dsb. Profession, nationality - dentist, teacher, Indonesian, British Adjectives showing physical (appearance), non-physical (characteristic) - beautiful, humorous dsb C. Metode Pembelajaran 1. Question and answer 2. Dictation 3. Lecture 4. Role play D. Langkah-langkah Pembelajaran a. Pendahuluan: 1) Guru mengucapkan salam dan membuka dengan bacaan basmallah 2) Memeriksa kehadiran siswa 3) Apersepsi Mengulang atau mengingat kembali pelajaran sebelumnya Menyatakan topik pembahasan pertemuan ini 28

Menjelaskan kepada siswa tujuan pembelajaran dalam pertemuan ini 4) Orientasi 5) Motivasi b. Kegiatan Inti: Eksplorasi Guru mendeskripsikan sebuah benda dan siswa menebak nama benda tersebut Elaborasi 1) Siswa mempelajari cara menyebutkan beberapa adjective secara urut untuk mendeskripsikan sebuah benda 1) Siswa berlatih untuk menyusun adjective secara baik dan benar 2) Siswa berlatih melengkapi kalimat dengan adjective yang tepat 3) Siswa berlatih mendeskripsikan satu benda terkait dengan warna, bentuk, asal (origin), ukuran, bahan, jumlah dan kualitas dengan tepat.

Konfirmasi Guru melakukan umpan balik mengenai materi yang telah diberikan c. Penutup: 1) Mengulas kembali pelajaran pada pertemuan ini: Siswa digiring untuk menyimpulkan sendiri hasil pembelajaran pada pertemuan ini. Contohnya dengan bertanya, Could you tell me what you have got from this lesson? 2) Memberi kesempatan kepada siswa untuk bertanya tentang pelajaran yang telah diberikan. 3) Memberikan pekerjaan rumah kepada siswa 4) Menutup pelajaran E. Media dan Sumber Belajar 1. Media Pembelajaran: board marker, white board 2. Sumber Belajar: Bring Me to the World of a Professional Worker (Book 1) Practical English Usage Global Access to the World of Work English for SMK (Ang-kasa) F. Evaluasi Task 1 Rearrange these jumbled words below! 1. stone tall building a white 2. red lovely a old bicycle 3. nice some easy question quiz 4. a food delicious new Indonesian 5. sculpture big a cheap antique 29

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Kunci Jawaban A tall white stone building A lovely old red bicycle Some nice easy quiz questions A delicious new Indonesian food A big cheap antique sculpture Pedoman Penilaian N = Benar x 2 = 10

Jakarta, ..................................2009 Mengetahui, Kepala Sekolah SMK..................................................... Guru Mata Pelajaran Bahasa Inggris

_______________________ NIP.

______________________________ NIP.

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LESSON PLAN

School Subject Department Grade / Semester Time allotment Meeting

: SMK ....... : English : TLP, TAV, TKJ : XI / 3 : 8 x 45 minutes : 1, 2, 3, 4

Standard of Competency : Communicating English at Elementary Level Basic Competency : 2.1 use a simple daily conversation in professional and personal context with non-native speaker. Indicators :

1. Express and respond the expressions about hobbies and interests 2. Express and respond Yes/No Questions daily activity context 3. Express and respond Question tags daily activity context 4. Compose Yes/No Questions and Question tags correctly

A. Learning Objectives By the end of the course, the students will be able to: 1. Express and respond the expressions about hobbies and interests 2. Express and respond Yes/No Questions daily activity context 3. Express and respond Question tags daily activity context 4. Compose Yes/No Questions and Question tags correctly

B. Teaching Materials 1. yes-no question Examples: Are you a student? Yes, I am/ No, I am not. Do you like fishing? 31

Yes, I do/ No, I dont Has she closed the door? Yes, she has/ No, she has not 2. Question tags Examples: We come late, dont we? Toni isnt a student, is she? Im beautiful, arent I? Close the window, will you? Lets go to the movie, shall we? There is a man over there, isnt there? Someone went to Bali yesterday, didnt they 3. Expressions how to ask about hobbies and interests Do you have any hobbies? What is your hobby? What do you like to do in your spare time? Do you like your hobbies very much?

Expressions how to say about hobbies and interests


I like. (gardening, swimming, cooking, etc) Im interested in(gardening, swimming, cooking, etc) My hobby is.../ My hobbies are

C. Methods of Instruction Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) consists of Inquiry, Questioning, Constructivism, Learning Community, Authentic Assesment, Modelling and Reflection.

D. Teaching Scenario a. Pre-teaching: 1) greeting 2) Checking students attendance 3) Apperception 32

Reviewing the previous study Stating the topic and objective of the meeting 4) Motivation b. Whilst-teaching: 1) Exploration a) Students are requested to read a dialogue about hobbies and interests b) Students are introduced to words and expressions used to talk about hobbies and interests c) Students identify the use of yes/no question in the dialogue d) Students are introduced to construct yes/no question using be (is, am, are, was, and were). 2) Elaboration a) Students are directed to construct a dialogue talking about hobbies and interests b) Students work in pair to make the dialogue and it has to form yes/no questions and its responses.

3) Confirmation a) Students are requested to perform their dialogue in front of the class b) Teacher evaluates their performance, gives comment and correction. c. Post-teaching 1) Teacher concludes the meeting 2) Teacher opens a question-answer session 3) Teacher gives some home works 4) Teacher gives a slight description about the subject matter for the next meeting

E. Required Books and Media 1. Media: board marker, white board. 2. Books: Effective Communication (Elementary Level) The Universe of English (book 2)

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F. Evaluation Task 1: Change these sentences into yes/no question. 1. There is a restaurant nearby. 2. He was a mechanic in his own country. 3. Joe is always talking on the phone. 4. There are two large windows in the living room. 5. Students are permitted to take four courses. 6. They have locked the door. 7. All visitors have registered at the front desk. 8. She has some money. 9. The bathroom has a bathtub. 10. Everyone has a great time at the party. 10. Everyone has a great time at the party. 11. A package has arrived for Mr. Green. 12. Your teacher gives too much homework. 13. Marie runs two miles every day. 14. Sofia loves gardening very much. 15. It makes me very uncomfortable. 16. Grandparents love their grandchildren. 17. Infants usually take two naps a day. 18. He cooked the rice too long. 19. He studied for the English quiz. 20. Our friends visited her yesterday. Task 2: Complete the following sentences with the right question tags! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. You come from China, ......................... ? He had to leave at 7 o'clock, ................. ? She hasn't get a dog, ............................. ? It isn't snowing, ..................................... ? Jenny was hoping to come, ................... ? It's stop raining, ..................................... ? He'd better come on time, ..................... ? We've done this before,......................... ? You don't like football, ......................... ?

10. She won't be late, .................................. ? 34

11. Annie's French, ..................................... ? 12. It was last week that we met, ................ ? 13. That's wrong, ........................................ ? 14. You'd never have thought it, ................. ? 15. The sun will be shining tomorrow, ....... ? 16. He'd rather go home, ............................. ? 17. He can't sing, ......................................... ? 18. You should leave earlier, ...................... ? 19. I must stop,............................................ ? 20. Let's start, .............................................. ?

Scoring: Correct answer is scored 2 Wrong answer is scored 1

Task I : 20 X 2 = 40 Task II: 20 X 2 = 40 Final Score = task 1 + task 2 = 10 8

Surakarta, 12 July 2010 Acknowledged by, The Principal of SMK ....... English Teacher,

Drs. Mickel Jackson NIP. 196102161988031004 35

Ipin Upin, S.Pd NIP.

DAFTAR PUSTAKA

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